Issuu on Google+


RALLY! EDUCATION 22 Railroad Avenue Glen Head, NY 11545 888-99-RALLY Fax: 1-516-671-7900 www.RALLYEDUCATION.com LESLIE@RALLYEDUCATION.com …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Reading Comprehension Skills Key Comprehension Skills with Scaffolded Instruction

………….. Reading Skill-by-Skill Reading Levels 2–8 •

• • •

6 Separate Books: Main Idea & Details, Sequence, Vocabulary in Context, Compare & Contrast, Conclusions & Inferences, Cause & Effect Scaffolded Instruction: Skills Increase in Difficulty from Sentences to Paragraphs to Complete Passages Lesson Plans Pacing Calendar

Level B C D E F G H

Reading Level 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Interest Class Set Level Includes 10 Each of 6 Skill Books 2-5 5152-8 3-6 5153-5 4-7 5154-2 5-8 5155-9 6-HS 5156-6 7-HS 5137-3 8-HS 5158-0

-----------------------------------888-99-RALLY www.RALLYEDUCATION.com


LEVEL READ I N G

E

S K I L L - B Y- S K I L L

CAUSE EFFECT — AND —

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Skill Skill

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R E REP GHTED I B R Y O T P O K K IS C S BOO O I H O T B E R AMPL EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV ISSION PERM

BY

R

A

L

L

Y

!

E

D

U

C

A

T

I

O

N


To the Teacher Reading Skill-by-Skill is a powerful instructional tool that has been designed to help students strengthen their reading comprehension. Each book in this series provides instruction and practice for a different reading comprehension skill. The focus of this book is main idea and details. In Part 1 of this book, students will learn practical techniques and strategies for answering questions that relate to main idea and details. Using a scaffolded approach to differentiated instruction, Reading Skill-by-Skill teaches students about main idea and details by increasing the difficulty of what they read from sentences to paragraphs to full-length passages.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In addition, each of the sections in Part 1 provides students with modeled instruction, guided practice, and independent practice. Teacher support will be required for students to complete the skill introduction, modeled instruction, and guided practice pages in Part 1. Students can complete the independent R. practice pages on their own. MASTE

KLINE WAY. C A Y L N B A A Part 2 reinforces what students have learned in IPart D IN read CEwill S NOT1. Students U D T I O . R P TED and detail 10 passages and answer a series of main about E REquestions GHidea I B R Y O T P O K C O each passage. Students work IS their own HIS BtoO strengthen their reading OOKon T B E R L O P F comprehension skills. AM EN THIS S IS NOT GIV Reading Skill-by-Skill ISSIONwill enable you to target the reading comprehension skills PERM for which your students need the most practice. Upon completing this book, you may elect to proceed to other books in this series. These books can be taught in any order.

ISBN 978-1-4204-4211-3 R 4211-3 Copyright ©2009 RALLY! EDUCATION. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Printed in the U.S.A. 1010.MAQ RALLY! EDUCATION • 22 Railroad Avenue, Glen Head, NY 11545 • (888) 99-RALLY

2 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Contents Part 1 Instruction: Cause and Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Sentences Modeled Instruction with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Guided Practice with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Independent Practice with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Paragraphs Modeled Instruction with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Guided Practice with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Independent Practice with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Passages Modeled Instruction with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Guided Practice with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Independent Practice with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 STER.

A LINE M NY WAY. K C A L OT A B DUCED IN A N S I T Part 2 EPRO TED. I R H E G I B R Y O On Your Own: Passages with Questions IS COP HI.S. B.O. O. K. .T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 K O O T LE BTelegraph Pthe FO–RNonfiction M N The Invention of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 A E S V I S G HI T T O N A Stormy Situation ION IS– Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 S S I M R Day – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Bianca’s PEBad The Great Wall of China – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Giving Back – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 The Bike Race – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 The Lovely Lorikeets – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Saving the Salmon – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Learning to Juggle – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Stray Cats – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

3 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Cause and Effect Stories and passages have many important details. Sometimes these details are connected to each other—they have a cause-and-effect relationship. A cause answers the question “Why did it happen?” An effect answers the question “What happened?” A cause and an effect are like two pieces of a puzzle that fit together. Janie ate too much food, and as a result she had a stomachache.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

CAUSE (Why did it happen?)

EFFECT (What happened?)

You may need to look at different parts of a passage to find the details that go together. Or a cause and an effect could be in the same sentence.

STER. A M E N Sometimes the cause will appear first. KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R Petra studied all day and did well TEDher test.BE REP GHon I R Y O P OOK T IS CO B K S O I H O PLE B IVEN FOR T M A S S THI CAUSE EFFECT OT G N S I N O I ISS PERM Sometimes the effect will appear first. Petra did well on her test because she studied all day.

EFFECT

CAUSE

4 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


It is possible for there to be many causes that have one effect. Sandy spends a lot of time outdoors. She enjoys biking and boating. She also likes to go camping.

Sandy enjoys biking.

Sandy spends a lot of time outdoors.

Sandy enjoys boating.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Sandy likes to go camping.

It is also possible for there to be one cause that has many effects. The movie was entertaining. People cheered, clapped their hands, and TER. had a very good time. E MAS

KLIN WAY. C A Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R E REP GHTED I B R Y O T P O K K IS C S BOO O I H O T B E R PL The movie wasAMentertaining. People cheered. EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV ISSION People clapped their hands. PERM

People had a very good time.

When you read, you may see signal words that tell you there is a cause-andeffect relationship. Below is a list of some commonly used signal words.

Signal Words for Cause and Effect because therefore since

due to outcome the reason for

as a result then led to

caused so thus

5 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Modeled Instruction with Sentences Directions: Read the sentence and follow along. 1

The snow began to melt because it started getting warmer outside. What is the cause and what is the effect in this sentence? HINT To find the cause and the effect, answer two questions:

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What happened? Why did it happen?

This will tell you what the effect is. This will tell you what the cause is.

Read the sentence again. Look for details that tell what happened.

R. The snow began to melt because it started getting warmer outside. MASTE

KLINE WAY. C A Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R E REPwhat happened. GHTED tells I B R Y O T The first part of the sentence you P K IS CO OKeffect. IS BOO H O ThisLEisBthe T R AMP EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV ION RMISS

Now, look PE for details in the sentence that explain why this happened. The snow began to melt because it started getting warmer outside.

The last part of the sentence tells you why the snow began to melt. It tells you the cause.

6 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Guided Practice with Sentences Directions: Read the sentences and answer each question. 1

Terrance was excited that Lora was coming to his house. When he saw Lora’s car arrive, he smiled and ran to the driveway. Why did Terrance run to the driveway? A He wanted to play outside.

C He was smiling.

B He saw Lora’s car arrive.

D He knew Lora would visit.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

HINT The question tells you what the effect is—Terrance ran to the driveway. To find the cause, you must answer the question “Why did it happen?”

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R TED not getBEalong. REP So, the zoo 2 The zebras and elephants at theYzoo GHdid I R O T P CO OKthe zoo. keeper put the animals in areas K ISseparate S BOof O I H O T B E R AMPL EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV N What happens animals at the zoo do not get along? ISSIOwhen PERM HINT This question tells you the cause. You must identify the effect. Write your answer in the empty box below.

The zebras and elephants do not get along.

7 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Independent Practice with Sentences Directions: Read the sentences and answer the questions on your own. Circle or write your answers. 1

Early in the morning, the ocean tide was very gentle. Then, the wind picked up and there were giant waves. Why were there giant waves? A It was early in the morning.

C The wind picked up.

B It was a cold day.

D The ocean tide was gentle.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Look at the sentences again. What is the cause? What is the effect?

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R P was difficult to HTED interesting. E REIt Gvery I 2 The book was long, and it wasPnot B R Y O T K CO S BOO read the entire book.BOOK IS I H T E R AMPL EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV Why was itISdifficult SION to read the book? PERM Complete the chart below. Then, write your answer.

Answer:

8 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


3

Max painted the top and the sides of his model airplane, but he forgot to paint the bottom. The model looked like it was not finished. Because Max forgot to paint the bottom of his model, A he had to paint the top B he had to paint the sides C the model did not need to be finished D the model looked like it was unfinished

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Look at the sentences again. What is the cause? What is the effect?

STER. A M E N LI shouldNhelp WAY. ACKso 4 It is important to stay calm when you take a test. ADoing Y L B A NOT CED IN Squestions U I you to work more quickly and answer more correctly. D T I O . R E REP GHTED I B R Y O T P O K K IS C stays S BOOduring a test? O I H O What happens when a person calm T B E R AMPL EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV ISSION Complete PERMthe chart below. Then, write your answer.

Answer:

9 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Modeled Instruction with Paragraphs Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along. In 1607, people from England settled in Jamestown, Virginia. They tried to start a town, but they were not very successful. The settlers did not spend enough time planting the food they needed. They also did not get along with nearby Native Americans. The final outcome was that the Jamestown settlement failed. 1

What caused the Jamestown settlement to fail?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Look in the paragraph for reasons why the Jamestown settlement failed. More than one cause is given.

The settlers did not spend enough time planting the food they needed.

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A TA CED IN S NOThe U I D T I O Jamestown . R E REP GHTED I B R Y O T P O K settlement failed. K IS C S BOO O I H O T B E R O MPL getGalong EN Fwith V I TheTsettlers HIS SA didSnot T O NI N O I S Native Americans. S I PERM In the paragraph you read, there are two reasons given for why the Jamestown settlement failed: 1) The settlers did not spend enough time planting the food they needed. 2) The settlers did not get along with Native Americans.

10 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Guided Practice with Paragraphs Directions: Read the paragraph below and answer the question that follows. Jack was excited to be going on a boat trip. He thought about it all week. Jack bought a life jacket, food to eat, and a camera to take pictures. On the day of the trip, he rode on a bus to get to the shore. When Jack arrived at the shore, he climbed on the boat. The boat began to head out across the sea. Soon, the sky became black and there was a terrible storm. There were tall waves that caused the boat to bob up and down in the water. All of this made Jack begin to feel seasick—one thing he hadn’t planned! 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which of the following happened as a result of the storm? A Jack went on a boat trip. B Jack became seasick.

C Jack bought a life jacket. D Jack rode on a bus.

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y HINT L N B A IN NOT A what UCED ISabout Before you answer this question, Dthink happened as a D T I O . R P E E T R H E G I B result of the storm. Make that go with the TO effects COPYaRlist SofBOallOKthe S I K cause. Then,LEchoose HI BOO the Fbest R Tanswer. O P M N A E THIS S IS NOT GIV ISSION PERM

There was a storm.

11 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Independent Practice with Paragraphs Directions: Read each paragraph and answer all questions on your own. Circle or write your answers. 1

Many people think that their eyes and ears give them the most information. It can be easy to forget how much we learn with our noses. We all use our noses even when we are not aware of it. Smelling things can give us a lot of information about the world around us. Some smells even become lasting memories. That is why certain smells sometimes make us think of people we used to know or places that we once visited.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Some smells make us think of people or places because A we all use our noses to smell things

B eyes and ears also help to gather information C we have all been to many different places

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R E REP GHTED I B R Y O T P K in the backyard. When she is 2 Our dog Jasmine likes toK rest IS COin theHdoghouse S BOO O I O T B E R O circles as though she is guarding our PL around Fin not resting, she walks S SAM NOT GIVEN I H T house. One day,NJasmine saw someone walking toward the house and she IS O I S S I M beganPto Dad heard the barking and went outside to look around. ERbark. D smells can become lasting memories

When he went outside, Dad noticed our neighbor, Mr. Teasdale, coming to visit. Mr. Teasdale was carrying a gift. It was a dog bone for Jasmine. What happened when Jasmine began to bark? A Jasmine walked in circles. B Dad went outside. C Jasmine wanted to rest. D Mr. Teasdale brought a gift.

12 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


3

The Civil War was one of the worst wars in America’s history. The war was fought between states in the North and states in the South. The states in the North wanted to bring an end to slavery. But, the states in the South believed that they had the right to use slaves on their farms and plantations. The North and South also disagreed over the role of government. The states in the South thought that local and state governments should have more power. Soon after Abraham Lincoln was elected as president, the Civil War began. What was one cause of the Civil War?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E N AY. KLI Wnew C A Y L N B A 4 Last year, José went to camp for the summer. AtOTcamp he made many N A ODUCED IN Swith I T I . friends. José played soccer and other Tgames his José also R ED EPfriends. R H E G I B R O José learned how to learned many new thingsIS atCcamp. OPY In woodshop, OOK T B K S O I H O safely use toolsMto E B things. R T he went hiking, he learned about PLbuild FOWhen N A E S V I S G T animals. THI many different plants S NOand I N O I ISS PERM Complete the cause and effect chart below.

José went to camp for the summer.

13 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


5

There are many powerful natural forces in the world. Sometimes they can work together. Lightning is one of the most powerful natural forces. It is a strong electrical charge that can bolt through the air. Sometimes lightning strikes trees. When this happens it can start a fire. Fire is another powerful natural force. It is a form of heat energy. If there is a strong wind blowing, it can cause the fire to spread very quickly. Wind is also a powerful natural force. What can happen when lightning strikes a tree? A It can make an electrical charge.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

B It can cause the wind to blow. C It can make heat energy.

D It can cause a thunderstorm.

6

Chan was speaking to Carissa on the telephone. Carissa did not sound TER. like S A M she was in a good mood. She told Chan she did not feelKlike and LINE talking WAY. C A Y L N B A then hung up the phone. This made Chan feel T A He wanted CED INto make S NOsad. U I D T I O . R Carissa feel better, but he did not Iknow REPLater in the day, the GHTED whatTOtoBEdo. R Y P K with Chan. She apologized CO calledS to phone rang. It was Carissa. BOOspeak K IS She O I H O T B E R L O the day. She explained that she was to Chan for being EN Fin SAMP rudeT earlier V I S G I H T NO understood how Carissa felt. He had bad days too. having a bad day.ISChan

ISSION PERM

Carissa apologized because A she thought she was rude to Chan B she knew that Chan felt sad C she understood how Chan felt D she got into a fight with Chan

14 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


7

People like to look at animals and to feed them. This may be okay to do at some zoos, but it is not always a very good idea to feed wild animals. Throwing some bread crumbs to birds may seem harmless enough. But, what about throwing food to alligators? Alligators like to hunt for their food. However, when people throw food to alligators they get used to being fed. As a result, these alligators will want to go where they see people. They will think people are there to feed them. This can be dangerous to both people and alligators. What happens when people feed alligators?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E N AY. KLI WShe C A Y L N B A 8 Jessica was having trouble in school. She was not doing well in math. NOT A ODUCED IN SHe I T I . decided to ask her brother, Robert, for help. was R good at math. EPvery TED R H E G I B R PY how toOadd Robert gave Jessica some tips OK TOfractions and how to divide IS COfor B K S O I H O large numbers.MJessica PLE B learned FaORlotT from Robert. Jessica also began to spend N A E S V I S G THI studying more time OT each test. She studied the notes she took in class S Nbefore I N O I S practice problems. All of Jessica’s hard work paid off. and solved ISsome PERM Jessica’s grades in math got much better.

Complete the cause and effect chart below.

Jessica’s grades got much better.

15 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Modeled Instruction with Passages Directions: Read Part 1 of the passage below and follow along.

All About Balloons (Part 1) You have probably seen balloons in many different places. Balloons can be fun to play with, or they can be used as decorations. Balloons start out looking like empty bags, usually made of rubber. They need to be filled with air or gas. Filling a balloon will make it big and round.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

You can fill a balloon with air by blowing into it and tying the end into a knot. If you throw the balloon in the air it will float around in the wind and slowly fall to the ground. This happens because the air inside the balloon is too heavy to allow the balloon to rise. A person’s breath weighs more than the air outside the balloon. 1

Since a person’s breath weighs more than the air outside of a balloon, ER.

MAST E N I L K WAY. C A you can fill a balloon by blowing into it A Y L N B A NOT A ODUCED IN B a balloon looks like an empty bag ED. IT IS EP R T R H E G I B R Y O C you can use a balloon Ias S CaOPdecoration OOK T B K S O I H O B blowingFOinto R T it cannot rise PLEby D a balloonSfilled M N A E V I S G THI S NOT I N O I S ERMIS each answer choice and choose the best answer. ThinkPabout

Answer A: The passage states that a balloon can be filled by blowing into it. But, this does not have anything to do with the weight of someone’s breath. Choice A is not correct. Answer B: There is no cause-and-effect relationship between how an empty balloon looks and a person’s breath. Choice B is not correct. Answer C: The passage states that balloons can be used as decorations. But, this has nothing to do with a person’s breath. Choice C is not correct. Answer D: Details in the passage explain that a person’s breath weighs more than the air outside of a balloon. This is the reason why the balloon cannot rise. Choice D is the correct answer.

16 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Guided Practice with Passages Directions: Read Part 2 of the passage below and write your answer to the question that follows.

All About Balloons (Part 2) Balloons will only rise if they are filled with a gas that is lighter than the air outside of the balloon. People use a gas called helium to fill some balloons. A balloon filled with helium will float way up into the sky.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Natural gas and hydrogen are also very light. If a balloon were filled with either one of these gases, it would fly away just like a balloon filled with helium. However, natural gas and helium can be dangerous. So, it is not a good idea to use them for filling up balloons. 1

What can cause a balloon to float up into the sky?

TER.

MAS HINT E N I L K WAY. C A Y L N B A A To answer this question, think about what happens and CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R why it happens. Complete the chart HTED below. REP

P

YRIG O BE T P O K C O O IS THIS B BOOK E R L O P F AM EN THIS S IS NOT GIV SION ERMIS

Now, write your answer to the question.

17 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Independent Practice with Passages Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

A Festival Like No Other Georgio lives in Valencia, Spain. There are many great things about Valencia. The town has good schools and parks and many fun things to do. However, the festival known as Las Fallas is what makes Valencia famous around the world. Georgio first learned about Las Fallas when he was only a few years old. His parents always told him stories about the festival. When he was older, Georgio went to the festival with his family. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Georgio knew about Las Fallas because A he visited Valencia, Spain

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A T A worldUCED IN C the festival was famous around S NOthe I T I . ROD D P E E T R H E G D he read storiesPabout I it when heB was young CO YR S BOOK TO S I K THI BOO Rworld LEfestival O P F M N Georgio knew Ithat no in the was the same as Las Fallas. During A E GIV HSS T T O N the festival, he would ION ISwalk through the busy streets of Valencia. Georgio loved S S I M to watch the PER parade. He was always amazed by how beautiful the floats looked. B his parents told him all about it

The floats were also big and very heavy. Cars and trucks were needed to pull the line of floats down the street. Georgio liked to look at the floats as they slowly passed in front of him. Many parades have floats, but none are like those at Las Fallas. 2

Why were cars and trucks needed to pull the floats? A The floats were in a line. B The floats were beautiful. C The floats were heavy. D The floats were very slow. 18

Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


There are many different floats at the Las Fallas festival—one more beautiful than the next. They are painted with many different colors. Some floats are made to look like giant animals or cartoon characters. Others look like people. Many workers are needed to build the floats. The floats are made from wood, wax, and paper—so they can burn easily. 3

Why are wood, wax, and paper used to make the floats? A so the floats can be made to look like people B so the floats will look more beautiful C so the floats can be painted with different colors

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 D so the floats can burn easily

After the parade, the wonderful floats are lined up all across town. People admire them for a few hours and then choose their favorite float. The best float is taken away and put on display in a museum. The others are set on fire! Georgio always felt sad watching the floats being burned, but it was all part of the joyful festival. Burning the floats showed that the year was over and a new ER. STnight A year was just beginning. People celebrate by dancing and singing all M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B long! A IN TA

PE

O DUCED T IS N I O . R D P E E IGHT YRfeel O BE R T P O 4 What made Georgio sad? K C O O IS THIS B BOOK E R L O P F AM EN THIS S IS NOT GIV ION RMISS

19 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

The Life of a Glacier Some parts of the earth are always covered with freezing snow and ice. The reason for this is that warm sunlight does not shine on every part of the planet directly. At the North and South Poles, sunlight only shines on the earth’s surface at an angle. Therefore, the sunlight is not as strong or as warm. This makes it very cold. In Antarctica, near the South Pole, it is very cold all year long. There is always snow on the ground. The snow presses together and forms enormous and extremely thick ice sheets called glaciers. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Antarctica is cold all year long because A it does not get direct sunlight

B it is far from the North Pole

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A D it is covered with snow Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R HTED E REPchanges are a normal GSometimes I B Climate changes greatly affect glaciers. these R Y O T P O OK age, for example, parts of the IS Cend Kthe S BOice part of weather patterns.BOAt ofTHeach O I E R L MPseveral EN FO Rising temperatures made the ice on the V earth warmed degrees. I S SAby G T THIup NO to melt. When glaciers melt, they begin sliding N ISbegin outside of the glaciers O I S S I PERMThey move like melting ice cubes sliding across a table. little by little. C it does not get any sunlight

2

What happens when glaciers begin to melt? A The climate changes. B There will be an ice age. C They begin to slide. D The temperature rises.

20 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Glaciers are much heavier than ice cubes, though, and they do not always move across smooth surfaces. They pass over rocks, sand, and tree roots. Sliding over boulders and sand causes the glacier to rub against the ground. The rubbing causes heat, which makes the outside of the glacier melt faster. 3

The glacier begins to heat up because A it is heavier than ice cubes B it rubs against ground C it moves on a smooth surface D it begins to melt faster

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

As glaciers melt, water drips off and runs along rocks that are beneath it. The water wears down the surface of these rocks. Slabs of rock are polished smooth by the dripping water. Over time, the water carves shapes into the rock. Some pieces of rock even break off and are carried away by running water. Over many years, melting glaciers can even widen valleys between mountains. Just as glaciers change in shape and size, they can change our world in many ways.

PE

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A 4 What is the effect of water dripping from A glaciers? CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R E REP GHTED I B R Y O T P O K K IS C S BOO O I H O T B E R AMPL EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV ION RMISS

21 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

Kayla’s Stories Kayla felt a strong desire to be a writer. She had always loved the idea of writing a story that many people would enjoy. Kayla thought the perfect story would need to have many interesting characters that readers could relate to. The story would also need to have an exciting plot that was full of adventure. Kayla knew that in order for readers to enjoy the story, the plot would have to keep them interested in finding out what will happen next. Finally, Kayla thought that the story should be about something that is important to most people. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Kayla thinks that if a plot for a story is exciting it will A make readers want to know what happens next

B help readers to relate to the characters

STER. A M E N WAY. CKLI Ahappened D cause readers to think about what Ajust Y L N B A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R REP Ashley. She wrote a Efriend GHTED and Ther I B Kayla decided to write a story about herself R Y O P K IS COwentHflying S BOOinto space to save a planet called story about how the twoBOofOKthem I T E R FO moving too close to another nearby planet AMPL Zerennia ENwas V Zerennia. InTthe I G HIS Sstory, T IS NO and Ashley to help, the two planets would crash N Kayla called Ergo. Without O I S S I PERM At the conclusion of the story, Kayla and Ashley flew quickly into one another. C teach readers something that is important

in their rocket ship and came to the rescue. They tied a giant rope around Zerennia and pulled it away from Ergo. Kayla and Ashley were heroes for saving the people who lived on Zerennia. 2

In Kayla’s story, Kayla and Ashley flew into space to A explore another planet B save another planet C meet people on another planet D have fun flying on a rocket ship

22 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Kayla had a good time writing her story, but she thought she could write an even better story. The story about Zerennia and Ergo was difficult to believe because of all the strange things that happen in the story. Kayla wanted to write another story that people would find easier to believe. She thought people might find this kind of story more interesting because it could really happen. For days, Kayla thought and thought, but she could not come up with a good idea for a story. 3

Because the story Kayla wrote was difficult to believe, A she did not like the story

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 B she had to change the story

C she thought it was a great story

D she wanted to write another story

Then one day, Kayla was talking with her uncle, Theodore. Uncle Theodore told Kayla stories about when he was a child. His family did not have much money, so he had to work many different jobs to help them pay for food and STER. were. A clothes. Kayla could not believe how interesting Uncle Theodore’s stories M E N I AY. KLthey W C A Y L N B They were real stories, but they were sometimes exciting and made her A NOT A ODUCED IN Sthe I T I think. The next day, Kayla began writingTabout realEPlife . R of Uncle Theodore, ED R H E G I B R and it was her best story yet! S COPY OK TO

O I THIS B BOOK E R L O P F N AM T GIVE Theodore have to work many different jobs? T4HIS SWhyISdid OUncle N ISSION PERM

23 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below. Answer the extended-response question on the next page. Support your answer with details from the passage.

The Art of Advertising Stores are places where you can buy many different products. Like all other businesses, stores want to make money and be successful. In order to do this, stores must be good at advertising. Advertising is a way for businesses to let people know what their stores sell. Good advertising will get people to buy the products that the stores sell.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Stores must put advertisements, or ads, in places for people to see. Ads may appear on television, magazines, and the radio. Sometimes they are even posted on buses or pulled on banners behind airplanes! Advertisers are people who make ads. It is their job to get people to take notice of the products that stores are trying to sell. Businesses are always using ads to try to get the attention of their customers— STER. A M E N but this is not always easy. There are many different waysLAads your KLItry to get WAY. C Y N B A A ED IN Other attention. Some ads use pictures of famous people Cplaces. S NOorT beautiful U I D T I O . R HTEDthink OofBsome E REP funny ads you have Gcan ads might try to be funny. Maybe you I R Y T P S CO a good OOK seen. If so, the advertiserBOhas OK Idone THIS Bjob of getting your attention.

PLE FOR M N A E S V I S G THI S NOT is only part of what advertisers want to do. They I But, getting your Iattention N O MISSyou how their products can be good for you. Good ads tell ERtell also want Pto

you about the product being sold. They make you feel like you want to, or need to, buy the product. If a store has good products but nobody knows about them, the store will not be successful. Good advertising will bring people to the store and help the store to sell their products. Stores that are good at advertising are usually very successful.

24 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

What makes an advertisement good? What effect do good advertisements have on a business? Use details from the passage to support your answer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R E REP GHTED I B R Y O T P O K K IS C S BOO O I H O T B E R AMPL EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV ISSION PERM

25 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R E REP GHTED I B R Y O T P O K K IS C S BOO O I H O T B E R AMPL EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV ISSION PERM

26 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


On Your Own E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Passages with Questions

The Invention of the Telegraph – Nonfiction A Stormy Situation – Nonfiction Bianca’s Bad Day – Fiction The Great Wall of China – Nonfiction Giving Back – Nonfiction STER. A M E N I WAY. The Bike Race – Fiction A BLACKL Y N A CED IN S NOT U I The Lovely Lorikeets .–ITNonfiction D O R E REP GHTED– Nonfiction I B R Saving the Salmon Y O T P O K K IS C to TJuggle S BOO– Fiction O I Learning H O B E R O AMPL EN FCats V I Stray – Nonfiction G T THIS S O

N IS N O I S S I PERM

27 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

The Invention of the Telegraph Long before the telephone, people mostly stayed in touch with each other by writing letters. But, sending letters was not a very quick way to send a message to someone. Then came the invention of the telegraph. The telegraph used electricity to send messages across wires. A trained operator could quickly send coded messages to someone far away.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The invention of the electromagnet by William Sturgeon helped make the telegraph possible. An electromagnet makes a magnetic field using electricity. People learned that the electromagnet could send messages across long distances. Several inventors made machines that used Sturgeon’s magnet. Samuel Morse made the first truly successful telegraph. It was more useful and cost less to make than earlier inventions. The machine that Morse made used an electromagnet to move a marker across a piece of paper. This made STERa .series A M E N LI numbers. AY. Kand of dots and dashes. The dots and dashes represented letters WThe C A Y L N B A A D IN NOTwords operator could read the dots and dashes to spell in aCEmessage. This Sout U I D T I O . R D P E E R HT became known as Morse code. TO BE PYRIG

O K K IS C S BOO O I H O T B E R MPL of his machine, To show the usefulness Morse asked Congress to run a wire N FO HIS SA S NOT GIVE T from WashingtonIO DC N I to Baltimore, Maryland. In 1844, Morse sent a message S S I M R After the successful demonstration, the government accepted across thisPEwire. plans to run wires all across the United States.

A few years later, the use of radio waves allowed people to use telegraphs to send messages to places not connected by wires. Over time, telegraphs cost less money to make and more people began to use them. But, people stopped using the telegraph after the invention of the telephone. Still, the telegraph remains an important part of history.

28 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

3

What led to the invention of the telegraph? A People used radio waves to send messages.

A people began writing letters

B People did not like having to write letters.

B William Sturgeon invented the electromagnet

C William Sturgeon invented the electromagnet.

C radio waves were invented D Samuel Morse showed the usefulness of the telegraph

D The government ran wires across the country.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 4

2

The government accepted plans to run wires across the country when

The invention of the telegraph made it possible for people to

Radio waves improved telegraphs by allowing people to A read messages without knowing Morse code

A send messages by telephone

B send messages to places not connected by wiresSTER.

B send messages more quickly C write letters to each other

E MA D write on paper with a marker A NOT secret CED IN to Ssend U I D T D messages I O . R EP E Rother GHTED I B R Y O each T P O K K IS C S BOO O I H O T B E R AMPL EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV SION ERMIS a telegraph, what causes the series of dots and dashes to 5 WhenPusing

LIN AY. C write messages BLACK on paper ANY W

appear on a piece of paper?

6

What effect did the invention of the telephone have on the telegraph?

29 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

A Stormy Situation You are standing outside and you see dark clouds gathering in the sky. You hear rumbling in the distance. Then, you see bright flashes. You are experiencing a thunderstorm! Many people can easily recognize the signs of a thunderstorm because they are so common. Thunderstorms take place every day all over the world and can be dangerous. They are dangerous because they produce lightning. These storms can also have other dangerous effects. They can cause flooding, hail, and tornadoes.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In order for them to form, thunderstorms need three things. They need water, air that will rise, and something to lift the air. Since warm air rises, thunderstorms usually happen when it is very warm. Air that is moist, or has a lot of water, also helps thunderstorms to form. When warm, moist air rises, it can form large clouds in the sky. These clouds are called cumulus clouds. R. Cumulus clouds can cause bad weather. MASTE

KLINE WAY. C A Y L N B A A IN from NOThappen. After clouds form in the sky, other changes begin The CEDair S to U I D T I O . R REP As the rain falls, water HTED rainO to E fall. Gcauses above starts moving downward, which I B R Y T P O OOK But, as the air becomes less K IS Cbe a lot S Brain. leaves the air. At first there may of O I H O T B E R AMPL EN FOfalling. Thunderstorms usually last for about V moist with water, will stop I G T THIS S the Irain S NOcan last much longer and cause a lot of damage. Nsome thirty minutes.ISBut, O I S PERM If you are ever outdoors and you see lightning or hear thunder, find shelter quickly. Thunder cannot harm you, but lightning causes many injuries every year. Lightning is a very strong bolt of electricity that can hurt people badly. Lightning can jump between clouds or between the clouds and the ground. When this happens, the lightning makes a loud noise. This is the thunder that you hear during a storm. To stay safe during a thunderstorm, it is best to stay inside. Before you know it the storm will pass and it will be safe to go outside again.

30 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

3

According to the passage, what can cause bad weather? A cool air

What happens when a lightning bolt jumps from a cloud to the ground?

B falling rain

A It begins to rain.

C cumulus clouds

B A tornado is formed.

D distant rumbles

C The cloud gets darker. D You hear thunder.

2

What happens when moist air rises?

4

Rain stops falling when

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A The air becomes warm.

A the air becomes less moist

B Clouds are formed. C It stops raining.

B the air begins to move downward

D Thunder can be heard.

C the air becomes warmer

D the air begins to rise

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A NOT A ODUCED IN Sthunderstorm I T I . 5 What are the three things needed to Tcause a to form? ED EP R R H E G I B R Y O IS COP HIS BOOK T 1. K O O PLE B IVEN FOR T M A S S THI OT G N S 2. I ISSION PERM 3.

6

What are three possible dangerous effects of thunderstorms? 1. 2. 3.

31 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Bianca’s Bad Day Bianca stood at the side of the road waiting for the school bus to arrive. She was tired, wet, and hungry. The fact that it was Monday made things even worse. Mondays always put Bianca in a bad mood. Bianca was having a bad day, and it was still early in the morning! It all started the night before when Bianca stayed up too late to finish reading her book. Most of the time, Bianca went to bed early and woke up feeling great. The night before, however, she stayed up three hours past her bedtime. As a result, Bianca felt tired.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In the morning, Bianca heard the sound of her alarm. She was still tired, so she turned off the alarm without getting out of bed. She wanted to lie in bed for a few more minutes. But, Bianca’s mother came to check on her when she did . not hear Bianca getting ready for school. Bianca’s mother was surprised STERbecause A M E N AY. KLI it wasAtime Bianca was still sleeping. She gently shook Bianca and told her Wto C A Y L N B A IN get up. Bianca slowly got out of bed and began S NOT ready UCEDschool. IT Igetting ODfor

EP R TED. R H E G I B R PY to get K TO before the school bus OOready IS COtrying Bianca rushed around her O house B K S I H O T LE B Penough FOtoR dress, M arrived. She had just time comb her hair, and brush her teeth N A E S V I S G HI T T O N before she had to Irun ON ISout the door. As Bianca ran down the street, she saw her S S I M R school busPEwaiting at the bus stop. She was going to miss it! Bianca ran down the sidewalk waving her hands so the bus driver would see her. Suddenly, a truck drove past and it splashed water on Bianca’s clothes. Then, Bianca could see the bus driving away in the distance.

Bianca trudged to the next bus stop so that she could get on a different bus. Her stomach growled as she waited for another bus. Bianca looked down at her wet, muddy clothes. Then, Bianca started laughing. I hope my day will get better, she thought to herself.

32 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

3

Bianca’s mother was surprised because Bianca

What effect did the fact that it was Monday have on Bianca? A It made her think the day would get better.

A was still sleeping B stayed up too late

B It made her want to stay in bed.

C missed the first bus D was wet and muddy

C It made her stomach growl. D It made her feel worse. 2

Why did Bianca wave her hands in the air?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 4

A She started laughing at herself.

Because Bianca missed the bus,

B She heard her stomach growling.

A she got in trouble with her mother

C She wanted the bus driver to see her.

B she had to walk to the next bus stop

D She saw a truck coming toward her.

C she was tired and hungry

R. N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R E REP GHTED I B R Y O T P O 5 What happened when Bianca the OK clock? K IS C heard S BOalarm O I H O T B E R AMPL EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV ISSION PERM

6

D she did not go EtoMschool ASTE

Why was Bianca tired?

33 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the question on the next page.

The Great Wall of China One of the most amazing wonders in the world is the Great Wall of China. The wall stretches almost 1,500 miles across the country. It is actually several walls. People began building these walls more than 2,000 years ago. The king of the Qin Empire built the first sections of the wall to protect China’s northern border. Most of these ancient walls can no longer be seen, but newer walls now stand near where these older walls once stood. Many of these newer walls were built when the Ming family ruled China.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The Ming family ruled China from 1368 to 1644. During this time, China was defeated by their Mongolian neighbors to the north in a battle over land. Following the battle, the Chinese refused to trade with the Mongolians. But, the Mongolians depended on the Chinese for grain, metal, and other goods. This led to more fighting between the two groups. The Mings decided to keep the ER. Mongolians out of China by making a wall. Their enemy easily broke STthrough A M E . N KLI ForAyears, WAYthe ACrocks. early sections of the wall that were built mostly of dirtAand Y L N B CED INwere also S NOT ofRthe U I wall continued to be repaired and rebuilt. New sections wall D T I O . D E REP GHTEout I B R added throughout China in order to keep the Mongolians. Towers were Y O T P K CO O S O I B K IS built so that the people BOOChina could LE of OR THkeep an eye out for attackers.

AMP EN F THIS S IS NOT GIV N family no longer ruled China, the walls reached many By the time theISMing M SIO R E P miles across the land. Some of the walls were connected to other walls making even longer sections of wall. These walls have come to be known as the Great Wall of China—even though they are actually many walls.

Today, the Great Wall of China is no longer used for protection against enemies. But, it has become a popular place to visit. It is an important part of China’s history and culture. Millions of people from around the world visit this remarkable wall each year.

34 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

What caused fighting between the Mings and the Mongolians? How did this lead to the construction of the Great Wall? Use details from the passage to support your answer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R E REP GHTED I B R Y O T P O K K IS C S BOO O I H O T B E R AMPL EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV ISSION PERM

35 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Giving Back Andrew Carnegie was a famous business owner who made a lot of money. He was once known as the richest man in the world. Andrew gave away most of his money to help others. Andrew Carnegie was born in Scotland in 1835. When Andrew was young, his father used to work in a factory. But, his father lost his job when new machines were made to take the place of workers. So, Andrew and his family moved to the United States. In the United States, Andrew got a job working in a clothing factory. Andrew worked his way up in the company in a short amount of time. He got better jobs at the factory because he worked very hard.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Then, Andrew left the factory so he could work for the Pennsylvania Railroad. At his new job, Andrew learned about how railroads worked. He also learned about the stock market. By putting some of his own money into the ER. STstock A M E N LI a result, KAs market, Andrew Carnegie was able to own other businesses. WAY. C A Y L N B A A IN did at his Andrew started making more money from the stock than CED he S NOTmarket U I D T I O . R REP HTED job with the railroad. TO BE PYRIG

O K K IS C S BOO O I H O T B E R PL War began. M Then, in 1861, Sthe Civil N FOAndrew Carnegie helped to keep telegraph HI SA S NOT GIVE T lines and railroadsIOworking during the war. After the war ended, Andrew started a NI S S I M steel company. PER Because his company was successful, he made even more money. Andrew became the richest person in the world when he sold his company.

Andrew Carnegie believed that rich people should give money to the poor. He believed that because he was so successful he should help others. As a result, he gave away most of his money. Andrew also used his money to build new libraries and schools. His money and his gifts helped many people. People remember Andrew Carnegie today because he gave so much to people living in the United States and all around the world.

36 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

3

Because Andrew Carnegie was a hard worker he was able to A make money from the stock market

A he worked hard B he wanted to help others

B leave Scotland when he was young

C he thought he could make more money

C get better jobs

D he did not want to keep his money

D help other people

2

Andrew Carnegie used his money to build libraries and schools because

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What caused Andrew’s family to move to the United States?

4

A Andrew’s father lost his job.

Andrew Carnegie became the richest man in the world when A he learned about how the railroad worked

B Andrew got a job in a factory. C Andrew’s family became rich.

B his family moved to the United States STER.

D Andrew wanted to work at the railroad.

E MA TA NOsteel CED INwas sold Shis U I D T D company I O . R E REP GHTED I B R Y O T P O K K IS C S BOO O I H O T B E R MPL N FO HIS SA S NOT GIVE T 5 What happened Andrew Carnegie put some of his money in the I IONwhen S S I M ER stock P market?

6

N AY. C he gaveBmoney people LACKLI to other ANY W

What effect did Andrew Carnegie have on the lives of others?

37 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

The Bike Race Bill enjoyed bike riding. He enjoyed it because he could be outside and see many different things. At school, Bill saw a sign about a bike race. The sign said that anyone could enter the race, so Bill signed up to be in the race. Bill wanted to win the race, so he knew he would have to work very hard. To prepare for the race, Bill rode his bike every day. He woke up early to train and practice riding his bike. On the first few mornings that Bill trained, he was very tired because he was not used to waking up so early.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Bill always made sure to eat a bowl of cereal and drink a glass of juice before he began riding his bike. A good breakfast gave him the energy he needed for his training. After eating breakfast, Bill would take his bike to many different bike trails. As a result, Bill became good at riding his bike on many different surfaces. His favorite surface to ride on was cement. It was easier toASride TER.on M E N Y. than rocks or dirt. Bill could ride his bike very fast on theLAcement. CKLI NY WA

OT A B DUCED IN A N S I . IT a shirt Rthat EPROhad the number TEDon Finally, the day of the race arrived. Bill put H E G I B R O COPY OOK Tthe race so that people could IS numbers seven on the back. Riders wore during B K S O I H O PLE Ba large FOR Tof riders standing next to their bikes. He M tell them apart.S Bill saw group N A E S V I G THI NOT also in the race because they wore numbers on Swere I knew that these riders N O I MISS their shirts, PERtoo. Bill and the other riders lined up along the street. Bill was happy that the race would be on a cement road because he knew he would go very fast. A whistle sounded and the other racers started pedaling. Bill got a slow start because the sound of the whistle startled him. Soon, however, he was nearing the front of group. With only a few feet left, he made it to the front. Bill smiled and cheered as he crossed the finish line first and won the race!

38 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

2

3

Because Bill trained on many different bike trails,

Why was Bill very tired the first few mornings that he trained?

A he needed to get up very early

A He rode on different surfaces.

B he was able to enter the bike race

B He stayed up late the night before.

C he needed to practice riding his bike

C He was not used to waking up early.

D he learned to ride on different surfaces

D He did not eat enough for breakfast.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 4

What happened when Bill heard the sound of the whistle?

Why did Bill wear a shirt with the number seven on the back?

A It was his favorite number.

A He lined up with the other racers.

B It made it easier to tell him apart from other racers.

B He started to pedal his bike quickly.

C He was seven yearsASold. TER.

. INE M L K WAYin C A Y L D He was the seventh person N B A IN NOTtoA start CEDrace. Sline U I D T the I O . R TED E REP B YRIGH O D He crossed the finish lineCOfirst. T P K K IS S BOO O I H O T B E R AMPL EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV ISSION PERM 5 Why did Bill ride his bike every day? C He did not get off to a good start.

6

What did Bill do when he won the race?

39 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

The Lovely Lorikeets Lorikeets are birds that live in Australia, New Zealand, and the islands of the South Pacific. They are members of the parrot family. There are about fifty different kinds of lorikeets. They mostly live in woodland areas where there are flowering plants and trees. Like other birds that belong to this family, lorikeets have bright feathers. They also have brush-like tongues that make them stand out from their parrot cousins.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Parrots eat seeds, vegetables, and meat. Because they do not have teeth, parrots use their strong beaks to tear their food. Parrots have organs in their throats called gizzards that grind the food before it reaches their stomachs. Lorikeets have weak gizzards, so they cannot eat solid foods. Instead, they use their tongues to eat nectar and pollen from trees and plants. Without knowing it, these birds help spread pollen from plant to plant while eating. This helps R. more new plants to grow. MASTE

KLINE WAY. C A Y L N B A A Fruit farmers do not like lorikeets. These birdsITtravel groups, CED IN and they S NOTin large U I D O . R P HTED amount EofREtime. can easily strip the fruit off a tree P inYRaIGshort In many places, B O T K CO O S O I B K S the government allows farmers to hunt these birds to keep them away from LE BOO EN FOR THI P M A crops. OtherTHfarmers IS S peacefully OT GIV deal with the animals by planting flowering N S I shrubs on the edge ISSIONof their land to keep the birds away from the fruit trees. PERM

Some human activities have lowered the lorikeet population. Some people hunt lorikeets for their brightly colored feathers. Others try to catch the birds and sell them as pets. Many countries have made laws against selling wild lorikeets to try to protect the animals. Cutting down trees also puts lorikeets in danger because it destroys the plants they feed on. Many people are trying to save lorikeets by teaching others about their needs and by explaining how these birds help the world around us.

40 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

3

Lorikeets live woodland areas because A they travel in large groups B they want to stay away from people

A There are fewer lorikeets than before.

C they get their food from plants

B There are more lorikeets than before.

D they like to eat seeds from trees

2

What is one effect that some human activities have had on lorikeets?

C There are no more lorikeets on farms. D There are too many lorikeets on farms.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

One reason farmers hunt lorikeets is to

A catch them and sell them as pets

4

B catch them and sell their feathers

Because lorikeets have weak gizzards, A they fly in bigger groups than parrots ER.

MAST AB IN AN OT have D N E C S C they bright feathers U I D T D keep them away from crops EPRO TED. I R H E G I B R Y O are easy to catch D they IS COP HIS BOOK T K O O PLE B IVEN FOR T M A S S THI OT G N S I SION plants to grow? 5 What helps ISnew PERM C teach people about lorikeets’ needs

6

. INE solid food B they cannot Y WAY LACKLeat

What effect does cutting down trees have on lorikeets?

41 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Saving the Salmon Salmon are very interesting fish. They are born in fresh water. Soon after they hatch from eggs, they migrate to the ocean where they live most of their lives. Salmon only return to fresh water near the end of their lives. This is when they lay eggs. Some stories tell about salmon that lay their eggs in the same place they were born. Scientists do not know if this is true. They cannot track the fish from birth.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

To many people, salmon are very important. Some people enjoy eating this type of fish. But, the number of salmon in our oceans has dropped over the years. There are many reasons why this is happening. Many people think that overfishing is the main problem. People are catching too many fish before new fish are born. Many salmon never have a chance to lay their eggs before being caught by fishermen.

STER. A M E N LI dropped AY. to Khas Another reason some people believe the salmon population Whas C A Y L N B A IN hide from OT A as places do with beavers. Young salmon depend on beaver CED to S Ndams U I D T I O . R P trap important TEDthese dams E REalso GHby other animals. The pools of water Pmade I B R Y O T K S CO K IHowever, S BOO dams can cause flooding that minerals that help fish grow. beaver O I H O T B E R AMPL EN FO states have beaver hunting seasons to keep V damages property. many I G T THIS S As IaS Nresult, O N Some people believe that fewer beavers has led to lower beaver numbers low. O I S S I PERM salmon populations because there are fewer beaver dams. Human activities, such as building new roads across rivers and lakes, have also harmed the salmon population. Many salmon are no longer able to swim to where they lay their eggs. Some states are working to save the fish. Programs to rebuild the forests around rivers are helping. But, more work must be done. People living near streams are encouraged to use earth-friendly products in and around their homes. This will help lower the amount of chemicals that end up in the water where young fish live. With a little help, the salmon in our oceans can thrive again.

42 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

3

What causes salmon to return to fresh water?

A There is not enough fish to eat.

A They are ready to lay their eggs.

B There are too many beavers.

B There are chemicals in the ocean.

C There are no more salmon in the ocean.

C They are hiding from other animals.

D There are fewer salmon in the ocean.

D There are beaver dams in fresh water.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 4

2

What is one effect of overfishing?

New roads can be harmful to salmon because

How do earth-friendly products help salmon? A They help to rebuild the forests around rivers.

A they destroy dams built by beavers

B They increase the number of beavers in rivers.

B they may keep fish from laying eggs

ER. C They trap important STminerals A M E N LI AY. in the river BLACKwater. ANY W

C they prevent fish from swimming

IN NOT AlowerODthe CEDamount SThey U I T D of I . R EP TED R H E G I B R O D they can cause flooding COPY OOK Tchemicals in the water. IS B K S O I H O PLE B IVEN FOR T M A S S THI OT G N S I ISSION ERMcaused 5 What Phas some states to hunt beavers?

6

What can happen if people work together to help the salmon?

43 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the question on the next page.

Learning to Juggle April was a fast learner, so she never had to work very hard to do anything. April was also usually very good at the things she tried. It only took April a few hours to learn how to ride her bike. She was also very good putting puzzles together. It seemed like April could do anything. Even though April was good at many things, she still was not happy. She did not get along with the other children at school. April was always telling everyone how good she was at doing things. She acted as if she was better than everyone else. So, no one in April’s class liked to play with April.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Then, one day things changed. It all started when April’s gym teacher, Mr. Owens, told the class he would teach everyone how to juggle. He tossed a bunch of tennis ball into the air. April watched closely as Mr. Owens tossed several balls from one hand to the next. April could not wait until AitSTwas ER. her M E N Y. turn to juggle. LACKLI NY WA

OT A B DUCED IN A N S I IT of theEPchildren RO TED.Some Mr. Owens gave everyone a few tennis balls. could juggle R H E G I B R Y O T P O K C O S O Istruggled right away, but not April. She and wanted to give up. She could not THIS B BOOK E R L O P F understand why juggling was soENdifficult. Everything else always seemed so easy. AM THIS S IS NOT GIV ISSIONballs on the floor and folded her arms. Then, Mr. Owens April put P the ERMtennis told April not to give up. April looked at the other children having fun and decided to try again. Still, April was having a difficult time juggling. A few of the other children noticed and came over to help. They cheered for April and encouraged her to keep trying. April smiled and did not give up. Even though juggling was not easy, April was having fun and felt happy. From that day on, April always had friends and never acted like she was better than anyone else. She learned that it was okay if she was not the best at everything. She also learned that not everything is easy—sometimes you have to work really hard.

44 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

What are three ways that not being good at juggling had an effect on April? Include details from the passage in your answer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R E REP GHTED I B R Y O T P O K K IS C S BOO O I H O T B E R AMPL EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV ISSION PERM

45 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Stray Cats Cats that do not have owners to care for them are called stray cats. Some stray cats become wild if they are left on their own for a long period of time. You should stay away from cats that are wild because they may bite or scratch. Some stray cats, however, are very friendly and would love a good home. People who would like to adopt a stray cat should keep in mind some important tips.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The first thing you should do if you decide to keep a cat that was once stray is to bring it to a vet. A vet is a doctor for animals. It is important for a vet to see the stray animal to make sure it is not sick or injured. The vet can also check that the cat does not have any ticks or fleas. If the cat does have ticks or fleas in its fur, the vet can give it a special bath. Once you are sure the cat is clean and healthy, you are ready to bring it home.

STER. A M E N KLI the cat Before you welcome a stray cat into your home, remember that may WAY. C A Y L N B A NOT Athe Ocat not be used to living in a house. You should Ifirst in CEDaINsmall room S keep U I D T . R HTED the cat E REPlearn how to find its Gway, with a food dish and a litter box. That will I B R Y O T P CO OOKcat learns how to behave K ISclean. S Bthe food and how to keep its area Once O I H O T B E R MPLit roamGIfreely EN FOaround the house. V indoors, youTHmay IS SAlet T O N IS N O I S S I M Your cat will love living inside because it will have food, warmth, PERprobably

shelter, and friends. The cat may, however, still be interested in going outside. Sometimes cats that were once strays try to run out the door and go exploring. You do not want to lose your cat, so you should keep the cat away from the door. Keep your windows tightly shut, too. Once your new friend is clean and happy, you can find him or her some things to do. Stray cats are used to running around, climbing things, and hunting for food. So, you will want to keep your cat busy. You can give your cat different toys to play with. This will help to keep the cat active. An active cat will be happier and stay healthier.

46 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

3

Why should you stay away from wild cats?

Why should a stray cat be brought to the vet? A to make sure it is not a wild cat

A They may bite or scratch. B They do not keep things clean.

B to make sure it does not belong to someone

C They may be sick or hurt. D They have ticks and fleas.

C to make sure it is not sick or injured 2

What causes some stray cats to become wild?

D to make sure it gets a good home

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A They are kept in a small room. B They are on their own for a long time.

4

C They do not have food.

When a cat is kept in a small room with a litter box, it will

A be happier and healthier

D They like to run, climb, and explore.

B learn to hunt for food to eat

. C want to go exploring ASTER

INE M L AY. K C A Y Wclean L D learn Ahow to keepIN itsAN area B S NOT I DUCED T I O . R D P E E T YRIGH O BE R T P O K C O O IS THIS B BOOKa cat active? E R L O P F 5 How can a person keep AM EN THIS S IS NOT GIV ISSION PERM

6

What should be done if a cat has ticks or fleas in its fur?

47 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E N KLI WAY. C A Y L N B A A CED IN S NOT U I D T I O . R E REP GHTED I B R Y O T P O K K IS C S BOO O I H O T B E R AMPL EN FO THIS S IS NOT GIV ISSION PERM

48 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .



Skill cause e sample[1]