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LEVEL R E AD I N G

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RALLY! EDUCATION 22 Railroad Avenue Glen Head, NY 11545 888-99-RALLY Fax: 1-516-671-7900 www.RALLYEDUCATION.com LESLIE@RALLYEDUCATION.com …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Reading Comprehension Skills Key Comprehension Skills with Scaffolded Instruction

………….. Reading Skill-by-Skill Reading Levels 2–8 •

• • •

6 Separate Books: Main Idea & Details, Sequence, Vocabulary in Context, Compare & Contrast, Conclusions & Inferences, Cause & Effect Scaffolded Instruction: Skills Increase in Difficulty from Sentences to Paragraphs to Complete Passages Lesson Plans Pacing Calendar

Level B C D E F G H

Reading Level 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Interest Class Set Level Includes 10 Each of 6 Skill Books 2-5 5152-8 3-6 5153-5 4-7 5154-2 5-8 5155-9 6-HS 5156-6 7-HS 5137-3 8-HS 5158-0

-----------------------------------888-99-RALLY www.RALLYEDUCATION.com


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO


LEVEL READ I N G

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S K I L L - B Y- S K I L L

CAUSE EFFECT — AND —

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Skill Skill

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To the Teacher Reading Skill-by-Skill is a powerful instructional tool that has been designed to help students strengthen their reading comprehension. Each book in this series provides instruction and practice for a different reading comprehension skill. The focus of this book is main idea and details. In Part 1 of this book, students will learn practical techniques and strategies for answering questions that relate to main idea and details. Using a scaffolded approach to differentiated instruction, Reading Skill-by-Skill teaches students about main idea and details by increasing the difficulty of what they read from sentences to paragraphs to full-length passages.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In addition, each of the sections in Part 1 provides students with modeled instruction, guided practice, and independent practice. Teacher support will be required for students to complete the skill introduction, modeled instruction, and guided practice pages in Part 1. Students can complete the independent R. practice pages on their own. MASTE

LINE K C A L AB O1.T Students Part 2 reinforces what students have learned in Part BE read N O will S I T T K I O . O 10 passages and answer a series of main about TED and detail GHidea HIS Bquestions I T R Y R P O O F C each passage. Students work ENstrengthen IS their own AY.their reading GIVto OK on W T O Y O B N N E A L comprehension A skills. MP D IN ON IS THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R to target the reading comprehension skills Reading Skill-by-Skill will enable you for which your students need the most practice. Upon completing this book, you may elect to proceed to other books in this series. These books can be taught in any order.

ISBN 978-1-4204-4204-5 R 4204-5 Copyright ©2009 RALLY! EDUCATION. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Printed in the U.S.A. 0910.MAQ RALLY! EDUCATION • 22 Railroad Avenue, Glen Head, NY 11545 • (888) 99-RALLY

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Contents Part 1 Instruction: Cause and Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Sentences Modeled Instruction with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Guided Practice with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Independent Practice with Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Paragraphs Modeled Instruction with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Guided Practice with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Independent Practice with Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

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Passages Modeled Instruction with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Guided Practice with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 . Independent Practice with Passages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 ASTER

LINE M K C A L OT A B TO BE N S I T Part 2 BOOK TED. I S H I G H I T R On Your Own: Passages with Questions COPY G. I.V.EN. . F.O.R. . . . .A.Y.. . . . . . . . . .27 S I K O YW OT E BO I P–LNonfiction .S. N . . . . . .E.D. .IN. .A.N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 A Priceless Park M N A O I S UC ISS THIS – Nonfiction Chopsticks PERM . . . .R.E.P.R.O. D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

A New Friend – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 How to Calm Your Mind – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Hurricanes! – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 No More Sneezing, Please – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Lightning on Legs – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 The Story Behind the Song – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Things Can Only Get Better – Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 All About Bruises – Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

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Cause and Effect Stories and passages have many important details. Sometimes these details are connected to each other—they have a cause-and-effect relationship. A cause answers the question “Why did it happen?” An effect answers the question “What happened?” A cause and an effect are like two pieces of a puzzle that fit together. Martin studied very hard, and as a result he did well on the test.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

CAUSE (Why did it happen?)

EFFECT (What happened?)

You may need to look at different parts of a passage to find the details that go together. Or a cause and an effect could be in the same sentence.

STER. A M E Sometimes the cause will appear first. ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . D Lana missed her bus and was late GHtoTEschool. HIS BO I T R Y R P O O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I EFFECT H D TCAUSE PERM REPRO Sometimes the effect will appear first. Lana was late to school because she missed her bus.

EFFECT

CAUSE

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It is possible for there to be many causes that have one effect. Wayne knows a lot about animals. He lives on a farm and has two pet dogs. He also goes to the zoo often.

Wayne lives on a farm.

Wayne knows a lot about animals.

Wayne has two pet dogs.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Wayne goes to the zoo often.

It is also possible for there to be one cause that has many effects. The weather was beautiful. Families went on picnics, children played . STER A outside, and the birds were singing. M E N

ACKLI L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B N on picnics. E PLbeautiful. The weather was IN Awent M N IS N UCFamilies A D O I S E S S S I I D TH PERM REPRO Children played outside. Birds were singing.

When you read, you may see signal words that tell you there is a cause-andeffect relationship. Below is a list of some commonly used signal words.

Signal Words for Cause and Effect because therefore since

due to outcome the reason for

as a result then led to

caused so thus

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Modeled Instruction with Sentences Directions: Read the sentence and follow along. 1

Richard earned some money because he raked his neighbor’s leaves. What is the cause and what is the effect in this sentence? HINT To find the cause and the effect, answer two questions:

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What happened? Why did it happen?

This will tell you what the effect is. This will tell you what the cause is.

Read the sentence again. Look for details that tell what happened.

R.

Richard earned some money because he raked his neighbor’sE leaves. MASTE

ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . O IS Bwhat GHTED Otells Hyou I T R Y R The first part of the sentence happened. P CO NF S E I . V Y I K A G O ThisE isBOthe effect. NOT ANY W S I PL N I M N A D O I S E ISS DUC THIS PERM REPRO

Now, look for details in the sentence that explain why this happened. Richard earned some money because he raked his neighbor’s leaves.

The last part of the sentence tells you why Richard earned some money. It tells you the cause.

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Guided Practice with Sentences Directions: Read the sentences and answer each question. 1

Amira put on a jacket before she went outside to play in the snow. As a result, she was able to stay warm. Why did Amira stay warm? A She played in the snow. B She went outside.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

C She wore a jacket. D She stayed inside.

HINT The question tells you what the effect is—Amira stayed warm. To find the cause, you must answer the question “Why did it happen?”

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STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A BE given NOT So, KheTOwas Shoop. I At the carnival, Nathan threw a ball into. the T I O GHTED OR THIS BO I a prize. R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B N E AN IN into MPLwhen N IS threw A D O I S E What happened Nathan a ball the hoop? S C S S U I I D TH PERM REPRO HINT This question tells you the cause. You must identify the effect.

Write your answer in the empty box below.

Nathan threw a ball into the hoop.

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Independent Practice with Sentences Directions: Read the sentences and answer the questions on your own. Circle or write your answers. 1

Some small trees were planted near the river. During a terrible windstorm, the trees fell to the ground. Why did the trees fall to the ground? A The trees were small.

C The trees were near the river.

B There was a windstorm.

D There was a lot of rain.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Look at the sentences again. What is the cause? What is the effect?

2

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . D IS BOThe judges at the Hdone. IGHTEcarefully T Paola’s painting was colorfulCOand YRvery R P O IVEN F Y WAY. K aISgreat painting. G O art show thought EitBwas T O O MPL N IS N UCED IN AN A O I S S S S I I TH ROD PERM REPpainting? Why did the judges like Paola’s Complete the chart below. Then, write your answer.

Answer:

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Tom wore his shorts and his T-shirt, but he forgot to bring his sneakers to school. Tom was not allowed to play basketball. What happened when Tom forgot to bring his sneakers to school? A He had to put on a pair of shorts. B He had to wear a T-shirt. C He was not allowed to go to class. D He was not allowed to play basketball.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Look at the sentences again. What is the cause? What is the effect?

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STER. A M E N you Eating fruit is good for you. It will make you feel good A and CKLIhelp L B A stay healthy. S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P What happens when aOK person IS CO eatsTfruit? IVEN F Y WAY. G O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I D MI TH PERbelow. REPROwrite your answer. Complete the chart Then,

Answer:

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Modeled Instruction with Paragraphs Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along. October 29, 1929 marked the beginning of the Great Depression in the United States. The Great Depression was a period of time when most people had little or no money. During the Great Depression, people had to wait on long lines to get food. One of the things that led to the Great Depression was that many businesses failed. When this happened, people lost their jobs. Also, many banks failed. People who had money in banks that failed lost their money. The Great Depression did not end until around the time World War II began in 1939. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What caused the Great Depression?

Look in the paragraph for reasons why the Great Depression happened. More than one cause is given.

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . Businesses failed and GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P people lost jobs. OOK IS CO IVEN F Y WAY. G T O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D There was a Great Depression TH PERM REPRO in the United States. Banks failed and people lost money. In the paragraph you read, there are two reasons given for the Great Depression: 1) Businesses failed and people lost jobs. 2) Banks failed and people lost money.

10 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Guided Practice with Paragraphs Directions: Read the paragraph below and answer the question that follows. Krista always loved visiting Aunt Laura’s house. She loved to play with her cat, Sammie. Krista was having a fun time chasing the frisky cat around the house. Then, Krista picked up Sammie and began to pet him. Suddenly Krista began to sneeze. Her nose was running, and she had a headache. “What’s wrong with me?” she wondered. Krista thought she had a cold, but Aunt Laura knew better. She told Krista to stop playing with Sammie. Sammie’s fur had been making Krista feel sick. After that, Krista began to feel better. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which of the following happened when Krista picked up Sammie? A Krista began to sneeze. B Sammie became frisky. C Krista got a cold.

STER. A M E ACKLIN L HINT B A NOT whatK happened O BE Sabout I T Before you answer this question, think when T I O . D O E B T S H I THthe effects that go with RIG a listFof Krista picked up Sammie. ORall OPYMake C N S E I V K GI answer.NY WAY. Ochoose the cause. Then, the best T O O B N E L IN A MP N IS A D O I S E S C S S U I I D TH PERM REPRO

D Sammie wanted to play.

Krista picked up Sammie.

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Independent Practice with Paragraphs Directions: Read each paragraph and answer the questions on your own. Circle or write your answers. 1

School was different for children long ago. In earlier times, most school buildings were very small and could only hold one or two classes at the same time. Many of the students were from families that lived on farms. At school, they learned things that they would need to know to run their own farms. Some students even had to leave school early to work on farms.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Some students left school early because A the schools were small

B they learned many things

C they had to work on farms D there were few classes

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STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . ED small.THHe Pedro thought his school library was BO never find the IS could GHTtoo I R Y R P O books he was looking for,ISsoCOhe wouldIVtake EN F a busWtoAY.the town library. Pedro K G O T O O B NY wrote down his idea and AHe thought his school have S Nmore books. I PLE should N I M N A D O I S E S UC THitISto his Pfriends. showed ERMIS They PROD with his idea and told him to show REagreed

his idea to their teacher. When Pedro’s teacher read his idea, she knew Pedro had a good idea. She asked the school principal if they could get more books for the library. All of the students cheered. What happened when Pedro’s teacher read his idea? A She shared it with other students. B She asked the principal for more books. C She cheered with the students. D She put more books in the school library.

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Continents are large areas of land on the earth’s surface. The shape of each continent is always changing. There are several reasons for this. One reason is that the amount of water in the oceans and other bodies of water is always changing. As the amount of water increases, more land is covered by water. As the amount of water decreases, less land is covered by water. There are also huge plates deep inside the ground. These plates move over time, and this movement slowly changes the shape of the continents. What causes the shape of a continent to change?

4

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER.

A were Madison’s family has a picnic every year at the park. This year, E Mthey N I L K C A BLA just especially excited about the picnic and planned Oeverything T E right. On B N O S I T K park. They . IT went the day of the picnic, Madison and her OOthe Bto TEDfamily S H I G H I T R Y stopped played games all morningSand After lunch, the COPthen N FORto eatAlunch. E I . V Y I K G O YW sky became very got wet from the NOT to rain. E BO andN itIS began ANEveryone PLcloudy N I M A D O I S E S UC rain. Madison quickly MISfamily THIS and ERher PROD packed everything away and ended P E R the picnic early. Madison was very disappointed and already began to think about next year’s picnic. Complete the cause and effect chart below.

It began to rain.

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People have been making paintings for many years. Some paintings may be beautiful to look at. For scientists, however, paintings are more than just art. Paintings can tell us about people who lived a long time ago. In fact, much of what we learn about earlier people comes from their paintings. Some of the world’s oldest paintings are inside a cave in France. These amazing paintings were done about 16,000 years ago and show many kinds of wild animals. These painting tell us much about the people who made them. They help us to better understand their way of life. By studying paintings made by people long ago,

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A we can become scientists

B we can learn how to paint

C we can see animals that live in caves D we can learn about their way of life

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STER. A M E Jason’s teacher gave him an assignment. He was asked toCKwrite A LIN a makeL B A believe story about going on a journey aroundNthe Jason O BE had not S OT world. I T T K I O . been to many places that were far G from BO he lived. HTEDthe town HISwhere I T R Y R P O O F story. YHe Therefore, he had a difficult . wished that he knew IVEN his K IS C timeOwriting A G O W T O Y B N looked what other places the AN Then, he had an idea. IN like. MPLEaround N ISworld A D O I S E S C S S U I I TH to thePElibrary Jason went RM andREfound PROD books with pictures of places he had only read about. As he looked at each picture, Jason began to imagine what it would be like to visit each place. This helped him to write his story. Why did Jason have a difficult time writing his story? A He had not been to many places that were far away. B He did not like to write stories that were make-believe. C He had too much other work to do at school. D He did not understand what his teacher had asked him to do.

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If you spend too long in the hot sun, you may get sunburn. People should try not to get sunburns if they can avoid them. Sunburns not only hurt, but they can make you sick as well. The next time you go out in the sun, try wearing a hat and a long-sleeve shirt and pants. The more you cover your skin from the sun, the less you will have to worry about getting sunburn. What is the effect of covering your skin from the sun?

8

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It is very loud in the big city! This is mostly due to the fact there are many people who are always busy doing things. In the city where I live, some STER. A M people like to listen to the radio. They like to listen to music. Sometimes, E KLIN ACdogs L B A children are playing and like to yell and laugh. Even the Emake noise. OT B N O S I T They like to bark when they hear theTsounds OOK trucks honking ED. IT ofTHcars Band S H I G I R Y put onNearmuffs their horns. Sometimes I have to hear myself think! FOR just COPto S E I . V Y I K A G O O quite loud Even though it Pcan NY Wliving in the big city. LE Bbe IS NOatT times, I Alove

AM D IN ON THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

Complete the cause and effect chart below.

It is very loud in the big city.

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Modeled Instruction with Passages Directions: Read Part 1 of the passage below and follow along.

The All-American Girls Baseball League (Part 1) World War II changed the lives of many people in the United States. Many young men signed up to fight in the war. Even baseball players went off to fight in the war. They put down their baseball bats to fight for their country. Team owners did not know what would happen to baseball while the war continued. Many owners thought they would have to close the ball fields where their teams played.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Then, one owner found a way to keep the fields open. Philip Wrigley was the owner of the Chicago Cubs. Wrigley and his partners had a brilliant idea. They decided to start a baseball team for women. Scouts searched the country for women to play on four teams. Some of the lucky ones chosen to play were still in TER. high school. Many women and girls tried out. Only 60 made it intoE the MASleague. 1

ACKLIN L B A Baseball team owners thought about closing their E O Bbecause S NOTball Ofields I T T K I . ED partners GHThis HIS BO I A Philip Wrigley did not agree with T R Y R P O F S CO IVENbaseball K Iwomen AY. G O W T O B scouts could not find to play Y O B N N E A L S P D IN ION Iteams Ewomen S C S SAMmany S U I D C there baseball for M THIwere O P ER REPR D many baseball players went off to fight in the war

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Answer A: There are no details in the passage that tell you Philip Wrigley and his partners did not agree. Choice A is not correct. Answer B: The second paragraph states that scouts searched the country for women to play baseball, and many women tried out. Choice B is not correct. Answer C: Owners started teams for women to keep the ball fields open. Before this, there were no teams for women. Choice C is not correct. Answer D: The first paragraph states that during World War II, many baseball players went to fight in the war. There were not enough men to keep the ball fields open. Choice D is the correct answer. 16 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Guided Practice with Passages Directions: Read Part 2 of the passage below and write your answer to the question that follows.

The All-American Girls Baseball League (Part 2) The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League played its first game in 1943. The women who played in the league helped the country in many ways. Thoughts of the young men fighting in the war were never far from everyone’s minds. But, watching the women play baseball helped people to forget their troubles for a few hours. Also, the women players supported groups, such as the Red Cross, which helped people who were sick or hurt. Even though the league only lasted for a few years, it has an important place in the history of the game of baseball—and in the history of America. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

How did the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League help people?

STER. A M E ACKLIN HINT L B A T O BE S NOhappened I To answer this question, think about what and T T K I O . TED below. GHchart HIS BO I why it happened. Complete the T R Y R P O O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

Now, write your answer to the question.

17 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Independent Practice with Passages Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

Swimming Lessons Tina was very happy when her cousins invited her to go into their pool. It was a very hot and sunny day, and Tina could not wait to get into the pool. First, her cousins climbed into the pool and started tossing a big beach ball to one another. Then, Tina carefully sat on a floating chair. She tried to join in the game, but it was difficult to move around while sitting in the chair. Tina could not get to the ball quickly enough to catch it. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Tina could not catch the ball because A it was too hot outside

STER. A M E B she could not move fast enough ACKLIN L B A C the ball was too big S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTEofD theORchair D she could not get out HIS BO I T R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B LE to getIOout N ANjump into the water. But, Tina Tina’s cousins asked Iand MPher N ISofNthe Uchair A D S E S C S S I I H did not D the chair. She explained to her cousins RM to get was afraid.TShe PROof PEwant REout that she was not good at swimming. Her oldest cousin, who was a lifeguard at the town pool, offered to help her learn. Slowly, Tina let her legs drop off the side of the chair into the water. Then, she slid the rest of her body off the chair. She could just touch the bottom of the pool with the tips of her toes. 2

What happened when Tina’s cousins asked her to jump into the water? A She wanted to get out of the chair. B She asked for help. C She swam to the bottom of the pool. D She became frightened. 18

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Tina grabbed her oldest cousin’s arm. Both of her cousins were eager to help her learn how to swim. They gave her a small float to hold onto. The float helped to keep her head above the water. Then, they showed Tina how to kick with her feet. Doing this helped Tina get used to moving in water. She went back and forth across the pool several times. Next, Tina tried floating on her back. It was hard at first, but Tina’s oldest cousin would catch her if she started to sink. 3

Tina kicked with her feet to A get used to moving in water

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

B keep her head above water

C learn how to float on her back D show her cousin how to swim

After a few minutes, Tina was able to float on her back all by herself. Both of her cousins decided to float on their backs too. Tina and her cousins looked like a bunch of starfish floating on the water with their arms stretched out. Then, R.Tina E T S A let out a big breath of air. As a result, Tina could feel her body begin LINE Mto sink. She K C A L B help. Tina’s quickly grabbed her oldest cousin’s arm again and asked cousin E OT Afor B N O S I T K float again. Tina IT to be able explained that she needed to breathe in more BOOto TED. air S H I G H I T R was glad that she had her cousins PY help herNlearn FOR how to swim. COto

AY. GIVE OK IS W T O Y O B N N E A L IS IN AMP IONbegin ED in S C S U I Tina to sink the water? D M THI4S S WhyPEdid O R REPR

19 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

How Water Gets Around Water is very important in our lives. Water makes up most of our bodies, and we use water to drink, wash, water plants, and much more. Water is found in oceans, rivers and lakes, and in our very own homes. Water is all around us and is always going though different stages in a cycle. The water cycle keeps all water moving and changing. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What causes all water to move and change? A rivers and lakes B our bodies

C the water cycle D plants

STER. A M E CKLINthe water we Astep, The first step of the water cycle is called evaporation. InAthis L B T BE sun, and Othe S NisOheated see in rivers, lakes, and oceans changes. The .water by I T T K I O ED called Twater GHTgas HIS BOvapor. Water vapor is I that makes the water turn into a type of R Y R P O F S CO vapor, EN steam, IVor K IWater sometimes also called steam. then AY. rises into the sky. G O W T O Y O B N N E A L You may have water D IN spilled seems to disappear over ION ISthatODhas SAMP how Ebeen S C S U I HIS noticed M T PER to waterRvapor EPR that we cannot always see. time. It really just turns 2

What happens when water is heated by the sun? A The water turns to vapor. B The water enters oceans. C The water forms rivers. D The water boils.

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When water vapor goes high enough into the sky, it becomes colder. The cold makes the vapor turn back into water, and all the water floats in the sky in the form of clouds. This step is called condensation. As time passes, more and more water gathers in the clouds, and the clouds become heavy and full. Some of these clouds may appear very dark. 3

The clouds become heavy and full because A water turns into vapor B water gathers in the clouds C the air is colder in the sky

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

D the clouds appear dark

When clouds become full of water and cannot hold any more, water begins to fall down from the sky. This is called precipitation. Rain is the most well-known type of precipitation, but water can come from the sky in many forms. If it is cold outside, the water may fall from the sky as snow, hail, or sleet. At last, the water is back on the ground, and once more fills up our lakes and oceans. STER. A M Now, the cycle can begin all over again. E LIN

BLACK E A T O N TO Band it T ISare K I O . 4 What happens when the clouds full of water D O E B T YRIGH N FOR THIS P is cold? O C AY. GIVE OK IS W T O Y O B N N E A L AMP D IN ON IS THIS S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

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Directions: Read the passage below. Answer questions 1–4 on your own. Circle or write your answers.

Kayak Kids Dana hurried to finish her breakfast. She wanted to go hiking with her friends. She knew that only a few children would be able to go hiking, so she did not want to be too late to sign up. Dana finished her eggs and had a piece of toast. Then, she quickly drank her orange juice and looked up at the clock. It was eight o’clock. Dana was going to be late to go hiking, so she put on her hiking boots and ran outside. 1

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Dana hurried to finish breakfast because A she wanted to have a piece of toast B she wanted to go hiking

C she wanted to have orange juice

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A BE had taken NOTsomeone O else Sthat As soon as Dana got outside, her friends told. Iher I T T K O O TED late toTHsign IS Bup. GHtoo I the last spot on the hiking trip. She was She was angry R Y R P O O F C N S E I . V Y K missing with herself for being late A hiking. She looked at GI chanceNYtoWgo OTher BOOand N E A L S I P N I M the list of other to D the kayak trip was the only ION DanaOsaw UCEthat ISSdo. HIS SAactivities D M T R R E P P other activity that she was not too RE late to sign up for. But, Dana did not want D she wanted to play outside

to go on the kayak trip. She had already gone on the kayak trip last year, so she wanted to do something different. Dana asked one of the camp counselors if she could go hiking instead. But, she was told that she needed to hurry over to the river to join the other children who were going on the kayak trip. 2

What happened when Dana was too late to sign up for the hiking trip? A She took the last spot from someone else. B She decided to go on a kayak trip. C She looked for a camp counselor. D She became angry. 22

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On the way over to the river, Dana spoke with another camper named Ben. Ben was very excited about going on the kayak trip, but Dana could only think about the last time she was in a kayak. Last year, it had rained hard the day before the trip, and Dana’s kayak was caught in some rough waters. She ended up floating backward down the fast river! Dana was very nervous about getting back into a kayak again. She wished that she could be as excited as Ben was. 3

What effect did last year’s kayak trip have on Dana? A It caused her to be excited about getting back into a kayak. B It caused her to talk to someone about how she felt.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

C It caused her to be nervous about getting back into a kayak. D It caused her to find someone to go with her this year. At the river, Dana climbed into her kayak. Along the edge of the river, the water was very choppy and was moving fast. But, Dana noticed that the water near the middle of the river looked calmer. So, Dana rowed as fast as she could to get to the middle of the river. The water was much calmer away from the . STERDana A M shore. Dana relaxed and smiled. She noticed Ben spinning in slow circles. E KLIN BLACend showed him how to paddle to stay in a straight line.OTByA the of E the day, she B N O S I T T raced Ben back to the shore. Dana decidedEDthat on BOaOKkayak trip was not T . I going S H I G H I T R that bad after all. COPY N FOR

AY. GIVE OK IS W T O Y O B N N E A L N IS AMP caused D INkayak to the middle of IODana Eher S C S U I to row D M THI4S S What O P ER REPR the river?

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Directions: Read the passage below. Answer the extended-response question on the next page. Support your answer with details from the passage.

Why Exercise Is Good for You Many grown-ups try to get a lot of exercise. Grown-ups who do not get enough exercise may feel weak or even get sick more than people who exercise a lot. But, exercise is not just important for grown-ups. It is also important for children. Doing exercise helps children to stay fit. Even just a little bit of exercise can have a good effect on your body—and it can be great fun!

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Most children exercise without even knowing that they are doing something good for their bodies. Most children like to run around and play whenever they have the chance. Some children like to play sports such as baseball or soccer. Other children like to play games such as tag or jump rope. Taking part in these games can help children to feel happier and healthier. It is also a good way to get outside and breathe some fresh air.

STER. A M E Experts say that children who exercise may even get better CKLIN in school. Agrades L B A NOT youK exercise, Keep in mind that the brain is part of your body. O BE it is S When I T T I O . TED one surprising healthy for your brain. Good gradesYRare GHonly HIS BO result of exercise. I T R P O CO better Children who exercise are also with IVEatN Fdealing K IS often AY. problems because G O W T O Y O B N N E A L N IS calm during exercise can Ihelp AMa Pperson to Oremain D IN difficult times. TH S S PERMISSI EPRODUCE R

Children who exercise do not get sick as much as children who do not exercise. Even when children who exercise do get sick, they often feel better faster. Every person’s body can fight illness, but people who exercise get well faster than people who do not exercise. All of these facts show that exercise can help young people have happy, healthy lives. So, why not go for a walk or take a swim the next chance you get?

24 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

What are three reasons why children should exercise? Use details from the passage to support your answer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

25 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

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On Your Own E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Passages with Questions

THIS

A Priceless Park – Nonfiction Chopsticks – Nonfiction A New Friend – Fiction How to Calm Your Mind – Nonfiction STER. A Hurricanes! – Nonfiction M E ACKLIN L No More Sneezing, Please – Fiction B A S NOT OK TO BE I Lightning on Legs –.Nonfiction T I ED GHTSong HIS BO I T The Story Behind the –RNonfiction R Y P O EN F – Fiction IS COOnly TGet IVBetter K Can AY. G Things O W O Y O B N N E A L IN All ION IS Bruises SAMP ISSAbout DUCE–DNonfiction

PERM

REPRO

27 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

A Priceless Park Much of the land in South America was once covered by rain forests and other natural wonders. Over time, though, people have changed much of this land. Some people have cut down trees and used the wood to build homes and to make paper. Other people have cleared land to make farms for animals, or to build new towns and cities. At one time, it seemed like rain forests might one day be gone forever.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

At first, few people thought much about rain forests. Only later, after many forests had been badly damaged, did people begin to understand how important these forests are. Each rain forest is home to many different animals that cannot live anywhere else. Also, many plants found in rain forests are used to make medicines that help to keep people healthy. Now that people understand how important rain forests are, many have begun to take an active TER. role in helping to save rain forests. E MAS

ACKLIN L B A E There are many examples of things people have done rain from O Bforests S NOTto keep I T T K I O . D O E B being cut down. One person thought way IGHTthe best THIS to save a rain forest in YRthat R P O O F C EN people Y. watch over the Chile was to turn it into O a Ogiant K IS park.OThat Acould GIVway, W T Y B N N E A L IS IN park is called Pumalín Park, MP forest and keep still it. IONenjoying EDThis S C S U I HIS SitA safePEwhile D M T O PR number of plants and animals live there. and it is very importantRbecause R a Elarge Pumalín Park was not easy to start, and it cost a lot of money. The park is able to stay open, though, because of how many people visit it. Traveling a long way to visit a place and to enjoy its natural wonders is called ecotourism. Ecotourism has made Pumalín Park a very popular place to visit. People who enjoy nature hope that Pumalín Park stays open for many years. If this happens, it will save an important part of Chile’s great rain forest.

28 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

Because people cut down trees to build homes,

3

A there was not enough wood to make paper

A they use plants to make medicines that help people

B many people started to visit Chile

B they cut down trees to build homes and to make paper

C farms were made for animals

C they travel a long way to enjoy the natural wonders of forests

D many forests were cut down

2

Because people understand how important rain forests are,

D they have begun to take an active role to try to save the forests

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What allows PumalĂ­n Park to stay open? A Other rain forests are badly damaged.

4

B There are many animals in the park.

What effect does ecotourism have on rain forest parks? A It helps the parks to stay open.

R. B It causes damage to A the STEparks.

C People like to visit the park.

INE M

ACKL animals to C It bringsBmore L A T E S NOparks. K TO B IT Ithe

D People need plants for medicine.

BOO TED. S H I G H I T R owners a lot COPY GIVENDFORIt costsAYpark S I . K O W of money. T PLE BO SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO

5

How do the rain forests help to keep people healthy?

6

What effect did building farms, towns, and cities have on rain forests?

29 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Chopsticks You may eat most of your meals with a fork and spoon. In many parts of the world, though, people use small sticks called chopsticks to eat their food. Many chopsticks are made from a soft type of wood called bamboo. Bamboo is used because it is easy to find and easy to work with. Other chopsticks are made from metal, stone, or bone. These chopsticks are harder to make but are much stronger.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

People in many places, such as China and Japan, use chopsticks. In these places, food is often cut up into small pieces and cooked. It is easy for people to use chopsticks to pick up these small pieces of food. People usually hold two chopsticks in one hand and press them together, almost like scissors. With practice, a person can pick up food from a plate and bring it to his or her mouth.

R. The first chopsticks were made a very long time ago. Some people think STEthey A M E were first made in China by a king who saw people eating with ACKLINsharp forks and L B A NOT usingK Tthese knives. The king worried that someone wouldITget O BE sharp tools. S hurt I O . GHTEDto eat So, he decided to have everyone use sticks instead. HIS BOBefore long, people I T R Y R P O F meals.Y. IS CO VENtheir became very good at using WA TtoGIeat OOKchopsticks

PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS usedERchopsticks, IS THnever RODU you would like to try. But, there are If you have P M REPmaybe some rules about eating with chopsticks that you will need to know. Even though they are called “chop-sticks,” you should not use them to poke or cut food. Chopsticks should be used only for picking up food. Also, just as you shouldn’t play with a fork or spoon, you shouldn’t play with chopsticks. It is thought to be rude. Besides, the chopsticks might break and then you would have nothing to eat with!

30 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

The king of China worried that some people would get hurt because

3

If you press chopsticks together like scissors, A you will break the chopsticks

A they used sharp tools to eat food

B you will hurt yourself

B they made chopsticks out of wood

D you can pick up your food

C you can cut up your food

C they played with their chopsticks

4

D they did not know how to use tools

Chopsticks are helpful in places like China and Japan because

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A there is a lot of bamboo B they are easy to make

2

C food is cut into small pieces

If you play with chopsticks, people will think you are A funny

D people do not each much

5

STER. A M E ACKLIN C strong L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T D hungry I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I TH causePEchopsticks OD RMI What could EPRbreak? Rto

6

What effect does it have when chopsticks are made from bone?

B rude

31 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

A New Friend Leon moved to the town of Greenville just a few months ago. He thought it would be easy to get used to a new place and make new friends. As it turned out, though, making new friends would not be that easy. For the first few weeks, Leon had not made a single new friend. This made Leon feel as if he didn’t fit in.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In Greenville, people seemed different from Leon. He liked his neighbors but did not have much in common with them. Most of them were grown-ups with jobs. But, Leon was a young boy who went to school. Leon liked spending time with his parents. They both worked, though, so he could only see them a few hours each day. Leon knew he would have to start looking for a new friend. Leon began trying to figure out what kind of person he would get along with . best. Leon didn’t like sports much, so he thought that children who liked STERto A M E play baseball or football might not want to be his friends. Leon ACKLINalso wasn’t L B A E OT the school sure if he would get along well with kids whoITwere because O Bband S Nin I T K O . D O E B T IS he did not know how to play an instrument. thing to do was THfavorite YRIGH N Leon’s R P O O F C S E I . V Y read. But, he couldn’t think by reading! A GI make aWfriend OOK of how heT could

PLE B SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S DU MISlunch Ebecause THIS was late One day, Leon PERfor R PRO he had dropped his books in the

hall. His regular seat was taken, so he sat at another table near a girl named Ann-Marie. Ann-Marie was writing in a notebook. She said that she loved to write stories and poems. Leon began to think that he would never find someone who loved to read as much as he did. Then, Ann-Marie asked Leon if he would like to read one of her stories. This made Leon very happy. Leon thought that Ann-Marie was a very talented writer. When he asked her how she became so good at writing, she explained that she loved to read books. Leon and Ann-Marie became good friends. They went to the library together each week and picked out books to read. Leon even began to write stories of his own. Reading so many books helped Leon to become a very good writer. Still, he enjoyed reading Ann-Marie’s stories most of all. 32 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

Why did Leon feel like he did not fit in?

3

Why was Leon late for lunch? A He was new to the school.

A He knew very little about Greenville.

B He had been talking with Ann-Marie.

B He had a difficult time making new friends.

C He was writing a story in his notebook.

C He missed the town where he used to live.

D He had dropped his books in the hall.

D He did not get his usual seat in the lunchroom.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 4

2

Leon sat with Ann-Marie because A his usual seat was taken

What happened when Ann-Marie asked Leon to read one of her stories? A Leon thought he would never find someone who liked to read.

B she was writing in a notebook C he knew she liked to read

. B Leon began to feel happy. ASTER

D her stories were very good

INE M

KL ACAnn-Marie C Leon asked if she L B A T E O B N O the library. S to go K Tto IT Iwanted

BOO TED. S H I G H I T R late for class. COPY GIVENDFORLeon was S I . Y K A O W T PLE BO SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S IS DU THIS PERM REPRO 5

Why did Leon think that he would not get along with the children who were in the school band?

6

What effect did reading books have on both Leon and Ann-Marie?

33 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the question on the next page.

How to Calm Your Mind Do you ever get worried or have a lot on your mind? Everyone feels like that sometimes, but it’s important that you do not worry too much. Too much worrying can make a person unhappy or even sick. It is also difficult to think clearly when you worry. Someone who is always worrying is likely to make a lot of mistakes.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

There are many things a person can do to get rid of his or her worries. Maybe walking in the park, talking with a friend, or playing with a pet will help make your worries go away. Some people who have a very difficult time getting rid of their worries may even want to try self-hypnosis. That is a fancy way of saying “making your mind feel calm.” You may have seen television shows in which someone was able to make a person fall asleep, cluck like a chicken, or dance around. These are just shows, though. Real self-hypnosis is different TER. Sbetter from what you usually see on television, and it can help you to think A M E KLIN and to feel better. A BLAC

S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHisTEaDfewOminutes To do self-hypnosis, all you really need HIS BOand a quiet place to I T R Y R P O EN F TheWmain IVdown. sit. It is also helpful if you turn K IS Cthe lights AY. thing that you must G O T O Y O B N N E A L MP do is to sit down yourself ION IS comfortable. ED IN Then, start counting S C S U I HIS SAandPEmake D M T O R Start at Rten EPRand slowly count to one. At each number, backward in your mind. try to make your mind and your body feel a little bit calmer. When you are finished counting backwards, you may feel very calm—maybe even sleepy. You can now leave your worries behind. You may even want to think about places you would like to visit or things you would like to do. Tell yourself that you want to feel calmer at school or do better on tests. These messages may actually help you in the future.

34 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

What effects can too much worrying have on a person? What can a person do to forget his or her worries? Use details from the passage to support your answer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

35 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Hurricanes! We all enjoy a warm and sunny day. But, the weather outside might not always be as nice as we would like it to be. A little wind and rain may not seem like much trouble, but sometimes the weather outside can get very bad. Hurricanes, for example, have strong winds that can damage trees and houses. During a hurricane, all kinds of things can go flying through the air and possibly hurt people.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Hurricanes usually take place in warm, tropical places. This is because warm air is needed to help make a hurricane. Warm air rises into the sky, and when this happens, the air cools. Any water that is in the air will then turn into clouds and make raindrops. Sometimes, there are strong winds that spin the clouds and move them quickly through the sky. If this happens, a hurricane has begun to form. Many people keep track of the weather in tropical areas in order toMtell STifERa. A E CKLIN of a hurricane hurricane may be starting to form. The sooner the warning Asigns L B A OT are seen, the sooner people can begin to get ready. spend O BE a lot of S NScientists I T T K I O . BO over the ocean but GHTED usually time looking out for these storms. Hurricanes HISform I T R Y R P O O IVEN F isY over can quickly move toward land. K IS COnceOaT hurricane AY.land, though, it will G O W O B N N E A L N ISbecome AMPa result,SSitIOwill have less water. D IN UCEweaker. IS SAs

TH

I PERM

D REPRO

People need to do many things if a hurricane is coming their way. First, it is important to listen to news reports. If the hurricane is really bad, people might be told to leave their houses and to go where it is safer. If people are allowed to stay in their houses, they should stay away from windows. The winds during a hurricane could be strong enough to break the glass. Before a hurricane arrives, it is also important to pick up any loose things in the yard. High winds may pick them up and throw them at houses. Most people who live in places where there can be hurricanes have learned how to prepare well. Being well prepared has helped these people to stay safe. It is also important for people to work together, and to help each other. When people work together it is much easier to weather bad storms. 36 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

Before a hurricane, it is important to pick up loose things in the yard because

3

If a hurricane is going to be really bad, people may be asked to A go to their backyards

A rain could damage these things

B close their windows

B you might need to use these things

C leave their homes D stay in their homes

C wind could pick up and throw these things 4

D the warm air is not good for these things

What effect can being prepared for a hurricane have?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A It can help keep people safe.

2

B It can make the storm weaker.

What happens when warm air rises into the sky?

C It can help people work together.

A The air cools down.

D It can keep windows from breaking.

B There is a hurricane.

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B D Clouds spin around. A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B What causesAhurricanes IN AN MPLE SStoIObecome N IS N weaker? D S E C S U I I D TH PERM REPRO C Storms become weaker.

5

6

What can happen when there are strong winds?

37 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

No More Sneezing, Please Greg put a forkful of scrambled eggs into his mouth. It tasted very plain, he thought. So, Greg reached for the pepper shaker that was on the kitchen table. Greg poured some pepper onto the scrambled eggs that were still on his plate. Then, Greg sniffed his eggs to see if he had put the right amount of pepper on them. The smell tickled the inside of his nose. Greg jumped up from the kitchen table and sneezed loudly. Greg’s dog, Buddy, heard the scary noise and ran the other way. Buddy hid behind a couch and looked at Greg with wide eyes. Greg laughed.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

After breakfast, Greg grabbed his jacket. His mother had promised to take him and his friends to a movie. At the movies, Greg had just bought his ticket when he sneezed again. Greg’s powerful sneeze blew the ticket right out of his hand. Greg crawled through a long line of people to find his ticket again. The . TERthe Son white color of the ticket blended in with some napkins that wereEleft A M ACKLIN the theater. L ground. By the time Greg found his ticket, his friends had entered B A OT O BE T Greg had to race to catch up with them. D. IT IS N K O O

GHTE OR THIS B I R Y P F people CO disturb IVENother Greg feared that his sneezing K ISwould AY. trying to watch the G O W T O Y O B N N E A L IS to prevent MP movie. He tried very IONsoftly ED IN his nose from tickling. Once S C S U I HIS SAto breathe D M T O PERdid not worry the movie began, Greg REPR about his nose anymore. The movie was so funny that it made the audience shriek with laughter. People gasped for air in the middle of their giggling fits. The theater was filled with so much laughter that no one even noticed when Greg sneezed.

When the movie was over, Greg’s mother took him and his friends to the diner for a bite to eat. Greg sat at the end of the table and looked at his menu. Suddenly, Greg realized that he was no longer sneezing. Then, he looked down at the table and noticed a pepper shaker right next to the bottle of ketchup. Greg slid the pepper shaker to the other end of the table—far from where he was sitting. That’s enough sneezing for one day he thought to himself.

38 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

What caused Greg to start sneezing?

3

Why was it difficult for Greg to find his ticket?

A He was beginning to catch a cold.

A It was the same color as the napkins.

B His dog, Buddy, came into the kitchen.

B He could not stop sneezing.

C The smell of pepper tickled his nose.

D He did not know what it looked like.

C It was very small.

D Eating eggs always made him sneeze.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 4

2

Greg’s dog, Buddy, hid behind the couch because he

A did not want to get anyone sick

A stole some of Greg’s scrambled eggs

B did not want to disturb anyone

.

STER C thought he might M miss A E CKLIN part of the BLAmovie

B wanted to stay out of trouble C did not like the smell of pepper D

Greg worried about sneezing in the theater because he

OT A N O BE have S I T T D thought he might K I O . O HTED Rtrouble HIS Bbreathing T was scared by the soundCOPYRIG O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS G O of Greg’s sneeze T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

5

What effect did people laughing during the movie have on Greg?

6

At the diner, why did Greg slide the pepper shaker to the other end of the table?

39 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

Lightning on Legs Wilma Rudolph was a lightning-fast runner. At sixteen, she placed third in a race at the 1956 Olympic Games. She became the first American woman to win three first-place gold medals during the Olympic Games four years later. People around the world admired her speed. But Wilma was not always so fast. As a little girl in Tennessee, Wilma spent much of her time in bed. She had a number of illnesses. One illness made it difficult for her to use her left leg. She had to wear special braces, or supports, on her legs for three years. But, Wilma never gave up hope. She belonged to a large, loving family. Her brothers and sisters took turns rubbing her left leg and taking care of her. Wilma’s mother drove Wilma almost a hundred miles to a hospital for special treatments once every week. Their loving care paid off. Wilma had shed the braces by age nine and was on the way to becoming a sports star.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E IN broke many Wilma started out playing basketball. She scored many points ACKLand L B A BE school. records. She even led her team to a state championship Ohigh S NOT during I T T K I O . BO at this time. He HTED R THIScoach Gtrack-and-field Wilma caught the interest of a college I R Y P O CO EN F fast runner. wanted to turn Wilma into orGIaVvery KaISsprinter, AY. Wilma began O W T O Y O B N N E A L IN team. Then, she couldn’t be MP training withISthe State ION ISUniversity ED track S C S U I H SA Tennessee D M T O PR and won many prizes and honors PEROlympicsREtwice stopped. She ran in the during her life. She became the hero of girls all around the world. She finished first in many races, but she believed her greatest success was to bring people together to form a group that would give young athletes the hope and courage they needed to do well. Wilma’s courage and skill have made her a true American hero.

40 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

Wilma caught the interest of a college track-and-field coach because

3

A she became very ill

A she led her school basketball team to victory

B she did not think she would ever walk

B she had won third place in an Olympic race

C she started playing sports D she had to wear braces on her legs

C her basketball team practiced at the college D her brothers and sisters were good at sports

2

Because it was difficult for Wilma to use her left leg,

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 4

People around the world began to admire Wilma because A she played basketball well

Why did Wilma spend a lot of time in bed as a little girl?

B she was a very fast runner C she went to college

A She needed to rest before races.

D she played several sports

5

STER. A M E ACKLIN C She developed many illnesses. L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T D She was tired from running. I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I TH What caused Wilma PRODplaying basketball to running? PERMto switch REfrom

6

What effect did Wilma have on young athletes?

B She had never learned to walk.

41 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

The Story Behind the Song Perhaps you have noticed that before many important events in the United States a person, or a group of people, will often sing “The Star-Spangled Banner.” Most people know the words to this song by heart. They stand, look at the flag, and sing along. But, you may not know the story behind this great American song.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A man named Frances Scott Key wrote “The Star-Spangled Banner” during the War of 1812. Frances Scott Key was an American lawyer. He knew a great deal about the law. But, as it turns out, that was not his only talent. One night, in September of 1814, he traveled by boat with Colonel John Stuart Skinner from Baltimore, Maryland, to board a nearby British ship. The two men hoped to get British officers on the ship to free a prisoner named William Beanes. Beanes was a doctor from Maryland that the British had arrested. The British officers R. STEthe told Key and Skinner that they would let Beanes go. They would Enot let A M IN ACKLabout L men go back to Maryland, however. The men knew tooA much British B T E O B N TO under guard plans to attack the city of Baltimore. Key and were T IS OKkept . ISkinner D O E B T S H I TH on a boat during the attack. From while the British YRIGboat, Nthey ORwatched OPthe F C S E I . V Y attacked Fort McHenry, soldiers T GI OOK manyNOAmerican NY WAstood guard. E Bwhere

IN A MPL N IS A D O I S E S C S S U I I D TH ERM Fort McHenry Bombs lit up the skyPover REPRO all night long. The light from the

exploding bombs allowed Key to see the American flag flying over the fort. In the morning, the flag still proudly waved its stars and stripes. America had won the battle! The sight moved Key to write a poem called “The Defense of Fort McHenry.” Later the poem was set to music and given the name “The Star-Spangled Banner.” People who heard the song were reminded of how wonderful it was to live in America. It made them feel proud of their country. The United States Congress made “The Star Spangled Banner” the national song, or anthem, in 1931.

42 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

Frances Scott Key was on a British ship because

3

A he had been captured B an American prisoner needed his help

A watching British ships sail away from America

C British officers rescued him

B saving William Beanes from British officers

D he worked as an officer in the British army

2

C seeing the flag after the Battle of Fort McHenry D returning to Baltimore after a long night at sea

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What effect did the bombs have during the battle? A They lit up the sky so Key could see the flag.

4

B They pushed British ships back out to sea.

Because Frances Scott Key and Colonel Skinner spoke with British officers, the British

STER. A M E N B took overLFort ACKLIMcHenry B A BE1812 O of S NOT theOWar C ended I T T K D They allowed Beanes to escape I . BO GHTED DORfreed HISWilliam I T R Y from the British. Beanes P CO NF S E I . V Y I K A G O W T PLE BO SION IS NO CED IN ANY M A S THIS thePBritish ODUSkinner, and Beanes from returning to ERMIS to stop What caused REPRKey, A attacked Baltimore

C They made sounds that rocked the boat in the water.

5

What caused Frances Scott Key to write the poem that became America’s national anthem?

Baltimore?

6

What effect did “The Star-Spangled Banner” have when people first heard the song?

43 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the question on the next page.

Things Can Only Get Better Enrico packed his sandwich in a brown paper bag. Then, he realized that there was no more milk left to drink. So, his mother had to give him money to buy a drink at school instead. Enrico put the money in his pocket and walked out the front door. As he stepped outside, the sprinkler on the front lawn showered him with water. Enrico’s clothes were so wet that he had to go back into his house and put on a different pair of pants and a different shirt.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

After Enrico changed his clothes, he ran to the bus stop. But, he was too late. The bus had already left. So, Enrico had to ride his bicycle to school. When Enrico was about one block away from his school, he heard a dog barking. Enrico turned his head and saw a dog running after him. Enrico began to pedal his bicycle as quickly as he could. Then, he hit a bump and his lunch bag fell on the ground. The dog was getting closer, so Enrico kept pedaling his bike. STER. Then, suddenly the dog stopped chasing Enrico and picked up the brown A M E KLIN paper bag. “There goes my lunch,” Enrico thought to himself. A BLAC

S NOT OK TO BE I T I . O GHTEasD heOfinished Finally, Enrico arrived at school. But, just up his bicycle HIS Blocking I T R Y R P O F C N S E I . V Y the bell rang. Enrico wasOlate could T GIclass. He Y WA not believe how the Ofirst B OK for Ihis N N E A L S P N I M day just seemed getting and By the time the morning was D UCEworse. ISSIONworse HIS SAto keep D M T O R R E P P E getting better. Enrico did well on his math over, however, things seemed toRbe test and got an “A” on his spelling test. Then, it was time to go to lunch. But, Enrico had nothing to eat since the dog that had chased him took his lunch. Enrico sat at the lunch table and listened to his stomach growl. Then, he remembered the money that his mother had given him for milk. Enrico reached into his pocket, but the money was gone. He thought for a moment and then remembered that he had to change his clothes after they got wet from the sprinkler. Enrico shook his head. “Things can only get better,” Enrico mumbled to himself.

44 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

What caused Enrico to have a bad day? Explain at least three things that happened. Use details from the passage.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

45 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions on the next page.

All About Bruises People get bruises all the time. Bruises are sore spots on your skin. They can appear in many different colors such as blue, purple, yellow, and brown. Sometimes you know why they show up—perhaps your little brother gave you a kick in the shins. Other times bruises appear and you are not sure what caused them—maybe you bumped into a desk without realizing it. Either way, when you get a bruise, you may wonder what causes your skin to change color.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Bruises usually show up after something hits your body or after you bump into something. When this happens, small blood vessels below the skin can break. These blood vessels carry blood to different parts of your body. When you get a cut, the skin breaks and you bleed. But, when you get a bruise, the skin does not break. So, the blood begins to pool beneath the skin and leaves a reddish mark. After a few days, a bruise usually appears black and blue. It may change TER. color several times as your body begins to heal. E MAS

ACKLIN L B A BE first You can do a few things to help bruises go away faster. aTO bruise S NOTWhen I T K I O . O ED so not GHTblood forms, put ice on it. Ice slows the flow of will leak from HISasBmuch I T R Y R P O O F C N S E I . V Y I bodyYtoWrepair the blood vessels. This makes the bruise. Also, A T Gyour Ofor BOOK it easier N N E A L S I P N I M raise the bruised ON so the CED flows away from the bruise. This Ublood ISSIbody HIS SApartPofERyour D M T O R P can help keep a bruise from getting RE bigger. Most bruises will usually disappear after a few days, but a really bad bruise could be visible for a longer time. Also, some bruises can hurt, so you should avoid touching a bruise if possible. Bruises may seem so common that you hardly pay attention to them. Most bruises are not serious, but some could be harmful if not treated. If a bruise does not go away after two weeks, if it starts to hurt more, or if the bruise is near your eye, you should see a doctor.

46 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


1

A bruise may look reddish at first because

3

A the body begins to repair the bruise

A The bruise is on a hand or foot.

B a bruise forms from touching a hot object

C The bruise lasts longer than two weeks.

C something has broken through the skin

D The bruise is beneath the skin.

B The bruise looks black and blue.

D blood begins to pool beneath the skin

2

What would cause a person to see a doctor about a bruise?

4

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A Ice makes less blood leak from blood vessels.

When a person gets a cut, he or she will

B Ice repairs broken blood vessels beneath the skin.

A have a bruise

B begin to bleed C feel sick

What effect does ice have on a bruise?

C Ice keeps a bruise from hurting R. too much. MASTE

5

LINE K C A L D need rest D Ice stops from turning E OT A Bbruises B N O S I T T different colors. K I O . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I D TH cause aPEperson RMI to Rget What can EPaRObruise?

6

What effect will raising a bruised body part have?

47 Š R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


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STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO

48 © R A L LY ! E D U C AT I O N . N O PA R T O F T H I S D O C U M E N T M AY B E R E P R O D U C E D W I T H O U T W R I T T E N P E R M I S S I O N O F T H E P U B L I S H E R .


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. A M E ACKLIN L B A S NOT OK TO BE I T I . GHTED OR THIS BO I R Y P O IVEN F Y WAY. K IS C G O T O O B MPLE SSION IS N UCED IN AN A S S I I D TH PERM REPRO


LEVEL

D

The Skill-by-Skill series includes: Main Idea and Details Vocabulary in Context Sequence Compare and Contrast Conclusions and Inferences Cause and Effect

E L P M SA N O I T A C U D E ! Y L L Y L A L R A R . 9 9 . 888

Reading Skill-by-Skill is designed to help students strengthen their reading comprehension skills. Each book in the series provides instruction and practice for a different reading comprehension skill.

TER. S A M KLINE C Part 1: A L B NOT A Kdifficulty • Scaffolded instruction that teaches by increasing S I TO BE T I O . D O E (sentences—to paragraphs—to IGHT FORpassages) THIS B YRfull-length P O C • Differentiated instruction K IS GIVEN NY WAY. O T O O B N E IS practice—independent IN A MPL • Modeled instruction—guided practice N A D O I S E S C S S U I I H D M T O R R E • Multiple-choiceP and open-ended REP questions Part 2: • On your own full-length passages with questions Reading Skill-by-Skill targets the comprehension skills students need to master for reading success.

Skill cause d sample[1]