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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

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HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR


To the Teacher Reading Skill-by-Skill is a powerful instructional tool that has been designed to help students strengthen their reading comprehension. Each book in this series provides instruction and practice for a different reading comprehension skill. The focus of this book is conclusions and inferences. In Part 1 of this book, students will learn practical techniques and strategies for answering questions that relate to conclusions and inferences. Using a scaffolded approach to differentiated instruction, Reading Skill-by-Skill teaches students about conclusions and inferences by increasing the difficulty of what they read from sentences to paragraphs to full-length passages.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In addition, each of the sections in Part 1 provides students with modeled instruction, guided practice, and independent practice. Teacher support will be required for students to complete the skill introduction, modeled instruction, and guided practice pages in Part 1. Students can complete the independent practice pages on their own. Part 2 reinforces what students have learned in Part 1. Students will read 10 passages and answer a series of conclusion and inference questions about ED.each passage. T H G IVEN I Students work on their own to strengthen their reading PYRcomprehension OT Gskills.

IS N IS CO N K O I O S O S E B the.reading MI comprehension WAY. skills for Ltarget R Reading Skill-by-Skill will enable you to P E Y M P N A A S ER completing THISmost ASTUpon CED IN this book, you may which your students need the practice. M U E D N O I L series. These ACKthis REPRbooks can be taught in any order. Lin elect to proceed to other books E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

ISBN 978-1-4204-4716-3 R 4716-3 Copyright ©2011 RALLY! EDUCATION. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Printed in the U.S.A. 1210.MAQ RALLY! EDUCATION • 22 Railroad Avenue, Glen Head, NY 11545 • (888) 99-RALLY

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Contents Part 1 Instruction: Conclusions and Inferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Sentences Modeled Instruction with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Guided Practice with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Independent Practice with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Paragraphs Modeled Instruction with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Guided Practice with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Independent Practice with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

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Passages Modeled Instruction with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Guided Practice with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Independent Practice with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

D.

HTE Part 2 G I GIVEN R Y T P O O N C On Your Own: Passages with Questions . . . O . .K. I.S. . . . . . . . .IO .N . . I.S. . . . . . . .29 LE BO . PERMISS ANY WAY. P M A How Sweet It Is – Nonfiction THIS S. . . .N.E. M. .A.S.T.E.R. . . .O.D. U. C. E. D. .IN. . . . . . . . . . .30 Desert Animal Adaptations – Nonfiction . . . E. P KLI C A R . R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 L E B B A O T Getting to Know Panama – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 T K O S NO I O B T I S Clouds and Storms – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 R THI O F Lucky Ladybugs – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

An Interesting History – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Homemade Cleaners – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 An Important Reporter – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Making the Grade – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 The United States Constitution – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48

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Conclusions and Inferences When you read a story, some facts are clearly stated. But, this is not always the case. Sometimes you must figure things out on your own. You must draw conclusions and make inferences about what you read. Conclusions and inferences are very similar. When you draw a conclusion, you need to look at details you are given. You need to think about what the details tell you.

Detail + Detail = Conclusion

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Michelle joined the soccer team and plays soccer with her friends every day. Detail: Detail: Conclusion:

Michelle joined the soccer team. Michelle plays soccer every day. Michelle likes soccer.

When you make an inference, you must look at the details you are given and think about what you already know. You must use this information inference, EN HTEtoD.makeT an V G I I G R Y P O O N or best guess. C IS IS

BOOK ERMISSION Y WAY. E L P M P N HIS SA E MASTER. DUCED IN A T Details Given Know KL+INWhat You PRO = Inference C E A R L E B B TO OT A IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR when he picked up the pan. Rajev used a pot holder Details you are given:

Rajev used a pot holder. Rajev picked up the pan.

What you already know:

A pot holder can protect your hand from something that can burn you.

Inference:

The pan is probably hot.

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Listing important details from a story or passage can help you to draw conclusions and make inferences. You can make a chart, or graphic organizer. Here are two examples of graphic organizers you may want to use.

Conclusion Chart

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK Inference Chart FOR

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Modeled Instruction with Sentences Directions: Read the sentences and follow along. 1

Belize goes skiing with her family very often during the winter. She has her own skis and can ski fast without falling. What can you conclude about Belize?

HINT Use a conclusion chart to help answer this question.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Belize goes skiing with her family very often.

She has her own skis.

She can ski fast without falling.

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . STER THIS SBelize Agood CED IN M U E D N O is a skier. I LACKL O BE REPR B A T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR The sentences you read do not state that Belize is a good skier. But, there are three important details you can use to draw this conclusion: • Belize goes skiing with her family very often. • She has her own skis. • She can ski fast without falling. Each detail is an example of something that relates to someone who is likely very good at skiing. From these details, you can conclude that Belize is a good skier.

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Guided Practice with Sentences Directions: Read the sentence and answer the question that follows. 1

Felipe adjusted the mirrors, buckled his seatbelt, and turned the key. What can you infer Felipe is about to do?

HINT Use an inference chart to help answer this question.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y There are a few important details in the sentence: IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R • Felipe adjusted the mirrors. P E Y M P N A A . S THISseatbelt. ASTER ODUCED IN • Felipe buckled his M E N I LACKL O BE REPR • Felipe turned the key. B A T O KT BOOfirst IT IS NdetailsTHinISthe Write these column of the chart above. FOR Next, look at the details you wrote and think about what you know: • Vehicles, such as cars, have mirrors and seatbelts for safety. • A person must turn a key to start the engine of a car. Write what you know in the second column of the chart above. Now, use the information in the chart to make an inference. • Think about where Felipe is if he must adjust mirrors and put on a seatbelt. • What might Felipe do next after he turns the key to start the engine? Write your inference in the last column of the chart above.

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Independent Practice with Sentences Directions: Read the sentences and answer the questions on your own. Circle or write your answers. 1

Amie yawned and looked around for something more interesting to do. Then, she sighed and put her head on her desk. You can conclude that Amie was A nervous

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

B disappointed C upset D bored

List the details in the sentence that helped you to answer this question.

2

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T NO wind howling Corey could hear OOK outside. Then, he heard a crash and saw a B IT IS the S I H T in the middle of the street. ORside trash can lying on Fits What most likely happened to the trash can?

What details helped you reach your conclusion?

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3

Marc quickly jumped out of bed, only to discover he had missed the bus and was late for school. What can you infer from the sentence above? A Marc’s alarm didn’t go off. B School was cancelled. C It was nighttime. D Marc didn’t feel well. Show how you would complete the graphic organizer below to answer this question.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

4

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O IS E B socks Mthen WAYscarf and Lheavy R P E Y M P N Eugenia pulled her boots over her and put on her A A . ER D IN direction. THIS S she ASTsee CEevery M U E D gloves. As she stepped outside, could white in N O I LACKL O BE REPR B A T KT O S NO I O B T I S What does Eugenia see outside? HI FOR T How were you able to infer what Eugenia sees?

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Modeled Instruction with Paragraphs Directions: Read each paragraph and follow along. 1

Leonardo da Vinci is a famous Italian artist from the 16th century. He is best known for creating the Mona Lisa, which is a painting of a woman. The work is more than 500 years old. Throughout the years, the painting has been stolen and vandalized. But it has since been found and repaired. Today, it is heavily guarded and displayed behind glass in one of the world’s largest museums in Paris.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

From reading this paragraph, you can tell that A the Mona Lisa is currently missing

B the Mona Lisa is an important painting C the Mona Lisa is a painting of a child D the Mona Lisa is thought of as a fake

This is a conclusion question. Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. D.

HTE G I GIVEN R Y T P O O N Answer A: The paragraph states that the painting was stolen, but it was found. C IS IS N K O I O S O S Choice A cannot be correct. MI WAY. LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN Answer B: The details fromCthe KLI paragraph PR the Mona Lisa is one of A REstate L E B B A O T Leonardo da Vinci’s most famous works. It is more than 500 years old and is T K O S NO I O B T I S I display today. Because of these details, you can heavily guarded and still Hon FOR T conclude that choice B is the correct answer.

Answer C: The paragraph states that the Mona Lisa is a painting of a woman, not a child. Choice C cannot be correct. Answer D: No details in the paragraph suggest that the Mona Lisa is a fake. It is well guarded and displayed for many people to see, so it is most likely an original painting. Choice D cannot be correct.

10 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


2

Howie was bored and asked his mother to take him to the hobby store. While at the store, Howie’s mother told him about some popular hobbies. She told him he could start a stamp collection or a baseball-card collection. She also showed him a metal detector, which is used to find hidden items that could be valuable. But Howie wasn’t interested in any of those things. Howie noticed an easel and some paintbrushes in the corner of the store that caught his eye. You can infer that Howie A chose painting as a hobby B left the store without a hobby

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

C collected baseball cards

D bought the metal detector

This is an inference question. Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Answer A: According to the paragraph, the easel and paintbrushes that Howie noticed “caught his eye.” This tells you that the painting supplies caught his attention. Based on this information, you can infer thatHTHowie painting as ED. chose EN V G I I G R Y T a hobby. Choice A is correct. IS NO S COP

KI O O SSION Y WAY. B I E M L R P E M N the store without Answer B: No details in Ithe suggest Howie IN Aleft TER. P that D S H S SAparagraph E T A C M U D one hobby that caught his a hobby. In fact, some details K suggest LINE that Rthere PROwas C E A L E B B attention. Choice B Ocannot T A be correct. TO IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR states that Howie wasn’t interested in the hobbies Answer C: The paragraph his mother told him about, including collecting baseball cards. Choice C cannot be correct. Answer D: No details in the paragraph suggest that Howie bought the metal detector. The paragraph states that Howie wasn’t interested in the metal detector. Choice D cannot be correct.

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Guided Practice with Paragraphs Directions: Read each paragraph and answer questions 1 and 2. 1

Lou Gehrig was an American baseball player best known for holding the record for hitting the most grand slams. Gehrig was a powerful hitter during the 1920s and 1930s. When he played, Gehrig was an incredible first baseman. He was called the “Iron Horse.” In 1939, he was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Two years later, Gehrig died of a disease that affected his brain. This disease is often referred to today as Lou Gehrig’s disease.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What can you conclude about Lou Gehrig from reading this paragraph?

HINT

This is a conclusion question. Complete the conclusion chart below to help you answer this question. Write as many details as needed to draw a conclusion.

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

On the lines below, write your conclusion.

12 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


2

Marjorie walked into the bathroom and turned on the faucet. At first, the water was too hot, so she adjusted the temperature and added some cooler water. While the water was running, she poured in her favorite mixture for bubbles and opened a fresh bar of her favorite soap. Then, Marjorie retrieved a big towel from the closet. She would need this later to dry off. What can you infer from reading this paragraph?

HINT This is an inference question. There are actually a few things that can be inferred from the paragraph. Complete the inference chart below to help you answer this question.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN R infer from reading the LI that you On the lines below, write one Kthing C A REPcan L E B B A O T T paragraph. O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

13 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Independent Practice with Paragraphs Directions: Read each paragraph and answer all questions on your own. Circle or write your answers. 1

After reading Edgar Allen Poe’s short story “The Gold Bug” in the early 1900s, a young man named William Friedman realized he wanted to be a cryptographer, which is a person who understands codes. As an adult, Friedman joined the army. During World War II, he was in charge of figuring out the secret language Japan used to write their messages. Without access to Japan’s codes, reading the messages was difficult, but Friedman developed the secret keys necessary to crack them. He is known as the father of modern cryptology.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

You can conclude that Edgar Allen Poe’s “The Gold Bug” was about A traveling to Japan B joining the army

C speaking new languages

D decoding a secret message

2

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S father ASTERher to In the grocery store, Vanessa’s asked choose CED INa bunch of flat-leaf M U E D N O I PR peered into the cooler, Vanessa A CK L REshe Ltomatoes. parsley while he got some When E B B A O T T NO TheyBOwere OK labeled “curly” and “Italian.” The curly saw two types ITofISparsley. S I H FORlikeT curly green hair. The Italian parsley had smooth, parsley leaves looked dark-green leaves. Vanessa grabbed the bunch her father requested and placed it in their shopping cart. From this paragraph, you can conclude that A Italian parsley is another name for flat-leaf parsley B curly parsley is another name for flat-leaf parsley C Italian parsley is more common than curly parsley D curly parsley is more common than Italian parsley

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3

Cougars, or mountain lions, are large, wild cats that live in America. They like to hunt wild horses, deer, and sheep, but will eat insects and mice if they can’t find bigger prey. Because cougars are large hunters, they usually live in habitats where they can hide under brush and stay out of sight. You’ll rarely spot a hungry cougar out in the open. People who live along the West Coast of the United States are more likely to see cougars than people who live on the East Coast. In which of the following places would you most likely see a cougar in the United States? A Connecticut B New York C California

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

D North Carolina

4

Garrett watched his teacher move around the room, handing back graded test papers. Although Garrett was typically a good student, he was not sure if he did D. his teacher, well on his last test and anxiously waited to see his score. HTEAs G I GIVEN Miss R Y T P O O N C Oliver, put a paper facedown on his desk, she to the N ISand moved K IS smiledISat IOhim O S . O Y B A E M next nervous student. MPL P ER NY W

A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN I KLmean C EP R A RGarrett L E B The teacher’s actions Tprobably that B A O T O T IS N THIS BOOK A failed theItest FOR

B did well on the test C barely passed the test D did not do as well as usual

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5

Golf is a sport that involves more than just hitting a ball into a hole. It is a sport that takes great concentration and accuracy. The purpose of the game is to hit a ball with different types of clubs into a very small hole in the least number of attempts. The game is usually played on a special grass-covered course. The course usually has traps, such as ponds, sand, and tall grass that balls can get stuck in. For some people, it takes many years of playing golf to master the game. What can you conclude about the game of golf from reading this paragraph? In the space below, make a graphic organizer to help you answer this question.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

Write your answer on the lines below.

16 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


6

During math class, a loud alarm sounded. Catherine rushed out of the room with the rest of her class. Her teacher, Ms. Mullery, led the way, reminding the students to walk, not run. Outside, the students joined another class across the street from the school and watched silently as a fire engine and a police car arrived. Firefighters entered the building without their hoses and axes. A police officer calmly walked over to Catherine’s principal and the two men shook hands. Minutes later, Catherine was back at her desk, solving an algebra problem. What can you infer happened at Catherine’s school? In the space below, make a graphic organizer to help you answer this question.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

Write your answer on the lines below.

17 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Modeled Instruction with Passages Directions: Read Part 1 of the passage below and follow along.

Jules Verne: Science Fiction Author (Part 1) Jules Verne was a 19th-century French author. He was known for his science-fiction stories. He is sometimes called the father of science fiction. Verne was interested in adventure as a child. His books are mostly about exploring space and underwater exploration. He wrote about future inventions such as submarines, helicopters, airplanes, and spaceships. He also wrote tales about moon exploration, something unfamiliar to many people at the time. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Why was moon exploration unfamiliar to many people when Jules Verne wrote his stories? A Travel to the moon did not exist at that time.

B Moon exploration was kept secret from most people.

C Jules Verne only wrote about underwater exploration.

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O This is a conclusion question. Think answer and MIS choice WAYchoose the LE Babout each R P E Y M P N A A . best answer. THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN LI Kthat C A REPRwere “future inventions” at the L E B Answer A: The passage states spaceships B A O T T NO his stories. OOKThis means it was not yet possible to travel to B time Jules Verne IT ISwrote S I H OR T that this is why people were unfamiliar with moon the moon. You canFconclude

D Most people were not able to read at that time.

exploration. Choice A is correct. Answer B: There is no information in the passage that suggests moon exploration was kept as a secret. Choice B cannot be correct. Answer C: The passage states that the author wrote about both space and underwater exploration. Choice C cannot be correct. Answer D: There are no details in the passage that suggest most people were not able to read at the time Jules Verne wrote his stories. Choice D cannot be correct.

18 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Guided Practice with Passages Directions: Read Part 2 of the passage below and write your answer to the question that follows.

Jules Verne: Science Fiction Author (Part 2) Jules Verne’s writing style was different from that of many science-fiction writers today. Science fiction is a style of writing that is often set in the future and sometimes tells stories about life in outer space. Verne’s writing was different because he included details in his stories that were based on reality. He got these ideas by studying the works of scientists and inventors. He wrote about things such as traveling to the earth’s center in his popular book A Journey to the Center of the Earth or traveling in a hot air balloon as in his book Around the World in Eighty Days. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Based on the passage, what can be inferred about science fiction writing today?

HINT

This is an inference question. Create a graphic organizer to help you . answer this question. You may need a separate Isheet GHTEDof paper. IVEN

OPYR N IS NOT G C S I BOOK ERMISSIO E WAY. L P Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

Write your answer below.

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Independent Practice with Passages Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

Carmela Conquers Her Fears Carmela hesitated as she finished lacing her ice skates. She had only been ice-skating once before, and it had been a catastrophic experience. Although it had been more than two years since she had fallen on the ice and broken her arm, she occasionally felt pain from the accident. The doctor had said it was an incomplete fracture, but at the time, it had felt as though her bone had shattered into a million pieces. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

How does Carmela feel about getting back on the ice?

A excited

B annoyed C nervous

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O When Carmela first stepped onto the ice, to IS wall to maintain Mthe WAY her LE Bshe clung R P E Y M P N A A . S the beam ER frequently IN at ballet practice. balance. The wall remindedTher HIS of ASTshe CEDused M U E D N O I It supported her until she was ready off PRher own. At the other end of the REon LACKL to push E B B A O T T O waved rink, her older brother, IS NIvan, OOtoK her. He was the person who encouraged her to B T I S I H give ice-skating another O R TAs a hockey player, Ivan was unafraid to skate on the ice. F try. D optimistic

Carmela took a deep breath and skated toward Ivan. Between her long, smooth strides, Carmela could feel that the ice was flat and even. 2

From this paragraph, you can infer that Carmela probably skates A quietly B gracefully C awkwardly D emotionally

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Once Carmela was comfortable on the ice, Ivan challenged her to a few races around the rink. They effortlessly weaved around the other skaters. Although he was taller and stronger than his younger sister, Ivan wasn’t nearly as fast as Carmela. Ready for a short break, Carmela and Ivan skated off the ice and walked to the concession stand. Carmela took off her gloves and waited by a table for her brother to bring back some hot chocolate. 3

The climate inside of the skating rink is most likely A dry B warm C damp

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 D chilly

When Carmela and Ivan left the skating rink for the day, the sun had already set. In the car, they reflected on the humorous moments of the day they had spent together. Then, Ivan told Carmela about the paper he was working on for one of his college classes, and Carmela told Ivan about her upcoming cheerleading tryouts. When Ivan dropped her off at home, Carmela promised to call him to let him know if she made the cheerleading team. 4

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y NO COPrelationship ISbetween What can you conclude about Carmela ISthe N K O I O S . O S Y B I A E M L know? . PER and Ivan? How A do MPyou ANY W THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

21 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

Bollywood Many Americans are familiar with the city of Hollywood, which is famous for making spectacular movies. Few Americans know that a similar city exists in the country of India, though. This place is informally called Bollywood, but the city’s real name is Mumbai. People all over the world began calling the city Bollywood in the 1970s. At that time, Mumbai became the city that produced the most movies in the world. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 From this paragraph, you can conclude that

A not many movies are made in the United States today

B movies from Hollywood and Bollywood are very similar

C many American movie stars have appeared in Bollywood films D the city of Hollywood influenced the naming of Bollywood

Unlike Hollywood films, Bollywood films are more like Broadway shows. The actors sing the dialogue and dance along to the music. Music is the ED. important EN part of a HTmost V G I I G R Y T Bollywood film. Music from these films is usually NO actual films. The COP before ISthe IS released N K O I O S O S plots of Bollywood films contain comedy, or This makes I Maction. WAY. them LE Bromance, R P E Y M P N A A . ER are usually similar to some Hollywood Tfilms. HIS S Bollywood ASTfilms CED INthree hours long and M U E D N O I L middle. REPR have an intermission, or break,LA inCKthe 2

OT A B BOOK TO BE N S I IT HIS FromFthe above, you can tell that OR Tparagraph A Hollywood films contain intermissions B Bollywood films are mostly musicals C Hollywood films are mostly about love D Bollywood films contain little dancing

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In the 1970s and 1980s, Bollywood films were popular in many countries all over the world. In recent years, Bollywood has lost many fans from African countries. Many people think this is due to the Western world’s strong influence on the story lines and the fashion in the films. Traditional Indian dress and plots about family and arranged marriages are less common in today’s Bollywood films than they once were. Instead of just falling in love and singing about it, some Bollywood films now show actors taking part in dangerous and sometimes violent adventures. 3

You can infer that African viewers A prefer to watch films that are made in Hollywood B do not like watching movies about arranged marriage

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

C would not like America’s action-adventure productions D are fans of movies that contain explosions and evil spies

Using another person’s work without his or her permission in the movie industry could lead to long legal battles and other problems. This is a major problem in Bollywood. Bollywood writers say they do not have the time or money to make sure their films are originals, so many Bollywood films are remakes of Hollywood movies. Some people enjoy watching their favorite American film with Indian settings and themes. Others believe Bollywood writers should not copy stories created by TED. people.IVEN GHother 4

OPYRI N IS NOT G C S I SSIOfeel about BOOK probably I E M WAY. L R How do Hollywood filmmakers P E Y M P N A A . IS S THfilms? ASTER ODUCED IN Bollywood M E N I LACKL O BE REPR B A T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

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Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

Serge’s Excuse Serge slid down next to his friends perched on the bleachers in the gym. They spoke over the noise for a few minutes until the principal stepped in front of the microphone. The principal said a few words into the microphone and then handed it to the coach. Everyone immediately applauded. When things quieted down, the coach introduced the players on the team. Serge and his friends stood up and cheered loudly for each of their classmates. Music blared in the background. Everyone was smiling and cheering and looking forward to tomorrow’s game. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

From the first paragraph, you can tell that Serge and his friends are probably at a A pep rally

B football game

C concert

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O Confetti danced through the air and landed students’ but AYno one MIS heads, W LE B on the R P E Y M P N A A . seemed to notice. They were chanting IS Sbusy applauding THtoo ASTER and CED IN as the cheerleaders M U E D N O I ran up and down the gym performing cheers. REPRSerge was ecstatic that he got out LACKL their E B B A O T T of class early, but heISdidn’t enthusiasm for tomorrow’s game. Last K NO share Bhis OOfriends’ T I S I H week, Serge brought home FORaT“D” on his English paper and his parents were not D dance recital

pleased. Serge really wanted to attend the game with his friends. He wished that he did not have to be punished. 2

Why is Serge most likely unenthusiastic about the football game? A He does not like sporting events. B His friends asked him not to go with them. C He knows his school’s team won’t win. D His parents will not let him go to the game.

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Afterward, Serge and his friends walked home. Along the way, they talked about making posters for the game. They decided to meet at Jonah’s house to design the posters. Serge remained quiet. He stammered as he made up a story about why he couldn’t go. He told his friends that his father was out of town and he had to babysit his little sister. Serge told them he felt bad, but he couldn’t go to the game. He didn’t tell them about the bad grade or the punishment. 3

From this paragraph, you can conclude that Serge didn’t want to A go to the game with his friends B make posters with his friends C tell his friends about his bad grade

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 D disappoint his little sister

Serge was relieved that his friends believed his story, but he felt bad for lying. He was too embarrassed to tell the truth. Since he was grounded, he actually would be spending the day with his little sister, so that made him feel less guilty. After dinner, Serge got a phone call from Jonah. Jonah told Serge that his older sister would babysit Serge’s little sister, so he could go to the game. Serge felt his face get hot and he didn’t know what to say. 4

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y O the phone? OPto his friend IS Non S Csay Why didn’t Serge know what Ito N K O I O S O S MI WAY. LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

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Directions: Read the passage below. Answer the extended-response question on the next page. Give details from the passage to support your answer.

A Sandwich of Many Names If you are hungry and craving two long, soft pieces of bread filled with meats, cheeses, vegetables, sauces, and seasonings, you may make yourself a type of sandwich called a sub. If the name of this sandwich doesn’t sound familiar to you, you might call it something else. Depending where you live, you may call it a grinder, a submarine, a hoagie, a hero, or even a zep. In fact, a study found that Americans use more than thirteen names to describe this sandwich.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Some historians think an Italian immigrant introduced the sub sandwich to citizens living in New York between the late 1800s and early 1900s. After seeing a submarine for the first time, the man realized his sandwich looked like the hull of the naval ship. From that point on, he called it a submarine. Other historians believe the submarine was created in a restaurant in Boston in the early 1900s. The large sandwich caught the attention of naval officers living near the restaurant. The owner of the restaurant named the sandwich after submarines, the ships many of the officers operated every day. Throughout the years, the name submarine was shortened HTEDto. sub. EN

G IV OPYRI N IS NOT G C S I OOKmay call If you live in New Jersey or Pennsylvania, these SSIO sandwiches Byou I E M WAY. hoagies L R P E Y M P N A A . S instead of subs. Historians have more ED IN behind the creation of THIS recorded ASTERthanOfive Cstories M U E D N I the hoagie. Some believe the hoagie EPRits name were created by Italian Rand LACKL sandwich E B B A O T T Americans working in called Hog Island in the 1900s. The K IS Na OPhiladelphia OOshipyard B T I S I H T shipyard, but later the sandwich’s name was shortened sandwich was named after FORthe

to hoagie.

Other historians believe the hoagie first appeared in delis in southern Philadelphia. In these delis, they used long, Italian bread called hokie to make sandwiches. Many customers confused the “k” sound in hokie with a “g” sound, and soon the sandwiches were called hoagies. Some New Yorkers use the word hero when speaking about this type of sandwich. If you’re from New England, you may call them grinders or tunnels. They are also known as spuckies in Boston, po-boys in Louisiana, and blimpies in New Jersey.

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1

What can you conclude about the origin of the sandwich that some people call a “sub”? Use at least three details from the passage to support your answer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

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On Your Own E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Passages with Questions

How Sweet It Is – Nonfiction Desert Animal Adaptations – Nonfiction Getting to Know Panama – Fiction Clouds and Storms – Nonfiction Lucky Ladybugs – Nonfiction An Interesting History – Fiction Homemade Cleaners – Nonfiction HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y An Important ReporterS– CNonfiction OP IS NO I – Fiction N K O I O S O Making the Grade S MI WAY. LE B R P E Y M P N A A . The United D IN STER – Nonfiction HIS SStates Constitution

T MA UCE E D N O I R L K P A BLAC K TO BE RE T O N IT IS IS BOO H T R FO

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

How Sweet It Is Cooks, chefs, and bakers use different ingredients to add sweetness to their foods. One such ingredient is table sugar. Sugar is made up of granules, which are very small pieces. These granules are poured on or dissolved in foods and drinks. Sugar is a natural sweetener, which means it exists in nature. Consider some of the fruits you eat, such as apples and bananas. They contain sugar. Other plants, such as sugarcane or sugar beets, also contain sugar. Sugarcane is a tall grass, and sugar beets are plants that have sugar in their roots.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Sugar isn’t the only sweetener people use in recipes. Honey is another kind of natural sweetener. Honey is made by bees from the nectar of flowers. It is extracted from honeycombs that bees build in their hives. Honey is a thick, golden syrup. Since it is made by bees, it is not eaten by some people who prefer to avoid the use of products that come from animals. Agave nectar is another kind of natural sweetener. This sweetener is made from the agave plant, a large plant that has what looks like spikes andTis to Mexico. . H EDnative G I GIVorENlight in R Y T Agave nectar is a golden syrup that tastes similar toCOhoney. It can be dark P O N K IS ION IS WAY. O S O color and is used just like honey. S B I E M L

AMP ANY . P ER THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN In addition to using natural sweeteners, KLI someE Rpeople PR use artificial sweeteners in C E A L B B A recipes. An artificial sweetener that is not found naturally in plants K TO Osweetener S NOT IisS any I O B T I Hsweeteners are substitutes for natural sweeteners. Some or made by animals. Artificial FOR T

come in granules, and some come in syrup form. They contain fewer calories than other sweeteners, and because of this, they are used in diet and sugar-free foods. They are also sweeter than sugar, honey, and agave nectar. You may have seen artificial sweeteners in small pink, blue, or yellow packets on tables at restaurants. People who cannot have sugar often choose to use artificial sweeteners to sweeten their foods.

30 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

From the passage, you can conclude that most sweet foods are made using

3

A It contains artificial sweeteners.

A natural sweeteners

B It is sweet like sugar.

B honey

C It is only grown on plants native to Mexico.

C artificial sweeteners D nectar

2

What can you infer about fruit?

D It comes from plants that have sugar in their roots.

A person would likely choose to use artificial sweeteners if he or she

4

From this passage, you can conclude that an agave plant looks similar to

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A wants to raise bees B does not eat meat

A a cactus

C prefers natural products

B a rose

D would like to lose weight

C a blade of grass

D a small bush

5

6

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN Why do vegetarians probably LI usingRhoney Kavoid PR as a sweetener? C E A L E B B TO OT A IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

Why do chefs use different types of sweeteners in recipes?

31 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Desert Animal Adaptations As the world changes, animals inhabiting particular places, such as deserts, must also modify their lifestyles. They may alter their diets when a specific plant dies off, they may change the location in which they live when it becomes too warm or cold, or they may even change the way they look so they can blend in with the environment. These changes are called adaptations. Geckos are small lizards that live in deserts and other warm regions. Their bodies have adapted to fit their dry surroundings. For example, their feet are sticky and able to adhere to nearly any surface. Certain types of cold-blooded reptiles, including some geckos, can change their skin color to match their environment. This allows them to hide from animals that may try to eat them, such as birds.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Another animal that has adapted to life in the desert is the jerboa. This tiny mammal looks like a mouse, but has legs like a kangaroo. Despite their small size, jerboas are very powerful and fast. They’re nocturnal, which means they are most active at night. Many large desert animals hunt small animals such as the jerboas. ENthese HTED. ToTavoid V G I I G R Y hungry creatures, jerboas have adapted to living inCO burrows, or holes in the ground. P S NO

K IS ION I WAY. O S O S B I E M Y of the desert AMPL toSTliving The cactus wren is a bird that Ihas R. PEinR a Cdifferent N ANarea E I D E TH S S adapted A M the ground to stay protected. Instead of burrowing RODUlike jerboas, the cactus wren LINEinto K P C E A R L makes its nest in the crooks Predators, TO BE or animals that hunt other animals OT AofB cacti. K N O S I O IT cactusTHwren IS B or their nests when they spot them in the arms for food, rarely bother FOR

of a cactus.

Finally, the western black widow spider has also adapted to life in North American deserts. Female black widows are twice the size of male black widows, making it easy for the female to eat the male when she no longer has a use for him. Black widows are one of the most dangerous spiders in the world, as they are highly venomous. If a person is bitten by this spider, he or she must get treatment right away. Otherwise, there may be painful consequences. This adaptation ensures that these spiders can defend themselves if they are attacked.

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1

From this passage, you can conclude that animals must adapt to their environment to

3

A diet

How does being able to change skin color help some small animals to survive? A It makes it difficult for bigger animals to see them.

B sleep

B It helps to scare away animals that are bigger.

C hunt D survive

C It keeps their bodies cool. D It keeps their bodies warm. 2

Cactus wren most likely live in cacti because

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 4

A cacti shadows can hide wrens from predators

B cacti are normally very tall and out of the reach of all predators

A can hop high and travel long distances quickly

C cacti are prickly and keep predators from flying close to a wren’s nest

B may go blind if it stays in the sun too long

C would rather live in a tree than in a burrow N TED.

GIVE RIGH BOOK ERMISSION Y WAY. AM AN .P THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O probably feel about western black widow spiders? How do most people IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

D cacti attract insects and lizards that distract animals that hunt wrens PLE

5

6

Based on the passage, you can infer that a jerboa

T PY and Ieats to survive S NOgeckos ISDCOhunts

What can you conclude about an animal that is living in a place affected by a changing climate?

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Getting to Know Panama Luke listened as his teacher spoke about the Central American country of Panama. Panama held a special place in Luke’s heart since his grandparents moved there last year to escape the cold weather in Michigan. He was fascinated with the country and wanted to learn as much as he could about it before his upcoming visit in the summer. Luke’s teacher told the class that the country was located on a strip of land called an isthmus, which connects North America and South America. She told them that Panama was first settled by the Spanish during the 16th century and that its culture and language were heavily influenced by Spain. Luke was interested to hear that over the years, Panama broke away from Spain and eventually became a country of its own.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Then, Luke’s teacher mentioned the Panama Canal. She said the Panama Canal was very important to the country’s economy. Luke remembered that his grandfather told him the Panama Canal was used for international trade because it helped people living in Panama import (bring in) and export (send out) goods.

HTED.

EN

G the largest GIV Luke’s teacher told the class that Panama is home toOP one in YRIof OT rainforests N C S I S I N K O the world. It contains many lush plants, animals, ISSI that areY native E BOO . Pand Mbirds WAY. only to L R P E M N A A Panama and that can thrive inISwarm, She told IN them that Panama was STER TH S Nwet Aconditions. CEDthat M U E D O barely the size of a mid-sized state in the United States and its landscape was I KL PR C E A R L E B B O T A SheOalso made up of hundreds of that the country’s name means “an K Texplained O S NOrivers. I B T I S I abundance of fish, trees, and OR THbutterflies.” She added that people in Panama enjoyed F activities that allowed them to experience the natural landscape. After class ended, Luke rushed home to tell his parents what he learned about his grandparents’ new home. He couldn’t wait until the summer.

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1

2

5

6

Which of these activities is probably most common in Panama?

3

You can infer from the passage that the climate in Panama is

A painting

A a tropical climate

B ice skating

B an arctic climate

C fishing

C a mild climate

D driving a car

D a desert climate

From the passage, you can conclude that Panama is located

4

What language is most likely the main language spoken in Panama?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A east of the United States

A English

B west of the United States

B Spanish

C north of the United States

C Portuguese

D south of the United States

D French

Why couldn’t Luke wait until the summer?

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK What can you conclude FOR about the importance of the Panama Canal to the rest of the world?

35 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the question on the next page.

Clouds and Storms Clouds are collections of billions of tiny water droplets, tiny ice crystals, or both. Clouds form the precipitation (different forms of water that fall from the sky) that occurs around the world. The temperature of the air at ground level determines whether the precipitation falls as rain, snow, hail, or sleet. The large, puffy clouds that resemble cotton balls are called cumulus clouds. Cumulus means “heap” or “pile.” These white or gray clouds are usually tall and have flat bottoms. They form when warm air reaches cooler air in the sky. Cumulus clouds hang low in the sky and are usually seen during fair weather.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The average lifespan of a cumulus cloud is anywhere from five to forty minutes. These clouds either disappear or transform into another type of cloud called a cumulonimbus cloud. Cumulonimbus clouds are associated with harsh weather events, such as thunderstorms. They can produce rain, lightning, winds, hail, and even tornadoes. Cumulonimbus clouds are larger and taller than cumulus clouds. These clouds form when air rises quickly, and that is the reason these can N . HTEDclouds G I GIVE R Y T be so tall. O N COP S

K IS ION I WAY. O S O S B I E M L ANY and lightning The presence of cumulonimbus means a thunder SAMP usually R. PERthat N E I T D S E THIS clouds A UC water droplets or ice storm is on its way. Lightning is electricity RODwhen LINE M thatREforms K P C A L B one another. crystals inside clouds bump TO BE This builds up negative and positive OT Ainto K N O S I O IS B lightning. Lightning can move from one part of Hcauses charges inside theITcloud and FOR T the cloud to another, from the cloud to the ground, or from the cloud to another cloud. This process happens in a blink of an eye.

Lightning is hotter than the surface of the sun. When a lightning bolt heats the air around it rapidly, the air expands and sends out a vibration. Think of this process like a kernel of corn popping. This creates thunder, which is nothing more than noise. When you are close to lightning, thunder sounds like a crack or clap. When you’re far away from lightning, thunder sounds more like a rumble.

36 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

Why would it be important for a weatherperson to know about the different types of clouds? How would knowing about clouds be helpful? Use details from the passage to support your answer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

37 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Lucky Ladybugs What do you call tiny red insects with black spots on their wings? It probably depends on where you live. You may call them ladybirds, ladybeetles, ladycows, or even ladyclocks. Most people in the United States call these beetles ladybugs. Many myths surround ladybugs’ gender, age, and even diet. Their name has nothing to do with their gender, just as the spots on the back of a single ladybug are not related to how many years, months, or days it’s been alive. More than 5,000 types of ladybugs exist. Many of these eat plants and drink nectar, while others feed on scale insects and their eggs. Scale insects are tiny insects that often attach themselves to a plant and live off its sap for days. Many gardeners consider ladybugs protectors of their plants, while others do what they can to keep the beetles away from their food and flowers.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In the spring, ladybugs emerge from a long winter nap and seek out plants they enjoy, such as buckwheat, clovers, dill, and carrots. Some ladybugs also like dandelions, a weed-like plant. After killing their prey, which often lives on Tthese ladybugs EN H ED. plants, V G I I G R Y T lay their eggs near the dead insect. Three to four days later, the eggs hatch and the P O O N C S I S I N K O I larvae eat the food their parents left behind doesn’t MIfISa Sladybug WAY. eat other LE BOOfor them. R P E Y M P N A A . insects, some scientists believe aAfew STERfake eggs ED INits real eggs. When the THISitSwill Nlay Cwith M U E D O I L eggs andREgain real eggs hatch, the larvae eat the PR energy from their nutrients. LACKfake

OT A B BOOK TO BE N S I HISliving near towns or cities may crawl into the walls At the end of theITfall, ladybugs FOR T

and even windows of nearby buildings at night. They may gather in corners of rooms or may simply nestle within the walls until the sun rises. In Italy, many people believe that finding a ladybug in a bedroom is good luck to the inhabitant of the room. Elsewhere in Europe, some believe that when a ladybug crawls across a woman’s hand, the woman will soon marry. In America, children often pretend that their greatest wishes will come true if they rescue a ladybug and watch it successfully fly away.

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1

2

From this passage, you can conclude that a ladybug is

3

Which of the following can be inferred from the third paragraph?

A always female

A Ladybugs eat their larvae.

B male or female

B Ladybugs hibernate in the winter.

C always male

C Ladybugs turn into butterflies.

D neither male nor female

D Ladybugs live long lives.

What would happen if ladybugs didn’t live in a garden filled with scale insects?

4

From this passage, you can conclude that most people

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A fear ladybugs because they bite and sting

A Scale insects would suck dry many plants in the garden.

B would rather rescue ladybugs than kill them

B Plants would thrive under the protection of the scale insects.

C like to keep ladybugs as pets in their houses

C Scale insects would battle each other for control of the garden.

D do whatever they can to keep away ladybugs

D The population of scale insects in the garden would decrease.

5

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK Why do ladybugs likely FOR seek shelter in buildings at night?

6

Why do most gardeners consider ladybugs to be helpful?

39 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

An Interesting History The library was very quiet. The history section on the second floor was empty except for Abigail. She looked out the window and saw the sun had already set. Realizing the time, Abigail gathered her books and checked out. Abigail was writing a paper for her history class. It was about the history of her town, Petersburg. One of the books she checked out had a giant black-and-white photograph of Petersburg on its cover. However, the town in the picture looked very different from the town Abigail knew. It showed a huge building in the middle of the town. Smoke blew from stacks on the top of the building, and workers walked inside.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Abigail began reading. She learned that shortly after the United States became a nation, an American war hero named Henry Peterson founded the town. Petersburg grew into a busy town. Abigail read that more than 100 years after Henry Peterson founded the town, a businessman named Emil Grant started a company that made bricks.

HTED.

EN

RIG1900. It Ncontinued Grant’s Brick and Clay Company started making bricks OT GIV making OPYin C S I S I IONhow important bricks for the next 50 years. Abigail was surprised bricks SSjust BOOK toERlearn I E M WAY. L P Y M P N A A . from the Clay Company were.ISInSfact, AbigailTEsaw a picture of INsome of the bricks TH AStheR Brick CEDClay M U E D N O positioned under the Eiffel Tower!CKAlthough and Company was I L PR E A R L E B B A important in its day, other materials K TO took the place of bricks after the early O S NOT building I O B T I S I 1900s. Near the end of theR book, O TH Abigail saw another picture of the building. In the F picture, the windows were broken and bricks outside were crumbling. Abigail had learned more about Petersburg than she ever thought she would. The next day, Abigail’s history teacher asked for volunteers to read their papers. Abigail quickly waved her hand in the air, and the teacher chose her to go first. When Abigail finished her speech, the entire class clapped. Some of the students even stood and cheered. Abigail was proud of her paper, and she felt good knowing the history of her town.

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1

Based on the passage, you can conclude that Henry Peterson most likely

3

A was Abigail’s history class teacher

A Her father founded the town of Petersburg.

B started a company that made bricks

B Abigail was eager to read her paper.

C fought in the Revolutionary War

C The students clapped and cheered for her.

D wrote the book that Abigail was reading

2

D Abigail liked the town of Petersburg.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

From the passage, you can tell that the students

4

A enjoyed Abigail’s presentation

5

6

Why did Abigail wave her hand during history class?

What time of day was it when Abigail left the library?

B wanted to read their papers

A morning

C were bored by Abigail’s presentation

B noon

C midnight

D didn’t complete their papers

D evening

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . S R HISpicture Why does the town in T the look from ASsoTEdifferent CED INthe town Abigail knew? M U E D N O I LACKL O BE REPR B A T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

What is most likely the reason for how the building looked in the picture at the end of the book?

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Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Homemade Cleaners Almost every home has at least one shelf full of cleaning products. People use these products to shine mirrors, polish wood, and scrub floors. People usually buy cleaning products at the store. Many of these cleaning products are expensive and are made from harsh chemicals. These chemicals help clean everyday surfaces. One alternative to using special cleaning products bought from the store is to use products you probably already have in your house to clean.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

If you want to use homemade cleaners, look no farther than the pantry. Baking soda can be used in almost any room in your home. It can be used to remove odors from soft surfaces and scrub stains from hard surfaces. White vinegar is another product that cleans well. Vinegar helps remove grease and makes surfaces shiny. Even lemons can be used to clean. Lemon juice mixed with warm water can polish wood furniture. Lemons that are cut in half can help kill germs on kitchen counters. Dried lemon peels help keep away certain insects. Putting a container of dried lemon peels in your closet could save you from getting holes in your clothes! D. N TEfavorite

YRIGH IS NOT GIVE P O C K IS be used ION the right O For homemade cleaners to work well, they should O SSwith B I E M WAY. materials. L R P E Y M P N A A . A sponge works best to scrub hard soda.IN STERbaking ED To clean and polish THIS S surfaces Awith Ccloth. M U E D N O shiny surfaces with vinegar, you can use newspaper or a When polishing wood I KL PR C E A R L E B B A cloth. TO furniture, it’s best to use OaT soft IT IS N THIS BOOK FORany of the products you use to clean. Keep these products You shouldn’t eat or drink separate from cooking and baking products. Also, clearly mark containers used for storing products that are used for cleaning. Using cleaners such as vinegar, baking soda, and lemons can help protect people from harmful chemicals. These homemade cleaners also help keep chemicals out of the environment. Using homemade cleaners can also save you money.

42 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

When would it be most helpful to use baking soda?

3

A if you want to keep insects out of your closet

To clean glass, you should probably use A baking soda B vinegar

B if you want to clean the mirror in your bathroom

C lemon peels D water

C if there is a bad smell coming from the carpet 4

D if there is no more vinegar left to use for cleaning

2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A so you do not forget where you left them

When cleaning wood with warm water and lemon juice, you most likely would use

B so your shelves are neat and organized

A an old t-shirt

C so you will know when it is time to throw them away

B a scrub brush C a sponge

D so you do not confuse them with ED. baking Vproducts cooking EN GHTand

D a newspaper

5

6

Why is it important to keep homemade cleaners in clearly marked containers?

I OPYRI N IS NOT G C S I BOOK ERMISSIO E WAY. L P Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O products you buy at the store bad for the environment? Why are some cleaning IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

Why does this passage suggest that putting a container of dried lemons in the closet will keep you from getting holes in your clothes?

43 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

An Important Reporter Nellie Bly was one of the most important investigative reporters in U.S. history. Nellie was born in 1864 in Pennsylvania, and her real name was Elizabeth Jane Cochran. Elizabeth once read a newspaper article that was unkind to women when she was a young woman. Greatly upset, Elizabeth sent a letter to the newspaper’s editor. The editor liked Elizabeth’s personality, so he asked her to write for the paper. Elizabeth used the name Nellie Bly when she wrote for the newspaper. One of the first things Nellie wrote about was the terrible conditions in mental hospitals in New York. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, investigative reporters risked their own safety to uncover important news stories. Nellie pretended to be sick so she could get inside the hospital. Nellie took notes about everything she saw and experienced in the hospital. Then, she wrote a newspaper story about her time there.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The public learned about the bad conditions in the hospitals from Nellie’s reporting. Many people were upset by what they learned. Public officials made important changes because of the public’s negative attitude toward the Thospital . conditions. GH ED OT GIVEN Soon, the lives of the hospital patients improved. COPYRI SN

K IS ION I WAY. O S O S B I E M NY around the AMPL STENellie Atravel After reporting about the hospital to R. PERdecided N I D E THIS S conditions, A M ODUC Nellie tried to use the latest world and write about her experiences. her Rtravels, LINEDuring K P C E A R L BE her newspaper editor. In 72 days, she A B in touch technology of her timeNto TOwith OTkeep K O S I O T HIS B all around the world. When she could, Nellie sent traveled to manyIdifferent countries FOR T stories back to the United States using a device called a telegraph.

When Nellie returned to the United States after her long trip, she married a businessman named Robert Seaman. In the 1990s, Nellie was named as a member of the National Women’s Hall of Fame. Nellie died in New York in 1922. In 2002, Nellie Bly was pictured on a U.S. postage stamp.

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1

From this passage you can infer that

3

A Nellie disliked the way newspapers reported stories

Mental hospital conditions in New York changed mainly as a result of A people using telegraphs

B Nellie thought women should be treated the same as men

B the police getting involved

C Nellie was sick when she entered the mental hospital

D the concerns expressed by patients

C Nellie’s undercover reporting

D Nellie used a fake name because she disliked her real name 4 2

From reading the passage, you can tell that Robert Seaman is someone who

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What can you conclude about the telegraph from the passage?

A Nellie learned a lot from

A It was the latest technology during Nellie’s lifetime.

B Nellie met in another country

C Nellie wrote stories with

B It was the only way people could communicate during Nellie’s lifetime.

D Nellie liked very much

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O It was helpful for personal use, MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . but not for businessTuse. HIS S ASTER ODUCED IN M E N I LACKL O BE REPR B A T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

C It was a device used for printing a large number of newspapers. D

5

Why was Nellie Bly most likely pictured on a U.S. postage stamp?

6

What can you conclude about the type of person that Nellie Bly was?

45 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the question on the next page.

Making the Grade The words blurred as Joon Yong stared at the page in front of him. He yawned, stretched, and then rubbed his eyes. After quickly glancing at his watch, Joon Yong felt a knot form in the pit of his stomach. His algebra test was only 25 minutes away. He had never been so nervous before about one simple test. This particular test wasn’t all that simple, though. He had spent hours studying for it, fully aware that the grade he earned for his work would be the difference between an “A” or a “B” for the quarter. If he got an “A,” he would make the highest level of the honor roll. If he made the honor roll, his parents would give him permission to try out for the school’s cross-country team.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Even though Joon Yong already played soccer and basketball and belonged to many clubs, including chorus and chess club, he wanted to try some new activities for the upcoming spring. By participating in cross-country running on the track team, he’d build his endurance, improve his speed, and stay in shape for the summer soccer league. N TED.

YRIGH IS NOT GIVE P O C S school N a championship Ka Ihigh O Next year, Joon Yong would be a freshman at O SSIOwith B I E M WAY. L R P E Y M P N A A . soccer team. The team was so Igood theyTheld tryouts every N summer because so TH S S that AS ERIf Joon CED Iwas M U E D N O many students wanted to be partCof the action. Yong one of the fastest I KL PR E A R L E B B T Astood aObetter ninth graders at tryouts, K TO chance of making the team. He knew being O S NOhe I B T I S HI part of his middle school’sRcross-country team would help him achieve this goal. FO T Joon Yong yawned again. Study hall was almost over, and he could not stare at his algebra notes any longer. His eyes burned and his eyelids were heavy. He could feel the stress in his neck and shoulders; he was so tense. He wanted to sprint to his math teacher’s classroom and request the test right then. He was ready. The alarm rang, and everyone rose from their seats. Joon Yong grabbed his notebook and pencil. Then he took a deep breath. It was time to ace that test.

46 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

How would Joon Yong most likely feel if he did not earn a high grade on his algebra test? Why? Use details from the passage to support your answer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

47 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the question on the next page.

The United States Constitution When America first became a country, a document called the Articles of Confederation provided new laws for the country. But the laws in the Articles of Confederation were too weak to effectively run the country. In the late 1700s, another document, called the Constitution, replaced the Articles of Confederation. The Constitution is still used today. The people who wrote the Constitution made sure the people of the United States could add amendments to it when they thought it was necessary.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Amendments can change the Constitution or make something in it more understandable. The first ten amendments to the Constitution are called the Bill of Rights. As their name suggests, these amendments discuss the rights Americans have. Some of the rights included in the Bill of Rights are the right to speak freely, the right to a court trial if you are accused of a crime, and the right to petition the government. The Bill of Rights also states that people have other rights that aren’t listed in it or the Constitution. The Bill of Rights was written by many of the same people who . the Constitution. HTEDwrote G I GIVEN Fathers R Y T Sometimes these people are called the Founding Fathers. Some of the Founding P O O N C S IS ON Iof IOne OKConstitution. S O decided that they needed to add thingsLto the them, S B I E M WAY.James R P E Y M P N A A . Madison, wrote twelve amendments wanted but only IN ED Constitution, THIS S he ASTERto addODtoUCthe M E N I the ten amendments about rights KL and became REPR the Bill of Rights. LACpassed

OT A B BOOK TO BE N S I IT HIS 30 amendments. They cover many different topics. Today, the Constitution has nearly FOR T

Some of them list people’s rights. Some of them set rules for government leaders. Some amendments even overturn old amendments. For example, in 1920 the 18th Amendment made making and selling certain beverages illegal. Then, in 1933 the 21st Amendment was passed into law, and it overturned the amendment passed in 1920. All people in the United States, even the president, lawmakers, and judges, have to follow the Constitution and its amendments. The Constitution is the most important set of laws in America, and it can only be amended, or changed, when a large majority of citizens and lawmakers agree it is necessary.

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1

What can you conclude about the 21st Amendment?

3

A It gave Americans the right to petition the government.

A They were all men. B They all agreed about what laws were needed.

B It made selling certain beverages legal again.

C They wanted to limit everyone’s rights.

C It gave Americans the right to speak freely.

D They all became presidents.

D It made making certain beverages illegal. 2

4

What probably led to only ten of Madison’s twelve amendments becoming the Bill of Rights?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Based on the passage, you can conclude that the laws in the Constitution

A Madison combined a few of the amendments together.

A were not as important as the laws in the Articles of Confederation

B Madison decided he could add two amendments at a later time.

B are no longer used by most of the states in the United States

C Other lawmakers thought that two of the amendments were . notRnecessary. IGHTED GIVEN

C must be followed by people from every country in the world

5

What can you infer about the people who wrote the Constitution?

PY NOT COOther S I S I N K D lawmakers believed that O SSI Y. BOO I A E M W L R P E Y D were stronger than the Slaws amendments were too IN AN I SAMin MASTER. P twelve D H E T C U the Articles of Confederation D KLINE PROmany. C E A R L E B B TO OT A IT IS N THIS BOOK Why did the writers FOofR the Constitution make sure amendments could be added to the Constitution?

6

What is the most likely reason why a large majority of support is needed to amend the Constitution?

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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

55 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

HTED. T GIVEN G I R Y IS COP SION IS NO . K O O MIS WAY LE B R P E Y M P N A A . THIS S NE MASTER ODUCED IN KLI C A REPR L E B B A O T T O IT IS N THIS BOOK FOR

56 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Skill conclusion g sample