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E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM


Level

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

G

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM


Acknowledgments

ISBN 978-1-4204-4925-9 R 4925-9

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Copyright © 2010 RALLY! EDUCATION All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Printed in the U.S.A.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K 0510.MAQ O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B Printed on recycled paper. C PLE N FO M E A V S I G S I T H Executive Editor: TAmy Collins IS NO ION SNasello Project Manager: Edward S I M R PEJean-Paul Vest Design Director:

Illustrator: Donna Stackhouse Photo Credits: p.14 ©iStockphoto/murat $en; ©iStockphoto/Ricardo De Mattos; p.15 ©iStockphoto/Nic Taylor; p.20 ©iStockphoto/ Aaron Croft; p.27 ©Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, C.E. Bolles, Brooklyn; p.39 ©iStockphoto/Chris Rogers; p.45 The Granger Collection, New York; p.50 ©iStockphoto/dny59; p.54 paint ©iStockphoto/Katya Monakhova, ©iStockphoto/hande yüce; p.63 ©iStockphoto/Gijs Bekenkamp, ©iStockphoto/© Alexei Zaycev; p.74 courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division; p.80 ©iStockphoto/ Janne Ahvo; p.104 ©iStockphoto/Max Lindenthaler, ©iStockphoto/Tobias Helbig; p.108 ©iStockphoto/ itographer; p.124 ©iStockphoto/ Kathy Steen; p.128 ©iStockphoto/Jonathan Larsen; p.133 courtesy of Detroit Publishing Company Photograph Collection, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division; p.138 and 140 courtesy of Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division; p.148-149 courtesy of Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division and The Granger Collection, New York; p.164 ©iStockphoto/narvikk

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ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR READING SUCCESS


Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

PART A: Reading Skills One-by-One Skill Skill Skill Skill

1: 2: 3: 4:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

Recall Facts and Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Identify Main Idea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Identify Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Analyze Language and Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

Skill Review: Skills 1–4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Vocabulary Review: Skills 1–4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Skill 7: Compare and Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Skill Review: Skills 5–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Vocabulary Review: Skills 5–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Skill 9: Make Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Skill 10: Draw Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Skill 11: Make Inferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Skill Review: Skills 8–11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .R...84 TE Vocabulary Review: Skills 8–11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .N.E. M . .A.S. . . . .88 Y.

ACKLI IN ANY WA L B A NOT C ED Skill 12: Analyze Point of View and Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . .D.. .IT . .I.S. . . . . .E.P. R. O . .D.U. . . . . . . . . . .90 GHT.E. . . . . .TO. . B. E. .R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 I Skill 13: Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information R Y P OK CO Skill 14: Apply Prior Knowledge . . . . . O . .O.K. I.S. . . . . . . T. H. I.S. B .O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 P.L.E. B. . . . .I.V.E.N. F. O. R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 M A Skill Review: Skills 12–14 . . . . S THIS N. O. T. .G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 S I Vocabulary Review: Skills 12–14 . . N ISSIO PERM

PART B: Reading Skills Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 PART C: Reading Skills All Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 Theme: Remarkable American Achievements (4 passages with questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 Theme Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144

PART D: Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 Assessment 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 Assessment 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158

ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR READING SUCCESS

3


Introduction Welcome to Essential Skills for Reading Success: Strategies for Reading Comprehension and Test Taking. Being a successful reader means that you understand what you read. There are 14 key skills a reader needs to be a great reader. This book teaches these skills and strategies for how to use them. The 14 Essential Skills for Reading Success are: 1

Recall Facts and Details

2

Identify Main Idea

3

Identify Sequence

4

Analyze Language and Vocabulary

5

Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting

6

Recognize Cause and Effect

7

Compare and Contrast

8

Distinguish Fact from Opinion

9

Make Predictions

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences

12 Analyze Point of View and Purpose

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A NOT and Oanswer UCEDdifferent kinds of Spassages I D Throughout this book, you will read many different types of T I R . P E RE easier for you. GHTED to make Blearning I questions. Strategies, Hints, and Reminders Pare provided R O Y T K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B E Essential Skills for Reading isIV divided N FOinto four parts: MPLSuccess E A S G S I T TH IS NO N Part A — Reading Skills One-by-One O I S IS PERM 13 Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information

14 Apply Prior Knowledge

Part B — Reading Skills Review

Part C — Reading Skills All Together Part D — Assessments Completing all of the lessons in this book will help you to master the 14 Essential Skills for Reading Success. You will be a better reader and a better test taker!

4

ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR READING SUCCESS


PART A: Reading Skills One-by-One

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In this section of the book, each of the 14 Essential Skills for Reading Success is taught in a separate lesson using Modeled Instruction, Guided Instruction, and Independent Practice. Part A also includes four Skill Review and four Vocabulary Review lessons to reinforce what you have learned in the individual STER. . A M E skill lessons. WAY KLIN

ANY BLAC A N I T D O E IT IS N REPRODUC . D E T YRIGH OOK TO BE P O C OK IS OR THIS B O B E L NF MP E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

5


SKILL 1:

Recall Facts and Details

Modeled Instruction There is a lot of information in a passage. When you answer questions about a passage, you must recall facts and details from the passage. You may even need to read some parts of the passage again to find the information you need to answer a question. Even one sentence can have many facts and details. While at the beach, the Brenner family saw some white seagulls. Think about the facts and details that are in the sentence. • The Brenner family was at the beach. • The Brenner family saw seagulls. • The seagulls were white.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn about recalling facts and details.

Dave worked at the pet shop owned by his parents. At first, Dave’s job was to sweep the floors. When he showed what a good worker he could be, his parents gave him more responsibilities. He started feeding and caring for the animals. Dave loved spending time with the animals—particularly the gerbils and mice, which he thought were funny. EDave ST R. . A M E would like to run his own pet store when he grows up. AY LIN

BLACK D IN ANY W A T O E IT IS N REPRODUC . D E T H E RIGdetails O Bread Yand T P STRATEGY: Make a list of the important Cfacts that you in the paragraph. K O O O S B I S K I O H BO fact or R T from the paragraph that you think is important FOdetail Complete the list below. Add PLE another N M E A V S I to remember. THIS NOT G S I N MISSIOAbout Dave Facts and PERDetails 1. Dave worked at the pet shop. 2. Dave swept the floors. 3.

THINK

6

Other details in the paragraph include: Dave fed and cared for animals; Dave loved spending time with animals; Dave thought gerbils and mice were funny; and Dave would like to run his own pet store.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 1: Recall Facts and Details


Recall Facts and Details Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer a Facts and Details question.

Macaw parrots are colorful birds that have a lot of energy. They get their energy by eating a variety of different foods. Young macaws eat small seeds and fruits while older macaws eat fruit, seeds, flowers, and tree leaves. In order to get the protein that they need, macaws may eat insects or snails. Sometimes you may even see macaws eating clay found in dirt. This unusual menu choice helps macaws digest their food.

1

According to this paragraph, what do macaws eat for protein?

O N E

Aseeds or fruits Bclay from dirt Cinsects or snails Dleaves from trees

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: Look for key words that will help you find the answer to the question. The key words in this question are “eat” and “protein.”

THINK

B Y

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below to check why each answer choice is wrong or right.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L Aseeds or fruits ÷ ÷ Cinsects or snails B A NOTsentenceOinDUthe CEDparagraph that S one I T The paragraph states that young macaws There is I R . P E GHTEDstates macaws BE Reat I usually eat seeds or fruits. But the insects or snails to get R O Y T P K O O C O S B I paragraph does not provide any details to the protein that they need. Choice C is the OK HIS O T B R E O L F P macaws IVEN suggest that these foods give correct answer. G IS SAMbe correct. T O protein. Choice TAHcannot N N IS O I S S I ÷ Dleaves from trees PERM ÷clay from dirt B

Details in the paragraph explain that macaws sometimes eat clay found in dirt to help digest their food—not to get protein. Choice B cannot be correct.

O N E

Details in the paragraph tell you that macaws may eat leaves from trees. However, this food choice is not linked to protein. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 1: Recall Facts and Details

7


Recall Facts and Details Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P M A S N O I Just the Way She Likes It T A C U D E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this fictional passage. It is an example of realistic fiction.

Emily’s sister, Jennifer, had left for college last week, and Emily was moving into her room. Finally, . had she wouldn’t have to share a room with her younger sister. Kathy was just five years old, TERthey Sand A M E LIN was constantly shared a room since she was born. It had always been crowded in there, Land WAY. KEmily C Y A N A B IN OT A was often tripping over Kathy’s toys. There was no privacy, and the whole UCEDfrustrating. IS Nsituation

. IT PROD D E E R T H E G B had to vacuum and dust it. She Before she moved her bed and bureauPinto room,TO K Emily O YRIherSnew O C O S B I hauled the heavy vacuum cleaner HI proceeded to suck up all the remnants from Tand BOOKup the Fstairs R E O L P N M Jennifer’s life. Ginger, A the familyT Gcat, IVEloved sitting in this room’s bay window, so orange hair covered O cleaner THIS S the Ivacuum N S the floor. Suddenly, coughed and sputtered. Emily stopped and pulled a hairclip out N O I S S I of the hose. PERItM was the blue glittery one that Jennifer had been missing since last summer. Emily felt sad thinking about Jennifer and realized she missed her big sister already. Gazing around the room, Emily remembered all the times Jennifer had played games with her in here. Jennifer had always helped Emily with her homework and had advised her about high school and what to expect. She was a good sister. Now, Emily would be queen of this castle, but first, she had to make the place hers. When Emily finished cleaning the empty room, she and her father hauled in her furniture. She had a difficult time figuring out where she wanted to situate the bed. First, she tried it over by the window, but she realized that the sun would be shining directly on her face in the early morning, so that wouldn’t work. Then, they moved the bed to the far corner, but that left no room for her bureau and comfy chair. In the end, they put her bed in the exact spot where Jennifer’s had been. They positioned the bureau next to the closet and placed the chair in the corner. At last it was beginning to look just the way Emily had envisioned it. She spent the rest of the morning putting away her clothes.

8

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 1: Recall Facts and Details


Recall Facts and Details While Emily was in her old room getting the last of her belongings, Kathy came in and started messing up her piles of clothes. Usually, Emily would have told her to scram, but today she was a little more patient with her younger sister. She let Kathy look through the stack of sweaters that didn’t fit her anymore, and even let her borrow the red and purple one with the flowers on it. When she made the last trip with her belongings, another pang of sadness tore through Emily, and she decided it hadn’t been all bad sharing a room with Kathy. She would miss their late-night giggle sessions.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

After lunch, Emily started the most enjoyable part of her project. She removed Jennifer’s old blue curtains and hung the bright yellow ones that her mother had helped her sew over the summer. Emily loved yellow because it was so sunny and happy, and the curtains matched her daisy-covered comforter. Next, she looked at the bare walls where faint traces indicated where Jennifer’s posters had hung. Emily decided to hang her two favorite photographs over the bureau. . STER A One pictured the beach house where her family spent their summers. The rising sun backlit the M E KLIN backANallY WAY. C A L quaint cottage, and the dune grass swayed in the morning breeze. The photograph brought B A IN NOTwas UCEDof Emily Sother I the happy vacation memories. She had shot that photo herself.. IThe a Rclose-up D O T REPin the backyard. TED the maple H E G B and her best friend, Melissa, whispering to each other beneath tree I R O COPYin Emily. OOK TEmily put up a bulletin board S B I Looking at it created a feeling of safety and peace Lastly, S K I O H T LE BOlike her FORschedule Pthings above her chair, and tacked on class and her friends’ phone numbers. When N M E A V S I G S I T H O T N Emily finally sat down and surveyed N IS her realm, she felt truly at home.

ISSIO PERM

Passage Vocabulary Words comforter – a thick bedcover, similar to a very thick blanket envisioned – imagined frustrating – annoying; disappointing realm – area or territory remnants – leftovers; traces

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a list of facts and details.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 1: Recall Facts and Details

9


Recall Facts and Details Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

Who is Emily’s younger sister?

AKathy BJennifer CMelissa DGinger

2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What will Emily miss about sharing a room with her little sister?

Aplaying with her dollhouse Bsharing clothing with her

10

Use the key words “miss” and “Kathy” to find the part of the passage where the HINT answer can be found. Read this part of the passage carefully to find the details you need to answer the question.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY Dher advice about high school L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O When did Kathy look through Emily’s BOO S K IS C sweaters? I O H O T B FORkey word “sweaters.” It also contains the words “Emily,“ Nthe MPLE contains E A The fifth paragraph V S I G S I T TH IS NOthrough.” Read this paragraph to find the details you need to answer the “Kathy,” and “look N O I S ERMIS HINT Pquestion. Ctheir late-night giggle sessions

3

Use key words from the question to find the part of the passage where the answer HINT might be. The key words for this question are “Emily’s younger sister.” Read the parts of the passage that contain these key words and you will find the facts and details that tell what the correct answer is.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 1: Recall Facts and Details


Recall Facts and Details Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

6

Which sweater did Emily lend to Kathy?

5

Where did Emily put her bed?

Athe red and purple one

Aunder the window

Bthe bright yellow one

Bnext to the closet

Cthe old blue one

Cwhere Jennifer’s bed was

Dthe one with a tear

Dby the door to the bedroom

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

How did Emily get curtains for her new room?

AShe and her mother made them.

BShe purchased them at the store.

CShe took curtains from her old room.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . TEDwalls? O BE RE GHher I Why does Emily like the two photographs she puts on R Y P CO OOK T S B I S K I O H PLE BO IVEN FOR T M A S THIS NOT G S I N ISSIO PERM DShe used Jennifer’s old curtains.

7

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 1: Recall Facts and Details

11


SKILL 2:

Identify Main Idea

Modeled Instruction A main idea is what a passage, or part of a passage, is mostly about. To identify the main idea, you must think about all of the information you have read. You need to ask yourself “What is this mostly about?� Some questions may ask about the main idea of a passage. Other questions may just ask about the main idea of a paragraph or sentence. The details that you read will help you to identify the main idea. Detail + Detail + Detail + Detail = Main Idea

Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn about main ideas. On the first day of her summer vacation, Carrie got a new pet lizard that she named Checkers. During her vacation, Carrie also learned how to play a new sport called badminton. Carrie enjoyed playing badminton and made a new friend, Jenna. One day, Carrie and Jenna decided to plant some beautiful flowers and make a garden. And on the last day of summer vacation, Carrie and her new friend went to the beach and had a great time.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: Make a graphic organizer to help identify the main idea of the paragraph.

TER.

S of the . Details from the paragraph are shown in the graphic organizer below. Write theINmain E MAidea L WAY K C paragraph in the center circle. A BLA IN ANY S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O OO S Bgot K IS C R TCarrie I O H O B N FO a pet lizard. MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH Carrie learned IS NO Carrie made N O I S S I M to play badminton. a new friend. R PE Main Idea:

Carrie planted a garden.

THINK

12

Carrie went to the beach.

All of the details in the graphic organizer explain what Carrie did during her summer vacation. It seems like Carrie had fun during her vacation. Maybe this is the main idea of the paragraph.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 2: Identify Main Idea


Identify Main Idea Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer a Main Idea question.

Many people think that all cats are the same—just small, furry house pets with four legs and a tail. But there are actually many varieties of cat, each with its own special qualities. For example, calico cats have an unusual color pattern of black, white, and orange fur. Calico cats are usually female. Maine Coon cats are often darker in color, with long, soft fur. They are known to be friendly animals and may grow very large. Then there are Persian cats that have sweet faces and love attention.

1

O N E

This paragraph would most likely appear in a passage titled

A“The World’s Biggest Cats” B“Different Kinds of Cats”

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

C“America’s Favorite Pets” D“Animals of the World”

STRATEGY: To think of the best title, you must know the main idea. You may want to make a graphic organizer or a list of details to help you identify the main idea. Then, think of a title that fits best with the main idea.

THINK

B Y

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below STERto. . A M E check why each answer choice is wrong or right. CKLIN Y WAY

A BLA CED IN AN T O N ODU IT IS R . P D E E R T YRIGH OOK TO BE P O C A“The World’s Biggest Cats” BOOK IS ÷ C IS B“America’s Favorite Pets” H÷ T R E O L F P The paragraph doesSexplain There are details in the paragraph about GIVEN I SAM thatNOMaine T H T S Coon cats may grow to beNvery large, but cats, which are a kind of pet. However, the I ISSIO there is no mention focus of the paragraph is not to explain PERM of the size of the other cats. Choice A cannot be correct.

B“Different Kinds of Cats” ÷ There are many details in the paragraph about different kinds of cats. The paragraph is mostly about different cats. This title goes best with the main idea of the paragraph. Choice B is correct.

O N E

which pets people like most. This is not the main idea of the paragraph. Choice C cannot be correct.

÷ D“Animals of the World” Cats are the only animals mentioned in this paragraph. There is no information in the paragraph about any other animals from around the world. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 2: Identify Main Idea

13


Identify Main Idea Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the pictures. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this nonfiction passage. It is an example of a social studies essay.

is Brazil, which s. The largest ie tr un co nt re many diffe ering Brazil is made up of e countries bord th of e m So South America a. uth Americ Ray. to the ruTgu E dU r countries in So an he ot t, S e es th w e A of th t os on borders m and Bolivia LhaINs EsoMme ofNthYeWworAYld. ’s K the north, Peru C on a A bi om L ol C y d B tr IN A dOTtheA coun are Venezuela an ast, an D co E st ea N C l’s zi U ra B tic Ocean is on . IT IS E REPROD D E T south. The Atlan H G RI KreTstOofBthe South American countries beaches. IS COPY O O B most beautiful K n live THthISan the E BBOraOzil hasENmorFOe Rland Brazil’s populatio of t os thPouLgh M e. liv EvSenAM can r THIS ned, mISuchNOofTitGisIVjungle where few people t of Brazil’s othe os m e ik nl U . ro biSION comS Río de Janei try. The I e São Paulo and lik s M tie ci e ion of the coun R rg ct la se le d PE along the coast in id m d less populate pital, is in the ca e th , lia sí ra there. major cities, B people to move e ag ur co en to om then on, ose this location Brazil in 1500. Fr d re ve co is d government ch l, e king Alvares Cabra e early 1800s, th navigator, Pedro th in se ue al ug ug rt rt Po Po e Th oleon invaded ro I rule. When Nap dent. Dom Ped se en ue ep d ug in rt e Po m er ca d 1812, Brazil be Brazil was un led until years. Then, in r fo e er th Pedro II. He ru d le om ru D d n, an so l zi s ra hi fled to B succeeded by t sugar Brazil. He was of r ro pe e world’s larges th Em t as rs w l fi zi e ra th B e th y, becam 17 centur razil’s republic. In the a e m th century, coffee was B ca be l zi ra B 19 n e he th w y , B 89 18 aced sugar. d diamonds repl an ld go , on So . producer . and still is today er ak m ey on m or maj

14

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 2: Identify Main Idea


Identify Main Idea The 170 million pe ople of Brazil ar e a combination Portuguese interm of many differe arried with the nt nationalities. native people an The d the African sl Brazil. Later, B aves that were razil’s resources brought to attracted the Fr ench and the D country. Then, utch to the nort during the 19th heast area of th century, German e s, Italians, Polis As a result, Bra h, zilians may be and Japanese one of the mos ca m e to Brazil. t racially mixed Brazil’s national people of the w language is Port or ld. uguese, but it is spoken in Portug very different al. Many people from the langua of Brazil say th ge that is ey speak “Brazi Brazil are very lian.” While som wealthy, Brazil e people in also has a grea t deal of povert and other relativ y. Families, incl es, often have uding grandpare to live together nts in overcrowded, Children in Bra rundown housin zil are educated g. at either public to attend school or private school until they are 14 s. Children are years of age, bu supposed enforced. Atten t that requirem ent is not alway dance is often s strictly poor because tr avel is difficult Many families and schools are live in poverty, overcrowded. so children ofte n leave school to Brazilians are kn ge t work. own as people w ho enjoy life to is soccer. Pelé, its fu lle st , and one of th the most famou e national pass s soccer player ions in the world, w playing in the m as born in Brazil in ajor leagues whe 1940. He began n he was just 15 years old. One Brazilian Nation year later, he jo al Team, leadin ined the g them to World Cup victory in 19 amazing ball sk 58. Pelé’s physic ills, and natura al streMng l ability enabled ST,ER. . A th him to score 1,2 E Brazilian people 81 goals duringCKLIN are also famous A his careerI.N ANY WAY L B fo r th ei A r C ar national party ca naval, which wN CE. D n be traced ba S asOfiTrst he I ldOinDU T 16 ck to ancient R I 41 This R . P omGan festivities are he TanEDd GreekOceBleEbrRatEio H I ld from Saturd R ns of spring. C Y T ay througChOP arnaval Tuesday,SanBdOloOK S and people are I K ng I er O H in celebrated asBth so O T m e ci tie s. Brazil’s cultur LE e popuVElaNtionFOdRresses up e Samba is the m S SAMP in I co st G um os I es t po T to pular mN d an O TH ce us in ic pulsing throug the street. h the air, as th the world’s larg SION IS ou es sa S t nd pa I s ra d d an e. ce to its beat in PERM

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Passage Vocabulary Words independent – free

pulsing – beating to a rhythm

nationalities – from different countries

racially – relating to people with a similar physical appearance and background

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a graphic organizer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 2: Identify Main Idea

15


Identify Main Idea Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

What would be the best title for this essay?

A“Brazilian Celebrations” B“Cities on the Beach”

A good title can tell a reader the main idea of a passage. Think about all of the HINT information you have read to decide what the main idea is. Ask yourself, “What is the essay mostly about?”

C“Interesting Bits about Brazil” D“South American Countries”

2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The third paragraph is mostly about

Athe coast of Brazil

Bthe history of Brazil

Cthe countries that border Brazil

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O What is the fourth paragraphOmostly BOO S K IS C about? I H O T B LE facts andVEdetails N FORin the fourth paragraph. What are all the details MPthe A ThinkISabout S I G T O these facts and details about? This tells you the main idea. TH IS Nare describing? What N O I S IS HINT PERM Dthe land and culture of Brazil

3

16

To answer this question, you need to look only at the third paragraph. Think about HINT the important facts in this paragraph. What are most of these facts about?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 2: Identify Main Idea


Identify Main Idea Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

What is this essay mostly about?

ACarnaval and Pele

5

What is the main idea of the sixth paragraph?

ABrazilian people are a mix of

Bthe Brazilian language

many nationalities

Cthe most famous Portuguese explorers

BBrazil celebrates Carnaval for four days

Dthe largest country in South America

CBrazil’s system of education DBrazil’s interesting sights

6

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which fact below would fit best in the first paragraph?

AGuyana borders Brazil to the north.

BPorto Allegre and Reafe are cities in Brazil. CFarm land makes up ten percent of Brazil.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . E TED fromO the GHdetails BE Rpassage. I Write a brief summary of the essay. Include imporant R Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM DCarnaval is a celebration of spring.

7

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 2: Identify Main Idea

17


SKILL 3:

Identify Sequence

Modeled Instruction Sequence is the order in which things happen. Actions or events in a passage can be put in order from first to last. Sometimes things appear in the passage in the order that they happen.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Holly did her homework before she went to soccer practice. FIRST SECOND

Sometimes things do not appear in the passage in the order that they happen. Holly went to soccer practice after she did her homework. SECOND FIRST

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn OT sequence. UCED S Nabout I D O T I R . P GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K CO in school OO and sports. But she wanted to try Bclubs S K IS more Julie wanted to participate I O H O T B LE N FORshe had never done before. First, she joined the MPunusual—something E doing something A V S I G S I T O Julie joined the music band. After a few weeks, she also TH IS NThen, school wrestling team. N O I S MIScomputer club. Her efforts had mixed results. On the one hand, she lost every joined PERthe wrestling match, could not play her instrument well, and found that computers did not interest her. However, on the other hand, she met many new people and learned about many different subjects.

STRATEGY: Make a graphic organizer to show the order in which things happen. Complete the graphic organizer below. Look at the details in the first and second boxes. What detail do you think belongs in the third box?

First Julie joined the wrestling team.

THINK

18

Second

Third

Julie joined the music band.

After Julie joined the wrestling team and music band, she joined the computer club. This is the third thing that she did.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 3: Identify Sequence


Identify Sequence Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer a Sequence question. Stephen Hawking is known today as one of the world’s greatest scientists. As a boy, he worked very hard in math and science. He went to college and impressed his teachers. Shortly after that, Hawking found out he had a serious disease. This disease left him in a wheelchair, and later he lost his voice. Despite this, Hawking now tours the world. He uses a special machine to talk. Hawking teaches people about space, science, and math.

1

Which of the following happened first?

O N E

AStephen Hawking went to college. BStephen Hawking toured the world. CStephen Hawking became a scientist.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

DStephen Hawking lost his voice.

STRATEGY: You may want to make a graphic organizer to help answer this question. Another strategy you may use is to make a list. You can list the things that happened in the order that they happened.

THINK

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below to check why each answer choice is wrong or right.

B Y

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A OT became AStephen Hawking went to college. ÷ ÷ CStephen UCEaDscientist. S NHawking I D O T I R . P Stephen Hawking went to college earlier on GHTEDThe firstTOsentence BE RE states that Stephen I R Y P K in his life. Each of the other answer IS CO OO is today one of the world’s BHawking S K I O H O T B choices tells about something greatest scientists. But there are things PLE that IVEN FOR MHawking A S G S I happened after TStephen went to that he had to do before becoming a T H NO S I N college. Choice A isISthe scientist, such as go to college and work SIOcorrect answer. PERM very hard in math and science. Choice C BStephen Hawking toured the world. ÷ Stephen Hawking did not tour the world until later in his life—after going to college and losing his voice. Choice B cannot be correct.

O N E

cannot be correct.

÷ DStephen Hawking lost his voice. Details in the paragraph tell you that Stephen Hawking did not lose his voice until after he went to college. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 3: Identify Sequence

19


Identify Sequence Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C A Vacation Destination U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this functional passage. It is a flier that has directions and a schedule.

Visit the National Aquarium This Summer ER. Tank STTouch A Enjoy Fantastic Shows • Dive into Underwater Tours • Explore the M E Y. N

ACKLI IN ANY WA L B A T Directions: Take I-91 South to Exit 53 | Take I-495 North toSthe | ExitUand NOHarbor CEDturn left | At the I D O T I R . P 6th light, turn right onto Canal Street | Go four H TED and the E RE Aquarium is on the left Gblocks BNational I R O Y T P K O OO Tank BTouch Aquarium Hours: (Showtimes Obelow) and Exhibits S K IS C Tours I H O T B R E O L F Sunday through Thursday 9:00 A.M.–8:00 P.M. N 9:00 A.M.–6:00 P.M. MP HIS SA IS NOT GIVE 9:00 A.M.–10:00 P.M. Friday and T Saturday 9:00 A.M.–8:00 P.M. SION S I M R PE Shop Hours: 10:00 A.M. until the aquarium closes. The Shark

Take the world of the sea home with you by visiting the gift store, which is located on the upper level of the Marine Mammal Pavilion. Merchandise includes T-shirts, jewelry, books, and other fascinating mementos of your visit. Feeding Frenzy Food Court Goldfish not on the menu! Hours: 10:00 A.M.–7:00 P.M. “Early Seagull” lunch specials: 11:30 A.M.–12:30 P.M. • “Early Seagull” dinner specials: 5:00 P.M.–6:00 P.M.

20

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 3: Identify Sequence


Identify Sequence

DAILY SHOWS: (All are 30 minutes long.)

w)pGu%9W +

Bewitching Seahorses • 9:30 A.M. Enjoy an informative and entertaining in-depth look at ten different species of seahorses, including Spotted, Thorny, Hedgehog, Speckled, and Pot Bellied. Did you know that only male seahorses can have babies? Shark Showcase • 11:00 A.M. Shiver and shake from the snug safety of your seat as you get a close-up view of sharks during this incredible performance! Dolphin Acrobatics • 1:30 P.M. They leap, twist, and dive in an astounding display of power and grace. Sit up front if you want to enjoy a cooling splash!

E L P SAM ATION C U D E XCVB ! J KL LLY: Z NM> Y L L RA A R . 9 9 . 888

Penguin Parade • 4:45 P.M. Watch these water birds waddle on land and romp in their pool. The penguins are garbed in elegant tuxedos, but you can come in casual attire.

SATURDAYS ONLY

Sea Lion Spectacular • 8:00 P.M.–9:00 P.M. STER. . A M E IN of NY WAY The sea lions slither and slide, catch fish, and play ball. Come and see Big Bob,Athe CKLlargest L A B A them all, perform his stunts in an amazing finale. NOT CED IN

ODU IT IS R . P D E E R T YRIGH OOK TO BE P O C OK IS OR THIS B Questions? Concerns? !@#$^YUIP{}|A O B E L NF MP E A V S I G S I T H the upperISlevel. Visit the main office Ton NO Open every day from 8:30 A.M.–4:30 P.M. N O I S IS PERM Passage Vocabulary Words bewitching – fascinating; interesting garbed – clothed marine – relating to the sea

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a graphic organizer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 3: Identify Sequence

21


Identify Sequence Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

Which show starts before the “Early Seagull” lunch special begins and after the gift shop opens?

APenguin Parade BBewitching Seahorses CDolphin Acrobatics

When you need to identify sequence to answer a question, it can be helpful to HINT create a timeline. Read the passage and look for times to determine when things happen. Complete this timeline before you answer the question. 9:30 A.M.

DShark Showcase

2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which of the following opens first?

Athe aquarium

Bthe main office

3

Look in the passage to find the time at which each event occurs. Use R.this E T S A of . HINT information toKLmake INE Ma timeline AYevents. Woccurs C Y A N L Then ask yourself which event first. A B A IN

S NOT PRODUCED I T I . Cthe gift shop GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O Dthe food court K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S MIS you could do at the aquarium if you arrived at 1:00 P.M. on Saturday. List three PERthings

Find all of the events that begin after 1:00 P.M. Consider things you could do besides seeing shows. HINT

22

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 3: Identify Sequence


Identify Sequence Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

Look at the boxes below. Dolphin Acrobatics begins.

Penguin Parade begins.

Which of the following should be placed in the empty box to complete the timeline?

AShark Showcase begins. BGift shop closes. CLunch special ends. DMain office closes. 5

When going to the Aquarium, what must you do before taking I-495 North to the Harbor?

6

What is the first show you can see after the “Early Seagull” lunch special ends?

ATake I-91 South to Exit 53.

APenguin Parade

BGo through five lights.

BBewitching Seahorses KLINE MA WAY. C Y A N L A B IN CDolphinISAcrobatics NOT A DUCED

CTravel four blocks.

7

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER.

. IT PRO D E E R T H E G B Sea Lion DTake a left onto Canal Street. K TOSpectacular OPYRI D O C O S B I BOOK R THIS E O L F P N M HIS SA IS NOT GIVE T What could you do at the Iaquarium between the time the gift shop opens and the main office S ON you could S I M closes? DescribePthree things do in the order you would do them. R E

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 3: Identify Sequence

23


SKILL 4:

Analyze Language and Vocabulary

Modeled Instruction Sometimes when you read you see new words or phrases. You may not know what they mean. You must look for clues to help you understand the meaning of these words and phrases. If you read a sentence with a new word you do not know, look at the other words around it. You may find clues that help you understand what the new word means. The dictator ruled the country.

new word

clue

In this sentence, “ruled the country” tells you that a dictator is a ruler of a country.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn about analyzing language and vocabulary.

My brother’s class started learning about geometry. I looked at his textbook yesterday and found what I read to be very confusing! The book was full of numbers. It wasn’t at all like other schoolbooks I have seen. This book also showed different ways of measuring circles, triangles, and squares. My brother says that someday I’ll understand everything. STER A M that is in his book. I certainly hope so. E Y. IN

Y WA A CK L N L A B A N I S NOT PRODUCED I T I . ED RE GHaTword, BEclues I R O STRATEGY: When you do not know the meaning of look for in the paragraph to help you Y T P K O O C O S B I understand what the word means. BOOK R THIS E O L F P N M SA understand IVE meaning of the word geometry have been underlined. Two of the Clues that canThelp HIS you OT Gthe N S I N chart below. Add the last clue to the chart and explain what it tells you. What clues are explained in SIOthe S I M R PEthe word geometry means? do you think Clues class started learning

Geometry can be taught at school.

full of numbers

Geometry has to do with math.

THINK

24

What does each clue tell you?

The phrase “measuring circles, triangles, and squares” suggests that geometry is a kind of math that deals with shapes. If you look at all of the clues, this answer makes sense.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 4: Analyze Language and Vocabulary


Analyze Language and Vocabulary Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer a Language and Vocabulary question.

Before 1865, many people in the United States were forced to live and work as slaves. They had very few rights and had to do difficult labor for many hours every day. Slaves were not usually allowed to travel, own property, or make important decisions by themselves. During the Civil War, armies clashed for several reasons, including slavery. By the end of the war, slavery was ended and former slaves were given rights. This sudden emancipation changed history forever. People who were once enslaved became citizens.

1

O N E

What does the word emancipation mean?

Afriendship Bfreedom Cunfairness Dbattle

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: You may want to make a chart to list clues that can help you to understand what the word emancipation means.

THINK

B Y

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below to check why each answer choice is wrong or right. STER.

E MA N I L WAY. K C Y A N L A B OT A ED IN N C U S I D O T TED. I O BE REPR H G I R COPY ÷ OOK T S B I unfairness Afriendship ÷ C S K I O H E BO were EN FOR T There are details in the paragraph that tell PLpeople M The paragraph explains how A S GIV HIS OTThere N S once slaves andTlater became free. how unfair slavery was. However, these I N O I S S I are no details Eabout details are not in the part of the paragraph P RM friendship in the paragraph. Choice A cannot be correct.

O N E

where you see the word emancipation. Choice C cannot be correct.

Bfreedom ÷ Clues such as “slavery was ended,” “given rights,” and “became citizens” suggest that emancipation means the same as freedom. Choice B is the correct answer.

÷ Dbattle There are details in the paragraph about a war that was fought over slavery. But the word emancipation seems to suggest something that happened after the battle that took place. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 4: Analyze Language and Vocabulary

25


Analyze Language and Vocabulary Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and pictures. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D Sea-Fever E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this fictional passage. It is an example of a poem.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A OT the sky, DUCED S Nand I must down to the seas again, to the lonely sea I T I . EPRO EDsteer her Bby, R HTto E G And all I ask is a tall ship andYaRIstar TO K the OPwind’s song O C O S B I And the wheel’s kick and the and white sail’s shaking, OK HIS O T B R E O L F And a Agrey N face, and a grey dawn breaking. MPmist on the Esea’s THIS S IS NOT GIV N SIOdown S I I must to the seas again, for the call of the running tide M R PE by John Masefield (1878–1967)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

26

Is a wild call and a clear call that may not be denied; And all I ask is a windy day with the white clouds flying, And the flung spray and the blown spume, and the sea-gulls crying.

I must down to the seas again, to the vagrant gypsy life, To the gull’s way and the whale’s way where the wind’s like a whetted knife; And all I ask is a merry yarn from a laughing fellow-rover And quiet sleep and a sweet dream when the long trick’s over.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 4: Analyze Language and Vocabulary


Analyze Language and Vocabulary Passage Vocabulary Words denied – turned down; refused whetted – sharpened yarn – story

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a chart with clues about the meaning of some words and phrases.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 4: Analyze Language and Vocabulary

27


Analyze Language and Vocabulary Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

In line 9 the word vagrant means

Awandering Bexpensive Cnormal Dunhappy

2

Thinking about how a word is used in a sentence can help you to understand its HINT meaning. Other words in the sentence might give you clues about the word’s meaning. Sometimes you may need to look at a few sentences and how they fit together in order to discover the meaning of a word.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The phrase where the wind’s like a whetted knife suggests

Athe wind is silver and shiny

Read the part of the poem where the phrase appears. What does the phrase HINT tell you? Which answer choice tells you the same thing?

Bthe wind looks like a knife

Cthe wind is sharp and cutting

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH NO a merry yarn from a laughing fellow-rover means? ISphrase What do you think the N O I S S ERMIthe PRead part of the poem where this phrase is used. What do the details tell you about Dthe wind can be used like a knife

3

what this phrase might mean? Perhaps fellow-rover refers to another person. HINT

28

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 4: Analyze Language and Vocabulary


Analyze Language and Vocabulary Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

6

“Sea-Fever” is the name of the poem because

5

Which word helps the reader know what the word spume means?

Athis is the name of the speaker’s ship

Asea-gulls

Bthe sea makes the speaker seasick

Bspray

Cthe sea can be as dangerous as a fever

Cwindy

Dthe speaker has a great love for the sea

Dclouds

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Read the different meanings for the word trick.

1. a childish act

2. a particular trait

3. a period of duty

STER. . A M E 4. a deceptive act ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . EDthe last line? Which meaning best fits the way the word trick is used GHTin BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO Ameaning 1 O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I Bmeaning 2 T TH IS NO N O I S Cmeaning 3 PERMIS Dmeaning 4

7

In line 2, what does the author mean by a star to steer her by?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 4: Analyze Language and Vocabulary

29


SKILL REVIEW:

Skills 1–4

Directions: Read the passage below and answer questions 1–7.

Photography Cameras are mechanical devices that people use to take photographs, or pictures. Cameras give people the chance to capture moments in their lives that they see and want to remember. They produce long-lasting visual records of people, places, and things. People can enjoy looking at their pictures for years to come. Cameras come in many shapes, sizes, and styles. Some cameras use film to make photographs. Film is a special type of thin, flexible material held inside the camera. Film is treated with many chemicals, which react to light. The smallest amount of light will cause the chemicals to react. This makes film quite fragile. All cameras that use film have a hole through which light can enter and, in front of the hole, a shutter. When a person snaps a picture, the shutter opens for an instant. This allows just enough light to enter the camera. When the light reaches the film, the chemicals react to create a picture on the film. Then, the shutter closes very quickly to save the image on the film. If the film is exposed to too much light, it will damage the film and the images on the film.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Some cameras have adjustments that make the shutter open and close at different speeds. With such cameras, the photographer decides how long the shutter will stay open and how much light will come in contact with the film. A slow shutter speed lets in more light and can create the illusion that something is in motion by making fast moving objects look blurry. A quick shutter Tspeed lets in S ER. full A M E less light and can make fast moving objects appear motionless. For example, a horse moving WAY. KLIN C Y A N L A B steam ahead can appear frozen in mid-stride. OT A ED IN

T IS N

ODUC

. I the picture PR be clear and crisp. Nothing Lenses let the photographer focus the camera REwill TsoEDthat H E G B I R O PY change Bdepending is worse than a fuzzy picture! The focus COwill OOK T on the location of the object. With S I S K I O H BOtake sharpFpictures different lenses, a person OR T of subjects whether they are close up or far away. PLEcan SAM

IVEN

OT Gchoose the correct shutter speed on their own. These advancements THIS can focus Many cameras Nand S I N IO help photographers RMISS eliminate mistakes when they take pictures. Now, all they have to do is point the E P camera and shoot. The camera’s electronic “brain” does the rest—it automatically focuses the camera and chooses the correct shutter speed. Many of today’s cameras are even more advanced. Digital cameras do not even need film to take pictures. These cameras have built-in computers that store images instead. Digital cameras work a lot like other cameras. The lens focuses on a subject, and the shutter allows light into the camera. Instead of using film, however, a small electronic device inside a digital camera records the images. Passage Vocabulary Words digital – stores and displays information electronically (such as computers do) fragile – can be damaged easily; delicate mechanical – is made from machine parts such as gears and levers visual – having to do vision or sight

30

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 1–4


Facts & Details, Main Idea, Sequence, Language & Vocabulary Recall Facts and Details 1

Which part of the camera is used to focus when taking a picture?

Athe shutter

REMINDER The answer to this question can be found right in the passage. If you cannot remember what you have read, look for key words to help you find the answer in the passage.

Bthe film Cthe lens Dthe chemicals

O N E

Identify Main Idea 2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What is the main idea of this passage?

APeople use different types of cameras to take pictures. BNewer cameras are easier to use than older cameras.

CAll cameras allow light to enter through the shutter.

REMINDER

This question asks you to tell the main idea. The main idea is what the passage is mostly about.

B Y

DCameras record images on special paper called film.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NOVocabulary N O I Analyze Language and S IS PERM 3

Read the following sentence from the passage. For example, a horse moving full steam ahead can appear frozen in mid-stride. In this sentence, what does the author mean by moving full steam ahead?

Achanging direction Bfull of energy

O N E

REMINDER This question asks you to tell the meaning of a group of words in the passage. Think about how these words are used. Look for clues in the sentence to tell you what these words mean.

Cgetting hot Drunning quickly

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 1–4

31


Skill Review: Skills 1–4 Analyze Language and Vocabulary 4

What is the meaning of the word eliminate?

Afind the cause of Bput an end to Ctry to change Dblend together

REMINDER This question asks about the meaning of one word in the passage. Look in the passage for clues that help you to know what this word means.

Identify Sequence 5

What happens first after the shutter on a camera is opened?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Recall Facts and Details AThe film records an image. BThe shutter snaps closed.

CThe camera lets light inside.

DThe lens focuses on an object.

6

32

REMINDER

This is a sequence question. It asks you to recall a specific order of events. You can look back at the passage if you need to refresh your memory.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K What happens if film is exposed S to too O much light? K I C R THIS BOO O O B PLE this Iquestion, To N FO you need to recall facts and details from the passage. Look Manswer E A V S G S I REMINDER T TH for key NO in the passage that will help you find facts and details you can use IS words N O I S IS to answer this question. PERM

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 1–4


Skill Review: Skills 1–4 Identify Main Idea 7

What is the main idea of the last paragraph? Complete the graphic organizer below. You only need to think about the main idea of the last paragraph. List details from the last paragraph in the graphic organizer. Think about what the details tell you and write the main idea in the center circle.

REMINDER

Detail: Detail:

Detail:

Main Idea: Detail:

Detail:

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 1–4

33


VOCABULARY REVIEW:

Skills 1–4

Directions: Listed below are some words that were used in each of the passages you just read. Choose the correct words to complete the sentences on this page. You may look back at the passages to find the meaning of each word. Just the Way She Likes It

Essay (no title)

A Vacation Destination

Sea-Fever

Photography

comforter

independent

bewitching

denied

digital

envisioned

nationalities

garbed

whetted

fragile

frustrating

pulsing

marine

yarn

mechanical

realm

racially

visual

remnants

1

In the

of the deep ocean, there is much

life that

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

we know very little about. 2

Owls have great

3

The old sailor shared with us a great sea. It was a

4

The United States is a

ability that allows them to see very well in the dark. about his first journey out into the

tale that captured our attention. mixed nation. There are people of many ER.different

MAST E N I L WAY. K C Y A N L A B OT A ED IN N C U S I D O T To keep warm, Lunette was EPR long scarf, and comfortable Rcoat, TED. I in aOheavy H E G B I R gloves. COPY IS BOOK T S I K O BO R TH E O L F P N M A When Keyshawn vase on the floor, it broke into many pieces. T GIVE Othe THIS S dropped N S I N to sweep the Then he usedSaIObroom into a dustpan. S I M R PE that live in the country.

5

6

7

I found it to be very

when my parents

me

permission to go to the movies with my friends.

34

8

Professor Chang’s

9

My heart was

invention used gears and levers to fold paper. with excitement as I prepared to open my birthday gift.

PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 1–4


Vocabulary Review: Skills 1–4 Directions: Some words you have already read in this book are used in the questions on this page. Use what you have learned about these words to help you answer questions 1–4.

1

3

Read the sentence below.

“When Madison thought about graduation day she envisioned a great celebration.”

“You can only make a smooth cut with a whetted knife—but be careful with it!”

2

Read the sentence below.

The word whetted means

The word envisioned means

Ais covered with water

Apictured in her mind

Bneeds to be sharpened

Bmade a picture

Cis clean and shiny

Csaw with her eyes

Dhas a sharp edge

Dcould not remember

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In which sentence is the word independent used correctly?

AEveryone worked independent together as a group.

O N E

BJason was very independent and could

4

In which sentence is the word digital used correctly?

ASamantha used her digital markers to

B Y

draw a colorful picture.

BThe digital wire was used to plug in R. ASTE

M WAY. KLINE C Y A N L A B A watchCcould CI felt very independent when I was asked CMegan’s new OTdigital ED INalso N U S I D O T to join the team. REPR TEDbe. Iused Oas BaEcalculator. H G I R K Tpurchased a new stereo with COPY D We OOjust DJosh was independent, so we knewOwe S B I S K I H should not trust him. PLE BO IVEN FOR T digital speakers. M A S THIS NOT G S I N ISSIO PERM care for himself.

the computer.

O N E

Vocabulary Challenge Directions: Choose any three vocabulary review words from the top of page 34. Write sentences using each of these words. 1 2 3

PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 1–4

35


SKILL 5:

Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting

Modeled Instruction Most stories that you read will have at least one character, a plot, and a setting. A character is who the story is about. The plot is what the story is about. And the setting is where and when the story takes place.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

When you read a story, ask yourself— Who is the story about? What is the story about? Where does the story take place? When does the story take place?

STER. . A M E Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn about character, WAY Ysetting. ACKLINplot,INand N L A B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . HTED He checked BE RhisE watch and saw that it IGbreath. R In the locker room, Mike tookOaPdeep O Y T K O BofOthe IS C theTHday S K Saturday, I O was big race. Mike had been training all was already 7:30 A.M. It O B R E O L F P N M E sneakers and tied the laces tightly. Mike was feeling A year forHthis put GIVhis OT on T IS Sday. Mike N S I very nervousSand IONwas afraid that he would not be able to do his best. Then his younger S I M R PE Calvin, gave him a special bracelet for good luck. On the bracelet was just one brother, word—Believe. Mike smiled with confidence as he put on the bracelet.

STRATEGY: Make a graphic organizer to help identify the characters, plot, and setting. Complete the graphic organizer below. Fill in the empty box to tell who the characters are in the paragraph you just read.

Who

What

(Characters)

(Plot) It was the day of the big race. The main character is feeling nervous.

THINK

36

Where

When

(Setting)

(Setting)

in the locker room

7:30 A.M. Saturday

The characters are who a story is about. The paragraph on this page tells you about Mike and Calvin.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting


Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer a Setting question.

Cece sat in the waiting room until the secretary called her name. Then Cece went through a door and into a small room. She sat on a padded table in the middle of the room. Soon, a nurse arrived. She asked Cece how she was feeling, and Cece said fine. The nurse checked Cece’s mouth and ears and listened to her heartbeat. She announced that Cece seemed perfectly healthy.

1

Where was Cece?

O N E

Ain the principal’s office Bin an ambulance Cin her bedroom Din the doctor’s office

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: Look in the paragraph for clues about the setting. List all of details that tell you about where Cece is.

THINK

B Y

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below to check why each answer choice is wrong or right.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A Ain the principal’s office ÷ ÷ Cin herISbedroom NOT UCED D O T I R . P RE in the paragraph seem A principal’s office would be located in a GHTEDNone ofTOtheBEdetails I R Y P K O school. There are no details in this K IS C R THIS BtoOOdescribe a person’s bedroom. Cece is O O B paragraph that suggest Cece someplace that is outside of her home. LisE in a school. O SAMP OT GIVEN F Choice A cannotTH beIScorrect. Choice C cannot be correct. N S I N ISSIO PERM Bin an ambulance ÷

O N E

÷ Din the doctor’s office

Some details in the paragraph mention a nurse. A nurse could be in an ambulance. But the paragraph also mentions a room with a table. This does not describe an ambulance. Choice B cannot be correct.

Details in the paragraph tell you that Cece sits in a waiting room and then goes into another room with a padded table. A nurse is there who examines her and finds her healthy. This description most closely matches a doctor’s office. Choice D is the correct answer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting

37


Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P M A S N O I On TopEofDUthe World T A C ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8

Now read this fictional passage. It is an example of realistic fiction.

When the sun peeked through the blinds and warmed her face, Elizabeth opened her eyes and smiled. Today was the big day, so she jumped out of bed and hustled downstairs. There was so much TERto. do!

MAS

LINE At breakfast Elizabeth and her mother discussed the final details of the forY the WAY. Kpreparations C A N L A B D INdid they know festivities. This afternoon all her friends were coming to herSbirthday OT A party, Dand Elittle N C U I O T R get dressed. When she what she had planned for them. After a hasty breakfast, went REPto TED. IElizabeth H E G B I R O Y cake with T returned, it was time to bake her favorite frosting. She liked the creamy COPyellow OOK chocolate S B I S K I O H O T B batter almost as much as E baked cake, ORshe always left some in the bowl to lick. “I’ll never N Fso MPLthe E A V S I G S I understand how you can eat that raw batter,” said her mother. “Don’t eat too much of it, Elizabeth. T TH NO S I N IO a stomachache today.” You don’t want to ISSget PERM

After they put the cake in the oven, Elizabeth prepared the party favor bags. Soaring mountains were pictured on the outside of each bag, as well as a guest’s name. She filled the bags with chocolates and stickers, as well as a small picture frame. Elizabeth hoped that everyone would insert one of the pictures that she planned to take during her party. When the favor bags were completed, Elizabeth planned to place them on the foyer table in the hallway, so that no one would forget her bag on her departure. Elizabeth then had a quick lunch with her father in the computer room. While she munched on her tuna fish sandwich, her father instructed her on how to use his digital camera. The telephoto option was an essential feature that would enable Elizabeth to get a close-up picture of each of her friends. Elizabeth’s father then showed her how to download and print the pictures she would take. It was almost time, so Elizabeth went outside and sat on the front porch, waiting anxiously. Her guests were supposed to arrive at two this afternoon. The truck was scheduled to be here at one o’clock, but it was already ten after. Just then, Elizabeth heard something rumbling up the hill. “It’s here!” she yelled. Elizabeth’s dad came out to help the men unload and set up the synthetic rock wall in the backyard.

38

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting


Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting Elizabeth’s guests started to arrive and, without exception, they were both startled and delighted by the size of the man-made mountain looming in front of them. Soon each would take turns climbing the gigantic wall. When all the birthday guests were present, the rock climbing instructor, Mr. DeAngelis, told them about the equipment they would use and how to proceed. He showed them the helmet they would wear and the harness, which would be attached around their waists. This safety precaution allowed them to climb without the possibility of falling to the ground. If anyone were to lose her grip, the harness would stop the fall. Then, Mr. DeAngelis confirmed that all the girls had worn stiff, athletic-type shoes as they had been instructed to do on their invitations. Lastly, he directed each girl to cover her hands with the chalk he provided, because it would improve her grip by absorbing the sweat. His final piece of advice was to concentrate and to break down the climb into stages. Plan the first stage, achieve that goal, and go on to the next stage, until you reach the top. Elizabeth was the first to attack the challenge. She donned the harness, adjusted the helmet, and chalked her hands. Then, she began the ascent. One deliberate step at a time, Elizabeth scaled her way up to the peak. When she reached the summit, she looked down at her audience below. Her smile revealed the immense sense of accomplishment she felt. Then, she remembered to wave at her father, who clicked a picture of her. Afterward, she rappelled down while her friends clapped and cheered. As each of her friends took her turn, Elizabeth snapped a picture of each of them at the pinnacle of her birthday mountain.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Then the girls settled down for cake and ice cream at the picnic table in the STER. . A M E backyard, chattering the whole while about the rock-climbing escapade. All agreed CKLIN Y WAY A N L A B A N I that it was exciting and most of all, it was different. While her birthdayNO guests T UCED Sto the I D O T I R . enjoyed the party, Elizabeth stole back inside the house and hurried computer P ED GHTbags. BE RE I R O Y T room, where she printed photographs for her friends’ party P K CO OO

OK IS

HIS B

T BO That night, after her friends P had and Fthe wall had been ORrock-climbing LE departed N M E A V S I G S I T Elizabeth lay in her bed and smiled as she reviewed the day. dismantled and takenTaway, H NO S I N O looked at her picture. There she was waving from the Just before drifting to sleep, MISSIshe R E P top of her birthday mountain. She felt on top of the world. Passage Vocabulary Words dismantled – taken apart

rappelled – climbed down the side of something using rope

donned – put on; to wear

synthetic – not real or genuine

escapade – adventure

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a graphic organizer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting

39


Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

Which setting is NOT a part of the story?

AElizabeth’s kitchen BElizabeth’s hallway CElizabeth’s backyard DElizabeth’s computer room 2

From reading the passage, you can tell that Elizabeth’s mother

When you need to analyze charactrer, plot, and setting, a story map can help HINT you organize important details. A story map shows what happens (plot), who the story is about (character), and where the events take place (setting). This question is about the setting.

This is a character question. Think about Elizabeth’s mother’s actions in the story. HINT The things that a character does or says can tell you a lot about him or her.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Adoesn’t like climbing

Benjoys baking in the kitchen Cis excited about the party Ddoesn’t like raw cake mix

3

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A What is this passage about? Explain the plot of the story.NOT UCED S I D O T I R . P D to BE RE To summarize the plot of a passage, HTEneed Gyou I R Y P K TO Who is the O and Sevents. O C explain only the important details O S B I What is the I OK Hstory O T B R E Think about what information in the O L story about? story about? F HINT N MP E A V S I G S I would be important to know. T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM Where does the story take place?

40

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting

When does the story take place?


Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

Elizabeth can best be described as

Atimid

5

Where is Elizabeth when the story begins and ends?

Ain her bedroom

Bintelligent

Bin the backyard

Corganized

Con the porch steps

Dimpatient

Dat the kitchen table

6

Ahelpful Bhappy Cunfriendly

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O How would you describe Elizabeth? Include OO show what type of person she is. Bthat S K IS Ctwo examples I O H O T B N FOR MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM Ddistracted

7

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which word best describes Elizabeth’s father?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting

41


SKILL 6:

Recognize Cause and Effect

Modeled Instruction There are many details in a passage. Sometimes the details are connected to each other—they have a cause-and-effect relationship. A cause answers the question “Why did it happen?” An effect answers the question “What happened?” CAUSE — The wind became stronger. EFFECT — The kite flew higher into the sky.

Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn about cause and effect. Justin couldn’t believe all the noise. His baby brother Ian was banging on pots and pans in the kitchen. His sister Kristina was practicing her singing by wailing along with the music on the radio. It was so loud that Justin could not concentrate and do his homework. He didn’t want to spoil everyone’s fun, though, so he tried to solve the problem himself. Justin hung a heavy blanket on his door and closed the door tightly. That kept some of the sounds out. Then, Justin put on a pair of earmuffs and couldn’t hear anything at all. Now things were much quieter.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: Make a graphic organizer to show causes and effects that are connected to each other. The paragraph you just read explains how Justin made things quieter. There are a few reasons why he cannot hear anything. The graphic organizer below shows one reason. See if you can find another reason. Fill in the empty box.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B Cause A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . Justin hung a blanket from his GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K IS CO THIS BOO door and closed the doorOK tightly. Effect O B R E O L F P N M E A Things were much quieter. THIS S IS NOT GIV N SIOCause S I M R PE

THINK

42

Details in the paragraph explain that Justin also put on earmuffs. This probably helped him not hear the loud sounds.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect


Recognize Cause and Effect Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer a Cause and Effect question.

If you are like many people, you’d probably prefer to spend winter days inside, trying to keep warm. You may enjoy relaxing with a blanket, a favorite book, or a hot cup of tea. People tend to go outside less often in the wintertime and to spend more time indoors. One reason for this is simply that winter in many places is very cold and snowy, and the weather is not suitable for having picnics or participating in most sports. When springtime finally approaches, people are eager to get outside again!

1

O N E

What happens when spring approaches?

APeople spend more time indoors. BPeople are eager to go outside.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

CPeople enjoy hot tea and blankets. DPeople try to stay warm.

STRATEGY: This question tells you the cause. You must find the effect. Look for details in the paragraph that help you connect the cause and the effect.

THINK

B Y

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below to check why each answer choice is wrong or right. STER.

E MA N I L WAY. K C Y A N L A B OT A ED IN N C U S I D O T R and blankets. . I enjoyE hot REPtea TEDPeople H APeople spend more time indoors. ÷ ÷ C G B I R O T COPY IS BThis OOKparagraph S I Details in the paragraph tell you that suggests that people enjoy K O H O T B R E O L F people usually stay indoors in hot tea and blankets more during the SAMPmoreOoften GIAVEN T the winter—notTH inISthe spring. Choice winter, when they spend more time indoors. N IS N O I S cannot be correct. Choice C cannot be correct. IS PERM BPeople are eager to go outside. ÷

O N E

÷ DPeople try to stay warm.

Details in the paragraph explain that, after a long winter, many people are eager to go outside again. Springtime encourages people to get out and enjoy the weather. Choice B is the correct answer.

People try to stay warm in the winter. In the spring, more people enjoy the warmer weather and want to go outside. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect

43


Recognize Cause and Effect Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P M A S N O I Juana InésUde La Cruz T A C D E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this nonfiction passage. It is an example of a biography.

Juana Inés Ramirez was born in 1648. Later in her life she became known as Sor Juana de La Cruz. She was well-known as a woman of great courage in colonial Latin America. DuringER her . T S A M lifetime, women were not considered equal to men. Nevertheless, she spent Lher entire life trying E WAY.to K IN C Y A N L A B change that concept. She eventually sacrificed everything she had T Ato the struggle. D IN

S NO PRODUCE I T I . GHTEDuntil the BE ofREeight. Her grandfather lived on I R Juana was raised by her mother and P grandfather age O Y T K COlibraries.ISJuana BOObegan reading at the early age of three. She K IStwo a farm and was rich enoughBto own O H O T R E she grewEup N FitObecame MPLAs liked to read very much. obvious that Juana was very smart. However, only A V S I G S I T Ouniversities. There was little that she could do to use her intelligence. TH N S I men were allowed to attend N SIOthat S I M R She toldPher mother she wanted to disguise herself as a man to attend a university. E

When Juana was eight her mother sent her to Mexico City. Her mother believed that there would be many more opportunities for her in a large city. Unfortunately, even in a city of 100,000 people, opportunities for women were limited. One option that Juana had was to become a nun. Many women who were interested in learning and reading became nuns. Nuns could own land, collect books, and even vote. Usually such privileges were reserved for men. Juana once referred to her decision to become a nun as her first “career choice.” Nuns live in places called convents. The name of Juana’s convent was San Jeronimo. When she entered the convent she had to take another name. The name she took was Sor Juana de La Cruz, which is Spanish for Sister Juana of the Cross.

44

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect


Recognize Cause and Effect While at San Jeronimo, Sor Juana composed songs and wrote poems. She became known as one of Latin America’s most talented poets. Figures from Greek and Egyptian mythology frequently appeared in her poems. She used them to express her anger with the place of women in Mexican society. One figure that she used often was the Egyptian goddess Isis, who represented the intelligence of women. Sor Juana often entered into debates with politicians as part of her efforts to promote her ideas and improve the lives of women. Many people began to question her intentions. Moreover, politics, like so much else in Mexico, had always been dominated by men, and her boldness was not well received. Also, her direct verbal attacks on individuals did not improve her popularity.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In 1691, she was removed from the convent because of her actions. Of all the things lost,ER . STtheshe A M E was most upset about her books.LIShe spent WAY. K N C Y A N L A B rest of her life in solitude, OT A withDUvery EDfewINpeople N C S I O T even willing EPRShe suffered for her TED. I to OtalkBEtoRher. H G I R butOher K Tsuffering did serve a purpose. Both COPY views, O lifetime S B I S K I O H during her and after, Juana has proved BO RT O F N to be a inspiration for many women. T GIVE

MPLE A S S I TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

Passage Vocabulary Words dominated – controlled; ruled over reserved – saved; set aside for sacrificed – gave up verbal – having to do with spoken words

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a graphic organizer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect

45


Recognize Cause and Effect Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

Her mother sent Juana to Mexico City because

Ashe wanted Juana to become a nun Bshe believed there would be more

Cause and effect go together. The effect tells you what happened and the cause HINT tells you why it happened. This question asks you to tell why something happened.

opportunities for Juana there

CJuana was not well-liked in her hometown DJuana was too old to still be living at home with her mother

2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Why was it difficult for Mexican women to get a good education?

AMexican women were not allowed to read books.

The question gives you the effect—it was difficult for women to get a good education. You must find the cause, or HINT what led to this. Look for details in the passage about women and education.

BMexican women were required to stay

STER. . A M E CThere were not many good schools ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A in Mexico. S NOT PRODUCED I T I . ED BE RE DMany privileges, such as attending PYRIGHT O T K COmen. IS BOO universities, were only reserved K IS for O O B R TH E O L F P N M E A THIS S IS NOT GIV SION S I M R E Why didPJuana Inés Rameirez change her name to Sor Juana de La Cruz? home to take care of their families.

3

Read the section of the passage that explains why Juana changed her name. Ask yourself what event caused Juana to change her name. HINT

46

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect


Recognize Cause and Effect Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

What caused Juana to tell her mother that she wanted to disguise herself as a man?

AShe wanted to attend a university.

5

What effect did the place of women in Mexican society have on Juana?

AIt caused her to start reading books at an early age.

BShe did not want to become a nun.

BIt caused her to live her life in solitude.

CShe moved to Mexico City.

CIt motivated her to write poems that

DShe was not well-liked by politicians.

represented women as being intelligent.

DIt motivated her to leave the convent and

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 live in Mexico City.

6

What happened when Juana spoke out about wanting to make life for women better?

AShe was challenged to a debate.

BShe was not permitted to attend universities. CShe was not allowed to write poems.

7

STER. . A M E DShe was removed from the convent. ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K S CO BOO S K Ilife? I O How did becoming a nun change Juana’s H O T B N FOR MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect

47


SKILL 7:

Compare and Contrast

Modeled Instruction To compare means to tell how things are alike. To contrast means to tell how things are different. You can compare and contrast many things—people, events, ideas, actions, and just about anything else you can think of. COMPARING — Both trout and flounder are fish. CONTRASTING — Trout live in lakes, and flounder live in oceans.

Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn about comparing and contrasting.

Teresa’s pen pal, Jorge, lives in Mexico. Both Teresa and Jorge are students, though Teresa is in seventh grade and Jorge is in eighth grade. Jorge loves to paint and ride his bike. He lives in the country and has many places where he can ride and go sightseeing. Teresa lives in a big city located in Canada and doesn’t own a bike, but she does enjoy painting. Both Teresa and Jorge enjoy being pen pals and writing each other letters.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: Make a Venn diagram to help you compare and contrast.

The Venn diagram below shows how Teresa and Jorge are alike and how they are different. See if you can add more details that tell how they are alike or different.

TER. WAY. C Y A N L A B D IN grade OT A Eeighth N C U S I in seventh grade in D O T are students TED. I O BE REPR lives in the country H G I lives in a big city R COPY IS BOOK T S I K O BO R TH E O L F P N M E A THIS S IS NOT GIV SION S I M R PE Teresa

THINK

48

Both

E MAS KLINJorge

The paragraph states that Teresa and Jorge both like to paint and write each other letters. It also states that they live in different countries and only one of them has a bike. This information can be used to complete the graphic organizer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 7: Compare and Contrast


Compare and Contrast Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer a Compare question. Many people think that all birds can fly. This is not true, however. There are quite a few flightless birds that prefer to stay on land or in the water. These birds do not venture into the sky. Among these flightless birds are the long-legged ostrich, the emu, and the penguin. Flightless birds have legs and feathers just like flying birds, but they do not have some of the other body parts necessary for flight. For example, only flying birds have special chest muscles called keels that help birds to flap their wings quickly. Flying birds also have much stronger wing bones.

1

O N E

What is one way in which all flying birds and flightless birds are alike?

AThey both have strong wing bones. BThey both have keels.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

CThey both have feathers.

DThey both have very long legs.

STRATEGY: This question asks you to compare two types of birds. You may want to make a Venn diagram to help answer this question. Or you can make a list to describe each type of bird.

THINK

B Y

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below STERto. . A M E check why each answer choice is wrong or right. CKLIN Y WAY

A BLA CED IN AN T O N ODU IT IS R . P D E E R T E feathers. GHCThey both TO Bhave AThey both have strong wing bones. IS COPYRI ÷ ÷ K O O OKflying OR THIS BDetails in the paragraph tell you that both O B Details in the paragraph explain that E L P EN F V I G birds have muchTHstronger than flying birds and flightless birds have IS SAMwing Nbones T O S I N flightless birds. ThisSdescribes how the two feathers. This explains how they are alike. SIO I M R types of birds Choice C is the correct answer. PEare different—not how they

O N E

are alike. Choice A cannot be correct.

÷ DThey both have very long legs. BThey both have keels. ÷ From reading the paragraph, you know that only birds that can fly have keels to help flap their wings quickly. Choice B cannot be correct.

The paragraph suggests that an ostrich may have very long legs. However, there are no details to suggest that all birds have very long legs. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 7: Compare and Contrast

49


Compare and Contrast Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D Bookworms Meet E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this passage. The first and last parts tell a story. The second part includes examples of functional text. It shows notes that were taken by a student.

.

STER his age. Jeff loved to read and had decided to form a book club to share his interest with others A M E AY. Wof KLIN whatANkinds C Five classmates attended the first meeting of the book club, and they B allLAdiscussed Y IN T A readers Uliked Oother ED adventure, N C books they liked to read. Some preferred historical fictionTwhile and one S I D O I R . P D E E R T individual favored science fiction. In order toRchoose thatBEthey would all enjoy reading, the O Y IGH aObook T P K O O C group decided that each member K should come to the next meeting with four book ideas. Then, they S B I O HIS O T B R E O L would meet the following week to make a selection from those choices. F EN AMP THIS S IS NOT GIV N went to the library to look for books that interested him. After looking through SIOJeff So that Saturday, S I M R PE

the shelves, he made a list of four possible books, and wrote down information about each one.

Sanders Miss Ellen by Lisa 71 , s, Written in: 19 are in high school ho w Length: 176 page s or hb ig ne d Dan, life-long ne their skills is ho Summary: Lori an ey th ay w e me writers. On they have both hope to beco ople with whom pe of ns io pt ri sc tic de ne they by writing sarcas bus driver, someo a e, or st a in k : a cler ly enters brief encounters ese people sudden th of e on n he w et. But ity of pass on the stre iate the complex ec pr ap to n gi be and Dan their lives, Lori each individual.

50

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 7: Compare and Contrast


Compare and Contrast e One by Dana Dean A Committee of 90s s, Written in: 19 e to a high school m Length: 272 page ti s hi te bu ri nt sure y refuses to co support. The pres Summary: Jerem ot nn ca he e us join e it’s for a ca bers urge him to em fundraiser becaus m y lt cu fa en g family, and ev es from a surprisin m co grows as friends, t en em ag ur forts. Then enco . them in their ef a potential friend as of t gh ou th r neve source, someone he Just Yesterday by Elton Clay Length: 188 pages, Written in: 1998 Summary: This is a story about Jabar, a teenage boy whose classmate has died in a car accident. Until this loss, he has seen the world as divided into two groups—his friends and the others. But, when one of “the others” reaches out to him, he discovers that grief is universal and sharing the pain does help.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Tell Me Now by Gene DeMarro Length: 176 page s, Written in: 19 73 Summary: Mr. Maj or, the new scie nce teacher, is pl students don’t fi easant, but many nd him particular ly interesting. Bu understands peop t Mr. Major le. As he gets to STER. . A know his classes, M E he listens to wha he observes and t is not said, as ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B well as to what A gradually becom is said. He es aware of one S NOT PRODUCED I student’s hidden T I . her find a soluti D lps painGan on that eases th HTdEhe BE RE I R O e burden. Y T P K OO S CO

OK I HIS B O T B R E O L F SAMP OT GIVEN S I H T N When it was time for the club to select a book to read, Jeff was pleased when one of ISmembers N O I S S I choice was Tell Me Now. It reminded everyone of Mrs. Dalton, a his was picked. TheER unanimous P M

popular teacher in the school, who also had a reputation for being a good listener, and they always wondered what she knew about students’ lives. They congratulated Jeff for his book selection and for starting the book club. Things were off to a great start. Passage Vocabulary Words sarcastic – mocking; making fun of

universal – widespread

unanimous – agreed upon by everyone

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a Venn diagram.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 7: Compare and Contrast

51


Compare and Contrast Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

What one thing do all the books have in common?

AThey are all about teenagers. BThey all take place in Texas.

Making lists can help you to compare and contrast. To answer this question, you can HINT make separate lists to describe each book. This will help you to see how the books are alike and how they are different.

CThey are all under 300 pages long. DThey all have one main character.

2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What is one way that Miss Ellen is similar to Tell Me Now?

AMiss Ellen is about a boy and a girl. BMiss Ellen has two main characters.

Read the details in the passage about each book again. Which detail is true about both books, and which details are only HINT true about Miss Ellen? You can R. make a E T S A Venn diagram to N help you answer this EM . Y I A L W K C Y A N L question. A B A N

OT ED I N C U S I D O T TED. I O BE REPR H G DMiss Ellen is 176 pages long. I R COPY IS BOOK T Only in In both S I K O H O T B Miss Ellen and Miss Ellen FOR PLE N M E A V S I Tell Me Now THIS NOT G S I N ISSIO PERM CMiss Ellen has a female author.

3

Only in Tell Me Now

How are A Committee of One and Tell Me Now different? Read the information given about each book. Compare the dates written, lengths, and summaries. Tell how the books are different. HINT

52

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 7: Compare and Contrast


Compare and Contrast Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

6

Which books were both written during the same decade?

5

Which of the following is true about three out of the four books?

AMiss Ellen and A Committee of One

AThey are written before the year 1965.

BJust Yesterday and Tell Me Now

BThey are stories about teachers.

CTell Me Now and A Committee of One

CThey are stories about teenagers.

DA Committee of One and Just Yesterday

DThey are about making dreams come true.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

How are Just Yesterday and A Committee of One alike?

AThe main characters have to deal with a tragic loss.

BThe main characters see another person in a new way. CThe books are written by the same author.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O In what ways do Miss Ellen and A Committee differBfrom OO each other? S K IS Cof One I O H O T B N FOR MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM DThe books take place in the same town and state.

7

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 7: Compare and Contrast

53


SKILL REVIEW:

Skills 5–7

Directions: Read the passage below and answer questions 1–7.

A Different Kind of Summer Erin watched as Dr. Booth examined the X-ray of her wrist. "Yep, it's definitely fractured," she said, switching off the light. Erin groaned. It was the second day of summer vacation. Now her arm would be in a cast for the next six weeks. She couldn't believe that one second had ruined her entire summer. She had been walking her dog, Peaches, when she tripped over a tree root, fell to the ground, and landed on her wrist. She heard the crack and immediately felt the pain. On the way back to her house, Erin hung her head in despair. Erin's best friend, Tameka, patted her back. "I'm sorry, Erin," she said.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Tameka's quiet words comforted Erin like nothing else could. The two girls had been best friends since they were two years old. They grew up just two houses away from each other on Clint Street. They both went to school together and were in many of the same classes. They were both very good students, although Erin enjoyed science most and Tameka liked math. Erin looked at Tameka and then tried to sound upbeat. "I guess things won’t be so bad. After all, now I'll have plenty of time to spend with you this summer." Though Erin and Tameka were best friends, the two girls usually spent little time together in the ER. bicycles, STriding summer. Erin thrived on action, while Tameka preferred quieter activities. Erin enjoyed A M E LIN preferred WAY. Khand, C Y kayaking on the lake, playing softball, and camping. Tameka, on the B other reading, A N L A D IN OT A playing her piano, and painting. ODUCE T IS N

TED. I

REPR

GHa brave face BEher benefit. She had to find a way to Tameka knew that her friend was putting Ofor YRIon T P K O O C O improve Erin's mood. Suddenly, K IShad a great IS B OOshe THidea. FOR PLE B T NO ISsaid. N O "Come on, IErin," she "Let's go." I S S PERM

EN and raced to Erin's house. AM gathered The nextHday, IS STameka T GIVsupplies

A few minutes later, the girls arrived at the park. Several of their classmates were playing softball. Tameka unzipped her bag of supplies. Erin could see sketch pads, pens, pencils, paint, easels, and a variety of other art supplies. "What's all of this?" Erin inquired. "Well," said Tameka, "I figured that since you can’t play softball, you might want to help me draw some pictures. We can draw pictures of people playing a game of softball. Tomorrow we can paint pictures of people riding bicycles." Erin giggled, and Tameka beamed when she heard her friend's laughter. Passage Vocabulary Words despair – to feel very sad about something easels – frames or stands that hold artwork fractured – broken

54

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 5–7

thrived – enjoyed; did well upbeat – positive or encouraging


Character, Plot, & Setting, Cause & Effect, Compare & Contrast Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting 1

Where does the beginning of the story most likely take place?

Athe park

REMINDER This question asks you the setting at the very beginning of the story. You must think about where the characters are when the story begins.

BErin's house Ca hospital DErin's school

O N E

Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting 2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

How does Tameka try to help her friend?

AShe helps Erin find things to do. BShe makes a painting for Erin.

CShe stays at Erin’s house for the summer. DShe promises to be Erin’s best friend.

REMINDER

This question asks about something that happens in the story. It is part of the story plot. You must think about what the characters in the story AdoSTand ER.why M E . they do it. CKLIN Y WAY

B Y

A BLA CED IN AN T O N ODU IT IS R . P D E E R T Recognize Cause and EffectIS COPYRIGH BOOK TO BE BOOK R THIS E O L F P N M E A 3 When Erin began to laugh THIS S IS NOT GIV REMINDER N O I angry S Ait made TamekaRfeel S I PE M Bit made Tameka feel happy

Cshe wanted to make a painting Dshe forgot about her broken arm

O N E

This question gives you the cause. It explains why something else happened. You must find the effect, or what happened.

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 5–7

55


Skill Review: Skills 5–7 Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting 4

Which word best describes Tameka in the story?

Asad Badventurous Cfunny Dthoughtful

REMINDER This question asks about one of the characters. To describe a character, you must think about his or her actions in the story. How a person acts will tell you a lot about that person.

Compare and Contrast 5

Both Erin and Tameka

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Effect Recognize Cause and Aenjoy the outdoors Blike to read books

Clove to play softball Dare good students

6

56

REMINDER

This question asks you to compare two people. You must look for details in the passage that explain how these two people are alike.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K What caused Erin to break her wrist? O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B E effect are FO or events that go together. The question tells you what Cause N actions MPLand E A V S I G S I REMINDER T TH happened—the IS NO effect. You must tell why it happened—the cause. N O I S IS PERM

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 5–7


Skill Review: Skills 5–7 Compare and Contrast 7

Complete this Venn diagram to show how Erin and Tameka are alike and how they are different.

REMINDER

You can use a Venn diagram to help compare and contrast. The center of a Venn diagram is where you can list how two people are alike. The left and right sides of a Venn diagram are where you can list how two people are different.

Erin and Tameka

Erin

Both

Tameka

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 5–7

57


VOCABULARY REVIEW:

Skills 5–7

Directions: Listed below are some words that were used in each of the passages you just read. Choose the correct words to complete the sentences on this page. You may look back at the passages to find the meaning of each word. On Top of the World

Juana Inés de La Cruz

Bookworms Meet

A Different Kind of Summer

dismantled

dominated

sarcastic

despair

donned

reserved

unanimous

easels

escapade

sacrificed

universal

fractured

rappelled

verbal

thrived

synthetic

1

During the earthquake, some of the cement walls to be

2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

. Most of the building had

and rebuilt.

At first Donna thought the jokes were funny, but soon they became rather mean.

3

upbeat

The chef

and

his apron and prepared to cook. The dinner guests

a special seat for the chef at the end of the table.

4

5

6

STER. . A M E Books written by Dr. Seuss have great appeal.CKAll Y WAinY my A LINof theINstudents N L A B A class are in agreement that The Cat was D best book. UCEhis S NOTin thePRHat I D O T I . E GHTEDto theTOneedy, BE RJosé I R Y When the students were asked to Cdonate clothes his P K O OO S B I S K I O H O cause.FOR T favorite sweater for E Bgood PLthe M A S GIVEN T O THIS N IS everyone on the team was N game, At the start of the and excited. But after O I S S I M R E the game, there was a look of theyPlost on everyone’s face.

7 8

material was used to make the fake flowers. During the

presentation, I listened very carefully to the famous artist.

Then, I walked into the next room where all of his paintings were displayed on

58

PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 5–7

.


Vocabulary Review: Skills 5–7 Directions: Some words you have already read in this book are used in the questions on this page. Use what you have learned about these words to help you answer questions 1–4.

1

Read the sentence below.

3

“The stores at the shopping mall thrived from all the new customers.”

2

Read the sentence below. “During the football game, the large players dominated the small players.”

The word thrived means

The word dominated means

Awere successful

Agave up without a fight

Bwere very new

Blost control of

Cwere comfortable

Casked for help

Dwere very big

Dpushed around easily

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In which sentence is the word escapade used correctly?

4

AWe were so tired after school we needed to have an escapade.

O N E

In which sentence is the word rappelled used correctly?

AThe boxes were rappelled together using

B Y

a long piece of string.

BThe camping trip was an exciting escapade

BThe firefighter quickly rappelled downR.

E N I L WAY. K C Y A N L A B IN field the CJanelle went shopping to find a new CThe lion rappelled OT A across EDopen N C U S I D O T I the zebra. escapade to wear to the party. REPR TEDto. catch H E G B I R O K T rappelled up the side of COPY D The OOhikers DThe nervous students got ready forOanother S B I S K I H escapade during class. PLE BO IVEN FOR T the mountain. M A S THIS NOT G S I N ISSIO PERM for the entire family.

T the side of the burning building. E MAS

O N E

Vocabulary Challenge Directions: Choose any three vocabulary review words from the top of page 58. Write sentences using each of these words. 1 2 3

PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 5–7

59


SKILL 8:

Distinguish Fact from Opinion

Modeled Instruction A fact is a statement that is true. An opinion is a statement that someone believes is true. To answer some questions, you need to know the difference between facts and opinions. FACT — Audrey Hepburn starred in 31 movies. OPINION — My Fair Lady was Audrey Hepburn’s best movie.

Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn about facts and opinions. The Halliday family planned to go on a camping trip. The nearest town was over 50 miles away from the campsite, so they made sure to pack everything they needed. If they forgot anything, it would be terrible. They made sure to pack enough food, water, and tents for everyone. Mr. Halliday was very good at planning camping trips. He reminded everyone to bring comfortable sneakers for hiking. He also reminded everyone to bring their fishing gear. Going fishing on the lake was always the most fun part of the trip. As soon as everything was packed, the Halliday family climbed into the car and drove off toward the campsite.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

R. STRATEGY: Look at the details in the paragraph. Make a list of all the statements that are STEfacts. A M E Then, make a list of all the statements that are opinions. WAY. CKLIN

ANY BLA A N I T D O E one opinion from N first column. Complete the chart below. Add one fact from the paragraph ODUCAdd T ItoS the I R . P D E E R T the paragraph to the second column. YRIGH OOK TO BE P O C OK IS OR THIS B O B E L P NF MFacts E A V S I Opinions G S I T O TH N S I (Things (Things that someone believes are true) SIONthat are true) S I M R PE The Halliday family planned to go camping.

If they forgot anything, it would be terrible.

The nearest town was over 50 miles from the campsite.

Mr. Halliday was very good at planning camping trips.

THINK

60

Another detail that you know is true is that the Halliday family packed food, water, and tents. Another detail that you may believe is true is that fishing on the lake is always the most fun part of the trip.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion


Distinguish Fact from Opinion Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer an Opinion question.

One of the grandest sights in nature is the redwood tree. It is one of the largest varieties of tree on Earth. Redwoods may grow to over 350 feet tall, and the very tallest one is a towering 378 feet tall. The trees may grow to about 30 feet in diameter as well. A person standing below these trees may feel as tiny as a mouse! Most redwood trees grow in the American Pacific Northwest, where the climate suits the trees perfectly.

1

Which statement about redwood trees is an opinion?

O N E

ARedwoods may grow to over 350 feet tall. BThe tallest redwood is 378 feet tall. CMost redwoods grow in the Pacific Northwest.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

DRedwoods are one of nature’s grandest sights.

STRATEGY: Read each answer choice. Decide which answer choices tell you something that is true. These are facts. Look for the answer choice that tells you something a person might believe to be true. This is an opinion.

THINK

B Y

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below to check why each answer choice is wrong or right.

STER. . A M E IN Y WAY ACinKLthe N L grow ARedwoods may grow to over 350 feet tall. ÷ ÷ CMost redwoods A B A N I NOT UCED Pacific SNorthwest. I D O T The paragraph states that redwood trees I R . P E GHTEDThe paragraph BE Rexplains I can grow to over 350 feet. This is a fact that redwood trees R O Y T P K O O C O S B I that can be checked. It is not anOopinion. grow in the Pacific Northwest. This is a fact OK HIS T B R E O L F Choice A cannot be correct. that you could check. It is not an opinion. EN AMP THIS S IS NOT GIV Choice C cannot be correct. N SisIO378 S I M feet tall. R BThe tallest redwood ÷ PE A person could measure the tallest redwood tree to prove that it is 378 feet tall. Therefore, this is a fact—not an opinion. Choice B cannot be correct.

O N E

÷ DRedwoods are one of nature’s grandest sights.

Some people may believe that redwood trees are one of nature’s grandest sights. However, this cannot be proved. It is just an opinion. Choice D is the correct answer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion

61


Distinguish Fact from Opinion Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and pictures. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L Y L AL Reason L A ls ThereRAny to Fear Them? R . 9 9 . 8 8 8

Now read this nonfiction passage. It is an example of a scientific essay.

Bats!

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A UCED S NOT is Ptheir Many people fear bats. One drawback for these winged mammals appearance. Bats do not I D O T I R . D E E R T H E fact that bats are nocturnal animals that only come out strike most people as adorable creatures. The G OB YRI T P K O O C O at night has added to their frightening OK IS reputation. HISIfBbats flew around in the daytime, they would be O T B R E O L F P wouldIVnot an ordinary sight and ENfear them. People should learn more about bats. And anyone SAMpeople G S I T H O T N who has never seen a batISshould go to a zoo. SION S I M R E which can vary greatly in appearance and size, are very timid and present no threat to Most P bats,

people. Bats are the only mammals that can fly, and can be found in all parts of the world except Antarctica and the Arctic. Bats have furry bodies with wings that are covered by smooth, flexible skin. The wingspan—the distance from the tip of one wing, across the body, to the tip of the other wing— can range from six to sixty-seven inches in length. Bats can be divided into two groups—microbats and megabats. Most bats are microbats, a group of smaller bats that includes of over 700 different species. Microbats have more complex ears than the larger megabats. These complex ears allow them to use echolocation, a process that uses sound waves to locate distant or unseen objects. A microbat can make a high-frequency sound that is beyond the range of human hearing. Then, it listens for an echo to bounce back from an object. The bat is able to determine an object’s location and distance by the amount of time it takes for the sound to return. Echolocation, an incredible ability possessed by only a few animals, helps microbats to hunt at night. Microbats, which feed mostly on insects, can find even the smallest insect on the darkest night.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion


Distinguish Fact from Opinion

Unlike microbats, the large megabats use highly developed eyesight and a keen sense of smell to hunt their prey. There are about 170 different species of megabats. These large bats, whose size makes them appear menacing, are sometimes called flying foxes because of their fox-like faces, or fruit bats because of their diet. Some megabats have damaged orchards when feeding on fruit. This has given them an undeservedly bad reputation with farmers. Most bats live in caves, hollow trees, rock crevices, and other hidden places. Some that live in buildings are a nuisance but not a threat. Bats living in tropical regions have a year-round food supply. Those in colder places have to migrate to warmer climates in search of food. Bats have a low reproduction rate, but they have few natural enemies. The lack of natural enemies may account for the fact that some species live as long as 25 years. The enemies bats do have include hawks, owls, cats, and snakes. Bats can avoid some of these by living in places that are difficult for predators to reach.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Over the years one species of bat, the vampire bat, has become associated with tales of horror that have given it a bad reputation. Vampire bats do feed on the blood of other animals. However, they only consume about one tablespoon of blood each day, and the wounds they make heal quickly. There have been rare instances of vampire bats biting human beings. The only real danger to a person is that these bats, like many other animals, may carry rabies, a viral disease that can cause death. So, if you ever have the misfortune of being bitten by a vampire bat, get to the STER. A M doctor quickly. E N

WAY. KLI C Y A N L A B IN OTareA well-liked. EInD China N C U S I D Though many people fear bats, in some places around the .world they O T PR RElife. TED I and Hhappiness, E G B I and Japan they are often viewed as a sign of good Yluck, long And many people R O P KT Odo O C O S B I who do not consider them symbols ofOgood luck agree that they are one of the most interesting OK HIS T B R E O L F animals in the world. EN AMP THIS S IS NOT GIV SION S I M R PE Passage Vocabulary Words adorable – cute complex – complicated; has many parts menacing – scary predators – hunters

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a list of facts and opinions.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion

63


Distinguish Fact from Opinion Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

Which sentence from the passage states a fact?

A“People should learn more about bats.” B“And anyone who has never seen a bat should go to a zoo.”

C“There are about 170 different species of megabats.”

To tell if a statement is a fact or an opinion, think about what you can prove. HINT Statements that can be proven are facts. If a statement cannot be proven, it is an opinion. Use the information in the passage to determine which statements can be proven and which ones cannot.

D“This has given them an undeservedly bad reputation with farmers.” 2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which sentence states an opinion?

AIf bats flew around in the daytime, people would not fear them.

Read the answer choices one at a time. To find the sentence that is an opinion, look HINT for a statement you cannot prove.

BA microbat can make a high-frequency sound that is beyond the range of human hearing.

3

TER. S A M E CBats can be found in all parts of the world WAY. KLIN C Y A N L A B except Antarctica and the Arctic. OT A ED IN N C U S I D O T I REPR DSome megabats have damaged orchardsRIGHTED. E B O when feeding on fruit. COPY IS BOOK T S I K O BO R TH E O L F P N M E A THIS S IS NOT GIV SIONsentence from the passage: S I M Read the following R PE “Though many people fear bats, in some places around the world they are well-liked.” Is this statement an example of a fact or an opinion? Explain your answer. Think about what makes a statement a fact or an opinion. Ask yourself if the statement tells about something that is true or something that someone believes is true.

HINT

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion


Distinguish Fact from Opinion Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

This passage is

5

Aalmost entirely opinion

Which statement from the passage is NOT a fact?

A“Bats living in tropical regions have a year-

Balmost entirely fact

round food supply.”

Cmostly opinion and some fact Dmostly fact and some opinion

B“Some that live in buildings are a nuisance but not a threat.”

C“The bat is able to determine an object’s location and distance by the amount of time it takes for the sound to return.”

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

D“The lack of natural enemies may account for the fact that some species live as long as 25 years.”

6

Which sentence from the passage contains both a fact AND an opinion?

A“Bats can be divided into two groups—microbats and megabats.”

ER. A CK ANY W BLmicrobats A N I T helps to hunt C“Echolocation, an incredible ability possessed by only a few animals, D O E IT IS N REPRODUC . at night.” D E T RIGH O BE Y T P K O O C O S animals.” D“Vampire bats do feed on the bloodOKof Iother HIS B O T B R E O L F EN AMP THIS S IS NOT GIV SION S I M R PE

T B“Microbats, which feed mostly on insects, can find even the smallest insect on the E MAS night.” AY. LINdarkest

7

Read the following statement:

“The fact that bats only come out at night has added to their frightening reputation.” Is this statement an example of a fact or an opinion? Explain your answer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion

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SKILL 9:

Make Predictions

Modeled Instruction To make a prediction means to guess what will happen next or in the future. Answers to prediction questions are not found in passages that you read. But, details in passages can be used to help you make predictions. You must think about the details you read and then make a prediction. Detail — Kenneth was exhausted at the end of the long day. Prediction — Kenneth will lie down and rest.

Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn about making predictions.

One day, Mr. Piper taught the students in his class about recycling. He explained that almost anything can be recycled. The students were excited to learn that by recycling they could help the environment. When Tony went home he immediately gathered up some old newspapers. Antonia collected aluminum cans from her neighbors, and Jared collected some plastic containers. The students put everything that they collected into large boxes.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: List details from the paragraph that you think can help you make a prediction. Think about . what the details tell you might happen next. ASTER

M KLINE

WAY.

AC your Iprediction Look at the details listed below. Can you predict what will happen next? ANY in the BLWrite A N T D O N CE empty box. RODU . IT IS REP TED H E G B I R O PY OOK T B Details that you read:OOK IS CO S I H LE B FOR T Pthe N M E A V S I taught students in his class about recycling. 1 Mr. Piper OT G THIS N S I ON that recycling helps the environment. 2 The Estudents ISSIlearned M R P 3

Tony gathered up old newspapers.

4

Antonia collected aluminum cans.

5

Jared collected some plastic containers.

Prediction:

THINK

66

The class seems to have many things that can be recycled. They seem to be excited about the idea of recycling. They will probably recycle all of the things they have collected.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 9: Make Predictions


Make Predictions Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer a Prediction question. Many people are very good at conserving energy in their homes, schools, and workplaces. But sometimes we forget about conserving energy when staying in hotels. We tend to use an abundance of water and electricity. People who stay in hotels should consider following a few rules. For instance, hotel guests should conserve bath and shower water and not use too many towels. They should also ask that their bed sheets not be unnecessarily changed and washed each day. And turning off lights when leaving the room is always a good rule to remember.

1

O N E

What will probably happen if people staying in hotels follow the rules suggested?

AMore people will want to stay in hotels.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

BHotels will use less water and electricity. CMore hotels will be built in each city. DHotels will be much cleaner.

STRATEGY: Look for details in the paragraph that will help you make a prediction. You may want to make a list.

THINK

B Y

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below STERto. . A M E check why each answer choice is wrong or right. CKLIN Y WAY

A BLA CED IN AN T O N ODU IT IS R . P D E E R T AMore people will want to stay in hotels. PYRIGHรท รท CMoreKhotels O BEwill be built in each city. T O O C O IS The rules suggested in the paragraph OKwould HIS BThere is no information in the paragraph O T B R E O L F P help hotels conserve energy. about the number of hotels in each city. IVEN Gfact S SAM ButNOthis I T H T alone probably would notNattract No details in the paragraph suggest that IS more O I S S I people to the Ehotel. Choice A cannot the rules stated can lead to more hotels. P RM be correct.

BHotels will use less water and electricity. รท The paragraph states that hotels use a lot of water and energy. This is why the rules for conserving energy are explained. If people followed these rules, hotels would use less water and electricity. Choice B is the correct answer.

O N E

Choice C cannot be correct.

รท DHotels will be much cleaner. Some of the rules suggest reusing towels and bed sheets. This would not make hotels cleaner. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 9: Make Predictions

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Make Predictions Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P A Day SAM ATION C U D E on the LCourts ! Y L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8

Now read this fictional passage. It is an example of realistic fiction.

R. Today the volleyball team of Andover High School would be competing in an all-day STEtournament. A M E Rachel, Stephanie, and Cecilia could hardly wait, and Coach Vellone was Aeager WAY. KLINfor the opportunity, C Y N L A B T A on throughout too. Coach Vellone had advised the girls to pack some snacks toOmunch ED IN the day. “Your N C U S I D O T I appetite will show up between games,” Coach G Vellone REPR HTED.warned theE team. PYRI

TO B

CaO cooler, including OOKjuice boxes, peanut butter crackers, fruit, S Rachel and Stephanie each packed B I S K I O H LE BOhaving FOR T to pack her snack the previous night, hurriedly tossed and even some candy. forgotten PCecilia, N M E A V S I THIS and a banana a bottle of water NOTinG her duffel bag as she ran out the door. She’d eaten a bigger S I N breakfast than ISSIO and could not imagine being very hungry later. RMusual, PE

The team assembled in the school parking lot early in the morning, Coach Vellone took attendance, and then they all boarded the bus. During the hour-long ride, the girls chatted excitedly about the challenge ahead, sang songs, and reviewed their game strategy. As they approached the building where the tournament was being staged, they were impressed by its immensity. A huge banner hanging over the entrance announced, “Avon Sports Arena: Saturday, September 3, Welcome Girls Volleyball Teams; Sunday, September 4, Welcome All-Star Indoor Soccer Players.” The squad unloaded all their equipment and personal belongings, but as they walked away from the bus, Stephanie realized that she had left her sweatshirt behind. She reassured herself with the thought that it would probably be hot in the building. Once inside, the group quickly staked out a corner to camp in for the day and proceeded to warm up. As they ran laps around the arena and then performed stretching exercises, other teams were doing the same. One team, called the Falcons, had a portable stereo that filled the gymnasium air with upbeat music, while also serving to energize the Falcons. “I wish we had thought of that!” Rachel lamented.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 9: Make Predictions


Make Predictions Coach Vellone unpacked some of the equipment while the players did exercises to warm up their cold muscles. Rummaging through the entire duffel bag, she searched in vain for her clipboard. “Do not tell me I forgot it!” she muttered to herself. Finally, exasperated, she conceded that she had and gave herself a silent scolding. After the girls had sufficiently limbered up, they began their drills with Rachel serving to the team while the other girls practiced receiving until it was time for the competition to commence. After the girls played and were victorious in their first game, Coach Vellone informed them that they were not scheduled to compete again for another two hours. “Eat some of your snacks to keep up your energy, but do not eat them all. You will need some after our next game, too.” Rachel munched on her crackers and gulped down her juice while Cecilia nibbled at her banana. Stephanie noticed that Cecilia had not packed very much to satisfy her hunger for the long day. “Aren’t you going to be hungry later?” she asked her friend. “Probably,” agreed Cecilia, regretting the mistake she had made. While they had been playing, the arena had seemed hot. But now that the girls were just sitting and analyzing the other teams’ play, the air conditioning made the air feel very chilly. Stephanie shivered until Coach Vellone loaned her an extra sweatshirt she had packed. “Here you go,” the coach tossed the sweatshirt to Stephanie. “I do not suppose you packed a clipboard instead of a sweatshirt, did you, Steph?”

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

“Sorry,” Stephanie shook her head, snuggling gratefully into the heavy sweatshirt. By the day’s end, the Andover team had been triumphant in three games and defeated in one. During the play Coach Vellone scribbled notes about the skills they needed to improve. Her ER. STdown A M handwriting was messy and almost illegible because her paper had bent and ripped as she jotted E AY. LIN W K C Y A N L A B her ideas. Her knee was definitely not a good substitute for her clipboard. “I ableIN to read OT Ahope I’llDbe ED N C U S I these on Monday,” she grumbled. O T PR D. I

GHTE

BE RE

YRI The bus ride home was more subdued than Cthe busOride. K TOEach team member was OPmorning’s O S B I OK by a job physically exhausted, but emotionally THISdone. After Cecilia fell asleep, her growling BOelated Rwell E O L F P N M SA and wish IVE had a tape recorder, so they could tease her later. stomach made her friends T Gthey HIS laugh IS NO

T

When they arrived back SIatONthe school parking lot, each team member thanked Coach Vellone for S I M R PE is at three o’clock sharp on Monday!” she reminded them. “Do not forget your the great day. “Practice clipboard!” the girls teased as they dispersed to the cars where their parents were waiting to welcome them home. Passage Vocabulary Words analyzing – studying

dispersed – scattered; separated

conceded – admitted

exasperated – annoyed

AFTER YOU READ:

immensity – very large in size

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a chart or list of important details.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 9: Make Predictions

69


Make Predictions Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

What will probably occur at the arena the day after the volleyball tournament?

AThere will be a volleyball practice. BThe arena will be closed for Sunday.

Do not look for the answer in the passage. Instead look for details that will help you HINT to make a prediction. Think about what happened in the passage. What do these details suggest?

CThere will be an indoor soccer tournament. DThere will be another volleyball tournament.

2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The next time the volleyball team travels to a tournament

ACecilia will probably pack a bigger snack BStephanie will buy a sweatshirt

CCoach Vellone will pack snacks for the team

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B extra sweatshirt A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K S COthem the What does Rachel want to bring next BOOtime the team goes to a tournament? S K Iwith I O H O T B E OR N Fthat MPLof E V ReadIS theSAparts theT passage tell you about Rachel. Think about what she does and I G H O T N S I what she Isays. S ON Use these details to predict what she will bring to the next tournament. S I M R HINT PE DCoach Vellone will not bring an

3

70

Look for details in the passage that suggest something each person would do differently next time the team travels to a HINT tournament. Did anyone do or say something to suggest what they might do differently?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 9: Make Predictions


Make Predictions Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

Based on the passage, you can predict that

5

ACecilia will not play volleyball again BStephanie will not forget her

What did Cecilia most likely do when she first got home that night?

Aate Bslept

sweatshirt next time

CCoach Vellone will bring more volleyballs next time

Cshowered Dpracticed

DRachel and Stephanie will want to play other sports

6

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

At the next practice, Coach Vellone will most likely

Ascold the team for the poor performance

Bnot mention Saturday’s tournament at all

Ccommend the girls for winning on Saturday

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O What one item will Coach Vellone most likely to O next time? Use details from the BOpack S K IS C remember I O H O T B passage to support your answer. N FOR MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM Ddiscuss skills the team must improve

7

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 9: Make Predictions

71


SKILL 10:

Draw Conclusions

Modeled Instruction Some information in a passage is clearly stated. But, sometimes you need to think about the details in a passage to draw a conclusion. You must put all of the details you are given together and think about what they suggest. Detail — Matt always does his homework. Detail — Matt pays attention in class. Conclusion — Matt is a good student. Conclusions must be based on the details found in a passage. There may be many details that you need to think about to draw a conclusion.

Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn about drawing conclusions.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Terence always carries his pencil and some paper to jot down ideas for stories. He has written many short stories about exciting journeys and amazing adventures. He has also written a few stories about people he knows, and some day he plans to write a story about his life. Terence has even written some beautiful poems about what life is like growing up on a farm. All of Terence’s friends enjoy reading his stories and poems.

STER. . A M E IN STRATEGY: Make a graphic organizer to help you draw a conclusion. BLACKL Y WAY N A A N I ED NOTa conclusion. UCRead Sdraw I D O T The graphic organizer below shows details that can help you each of the I R . P RE TEDWrite your H E G B I R details. What do these details tell you about Terence? conclusions in the empty box. O KT OPY O C O S B I BOOK R THIS E O L F P N M A IVE Detail: Detail: Detail: THIS S IS NOT GDetail: N Terence has Terence has Terence always ISSIO Terence has M R E P written about written some carries a pencil written short and paper.

stories.

people he knows.

poems.

Conclusion:

Each detail has something to do with writing. Terence probably enjoys writing.

THINK

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 10: Draw Conclusions


Draw Conclusions Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer a Conclusion question.

Thomas Edison built many laboratories for his experiments. He had one laboratory where he built large machines. Another lab was for testing and recording sounds. Yet another was for making and studying photographs. Edison also needed places to keep his books, store his supplies, and build new tools for conducting experiments. As his work expanded, Edison opened many laboratories across the country. Each had workers who helped bring his ideas to life.

1

O N E

From reading this paragraph, you can tell that

AEdison was a very busy scientist BEdison had a great deal of money

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

CEdison preferred pictures to sounds DEdison was difficult to work with

STRATEGY: Look for details in the paragraph that will help you draw a conclusion. You may want to make a graphic organizer or a list of important details.

THINK

B Y

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below to check why each answer choice is wrong or right. STER.

E MA N I L WAY. K C Y A N L A B D IN OT A E N C U S I D O T to sounds AEdison was a very busy scientist รท รท C PR D. I preferred REpictures TEEdison H E G B I R O Details in the paragraph explain that Edison K inT the paragraph tell you that Edison COPY IS Details OOwork S B I K O H had laboratories across the country and did with pictures and sounds. However, BO RT E O L F P N M Ahim with his needed workers to Ihelp there is nothing that suggests he preferred GIVE OTwas TH S S that N S I experiments. This suggests he a pictures to sounds. Choice C cannot N O I S S I very busy scientist. be correct. PERM You can conclude that

O N E

Choice A is the correct answer.

รท DEdison was difficult to work with BEdison had a great deal of money รท It is possible that Edison had a lot of money. But you cannot know this from the details in the paragraph. There is not enough information to draw this conclusion. Choice B cannot be correct.

There is no information in the paragraph that suggests Edison was a difficult person to work with. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 10: Draw Conclusions

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Draw Conclusions Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and pictures. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION From Tomboy ! EDUC to First Lady Y L L Y L A L R A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8

Now read this nonfiction passage. It is an example of a biography.

. up in Elizabeth Virginia Wallace, born on February 13, 1885, was the oldest of five children. TShe S ERgrew A M E Independence, Missouri, where her father was the son of the town’s mayor andKLher the IN mother was WAY. C Y A N L A B daughter of a wealthy businessman. Bess, who was nicknamed after college OTherA mother’s ED INroommate, was N C U S I D O T R at sewing and cooking. . I expected a tomboy who enjoyed sports during an era when girls RtoEPexcel TEDwere H E G B I R O She was a strong tennis player, loved riding OK T baseball. One story tells of Bess when she COPYhorses,ISandBOplayed S I K O H was thirteen years old. OnEher way to dance class, FOR T she was dressed in a ruffled party dress and shiny new PLsheBOnever N M E A V S I patent leatherHshoes. But made it to class. Instead she was sidetracked by her brother, Frank, OT G T IS N S I who asked her to pinch SION hit for his baseball team. Bess hit a grand slam and won the game. ERMIS

LittlePdid that young girl know that she would one day become the wife of an American president. Bess and Harry Truman first met at a church function when they were just five and six years old. Harry admired the “blue-eyed blonde haired princess” he met that day, but Bess thought him a scrawny, bookish boy with whom she had nothing in common.

Her father, to whom Bess was very attached, was a good father but a poor businessman. In 1903, upset about his financial failures, he committed suicide. This event changed the lives of Bess, her mother, and her brothers who were forced to leave their home and move in with her mother’s parents. Bess tried to help her grieving mother and watched over her younger brothers. The gossip that followed her father’s untimely death disturbed Bess and was a factor in making her a very private person. When Bess met Harry Truman again in 1910, she was more impressed than she had been at their first encounter. They began to exchange letters and see each other on a regular basis despite the disapproval of Mrs. Wallace who doubted that Truman would ever be a success in life. Nine long years

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 10: Draw Conclusions


Draw Conclusions later, when Harry returned from World War I, the two were married. When his business failed and Harry began his political career, Bess provided support and advice. They had a daughter in 1924 and named her Margaret. During all this time, they were living with Mrs. Wallace, a situation that cannot have been entirely comfortable given her view of Truman. When President Franklin D. Roosevelt died in office on April 12, 1945, Vice President Harry S. Truman was sworn in as the 33rd president of the United States of America. Bess Truman became the First Lady. Many people consider her one of the strongest first ladies in history. While at the White House, Bess did the bookkeeping, supervised all the money spent there, and worked for many charities. She acted as a personal adviser to her husband while he served his presidency, and she even helped write his speeches. Bess Truman had no college education, but she was an intelligent and knowledgeable woman who made noteworthy contributions to her country. Bess Truman’s style as First Lady differed from those that had preceded her. For example, she cancelled the weekly press conferences that Eleanor Roosevelt had held and instead gave weekly teas for the newswomen. Also, Bess disliked being photographed, and her feelings on the matter solidified after an unsettling experience she had when christening a military hospital plane. Despite her repeated attempts, the champagne bottle would not break. In the photos of the event that were published in the newspapers, Bess looked embarrassed and foolish. She was rarely photographed after this incident. Bess had other negative experiences with the public. At that time, some people believed Bess should end her involvement with the Daughters of the American Revolution because they had not allowed an African American pianist to play at one of their events. Bess criticized the group’s decision, but did not sever her connection with them. The controversy this caused made Bess . remove herself further from the public eye. ASTER

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

LINE M

When his term as president was over in 1953, Harry and Bess Truman leftA Washington, D.C., BLACK T O N and returned to Independence, Missouri. They lived in the same. house IT IS where D E T H G Bess had spent most of the years before her marriage. I her husband’s RAfter O BE OPYuntil T C K S I O death in 1972, Bess continued to live O inOthe house she died in O K IS B Bher will Htheir T E L R P O 1982 at the age of ninety-seven. In she left home to M F SA EN S V I I H G T T the country. It is now a historic NO S landmark.

NI O I S S I PERM

Passage Vocabulary Words encounter – meeting scrawny – skinny sidetracked – distracted solidified – became stronger or more certain

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a graphic organizer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 10: Draw Conclusions

75


Draw Conclusions Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

Why do you think Bess Truman was considered a tomboy?

Abecause she liked to dance Bbecause Frank nicknamed her that

Look for details in the passage that tell you about the things young Bess did. HINT Think about what these details tell you. Ask yourself what you can conclude from this information.

Cbecause she enjoyed sports Dbecause she liked a boy named Tom

2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

You can conclude her father’s death was devastating for Bess because

Ahe was a financial failure who was unable to support his family

Find details in the passage that tell about Bess and her father. Look for facts about HINT the kind of relationship they had. What can you conclude from this information?

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L that embarrassed her B A NOT UCED S I D O T I R . P Cpeople gossiped about him and the family’s GHTED BE RE I R O Y T circumstances changed P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B FO to Dshe had to quit PLE and goIVtoENwork Mschool A S G S I T help her THmother payISoffNOthe debts SION S I M R PE Bher family didn’t have much money and

3

Why did many people consider Bess to be one of the strongest first ladies in America? Think about what Bess Truman did while her husband was in office. How did these things show her strength? What can you conclude from this information? HINT

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 10: Draw Conclusions


Draw Conclusions Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

From the passage, you can conclude that Bess and her family moved in with her mother’s family because

Athey had no money

5

Why did the Trumans move back to Independence, Missouri?

AWorld War II had begun. BHarry’s presidential term was completed.

Btheir house was old

CBess wanted to leave the nation’s capital.

Cthey needed more room

DThey were asked to leave Washington, D.C.

Dtheir family was growing

6

Aexcited Bannoyed Cfascinated

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O How do you think Bess felt about a woman a partBin OOher husband’s career and finances? S Cplaying S I OK Iyour H O T B Use details from the passage toLEsupport answer. N FOR MP E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM Duninterested

7

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

How did Bess feel about Harry Truman when they first met?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 10: Draw Conclusions

77


SKILL 11:

Make Inferences

Modeled Instruction To answer some questions, you must make inferences. An inference is when you make your best guess. You must use details from a passage AND what you already know to make an inference. Details Given + What You Know = Inference Inferences are not always correct. But, inferences can be supported by what you read and what you know.

Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn about making inferences.

Jake woke up and immediately realized something was wrong. His head was so stuffy it felt like his brain was packed full of cotton! Jake couldn’t breathe properly because his nose was blocked. His blocked nose made his voice sound unusual, too. When Jake tried to get up, he coughed—and when he coughed, he realized his throat was feeling very sore. All Jake could do was groan and fall back into bed; he could not go to school that day. Throughout the day, his father brought him plenty of hot soup and tissues.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: Think about the details in the paragraph. Then, think about what you know. Use this information to make a graphic organizer. ER.

MAST E Y. N I L The first column below shows details that are in the paragraph. The second column showsNfacts WAthat K C Y A L A B A make? CComplete you already know but are not in the paragraph. What inference can OT you ED IN the graphic N U S I D O T organizer below. TED. I O BE REPR H G I R COPY IS BOOK T S I K O BO + R THYou Know E Details from Paragraph What = Inference O L F P N M E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO Jake is not feeling well. Use the information in Jake’s head and S nose were N O I S I M R this chart to infer what stuffy and PE his throat is wrong with Jake.

felt sore. Jake could not go to school that day.

Students stay home from school when they are sick.

Jake’s father brought him hot soup and tissues.

Someone who is sick may want soup and tissues.

THINK

78

A stuffy head and nose, staying home from school, and soup and tissues are all clues that suggest Jake is sick. It appears that Jake has a cold or the flu.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 11: Make Inferences


Make Inferences Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer an Inference question.

You might expect giraffes to be very easy to notice because they have such lengthy necks. However, giraffes can actually be downright difficult to discover in a forest. Giraffes often stand behind tall trees, where their necks cannot be as easily observed. Also, a giraffe’s body is covered in a pattern of yellow and brown stripes and spots— the same coloration as the grass and plants where giraffes live. Meat-eating animals such as lions might have a surprisingly hard time detecting a giraffe to hunt.

1

O N E

Which of the following can you infer from this paragraph?

AGiraffes live in many countries. BGiraffes are not the tallest animal.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

CGiraffes need to hide from lions. DGiraffes sometimes hunt lions.

STRATEGY: List details in the paragraph that you think can help you make an inference. Then, think about what you already know.

THINK

B Y

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below to check why each answer choice is wrong or right. STER.

E MA N I L WAY. K C Y A N L A B OT A ED IN N C U S I D O T R from lions. . I needE RtoEPhide TEDGiraffes H AGiraffes live in many countries. ÷ ÷ C G B I R O COPY IS BDetails OOK Tin the paragraph explain that the S I Giraffes may live in various places,Obut K H LE BO that FOR T way giraffes are colored, and the places Pparagraph there are no details in A the N M E V S I HIS this inference. can help you toTmake where they live, can make giraffes hard to NOT G S I N O I S Choice A cannot be see. It is also mentioned in the paragraph IScorrect. PERM that other animals, such as lions, may try BGiraffes are not the tallest animal. ÷ There are details in the paragraph about giraffes having long necks. This suggests that they are tall. However, it is not enough information to infer that they are the tallest animals. Choice B cannot be correct.

O N E

to hunt giraffes. You can infer from this that giraffes need to hide from lions. Choice C is correct.

÷ DGiraffes sometimes hunt lions. The paragraph states that lions may try to hunt giraffes. However, no details suggest that giraffes ever hunt lions. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 11: Make Inferences

79


Make Inferences Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C r be em em R U to ay AD D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8

Now read this functional passage. It is an example of a letter with a map.

Dear Diary,

R.

STEnight, . MAlast ol. I didn’t get anyLIsleep E N AY I can’t believe today was my first day of high scho CK this morn Y WMia A N L A B and ing, A N ride bus I the t today. OnT C ED because I was tossing and turning, worrying abou IT IS NO U D O R ng at the passing cars. and REPwavi TEadD.of chatOting inste H E G B I I just sat silently staring out the windPows R CO Y toISmak OOe KmyT way to my locker, I couldn’t S B I K tried O and H ing O this When I arrived P LE Bmorn FOR T N M E A V S I G crammed into the halls. For a while I thought that a lot leOwere T THISmany peop believe how N N IS s, but then I realized they were seniors. Will I ever look that old? O I S S I n-up grow M of them PERwere off to my first class, very anxious about After I dumped my jacket in my locker, I headed in a way, but it turned out fine. getting lost in this huge building, which I did ish with Mrs. Landry. She seems This was my schedule today. My first period is Engl ipate any major problems in that pleasant and I really enjoy English, so I don’t antic ing person, so on a scale from one to ten class. The only difficulty is that I’m not a morn time of day. In second period computer my alertness probably registers about one at that gy, and anticipate sharpening my skills in lab, I was impressed by the up-to-date technolo s and then gym, so my mornings are using graphics programs. Next is Home Economic Sam, and two boys I hadn’t met before, relatively stress-free. At lunch I sat with Maddie, ing experiences. Maddie and Sam had and we all had a great time comparing our morn . After lunch, I went upstairs for been away all summer, so it was great to see them

80

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 11: Make Inferences


Make Inferences is the possibility biology, and Mr. King seems nice, but very serious. What I dread most class has to that we’ll have to dissect a frog, but some sophomores told me that every I actually do that. Sixth period is study hall, and I had so many assignments that Ms. Thomas studied instead of socializing. And last, but not least, I have algebra with when she writes who seems very strict, speaks too quickly, and makes the chalk screech do for homework, incomprehensible problems on the board. We have twenty problems to and I’d much prefer to read twenty books! myself for The high school building is such a huge place that I’m impressed with ics class getting lost only once. Well, not really lost, but confused. The Home Econom Room 111-Kitchen meets in “Room 111-Kitchen,” and I finally had to ask someone where m finding it. was. This map of the right wing of the first floor shows why I had a proble Between racing to classes on the first and second Right Wing

Room 108–Computer Labs

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Gym

to main entrance hall Room 111 Kitchen

Room 113 Home Ec.

floors and stopping at my locker, I got too much exercise today! From now on, I’ll avoid sprinting up and down stairs all day and fighting the crowds, by carrying most of my books with me. So instead of

.

lifting STE.R A training for track team, I’ll do lots of weight M E WAY. KLIN it was C Y A N L A B T Afamiliar,Uand Oso I do miss junior high school, though, because everythingISwas ED IN N C D O T R teachers, too. school REgPthe TE.DI. Imiss Oknowin H E very gratifying to be the oldest students in the G B I R OK T each teacher expected COPY e I knew Owhat B classes S K IS becaus I I felt comfortable in most of myBO O H OR T LEfeel that Vway Fagain. P N M E A S ever I I’ll if r wonde from me. I G IS Room 109 Home Ec.

TH NOT S I N SIO on those math problems. Only 20 more to go… going S Now, I betterRget I M PE Donna, a high school student (Wow!)

Passage Vocabulary Words anticipate – expect; look forward to

incomprehensible – difficult to understand

dissect – cut open and study

socializing – have a friendly conversation

gratifying – feeling good about something

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a graphic organizer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 11: Make Inferences

81


Make Inferences Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

How is the high school different from the school Donna attended last year?

AThere are more students. BClasses are more difficult. CEveryone is less friendly.

You will not be able to find specific facts in the diary entry that tell you the HINT answer. You must look at all of the possible answers and try to find details from the letter to support one of the choices. Ask yourself which answer makes the most sense.

DThe seniors look young.

2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

How does Donna probably feel about going to high school?

AShe wishes she were a high school senior. BShe is excited and proud to be in high school.

3

STER. . A M E CShe is afraid and anxious about being in ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A high school. S NOT PRODUCED I T I . DShe likes high school, but not as muchRasIGHTED BE RE O Y T P K O her old school. K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO finding Room 111? Why did Donna have trouble N O I S MIS ERthe POn map, look at the layout of the first floor. Imagine that you are in the hall and looking at the room numbers. HINT

82

Think about how Donna describes her first day of high school. Notice the details she HINT includes, and even how she signs the entry. What can you guess about Donna’s feelings from this information?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 11: Make Inferences


Make Inferences Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

From the diary entry you can tell

Abiology class is on the first floor BDonna likes Sam, but not Maddie CEnglish is Donna’s favorite subject DDonna had trouble finding the gym

5

Why do you think Donna didn’t see Maddie and Sam over the summer?

AMaddie and Sam were angry with Donna and didn’t call her.

BMaddie and Sam were out of town most of the summer.

CMaddie doesn’t like Sam and didn’t want to get together.

DDonna babysat so often that she didn’t

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

have time to see anyone.

6

What was probably Donna’s biggest concern on her first day of high school?

Agetting lost Bfailing a class

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L Dfalling asleep in class B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B Why do you think Donna would twenty N FO books than do math problems? MPLErather read E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM Cbeing late to class

7

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 11: Make Inferences

83


SKILL REVIEW:

Skills 8–11

Directions: Read the passage below and answer questions 1–7.

Adam's Speech Adam hung his head as he trudged home from school. He kicked a stone with his toe and released a big sigh. He couldn't believe that in just a few short weeks he would have to give a speech in front of the entire seventh grade. When he arrived at home, he dropped his backpack, flopped on the couch, and groaned loudly. "What's the problem?" asked Natalie, his older sister. "Public speaking," said Adam. The thought of all those staring eyes made him shudder. Natalie nodded sympathetically. "Public speaking intimidates many people. But, you know what they say: Practice makes perfect," she said. She suggested that Adam get an early start on his speech so that he would have plenty of time to practice. Then, she offered to teach him some tricks to help him give an excellent presentation.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Adam thanked Natalie and headed to the library. He decided to write about Martin Luther King, Jr., one of his personal heroes. King was an important figure in the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. He worked hard to gain equal rights for African Americans. He also delivered many outstanding speeches. Martin Luther King Jr. was an amazing person. Adam found a lot of information to use in his speech. He checked out some books and returned home to compose his note cards. In a few days, he had a final draft prepared. Writing the speech was the easy part. Reciting it in front of all his classmates was a different story. ASTER.

NE M

Y.

A KLI NatalieAmade Adam found Natalie in the living room, and she began to coach him. Y WAdam ACFirst, N L B A N I NOTto deliver practice the speech by himself in front of a mirror. Then, he itUCinED front of her. Later, S had I D O T I R . P D E E R T Natalie assembled their parents and their other so Adam O BE could practice before an audience. YRIGHsiblings, T P K O O C Next, she gave Adam some helpful tips. O SB K IS BOO

THI

she suggested. "Lightly hold the PLE N FOR "It will help you stay steady. And don't forget to Mpodium," E A V S I G S I T TH make eye contact." IS NO

ION

"Wait!" MISSAdam, his voice shaky. "I can't look at their eyes." ERcried

P

"You don't have to look directly at their eyes," Natalie explained. "Look just above their heads. It will seem like you are making eye contact, but you won't have to look directly into anyone's eyes." Adam nodded, smiling. Natalie was the best speech coach ever. When the day arrived for Adam to give his speech, he patiently waited for his turn. Then he marched confidently across the stage to the podium. He held his notes with steady hands, gazed at the audience, and began to speak. When he finished, the audience applauded loudly, and a wide grin spread across Adam's face. Passage Vocabulary Words intimidates – frightens or makes nervous podium – a stand used to support a speaker's notes or papers sympathetically – in an understanding way

84

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 8–11


Fact & Opinion, Predictions, Conclusions, Inferences Make Inferences 1

At the beginning of the story, as Adam is walking home from school he probably feels

Aexcited

REMINDER You have to make an inference to answer this question. An inference is like a guess. Use information in the passage and what you already know to answer this question.

Bashamed Ctroubled Ddisappointed

O N E

Draw Conclusions 2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Why does Adam go to the library?

REMINDER

AHe needs a quiet place to concentrate.

This question asks you to draw a conclusion. The answer is not stated in the passage, but you can use information in the passage to help find the answer.

BHe wants some books on public speaking. CHe wants to get away from his sister.

DHe needs to find information for his speech.

B Y

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T Distinguish Fact from Opinion P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLisE a fact? E A 3 Which sentence from Ithe story V S I G S T TH NO REMINDER ISmany N O I intimidates people.” S A“Public speakingRM S I PE B“Martin Luther King, Jr., was an amazing person.” C“Writing the speech was the easy part.” D“Natalie was the best speech coach ever.”

O N E

Remember that a fact can be proven true. Look at each answer choice. Some answer choices tell you what a person may believe to be true. But only one statement is fact.

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 8–11

85


Skill Review: Skills 8–11 Make Predictions 4

What would most likely have happened if Adam did not get advice from Natalie?

AAdam's classmates would not have listened to Adam's speech. BAdam would not have felt confident while giving his speech. CAdam's classmates would have laughed during Adam's speech. DAdam would have received a failing grade for his speech.

REMINDER This question asks you what might have happened if things went differently. Use information in the passage to help you make a prediction.

Distinguish Fact from Opinion 5

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which of the following statements is an opinion?

ANatalie gives Adam tips about speaking to large crowds. BPracticing a lot is the best way to prepare for a speech.

CMartin Luther King, Jr., is a famous speaker from the past. DSpeaking in front of his classmates makes Adam nervous.

REMINDER

An opinion is what someone believes is true. It may or may not actually be true. Unlike a fact, an opinion cannot be proven. ASTER.

M WAY. KLINE C Y A N L A B OT A ED IN N C U S I D O T TED. I O BE REPR H G I R Make Predictions COPY IS BOOK T S I K O BO the nextFOtime R THAdam has to give a speech? E 6 What will most likely happen L P N M A VE T GIquestion, Othis THIS STo answer N S you must make a prediction. Look at the information in I N O I S S REMINDER I PERM the passage and think about what will probably happen in the future.

86

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 8–11


Skill Review: Skills 8–11 Make Inferences 7

What can you infer about how Adam feels after he gives his speech? Complete the graphic organizer below.

REMINDER

First, list details from the passage that can help you make an inference. Then, write what you already know. Think about what you can infer from this information. Write your inference in the box on the right side of the chart.

Details from Paragraph +

What You Know

=

Inference

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 8–11

87


VOCABULARY REVIEW:

Skills 8–11

Directions: Listed below are some words that were used in each of the passages you just read. Choose the correct words to complete the sentences on this page. You may look back at the passages to find the meaning of each word. Bats! Is There Any Reason to Fear Them?

A Day on the Courts

From Tomboy to First Lady

A Day to Remember

Adam's Speech

adorable

analyzing

encounter

anticipate

intimidates

complex

conceded

scrawny

dissect

podium

menacing

dispersed

sidetracked

gratifying

sympathetically

predators

exasperated

solidified

incomprehensible

immensity

1

socializing

Though completing the

puzzle was very difficult, it was

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 when we finally finished.

2

With large teeth, sharp claws, and a

roar, the lion is one of the fiercest

in all of Africa.

3 4

5

6 7

The

of the planet Jupiter makes Earth seem small by comparison.

. E LINhug. NY WAY. A things that it was hard to resist giving him aCK big L B A IN A T D O E N C U IS D PROof E ED. ItoT perform R T Mr. Perez that heIG isHafraid in front an audience. He said that E OB YR T P K O O C O standing in front of a largeOK group him. IS of people HIS B O T B R E O L F AMP GIVEN T While trying I became when I noticed my friends playing outside. O THIS Sto study, N IS N O I S IS PERM At first, the students thought the math problem was . But after TER little thing, but he did M soAS many

My cousin's cat, Prince, was a

it for a few minutes, they figured out the correct answer. 8

Cora thought she had

her plan of attack for the big chess tournament. But

she was not able to

her opponent’s first move and had to quickly change

her plan. 9

The professor stood behind a

10 Tam looked

and spoke to the class. at the new student who was sitting all alone. Tam sat down

next to the boy, and the two of them began

88

PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 8–11

.


Vocabulary Review: Skills 8–11 Directions: Some words you have already read in this book are used in the questions on this page. Use what you have learned about these words to help you answer questions 1–4.

1

Read the sentence below.

3

"Janet picked up her knife and fork and slowly began to dissect the mystery meat on her plate."

2

Read the sentence below. "The traffic dispersed as we drove out of the crowded city and into the open country."

The word dissect means

The word dispersed means

Achew slowly

Acame to a complete stop

Bslice apart

Bbegan to move more slowly

Chide quickly

Cgathered in one place

Dmove around

Dspread out in different directions

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In which sentence is the word exasperated used correctly?

4

AThe great feast made everyone feel exasperated.

O N E

In which sentence is the word encounter used correctly?

AOn the beach, Misha had her first

B Y

encounter with a sea turtle.

R. the game. A BL IN AN T D O E N C U OD T ISwas ableREtoPRencounter No. Ione the supplies CSeth could not fix his bicycle and soon C D E T H E G B I R O became exasperated. needed to go camping. COPY IS BOOK T S I K O O Btaking R THDLooking up at the moon, I tried to after E DOmar became exasperated O L F P N M E A a long nap. encounter what it was like in space. THIS S IS NOT GIV N ISSIO PERM BThe team was exasperated after they won

TE it BJamal hoped he would encounter MASwhat E . N I L Y WAY ACKa goal. would be like to score

O N E

Vocabulary Challenge Directions: Choose any three vocabulary review words from the top of page 88. Write sentences using each of these words. 1 2 3

PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 8–11

89


SKILL 12:

Analyze Point of View and Purpose

Modeled Instruction A point of view is what a person thinks or believes. A purpose is why something is done. To analyze point of view or purpose, you need to put yourself in the place of the author. You need to ask yourself, “What does the author probably think?” Point of View — What the author thinks or believes Purpose — Why the author wrote something

Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn about point of view and purpose.

Many vehicles that fly can move fast, but none can match the X-15. The North American X-15 rocket plane is the fastest air vehicle ever made. The X-15 was first used in 1959, and it made an immediate impact on flight. In fact, to this day, nobody has ever flown faster than the X-15 pilots did. The X-15 was based on a simple but brilliant design. It was basically just wings and a cockpit mounted on a giant rocket engine. Using this vehicle, pilots could fly over 50 miles high and travel at an astounding 4,000 miles per hour!

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E Y Complete the chart below. Use the details from the paragraph to help you WAauthor CKLIN what Ythe Aunderstand N L A B A N I believes. Fill in the empty box. S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K IS CO THIS BOO KParagraph O Details from the Point of View O B FOR PtheLEauthor tell N M E A V S I (What does you?) (What does the author believe?) OT G THIS N S I ION on a simple but Sbased S I M ThePX-15 was R E STRATEGY: Look for details that tell you what the author thinks or believes.

brilliant design. X-15 pilots could fly 50 miles high.

The X-15 could travel at 4,000 miles per hour.

THINK

90

The author states that the X-15 was based on a brilliant design, and it could fly very high and extremely fast. The author probably thinks the X-15 is an amazing plane.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 12: Analyze Point of View and Purpose


Analyze Point of View and Purpose Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer an Author’s Purpose question.

“We want you, Mayor McHugh!” should be the cry for all the people of Templeton. Mayor Eugene McHugh has already served as our mayor, and he has done a fantastic job. Mayor McHugh showed that he cared about working people in town by lowering their taxes. He helped businesses grow by offering business owners special rewards. Mayor McHugh also is known to visit schools and clubs to talk with people, get their ideas, and let them know he’s on their side.

1

O N E

Why did the author write this paragraph?

Ato offer advice about how to start a business Bto tell Mayor McHugh he should lower taxes

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Cto get people to vote for Mayor McHugh

Dto explain why Templeton is a great place

STRATEGY: Make a list of the important details in the paragraph. Think about what these details tell you. Ask yourself, “What is the author’s main purpose for writing this?”

THINK

B Y

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below to check why each answer choice is wrong or right. STER.

E MA N I L WAY. K C Y A N L A B OT A ED IN N C U S I D O T I R for Mayor McHugh RtoEPvote TEDto. get people H Ato offer hints about how to start ÷ ÷ C E G B I R O T COPY IS BThere a business OOKare S I many details in the paragraph K O H O T B R E O L F The author mentions businesses about why Mayor McHugh is a good mayor. MP in the GIVEN T HIS SareA no Idetails O paragraph. But Tthere that The author states that people should want N S N O I S suggest how a person McHugh to be their mayor. Choice C is the IS should start a PERM business. Choice A cannot be correct.

Bto tell Mayor McHugh he should ÷ lower taxes The author points out that Mayor McHugh has already lowered taxes—not that he should lower taxes. Choice B cannot be correct.

O N E

correct answer.

÷ Dto explain why Templeton is a great place The author is speaking to the people who live in the town of Templeton. But the details in the paragraph are mostly about Mayor McHugh—not Templeton. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 12: Analyze Point of View and Purpose

91


Analyze Point of View and Purpose Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this functional passage. It is an example of a letter.

Dear Mr. Reynolds,

s for how to vide you with suggestion pro to s ate ssm cla my and all of have exceeded Thank you for inviting me my understanding that we is It r. ise . suggest dra fun al nu an during our lik TEeRto S A needs, but EwoMuld ny ma spend the money raised ve ha we at th e WAY. KLIN more than $500. I realiz C Y A N L our fundraising goal by A B OT A uld best be used. ED IN N C U S I D how I feel this money co O T .I PRoard, but that would leave very REreb TEDthe H E G sco B ll I tba foo R O ing ouPtYreplac cussion abO OOKscoTreboard is still in working condition, I B There has been much dis OK IS C S I the ce Sin H E BanOy otherENpuFrpo usMed ORse.T most of the money for more immediate needs—such PLfor little money to beSA V I uld G is wo leave IS just repainNtOit.T Th at they should be THwe suggest that safety reasons, I think th S for I ed ed ne are ts N ma O astics. Since the SImn as new maEts RMforISgy P ty. given the highest priori more easels, purchasing at least three est gg su to e lik o als uld club, I wo ough supplies, we As a member of the art Since we do not have en es. sh bru int pa n ze do o spend too s, and tw aring, but we currently sh six more sets of oil paint th wi m ble pro a ve have. We do not ha have to share what we do at we do have. n to use the supplies th tur r ou for ng iti wa e much tim d teachers work very a. Each year students an ide at gre a be o als uld wo not have any Purchasing recycle bins es, and cans. Yet, we do ttl bo c, sti pla r, pe pa le mmunity to recyc involved in hard to encourage our co that have been actively ers ch tea d an nts de stu l. Many of the g program up and recycle bins in our schoo get an effective recyclin lp he to y pp ha be uld grams wo community recycling pro running in our school.

92

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 12: Analyze Point of View and Purpose


Analyze Point of View and Purpose

Another issue that I fee l needs to be addressed is the playground. I think use some trees and flowe our playground could rs. The students at our sch ool spend a great deal of during recess and lunch time on the playground time. However, because the playground is so run in it. Students are alway down, no one takes any s leaving trash on the gro pride und even though there to dispose of garbage. Ma are two large bins in wh ybe if we cleaned up the ich playground a bit, students it. Some trees and flowe would take more pride in rs would go a long way toward making our playg in. Besides, adding a few round a place to take pri more trees and flowers de would be good for the en vironment. I understand that you wi ll be receiving many mo re suggestions from oth some difficult decisions er students. There will be to make. I realize that it ma y not be possible to purch I have suggested, but I ase all of the items that hope that you will give them careful consideration . Please let me know if yo u have any questions ab out these suggestions. I way that I can. am willing to help in an y

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Thank you again for inv iting me and my classm ates to provide you with our suggestions. Sincerely, Maria Polanco

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM Passage Vocabulary Words consideration – thought exceeded – had more than was needed priority – main concern

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a chart or list of important details.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 12: Analyze Point of View and Purpose

93


Analyze Point of View and Purpose Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

With which statement below is Maria most likely to agree?

AThe school playground is a very dangerous place.

BIt would be a waste of money to replace

Think about all of the statements and suggestions Maria makes in her letter. HINT Use this information to help you to understand her point of view. Then, ask yourself which answer choice can be supported by her point of view.

the scoreboard.

CTeachers should be responsible for purchasing recycle bins.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

DStudents that belong to the art club do not like to share. 2

Why did Maria write this letter?

AHer teacher asked her to write a letter to Mr. Reynolds with her suggestions.

Think about each answer choice. Look for details in the letter that support each possible answer. Which choice is best HINT supported by the details in the letter?

STER. . A M E suggest how to improve the school. ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A OT UCED D O CMr. Reynolds asked all students to write a ED. IT IS N R P GHT BE RE I letter with their suggestions. R O Y T P K IS CO THIS BOO K the O O in fundraiser B DStudents who participated LE FOR P N M E A V S I were asked to make suggestions. G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM BMaria thought it would be a good idea to

3

Why does Maria think trees and flowers should be purchased with the money that has been raised?

HINT

94

Read the section of the letter where Maria suggests buying trees and flowers. What reasons does she give for her suggestion? In your answer, be sure to include details that explain Maria’s point of view.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 12: Analyze Point of View and Purpose


Analyze Point of View and Purpose Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

6

The main purpose of this letter is to

5

Which item does Maria think is needed most?

Asay thank you

Apaintbrushes for the art club

Bpersuade the reader

Brecycle bins for classrooms

Cprovide information

Ctrees for the playground

Dstate a complaint

Dmats for gymnastics

With which statement below is Maria least likely to agree?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

AMr. Reynolds will probably purchase all of the items she suggested. BThe school playground needs to be cleaned up.

CMost students would like money to be used to purchase recycle bins. DThe mats currently being used for gymnastics are not safe.

7

STER. . A M E Why does Maria think Mr. Reynolds will have a difficult decision to make? LACKLIN Y WAY N A B A N I S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 12: Analyze Point of View and Purpose

95


SKILL 13:

Identify Literary Forms & Sources of Information

Modeled Instruction To answer some questions, you must identify different literary forms and sources of information. The literary form of a passage is the way the passage was written. Passages can be written in different forms, or styles. The source of information is where you are likely to find a passage, or details from a passage. Literary Forms: a poem, a fable, a fairy tale, a biography, science fiction, historical fiction Sources of Information: a newspaper, a magazine, an encyclopedia, a storybook, the Internet

Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn about literary forms and sources of information.

By the year 2156, the people of Earth had moved into deep space. There, they explored and built homes on new planets. Using rocket packs, human explorers jumped from planet to planet, searching out and studying new people and places. Captain Slabrock was the leader of a heroic group of adventurers who studied dangerous faraway worlds. Little did the captain and the crew know what they would find when they traveled beyond the limits of their galaxy.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

. read. STRATEGY: Look for clues that can help you identify the literary form of the paragraphAyou STERjust M KLINE

WAY.

Y to identify What type of story might begin with this paragraph? The list of cluesA below ANyou BLAC shouldD help N I T O N CE the literary form. RODU . IT IS REP TED H E G B I R O COPY IS BOOK T S I K O BO What type of story do R TH E O L F Clue 1: P N M E A V S I G S I T you think this is? takes place T inHthe future S NO I N O I S RMIS E P Clue 2: involves amazing new technology

Clue 3: takes place in outer space

THINK

96

Stories that take place in the future and tell about adventures in outer space and amazing technology are usually science fiction stories.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 13: Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information


Identify Literary Forms & Sources of Information Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer a Sources of Information question. The “domino effect” is one of the most interesting ways to learn about energy and motion. It’s also fun and easy to do. Dominoes are little narrow rectangular blocks. Imagine that you have set up a long line of dominoes so that they are all standing upright and are very close to each other. If you push over the first domino, it will fall down onto the second. The falling domino creates energy that is able to knock over the second domino. The second domino then falls into the third domino, creating more energy and knocking it down. This “chain” can go on forever, or at least until the last domino falls!

1

O N E

Where would you most likely read this paragraph?

Ain a newspaper Bin a biography Cin a science book Din a storybook

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: Think about the information that is in the paragraph you just read. Ask yourself, “Where would I most likely find this information?”

THINK

B Y

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below STERto. . A M E check why each answer choice is wrong or right. CKLIN Y WAY

A BLA CED IN AN T O N ODU IT IS R . P D E E R T Ain a newspaper ÷ Cin a science O BEbook YRIGH÷ T P K O O C O A newspaper usually reports facts and OK IS OR THIS BA science book contains important facts O B E L details about recent or Acurrent This and ideas that have to do with science. The NF MP events. E V S I G S I T O TH an ideaIabout paragraph describes science “domino effect” helps to explain energy N S N O I S that would probably and motion. These are important scientific MISnot fit in a newspaper. PERbe Choice A cannot correct. ideas. Choice C is the correct answer. Bin a biography ÷ A biography is a real-life story about a person’s life. This paragraph does not tell you anything about a person. Choice B cannot be correct.

O N E

÷ Din a storybook A storybook contains a series of short stories that are usually made up. This paragraph describes real facts and idea. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 13: Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information

97


Identify Literary Forms & Sources of Information Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C Animal Language U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read the passage below. Look for clues that tell you what type of passage it is.

(Adapted from The Story of Dr. Dolittle by Hugh Lofting)

STER. . A M E KLIN in aANconversation It happened one afternoon that the Doctor was sitting in his kitchen Y WAY ACengaged L B A N I NOT with the Cat’s-meat-Man who had come to see him withTaIS stomachache. UCED D O I R . P GHTEDand become BEanREanimal-doctor?” asked the I “Why don’t you give up being a people’s doctor, R O Y T P K O Cat’s-meat-Man. K IS C R THIS BOO O O B FOthe windowsill gazing out at the rain and singing a N on MPLE was perched E A V The parrot, Polynesia, S I G S I T O TH IS Nabruptly stopped singing and began to listen attentively. sailor-song to herself. She N O I S S I M R E Doctor,” the Cat’s-meat-Man continued, “you know all about animals—much more “YouPsee, than what these here veterinarians do. That book you wrote—about cats—why, it’s wonderful! I can’t read or write myself—or maybe I’d write some books. But my wife, Theodosia, she’s a scholar, she is. And she read your book to me. Well, it’s absolutely wonderful—that’s all that can be said— absolutely wonderful. You might have been a cat yourself. You know the way they think. And listen: you can make a lot of money doctoring animals. Do you know that? You see, I’d send all the old women who had sick cats or dogs to you. And if they didn’t get sick fast enough, I could put something in the meat I sell ‘em to make ‘em sick, see?” “Oh, no,” the Doctor quickly responded. “You mustn’t do that. That wouldn’t be proper.” “Oh, I didn’t mean real sick,” stated the Cat’s-meat-Man. “Just a little something to make them droopy-like was what I had reference to. But as you say, maybe it ain’t quite fair on the animals. But they’ll get sick anyway, because the old women always give ‘em too much to eat. And look, all the farmers ‘round about who had lame horses and frail lambs—they’d come. Be an animal-doctor.”

98

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 13: Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information


Identify Literary Forms & Sources of Information When the Cat’s-meat-Man had departed the parrot flew off the windowsill on to the Doctor’s table and declared, “That man’s got sense. That’s what you ought to do. Be an animal-doctor. Give the silly people up—if they haven’t brains enough to see you’re the best doctor in the world. Take care of animals instead— THEY’ll soon figure it out. Be an animal-doctor.” “Oh, there are plenty of animal-doctors,” said John Dolittle, putting the flower-pots outside on the windowsill to get the rain. “Yes, there ARE plenty,” said Polynesia. “But none of them are any good at all. Now listen, Doctor, and I’ll tell you something. Did you know that animals can talk?” “I know that parrots can talk,” said the Doctor. “Oh, we parrots can talk in two languages—people’s language and bird-language,” asserted Polynesia proudly. “If I say, ‘Polly wants a cracker,’ you understand me. But hear this: Ka-ka oi-ee, fee-fee?”

E L P N M O I A T S A C U D E ! Y L Y L L L A A R R . 9 9 . 8 8 8

“Good Gracious!” cried the Doctor. “What does that mean?” “That means, ‘Is the porridge hot yet?’—in bird-language.”

“My! You don’t say so!” said the Doctor. “You never talked that way to me before.” “What would have been the good?” inquired Polynesia, dusting some cracker-crumbs off her left R. wing. “You wouldn’t have understood me if I had.” MASTE

KLINE

Y LACdresser-drawer “Tell me some more,” instructed the Doctor, all excited; and he rushed overAtoBthe ANand N I T D O CE This is IS N I’ll write came back with the butcher’s book and a pencil. “Now don’t go too ODitUdown. ITfast—and R . P D E E R T H the Birds’TA, BECs first—slowly now.” interesting—very interesting—something quite new.PY Give RIGme O B,

WAY.

CO OOK S B I S K I O H So that was the way the Doctor aware that O Bbecame R T animals had a language of their own and FOwhile PallLEthat N M E A V S I could talk to one another. And afternoon, it was raining, Polynesia sat on the kitchen OT G THIS N S I table giving him bird words SIOtoNput in the book. S I M R PE Passage Vocabulary Words abruptly – suddenly attentively – alertly; carefully departed – exited; went away scholar – a person who is very educated

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a chart or list of important details.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 13: Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information

99


Identify Literary Forms & Sources of Information Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

You can tell this passage is an example of fantasy because

AJohn Dolittle is a doctor

Think about what a fantasy is. How are all fantasies alike? Choose the answer that is HINT an example of something that would only happen in a fantasy.

BJohn Dolittle writes about cats CPolynesia can talk DPolynesia can fly 2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

How can you tell that this passage is NOT an example of a fable?

AIt does not teach a lesson to the reader.

Think about what a fable is. Consider the elements and characteristics of a story HINT that make it a fable. Use this information to help choose the correct answer.

BIt is entertaining to read.

CThe reader does not know when the story takes place.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . Would this passage be considered fiction orGnonfiction? Explain HTED BE REyour answer. I R O Y T P K O BOOand nonfiction. Then think about how you Think about the differences fiction S K IS Cbetween I O H O T B R read. Does it fit the description of a story that is would describe NyouFOjust MPLEthe passage E A V S I G S I T TH Or doesIS itNOfit the description of a story that is nonfiction? HINT fiction? SION S I M R PE DThere are no heroes or villains in the story.

3

100 PART A: One-by-One | Skill 13: Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information


Identify Literary Forms & Sources of Information Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

This passage could most likely be found

Ain a book about animals Bin a collection of short stories Cin a journal for doctors Din a historical novel

5

The conversation between characters in this type of passage is referred to as

Anarration Bmonologue Cparody Ddialogue

6

Aanecdote Bstory Cnarrative

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K Why is this passage NOT an example of aIS CO Explain OO answer. Byour S K legend? I O H O T B N FOR MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM Dtale

7

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which of the following words does NOT accurately describe this passage?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 13: Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information 101


SKILL 14:

Apply Prior Knowledge

Modeled Instruction Apply prior knowledge means that you must use what you already know to help answer a question. A passage will have some details that will be helpful to you. But, you may also need to think about what you already know. When you apply prior knowledge, you make connections between what you read and what you know. You might read:

Still in her pajamas, Laura went into the kitchen to make scrambled eggs.

Things you know:

People often wear pajamas in the morning. People often make scrambled eggs for breakfast.

Make the connection:

Laura probably just woke up.

Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to learn about applying prior knowledge.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

It was Tejas’s favorite day of the week, and he began the day by sleeping late so he could regain his energy after a busy week at school. In the morning, he enjoyed relaxing with a newspaper and reading the colorful comic pages, which he always found amusing. He knew he also had to reserve some time for completing his homework and studying. He only had today and tomorrow to finish all of his work before returning to school on Monday.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A STRATEGY: Connect details in the paragraph with what you already S NOTknow.PRODUCED I T I . D E HTEsomething E Ralready Complete the chart below. Fill in the empty box knew before you read the Gwith Byou I R O Y T P K O O C O paragraph. Can you tell what dayOitK is? IS HIS B O T B R E O L F EN AMP THIS S IS NOT GIV What What You Already Know SION You Read S I M R PE Tejas just finished a busy week at school.

The last day of the school week is usually Friday.

Tejas slept late and was relaxing.

People often sleep late and relax on the weekend.

Tejas had two days to finish his homework before it was Monday.

THINK

You know from your prior knowledge that the school week usually ends on Friday and there is no school on Saturday and Sunday. Since it will be Monday in two days, it must be Saturday.

102 PART A: One-by-One | Skill 14: Apply Prior Knowledge


Apply Prior Knowledge Directions: Read the paragraph below and follow along to answer a Prior Knowledge question.

Camels sometimes look and behave like horses or mules, but they can live in very hot, forbidding places, including barren deserts. Most people are aware that camels can store water, but you may be surprised to learn that they carry their own food supply as well. Camels store extra water in their stomachs. Meanwhile, the notable humps on their backs are full of fat that camels can use if they are unable to find food. With spare food and water, camels are ready for any emergency.

1

Why is it important that camels store food and water?

ACamels often help people who are hungry. BHorses and mules eat food and drink water.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

CCamels eat much more than most animals. DThere is little to eat or drink in deserts.

O N E

STRATEGY: Think about the details in the paragraph. Try to connect these details with what you already know. You may want to make a chart or a list.

THINK

Think about each answer choice and choose the best answer. Read the explanations below to check why each answer choice is wrong or right. STER.

E MA N I L WAY. K C Y A N L A B D IN OT A E N C U S I D O T ACamels often help people who are hungry. รท รท C R than most animals. . I eat much REPmore TEDCamels H E G B I R O T no details in the paragraph to Camels may help people in some ways. ButCOPY There OOKare S B I S K I O H there are no details that suggest people suggest that camels eat or drink more than BO RT E O L F P N M Aor water. Choice EA rely on camels for Ifood other animals. Choice C cannot be correct. TH S S IS NOT GIV cannot be correct. SION S I M R PE รท DThere is little to eat or drink in deserts. รทHorses and mules eat food and B drink water. The paragraph explains that camels may look and behave like horses or mules. But there are no details that suggest camels compete with these animals for food and water. Choice B cannot be correct.

Details in the paragraph tell you that camels may live in barren deserts. You already know that deserts may be very dry with little to eat or drink. It makes sense that an animal in a desert would need to store food and water. Choice D is the correct answer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 14: Apply Prior Knowledge 103

B Y O N E


Apply Prior Knowledge Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D Extreme Climates E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this nonfiction passage. It is an example of a scientific passage.

Climate refers to the types of weather conditions associated with different regions around STER. the. A M E world. The climate of a region can change with the seasons—a place can beKvery WAY C LIN hot inAthe Y summer A N L B A N I and very cold in the winter. Climate also changes over a long period ForEexample, almost NOT of time. UC Das Greenland, S what I D O T I R . twenty thousand years ago a sheet of ice completely covered is today known P E ED BE Rhas RIGHT in these O T Canada, and parts of the United States.CO The regions since warmed considerably. PYclimate K O

K IS

S BO

OO of the Bregions Climates vary in different world R THIfor several reasons. Five major factors that affect the E O L F P N M E A distanceT from climate in a Tregion HIS Sare: O GIV the equator, height above sea level, land surface features of a N S I N or large bodies of water, and circulation of wind. With so many factors region, distance Ifrom SIOoceans S M R PEthe weather, it is no wonder the climate in different regions of the world can vary so influencing greatly. Perhaps the most extreme climates can be found in deserts, rain forests, and the Arctic tundras.

Deserts

A desert is a region that is generally considered to be very hot and dry. The temperature in a desert often reaches 100ºF in the day. However, at night the temperature drops considerably. Nighttime temperatures in the desert can fall below 45ºF. Occasionally the temperature might even drop low enough for it to snow. The average amount of rainfall in a desert is less than ten inches each year. In fact, some deserts may go for several years without any rainfall. This extremely dry climate has made it difficult for plants and animals to survive in deserts. However, there are some plants and animals well adapted for this extreme climate. For example, a cactus can store large amounts of water. Also, reptiles are coldblooded animals that prefer hot climates. Many insects also live in the desert.

104 PART A: One-by-One | Skill 14: Apply Prior Knowledge


Apply Prior Knowledge Sand covers about 20 percent of most deserts. The rest of the land is mostly gravel, rocky hills, and dry lakebeds. Deserts cover about one-fifth of Earth’s surface. The largest desert in the world is the Sahara Desert, located in northern Africa. It covers approximately 500,000 square miles.

Rain Forests

A rain forest is a region characterized by a warm and wet climate. Most rain forests are close to the equator and are called tropical rain forests. All rain forests receive an abundant amount of rain and are covered with vegetation. The temperature in a rain forest does not change very much. It will usually stay between 64ºF and 95ºF. Thunderstorms are very common in rain forests and may occur over two hundred days in a year. As a result, most rain forests will receive over 80 inches of rainfall each year. Some rain forests have received over 250 inches in a year. All of this rainfall has helped to support the vast amount of plant and animal life that can be found in rain forests. Rain forests cover about seven percent of Earth’s surface, but are home to more than half of the plants and animals that we share our planet with. Broadleaf evergreen trees and palms are very common in rain forests. Bats, birds, lizards, and monkeys also thrive here.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E Arctic Tundras ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Unfortunately, rain forests do face a threat. In little over 50 years, over half of the world’s rain forests have been destroyed. Trees in the rain forests are harvested by the millions each year to provide wood.

The Arctic tundras are cold and dry regions where trees cannot grow. In the summer, temperatures R. MASTE AY. rarely reach 50ºF. Because it is so cold there the soil is permanently frozen. This is referredIN toE as L ACKgrow in Ithe NY W AArctic BLcan permafrost. Only very small shrubs, some grass, and a few other types of vegetation A N T D O UCE SN tundras. PROD D. IT I

HTE

E RE

IG PolarKbears, YRregion. In the spring, many animals migrate to the CArctic TO Bcaribou, birds, and foxes P O O O S B I OKwalrusesOlive HIS the coastline. However, once the often go there in search of food. SealsBO and R Talong E L F P N M A snow begins temperature begins to drop T GIVtoE fall, these animals migrate farther south. The Arctic HIS Sand O T N S I tundras are usually covered with IONsnow from September to April or May. MISS

PERare located near the Arctic ocean. They include Greenland and the northern The Arctic tundras parts of Canada, Europe, and Russia. Few people live there because the climate is so harsh. Passage Vocabulary Words approximately – almost or about; not exactly

vegetation – plant life

characterized – to be identified or described circulation – move around (in a circle or complete pattern)

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a chart or list of important details.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 14: Apply Prior Knowledge 105


Apply Prior Knowledge Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3.

1

Which of the following is the same as a rain forest?

Aa jungle Ba beach Ca prairie

First look for information in the passage that might help you answer the question. HINT Then think about what you already know. This should help you to better understand the information in the passage. Choose the answer that makes the most sense to you.

Da swampland

2

Aa seagull Ba monkey Ca lizard

Details in the passage tell you that reptiles and insects live in the desert. HINT Which animal listed is either a reptile or an insect? You must use what you already know about these animals to answer this question.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

Da parrot

3

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which animal lives in the desert?

Name three articles of clothing you would wear if you were going to travel to the Arctic tundra. Explain why you chose these items. The passage provides details about the Arctic tundra climate. You must use what you know about different articles of clothing to decide what would be best to wear in such a climate. HINT

106 PART A: One-by-One | Skill 14: Apply Prior Knowledge


Apply Prior Knowledge Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write out your answer. 4

6

An example of how the climate of a region can change over a long period of time is

On which of the following continents could you find an Arctic tundra?

Aa flood

AAfrica

Bthe Ice Age

BAntarctica

Ca hurricane

CSouth America

Dthe Stone Age

DNorth America

Which of the following items would be least useful if you lived in a rain forest?

Aa hat Ban umbrella Csunglasses Da pair of boots

7

5

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E LIN Y WAY ACKwhy. N L A B Which season of the year would be the best time to travel to a desert? Explain A N I S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 14: Apply Prior Knowledge 107


SKILL REVIEW:

Skills 12–14

Directions: Read the passage below and answer questions 1–7.

Bicycling: A Better Way Would you like to do something to make your body healthier? Would you like to keep your heart strong and help your mind to concentrate better? Would you like to help Earth by making it a cleaner and better place to live? If you answered “yes,” then hop on a bicycle and take a ride! More people ride bicycles now than ever before. The number of bikes in the United States is approximately one hundred million. In the Netherlands, 75 percent of people own bicycles. In Japan and China, using a bicycle is a way of life. Regular use of a bicycle can be quite beneficial. It offers many advantages. A bicycle will pay for itself with even moderate use. Riding a bicycle will save you money. If you usually use public transportation, such as a bus, a train, or a subway, you will spend less on fares. By riding a bicycle, you can also cut down on car costs such as gasoline and oil changes.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

From a medical point of view, riding a bicycle makes a great deal of sense. Doctors say that bicycle riding is an excellent form of exercise. Bicycling causes less damage to the joints and muscles than jogging does. In fact, experts advise people who may have knee and ankle problems to ride a bicycle rather than to jog. Regular exercise such as bicycling will help you feel better. It will also help you live a longer, healthier life. Studies have shown that exercising regularly can extend a person’s life. Exercise TER.tones Salso A improves blood flow and makes the heart and lungs stronger. Of course, bicycle Eriding M IN AY. Wworks CKLriding Y N arm, leg, shoulder, back, and stomach muscles. Whether you know Ait BorLAnot, aNbicycle A OT ED I N C U S all of these body parts. I D O T I R

HTED.

E REP

RIG a bicycle Bicycling also helps to control weight. YRiding P K TisO aBworthwhile activity if you are trying O O C O S B I to lose weight. Bicycle racing BOOorKriding aFObicycle R THISuphill burns about 600 calories per hour. Moreover, E L P N M A like any exercise riding G VE can help a person to relax. This is good for your mind. T a Ibicycle HIS Sroutine, O T N S I People usually findIOitNeasier to concentrate when they feel relaxed. MISS

FromPE anR environmental point of view, bicycling also makes perfect sense. Bicycles produce no harmful gases that pollute the air. They do not create any noise, either. They also take up less room than cars and can be driven by children or adults. Bicycles can be used as transportation when going to and from places of business. They are also very good for light shopping, visiting friends, and most other neighborhood trips. In fact, bicycles are quite handy. Riding a bicycle can be both beneficial and fun!

Passage Vocabulary Words beneficial – helpful moderate – not a lot or a little; average routine – something done on a regular schedule worthwhile – worth the time and effort; something you should do

108 PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 12–14


Point of View & Purpose, Forms & Sources, Prior Knowledge Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information 1

This passage is most like

REMINDER

Aa fictional story

This question asks you about the literary form of this passage. Think about how this passage is like other stories or passages you have read. Which answer choice best describes this type of passage?

Ba persuasive essay Can encyclopedia entry Dan autobiography

Analyze Point of View and Purpose

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Apply Prior Knowledge 2

With which statement would the author most likely agree?

APeople who live far from cities benefit most from riding bicycles.

BRiding a bicycle is beneficial only for children.

CPeople with muscle and joint problems should avoid bicycling. DRiding a bicycle is a responsible way for people to travel.

3

REMINDER

This question asks about the author’s point of view. Look for details in the passage that tell you what the author thinks or feels. .

STER A M E WAY. KLIN C Y A N L A B OT A ED IN N C U S I D O T TED. I O BE REPR H G I R COPY IS BOOK T S I K O O Bpeople R TtoH do a Why are bicycles a poor choice for whoFplan E O L P N M E A REMINDER lot of shopping? THIS S OT GIV N S I N IO ABicycles havePElimited RMISSspace for carrying things. The answer to some questions BMost stores do not have a place to park bicycles. CBicycles can carry only one person at a time. DMost stores are located far from where people live.

cannot be found right in the passage. You must think about what you read and what you already know. Your prior knowledge should help you to choose the best answer.

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 12–14 109

O N E B Y O N E


Skill Review: Skills 12–14 Analyze Point of View and Purpose 4

Why did the author most likely write this passage?

Ato describe why bicycles became popular Bto compare bicycling and jogging Cto convince readers to ride bicycles Dto teach people how to use bicycles

REMINDER To answer this question you must consider the author’s purpose. Look for information that gives clues about why the author wrote the passage. What is his or her goal or objective?

Apply Prior Knowledge 5

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Why is riding a bicycle most likely better than jogging for people with knee and ankle problems?

AIt takes less energy for a person to jog.

BIt takes less energy for a person to ride a bicycle. CJogging puts less pressure on your legs.

DRiding a bicycle puts less pressure on your legs.

REMINDER

There is a lot of information in a passage that will help you answer questions about the passage. But sometimes you also need to think about what you ER. know to STalready A M E . N best answer. choose CKLIthe Y WAY

A BLA CED IN AN T O N ODU IT IS R . P D E E R T YRIGH OOK TO BE P O C Identify Literary BForms of Information IS B OK IS and HSources O T R E O L F SAMP lookOTtoGfind IVENa passage like the one you just read? 6 Where should THISsomeone N IS N question O I S This asks you about the source of the information. This means you must S I PERM think about where you would most likely need to look to find the information REMINDER found in the passage.

110 PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 12–14


Skill Review: Skills 12–14 Analyze Point of View and Purpose 7

What does the author think about using bicycles to travel? List three details you read in the passage. Use this information to help you answer this question.

REMINDER

The details in the passage will help you to figure out what the author thinks or believes. List details from the passage in the graphic organizer. Then write what you think the author’s point of view is.

Details from the Paragraph

Point of View

(What does the author tell you?)

(What does the author believe?)

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 12–14 111


VOCABULARY REVIEW:

Skills 12–14

Directions: Listed below are some words that were used in each of the passages you just read. Choose the correct words to complete the sentences on this page. You may look back at the passages to find the meaning of each word. Letter (no title)

Animal Language

Extreme Climates

Bicycling: A Better Way

consideration

abruptly

approximately

beneficial

exceeded

attentively

characterized

moderate

priority

departed

circulation

routine

scholar

vegetation

worthwhile

1

The power outage caused by the storm spoiled our usual morning

2

We predicted that

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

two hundred people would attend the concert, but the

size of the crowd greatly 3

I always listen

.

our expectations.

when my grandfather speaks. He is a real

who seems to know about everything.

4 5

6 7

Dasha made it a

to feed her cat every day before going to school.

ER. N WAY. KLIthe C Y A N L This the type of weather we usually have during summer. A B OT A ED IN N C U S I D O T PRits long journey. D. I REon E The boat sailed out into the ocean as YitRIGHTE B O COP OOK T S B I S K I O H The frozen pipesMstopped of water throughout the entire building. PLE BOthe IVEN FOR T A S G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM There was only a

AST down. change in temperature when the sun E Mwent

112 PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 12–14


Vocabulary Review: Skills 12–14 Directions: Some words you have already read in this book are used in the questions on this page. Use what you have learned about these words to help you answer questions 1–4.

1

Read the sentence below.

3

"The students abruptly stopped speaking when their teacher entered the room."

Read the sentence below. "After much consideration, my family decided to go to the Grand Canyon on vacation."

The word abruptly means

The word consideration means

Aunhappily

Aconfusion

Bimmediately

Bpausing

Cexcitedly

Cexcitement

Daccidentally

Dthinking

2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In which sentence is the word vegetation used correctly?

4

AThe vegetation in our yard grew quickly

In which sentence is the word beneficial used correctly?

AThe honor students received beneficial

when watered every day.

BThe deer quickly drank all of the vegetation

awards for their good grades.

R. healthy breakfast.BLACKL ANY W A N I A lack of vegetation makes it difficult to C T D O N CE ODUmy IT ISbeneficial It. was to have umbrella when enjoy going to the zoo. R C P D E E R T H E G B I R O it began to rain. COPY IS BOOK T DDuring the spring, there is much vegetation S I K O BO R THDIt was very beneficial outside when the sun in the air. E O L F P N M E A was shining. THIS S IS NOT GIV N ISSIO PERM in the pond.

O N E

STEate a . BJackie felt quite beneficialINafter E MAshe AY

Vocabulary Challenge Directions: Choose any three vocabulary review words from the top of page 112. Write sentences using each of these words. 1 2 3

PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 12–14 113

B Y O N E


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

114


PART B: Reading Skills Review

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The passage in this section of the book is followed by 14 questions. There is one question for each of the skills you learned about in Part A. Next to each question is a reminder to help you recall which skill you must rely on to answer the question correctly. STER.

E MA N I L WAY. K C Y A N L A B OT A ED IN N C U S I D O T TED. I O BE REPR H G I R COPY IS BOOK T S I K O BO R TH E O L F P N M E A THIS S IS NOT GIV SION S I M R PE

115


READING SKILLS REVIEW Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow. Use the reminders provided to help you recall the correct strategy for answering each type of question.

“There he is again,” Antwan declared. “There who is?” Roberto asked. The boys from the neighborhood were gathered at the park for their traditional Sunday afternoon game of touch football. As they gathered on the edge of the grass eager to choose sides for the game, they noticed they had attracted the attention of a small crowd. Actually, it was less than a small crowd—two people to be precise. “Isn’t that the boy who just moved into the house across the street from you?” Rashid inquired. “Yeah, that looks like him. The little girl standing next to him must be his sister,” Roberto responded. “He’s been coming to watch us play ever since the start of football season. Do you think he wants to play?” Roberto looked across the football field and remembered when he was the new kid in town. A few years ago he was the boy standing on the sidelines waiting for someone to invite him R. to E T S A play. Roberto was the type of person who felt uncomfortable about starting a Nconversation withY. EM I A L W K C Y A enough courage N L someone he didn’t know. Roberto recalled how he was unable to work up to ask A B A N I CED to play, Roberto Uhim S NOThad Pinvited I D if he could play. If it wasn’t for the fact that Antwan .and Rashid O T I R GHTED BE RE I thought he might still be watching from the sidelines. R O Y T P K OOand introduced himself. “Hi, I’m Roberto. Bboy IS COover toTHthe S Kwalked After a brief pause Roberto I O O B R N FOyou.” MPLE the street I live in the house across from E A V S I G S I T TH is Darius,”ISthe NOboy replied, “and this is my sister Jade.” “My name N O I S IS at the little girl, who smiled and waved her hand, but she didn’t say a word. Roberto looked PERM She was wearing a bright red baseball cap and a jersey that looked as if it were two sizes too big. He guessed that she must have been about six years old—the same age as his younger sister. He also guessed that she liked to play baseball. Roberto could tell from looking at Jade that she would make a great new friend for his sister, Valerie. Valerie loved to play baseball. “Come on, Roberto. You’re holding up the game,” Rashid yelled out from across the field. Roberto held up his hand and gestured to his friends to wait another minute. He invited Darius to play and asked Jade if she could help keep score. Jade seemed to be quite content with the responsibility that she was given. She brushed aside the leaves that covered the ground, picked up a rock, and began scratching several boxes on the cement pavement. The rock worked almost as well as a piece of chalk. After Roberto introduced Darius to the rest of the boys, Roberto and Antwan, the team captains, took turns selecting players. Roberto had no way of knowing how good Darius was at playing football, but he had a feeling that he would be a good player and chose him first. Even if

E L P SAM UCATION D E ! Y L Y L L L A R . RA 9 9 . 8 8 8

116 PART B: Reading Skills Review


Reading Skills Review he wasn’t that good, it seemed like the right thing to do. Roberto figured it would help make Darius feel more comfortable and relaxed if he showed some confidence in him. After sides were chosen, the two teams lined up at opposite ends of the field and Roberto kicked the ball into the air to begin the game. Rashid caught the ball and dodged quickly to the left and then to the right before darting straight ahead and all the way down the field for a touchdown. Roberto and his friends all agreed that Rashid was the fastest runner of them all. But on the following kickoff Darius proved that he could run even faster, as he outran Rashid for a touchdown to tie the score. The boys played all afternoon. Touchdown after touchdown they marched up and down the field. Jade had her work cut out for her as she worked diligently to keep score. The boys scored so many touchdowns that she had to find a new rock. As it turned out, choosing Darius first was a good decision. Not only could Darius run fast, but he could also throw the ball farther than anyone else. Although Roberto couldn’t throw the ball quite as far as Darius could, he was very good at catching the passes thrown to him. Together, Roberto thought, they made an excellent team. By the time the boys were too exhausted to play anymore, Roberto’s team had scored one more touchdown than Antwan’s team. “Next week—same time, same place,” Antwan offered a friendly challenge to Roberto. Roberto accepted the challenge as he replied, “You got it.” Roberto, Darius, and Jade walked home together as the sun began to set beyond the horizon. Roberto noticed that it was getting dark earlier and earlier each day and there was a chill in the air. Soon he would need to begin wearing his winter jacket. All the way home Roberto, Darius, and Jade walked and talked. Darius no longer seemed like the shy and quiet boy who stood on the sidelines ER. MAST waiting to be invited to play football. He told Roberto all about his old neighborhood, his favorite E N I L WAY. K C Y A N L A B sports, and the music that he liked to listen to. Roberto was content to let Darius IN OT A do most EofDthe N C U S I D O T talking. He thought to himself how glad he was that he had invited to play REPRfootball with him TED. I Darius H E G B I R O and his friends. COPY IS BOOK T S I K O The next day at school, RobertoBintroduced Darius O R TtoH some of the other students. He made sure E O L F P N M to tell them how good IDarius T GIVEfootball. At the end of the day, Roberto ran over to H S SA wasISatNOplaying T meet Darius at his locker and SIONushered him quickly out the door leading to the playground. S I M R “Are you as good PE at basketball as you are at football?” Roberto asked Darius, with a big grin.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Recall Facts and Details 1

Which of the characters mentioned in the passage is NOT at the park when the football game is played?

AAntwan BJade CRashid DValerie

REMINDER The answer to this question can be found right in the passage. Look for sentences with key words. Read these sentences very carefully to find the detail or fact needed to answer the question correctly.

PART B: Reading Skills Review 117

S K I L L S R E V I E W


Reading Skills Review Identify Main Idea 2

What is this passage mostly about?

Ahow Darius becomes interested in playing football Bhow Darius becomes friends with the boys from his neighborhood Chow Roberto became friends with Atwan and Rashid Dhow Roberto and his friends spend one Sunday afternoon

REMINDER The main idea is what the whole story is about. To answer this question correctly you need to think about the entire passage, not just one part.

Identify Sequence 3

Look at the boxes below: The boys gathered to play football at the park.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Roberto chose Darius to be on his team.

REMINDER

Find each of the answer choices within the passage. Make a timeline to choose the correct answer.

Which of the following events should be placed in the empty box to correctly complete the timeline?

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L ARoberto walked over to Darius and Jade. B A NOT UCED D O R BJade picked up a rock from the ground. HTED. IT IS P G BE RE I R O Y T P K at Bschool. OO CRoberto introduced DariusOtoK other IS COstudents S I H O T B FOR up the game. Nholding MPLEthat heGwas E Roberto A DRashid told V S I S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

Analyze Language and Vocabulary 4

Read the following sentence from the passage: “As they gathered on the edge of the grass eager to choose sides for the game, they noticed they had attracted the attention of a small crowd.� What does the word eager mean as it is used in this sentence?

Ato be excited or hopeful Bto arrive early Cto be happy or pleased Dto wait patiently 118 PART B: Reading Skills Review

REMINDER This type of question asks you to identify the meaning of a word. Think about how the word is used in the passage.


Reading Skills Review Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting 5

All of the events in this passage occur

Aduring the morning Bduring the afternoon Cover the course of an entire day Dover the course of two days

REMINDER Think about all of the events that take place in the story. Be sure to think about the whole story and select the answer that best answers the question.

Recognize Cause and Effect 6

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Why did Roberto walk over to Darius and invite him to play football? Support your answer with details from the passage.

REMINDER

To answer this type of question you must think about the event or action that causes the effect, or the event or action in the question.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

PART B: Reading Skills Review 119

S K I L L S R E V I E W


Reading Skills Review Compare and Contrast 7

How are Roberto and Darius alike?

AThey both just moved into the neighborhood. BThey can both be described as somewhat shy. CThey can both throw a football a long way. DThey both are very good at starting conversations.

REMINDER Compare questions ask you to tell how things are alike. Contrast questions ask you to tell how things are different. Use details from the passage to help you choose the correct answer.

Distinguish Fact from Opinion 8

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which of the following statements from the passage expresses an opinion?

A“But on the following kickoff Darius proved he could run even

faster, as he outran Rashid for a touchdown to tie the score.”

B“Roberto figured it would help make Darius feel more

comfortable and relaxed if he showed some confidence in him.”

REMINDER

To answer this question you must identify which answer choices are facts and which one is an opinion. Facts can be proven true, opinionsAcannot. STER.

LINE M NY WAY. K C A L B C“He made sure to tell them how good Darius was at A IN A T D O E N C U playing football.” . IT IS E REPROD D E T H G TO B Kteam.” made OPYRanI excellent D“Together, Roberto thought, they O C O S B I BOOK R THIS E O L F P N M E A THIS S IS NOT GIV SION S I M R PE Make Predictions 9

Which of the following is least likely to happen?

ARoberto and Darius will play basketball together. BRoberto will introduce Jade to his sister Valerie. CRoberto will invite Jade to play football. DRoberto and Darius will become close friends.

120 PART B: Reading Skills Review

REMINDER To make a prediction you must use information in the story to decide what you think will happen next. More than one answer may seem possible. You must choose the best answer.


Reading Skills Review Draw Conclusions 10 How can you tell that Darius feels comfortable and relaxed around Roberto?

ADarius played a good game and scored many touchdowns. BRoberto is glad that he chose Darius to be on his team. CDarius did most of the talking when they walked home. DRoberto tells everyone at school how good Darius is at football.

Make Inferences

To draw conclusions you must think about many different facts and details in the passage. The passage does not tell you the answer, but it does give you the information you need to draw a conclusion.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

11 What is the most likely reason why Roberto thinks Jade likes to play baseball?

AJade reminds Roberto of his sister.

BJade is wearing a baseball cap and a jersey.

CRoberto saw Jade and her brother at the park many times before.

REMINDER

REMINDER

Facts and details in a passage can suggest an answer without actually stating the answer. This question is asking you to infer ER. STdetails. A M the meaning of Ievents or E N AY.

A CK L L ANY W B A N I T D O E IT IS N REPRODUC . D E T YRIGH OOK TO BE P O C OK ISPurpose HIS B O T B Analyze Point of View and R E O L F EN AMP THIS S IS NOT GIV 12 The main purpose of thisSIpassage ON is to S I M R REMINDER PE DRoberto could tell from looking at Jade that she is athletic.

Aentertain the reader Binform the reader

Cargue a point of view Dmake a comparison

How the author feels about a topic is a point of view. Why the author wrote a passage is the purpose. Details in a passage often suggest a point of view or purpose.

PART B: Reading Skills Review 121

S K I L L S R E V I E W


Reading Skills Review Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information 13 Explain why this passage is NOT an example of a novel.

REMINDER

Literary form is the style or type of writing such as story, nonfiction, biography, or poem. You can identify each literary form, or genre, by its features.

E L P M A S N Apply Prior Knowledge O I T A C U D E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 14 You can tell from reading the passage that the school year

Ais almost over

Bhas just begun

Cis about halfway through

Dhas ended for the summer

OK IS O B E L E AMP THIS S IS NOT GIV SION S I M R PE

122 PART B: Reading Skills Review

REMINDER

ER.

ST question. The answer toAthis M E N I AY L YtheWpassage ACK be found cannot in N L A B A N I D to details UInCEaddition S NOT Palone. I D O T I R . D E E R T BE from the passage, you must IGH COPYR IS BOOK TO use your own knowledge to H T answer the question. N FOR


PART C: Reading Skills All Together

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

There are four passages in this section of the book. These passages are thematically linked. Each passage is followed by 14 questions—one for each essential reading skill. There are also three theme questions at the end of this section. You will need to use all four passages to answer the themeSTER. MA questions. WAY. KLINE

ANY BLAC A N I T D O E IT IS N REPRODUC . D E T YRIGH OOK TO BE P O C OK IS OR THIS B O B E L NF MP E A V S I G S I T TH Theme: Remarkable IS NO N O I S S I American Achievements PERM

A Desert Landmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 Mount Rushmore National Memorial . . . . .128 Portland Head Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 A Stop on the Freedom Trail . . . . . . . . . . .138 Theme Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144

123


Passage 1 Theme: Remarkable American Achievements Passage 1 | Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

A Desert Landmark When most tourists travel to Nevada, they are heading for Las Vegas. The bright lights and excitement are a major draw. Every year, however, millions of visitors from around the world also venture about 30 miles out of this city. They visit an engineering marvel, the Hoover Dam, which is on the Arizona-Nevada state line. It is a trip worth taking. Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming are arid states. Early in the last century, it became apparent that they needed to find a way to share the waters of the Colorado River system. They also had to agree on a way to produce electricity. The 1928 Boulder Canyon Project Act included the building of the Hoover Dam. The bill approving the project was signed into law just a few weeks before Herbert Hoover became president. His administration had the task of seeing that the work got done. Hoover played a large role in getting the states to come to an agreement about how the water would be shared.

E L P SAM UCATION D E ! Y L Y L L L A R . RA 9 9 . 8 8 8

Many experts credit the growth of these states in large measure to the building of the dam. Today there are cities and farming areas that would not exist if the dam had not been built. Increasing numbers of Americans migrate to the Southwest to live, work, or retire. ER.

MAST E N I L WAY. K The Hoover C This famous landmark on the Colorado River rises 726.4 feet above B the water. Dam Y A N L A OTof Aone of the ED INStates’ mightiest N C weighs about 6.6 million tons and is able to hold back the waters United U S I D O T R . I can seeE this REPlandmark. TEDthey rivers. Astronauts in space shuttles have reported that It’s that big! H G B I R O Y T P K O O C O IS three million OK than The structure is made ofBmore HIS Bcubic yards of concrete, which is obviously a lot O T R E O L F P you get aIVsense of concrete. But SAMcan G EN of how big it is? Pretend for a moment that all the T HIS how O T N concrete in the damIOcould N IS be used to construct a building. That building would be taller than the S S I Empire State Building in New York City. If you could use the concrete to build a highway sixteen-feet PERM wide, it would stretch from San Francisco to New York. On average, 3,500 people worked on this project during the five-year construction of Hoover Dam, which began in 1931. It was a great challenge just to supply food and water to this many people. At the height of activity in June 1934, 5,218 people were on the payroll. In fact, a whole new town called Boulder City was built to house the workers and their families. Today, Boulder City is a thriving community.

124 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


Remarkable American Achievements The first residents of Boulder City worked for five years to complete the dam and its power plant. But that was not all they accomplished. A 22.7-mile railroad line and a seven-mile highway were also constructed. And a 222-mile-long power line was built. The last concrete for the dam was poured in May 1935. All the dam’s features were completed by March 1, 1936. That was almost two years ahead of schedule! It was an amazing accomplishment. Although it’s known as Hoover Dam today, this was not always the case. For many years the dam was called “Boulder Dam.” Politics may have been the reason for this name change. After Hoover left office, Harold Ickes was the Secretary of the Interior in the administration of Franklin Roosevelt. Ickes, who did not like Mr. Hoover, began referring to the dam as “Boulder Dam.” The nation followed his example. However, some people disagreed with Ickes. In 1947 Congress passed legislation to ensure that this landmark was known by its proper name, Hoover Dam. Aside from its remarkable features, Hoover Dam stands as proof of the will of the American people during the 1930s. This period, known as the Great Depression, was a time when many people were out of work. The construction of Hoover Dam contributed to a spirit of hope during a time of great trouble. It also provided many with employment.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Today Hoover Dam is one of the Southwest’s most photographed landmarks! It is appreciated not only for its immensity and technological achievements, but also for its symbolic value. It was a remarkable achievement during a difficult time in America’s history.

1

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . RE 1935? HTED happened BEafter 3 IGWhat What was the most number of people working PYR O T K O O K IS C R THIS BAOsite on the construction of the Hoover Dam? O O B in Nevada was picked for the dam. N FO A MPLE E A V S I G S I A3,500 T TH BThe Boulder Canyon Project Act was passed. IS NO N O I S S I 7,264 B PERM CThe name was officially changed to C5,218

Hoover Dam.

D7,462

2

What is the main idea of the fifth paragraph?

DThere were 5,218 people working on the dam.

4

You can tell from the sixth paragraph that thriving means

AThe Hoover Dam is immense.

Afailing

BThe Hoover Dam contains concrete.

Bgrowing

CThe Hoover Dam is near Las Vegas.

Cdangerous

DThe Hoover Dam weighs 6.6 million tons.

Dexpensive

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Passage 1 5

Which word best describes Harold Ickes’ attitude toward Hoover?

7

Agenerous

According to the passage, how is the Hoover Dam different from the Empire State Building?

AIt is located in Utah.

Bsupportive

BIt employs many workers.

Cunpleasant

CIt contains more concrete.

Dfurious

DIt was built during the 1930s. 6

Why was the Hoover Dam was constructed? 8

Which of these is a fact stated in this passage?

AA 22.7-mile railroad line and a seven-mile highway were also constructed.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

BIt was an amazing accomplishment. CHoover Dam stands as proof of the will of the American people during the 1930s.

DIt is a trip worth taking.

9

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . RE been built? Use details from the TED DamOhad GHHoover BE not I How might things have been differentPifYR the T K O K IS C R THIS BOO passage to support your answer. O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

126 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


Remarkable American Achievements 10 There is enough information in the passage to conclude that

Amany people think the dam is a beautiful sight

13 To find information about the Hoover Dam you should first look in

Aan almanac Ban encyclopedia

Bthere was no opposition to changing the dam’s name

Cthe construction of the dam was a very

Ca newspaper Da science book

complicated task

Dconstruction of the dam made little difference in the Southwest

14 Where is Hoover Dam?

Ain a valley Bin the desert 11 One likely reason that the Boulder Canyon Project Act was passed is that very rapidly

Cnear the ocean

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Athe city of Las Vegas was growing

Din the mountains

Bthe people in the Southwest could not agree on the project

Cpoliticians felt there wasn’t enough

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L Dseveral states saw a need to share the B A waters of the Colorado River S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B LE writing VEN FO MPfor A What is the author’s purpose S S I OT GI TH N S this passage? I SION S I M R PE popular support for the law

12

A L L

Ato encourage people to visit the dam

Bto express support for the entire project Cto explain the growth of cities in Nevada Dto give a brief history of the Hoover Dam

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T O G E T H E R


Passage 2 Passage 2 | Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Mount Rushmore National Memorial

ount Rushmore National Memorial is considered a “must see” by many tourists. These carvings of the likenesses of four presidents are located in the Black Hills of South Dakota. They are so huge that the head of George Washington is over 60 feet high. That is as tall as a five-story building! The following timeline shows some of the major events in the history of this amazing work.

M

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1868

The Sioux Tribe and the United States government sign a treaty. It gives the Sioux permanent property rights in the Black Hills of South Dakota. The area has always been considered a sacred area by this Native American tribe.

1874

Lt. Col. George A. Custer leads an expedition that discovers gold in the Black Hills. The news brings huge numbers of prospectors into the region. The Sioux are forced to give up their land and relocate to nearby areas. This results in conflicts between the Sioux STER.and the A M E U.S. government in South Dakota. Custer is killed in the battle of Little AY. KLIN Big Horn inW1876.

1924

1925

ANY BLAC A N I T D O Gutzon Borglum (1867–1941) is contacted about carving of famous ODUCE people of the T IS N faces I R . P D E E R T West, including Native Americans, into H formations BinE the Black Hills. He is well known IGrock TOdisplayed K O COPYR Lincoln. for having carved a bustKofISAbraham It was in the White House when O B S I O H O T B Theodore Roosevelt N FOR MPLE was Gpresident. E A V S I S I T TH arrives IinS NtheO Black Hills. He selects Mount Rushmore as the best site for the Borglum N SIOattract S I M carving. To national interest, it is decided that he will carve the likenesses of George R PE

Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln. He starts to plan for the infrastructure needed to support the project. Eventually he builds 45 ramps and a stairway of 506 steps. These are used to transport workers and supplies to the top of the mountain. 1927

Borglum and his workers begin to dynamite and drill into the surface of Mount Rushmore. Although Borglum is in charge, he is often away from the site. He travels to Washington to get more money, and works on other projects around the world.

1930

On July 4th, the head of George Washington is dedicated. The workers believe Borglum to be a demanding employer. South Dakota sometimes has extremely hot summers and cold, stormy winters. But he expects workers to be on the site every morning at 7:30 no matter what the weather conditions are.

1931

There are problems with the carving of Jefferson. The stone is not strong enough to stand the constant drilling and explosions.

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Remarkable American Achievements 1933

Lincoln Borglum (1912–1986), Gutzon’s son, arrives to work at the site. A new location is chosen for Jefferson’s head. The previous work on Jefferson is blasted away. Drill holes are filled with dynamite, which is then detonated. Many times it is difficult to control the blast. After the blast, workers remove the rubble. It’s difficult and dangerous work.

1935

A suitable site is located for Roosevelt’s head and the work begins. A crack in the lip of Jefferson is repaired. After the detailed work is finished, compressed air hoses are used to blow away the dust.

1936

On August 30, President Franklin Roosevelt arrives for the dedication ceremony for the head of Jefferson.

1937

On September 17, the head of Abraham Lincoln is dedicated in a ceremony. Women’s rights advocates want Susan B. Anthony’s head to be included on Mount Rushmore. A bill is introduced. After lengthy debate and intense opposition, the bill is defeated in Congress.

1938

The work now concentrates on the completion of the likeness of Roosevelt. The details on Washington’s head are also being finalized.

1939

The head of Theodore Roosevelt is dedicated. Lighting is added to enhance the display at night. The Sioux chief, Chief Henry Standing Bear, contacts a sculptor, Korczak Ziolkowski (1908–1992). He wants him to carve a memorial to the Sioux. Ziolkowski buys a nearby mountain and begins to carve a sculpture of Chief Crazy Horse. This warrior led the Sioux in their fight to save their lands. Even though Ziolkowski died in 1988, his family continues his work. It is dedicated in 1998.

1941 2002

1

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TER. WAY.

Gutzon Borglum dies on March 6th. His son is asked to complete the work, which E isMAS N I L K C A finished on October 31. IN ANY T A BL

S NO PRODUCED I T I . More than 2.5 million people visit the site, whichHhas work of art E E Rlargest G TEDbeen called Bthe I R O Y T P K on Earth. O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

Who was Korczak Ziolkowski?

Aa senator Ba famous leader Ca sculptor DBorglum’s stepson

2

How could you summarize the events of 1933?

AHoles had to be drilled and filled with dynamite.

BMany laborers were needed to complete the work.

CGutzon’s son, Lincoln Borglum arrived in South Dakota.

DThe work was very difficult and extremely dangerous.

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Passage 2 3

According to the passage, when were problems with the likeness of Jefferson first encountered?

6

Why was there was a debate about Mount Rushmore in Congress?

Abefore Lincoln Borglum arrived in South Dakota

Bafter Ziolkowski begins work on the sculpture of Chief Crazy Horse

Cbefore Borglum went to Washington to ask for more funding

Dafter Franklin Roosevelt participated in the dedication ceremony

4

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The word infrastructure in the 1925 entry means

Afunding Bbuildings

7

Cdetailed blueprints and diagrams

ABorglum was a demanding boss, while

Dconstructions for transportation

5

According to the passage, how was Gutzon Borglum different from Korczak Ziolkowski?

. Ziolkowski was much gentler. ASTER M KLINE

WAY.

LAChis work inINSouth ANY Dakota, and Bdid BBorglum A T D O N ODUCEin Washington. IT IS Ziolkowski Rworked

REP TED. H E G B I R O T Borglum carved Presidents, and Ziolkowski COPY IS BOOKC S I Alazy K O H carved a Native American leader. LE BO FOR T BthriftyTHIS SAMP OT GIVEN DBorglum died a rich man, and Ziolkowski IS N N O I determined S never became wealthy. C IS PERM

Which word best describes Gutzon Borglum?

Dsympathetic

8

Which of the following is NOT a fact?

AGutzon Borglum died in 1941. BIn 1868 the Sioux signed a treaty. CMount Rushmore is considered a “must see.”

DThere are millions of visitors each year.

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Remarkable American Achievements 9

Which of the following would Borglum probably have done if he had lived longer?

10 Why do so many people visit Mount Rushmore?

Acampaigned to be a Senator

AAmericans love to learn about history.

Bretired in the Black Hills area

BSouth Dakota is a great place to visit.

Cvacationed around the world

CIt is an important American symbol.

Dstarted work on another project

DBorglum was a famous American sculptor.

11 How can you tell that working on Mount Rushmore was dangerous? Use details from the passage to support your answer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

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Passage 2 12 This passage was most likely written to

14 Where is Mount Rushmore located?

Apersuade

Ain South Central United States

Bentertain

Bin the Rocky Mountains

Cinform

Cin North Central United States

Dinspire

Din the Appalachian Mountains

13 In which section of the library would you most likely find this passage?

AHistory BBiography CScience DTravel

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STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

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Remarkable American Achievements Passage 3 | Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Portland

Head Light A L L

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STER. . A M E My grandfather has always been fascinated with lighthouses. Learning about CKLINand thenANY WAY Athem L B A D IN that OtheT journalsDand Ediaries N building delicate models are his favorite hobbies. He also loves to Iread C U S O T REPR and heroics TED. I led. OTheir describe the hard lives the lighthouse keepers and their families dedication H E G B I R T as many books on OKread COPY too! saved many lives over the years. He’s gotKme interested, OI’ve S B I S I O H T BO find. And Fwe ORshopped lighthouses and their familiesMas for supplies, so that I can build my PLIEcan N E A V S I G S I T first miniature lighthouse. TH IS NO N O I S MIS PERIsland, We live on Long New York, where thousands of pleasure and commercial boats ply the waters that surround us. Lighthouses continue to help navigation in this area. Unlike years ago, however, most are now computerized. Although we’ve visited many of our local lights, my grandfather wanted to visit the famous Portland Head Light in Cape Elizabeth, Maine. For his seventieth birthday, the family made this dream come true. They booked him on a lighthouse tour of southern Maine, and I was to be his traveling companion! When we arrived in August, I was surprised to see that the Portland Head Light and its Keepers’ Quarters were located in a park called Fort Williams Park. It was filled with families picnicking, biking, playing soccer, flying kites, and exploring some historic forts on the grounds. For us, however, the real attraction was the light itself.

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Passage 3 It looked so majestic standing on a high bluff, surrounded on three sides by the cold, clear waters of Casco Bay. Before we even entered the lighthouse grounds with our guide, the three of us sat on a grassy hill overlooking the compound. Dramatic waves pounded the rocky shoreline, sending salty spray high into the air. We could feel, even taste the sea. Our guide told us that dangerous currents surge through the area. We entered the museum, looked at the exhibits, and spent some time reading the story of the three-masted bark, which was named the Annie C. Maguire. On Christmas Eve in 1886, it crashed on the rocks, just yards from the front door of the lighthouse. The captain and crew were saved by the ingenuity of the keeper, his family, and volunteers who rigged an ordinary ladder as a gangplank between the shore and the wreck. As I read the story of the rescue, I recognized the courage that was displayed that day. As I read on, a picture emerged of the difficult times these families endured. Although Portland Head Light is on the mainland in Cape Elizabeth, other lighthouses are located on remote islands. Families could not leave the island for weeks at a time if the weather did not cooperate. Often keepers and their families grew their own vegetables and raised animals to eat since they were not always able to go to a store. Often, there was no electricity, and families had to know how to handle medical problems, since a doctor was not “around the corner.”

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

When the keeper found it necessary to row to the mainland, he may not have been able to return if the weather and waves became too severe. The keeper’s wife, therefore, had to know how to take care of the light and handle many emergencies. When you read some of the journals, STER. you. A M E AY LIN recognize the bravery shown by these women. ANY W BLACK

OT A ED IN N C U S I D O T EPR 72-foot tower, later Roriginal TED.InI 1791 I was also intrigued by the workings of the light. the H E G B I R O Y whale oilOOlamps. K T One of the main duties of the keeper COP16 raised an additional 20 feet, wasK lit with S B I S I O H was to haul the oil up LE BOsteps VtoENkeep FORtheT lamp lit. What a reassuring sight it must have been Pmany M A S I G of the dark land! A portion of the beautiful Fresnel lens in use HIS nightIon against theTblack OT edge Nthe S N from 1865 toM1958 ISSIOwas on display. I’m sure it saved many lives. P ER After our guide left us for the day, we walked along the park’s trails and continued to enjoy the views of Portland Head Light. Before we left, we made sure to visit the rock that the Annie C. Maguire hit that fateful night. On the rock is written the name of the ship and the date of the wreck. After all I had learned, I could almost envision that Christmas Eve long ago. This was a visit I won’t soon forget.

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Remarkable American Achievements 1

Which park surrounds the Portland Head Light?

5

ACape Elizabeth Park

From what we learn of the lighthouse keeper and his family in the passage, which of the following words best describes them?

BFort Williams Park

Alazy

CPortland Park

Bmean

DAnnie Maguire Park

Cfriendly Ddedicated

2

Another good title for this passage would be

A“A Lighthouse Lover’s Dream Trip”

6

B“The Amazing Fresnel Lens”

Why did his family send the author’s grandfather to Maine?

C“My Wonderful Grandfather”

AHe needed a rest.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A L L

BHe loved lighthouses.

D“Dangerous Shipwrecks and Rescues”

CHe wanted to go sailing.

3

DHe enjoyed eating lobster.

Which of the following happened before the author and his grandfather visited Maine?

AThey saw people flying kites and having picnics.

7

According to the passage, what is one way Long Island and Cape Elizabeth areAsimilar? STER.

LINE M NY WAY. IN A on display. D O E N C U IS have lighthouses. . ITboth They PROD D B E E R T H E They visited some of the lighthouses G B C KareTOboth OPYRI C O C O S They on Casco Bay. on Long Island. B I OK HIS O T B R E O L F SAMPBay. OT GIVEN DThey took photos DThey both have exhibits about the THofIS Casco N S I Portland Head Light. SION S I M R PE LACK AThey are bothT in A BMaine.

BThey saw a portion of the Fresnel Lens

4

The author of the passage uses the word bark to mean

Aa rowboat Ba sharp tone Ca sailing ship Da tree covering

8

Which of these is an opinion stated in this passage?

AIt looked so majestic standing on a high bluff.

BOn Christmas Eve in 1886, it crashed on the rocks.

COther lighthouses are located on remote islands.

DLighthouses continue to help navigation in this area.

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Passage 3 9

What will the author and his grandfather probably tell their family after they return home from their visit to the Portland Head Light? Explain your answer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

10

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . Elizabeth What generalization can you make based Ron GHTED11 Cape BE RE is best described as I O Y T P K O this passage? K IS C R THIS BOO Aarid O O B LE N FO MPdangerous. E A are V S AAll shorelines I G S I T Bscenic TH IS NtoO visit. SIONplace BMaine RisMaISgreat Cnoisy PE CLighthouses are still important.

DLighthouses are no longer needed.

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Ddeserted


Remarkable American Achievements 12 In the fifth paragraph, the author sets the tone for the rest of the passage by

14 Why do you think the Portland Head Light was built on a cliff?

Aexplaining why they did not visit the forts Btelling how the author and his grandfather sat on the hill

Cexplaining how the lighthouse is surrounded by the ocean

A L L

Ddescribing some of the activities available in Fort Williams Park

13 You might expect to find this passage in a book titled

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

ALighthouses of Long Island

BThe History of the Fresnel Lens CLighthouses of America

DHow to Build a Lighthouse

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

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Passage 4 Passage 4 | Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

A Stop on the Freedom Trail

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

One of the historic sites on Boston’s Freedom Trail is the Old North Church. In his poem, Paul Revere’s Ride, Longfellow described what happened in 1775 when Robert Newman, the caretaker, hung two lanterns in the church tower. This let Paul Revere know that the British troops were going to row across the Charles River and head northwest. They were not going to march down Boston Neck and then north to Concord. On the ride to Lexington, STER. . A M E Revere spread the word that the ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A troops were on the move. As he left S NOT PRODUCED I T I . that town to continue on to GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K Concord, Revere was arrested by theIS CO BOO S K I O H O T B British. After being released, N FOR MPLE Revere E A V S I G S I T started back to Lexington and was TH IS NOon the N battle O I present for partISof the S RM next day.PE Longfellow wrote the poem in 1861, long after the event. He was more interested in telling about Revere’s achievement than in giving a factual account of the event. Not all the details in the poem are accurate.

Paul Revere’s Ride by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)

1

Listen, my children, and you shall hear Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere, On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-five; Hardly a man is now alive Who remembers that famous day and year.

138 PART C: Reading Skills All Together

2

He said to his friend, “If the British march By land or sea from the town to-night, Hang a lantern aloft in the belfry arch Of the North Church tower as a signal light,— One, if by land, and two, if by sea;


Remarkable American Achievements Of the place and the hour, and the secret dread Of the lonely belfry and the dead; For suddenly all his thoughts are bent On a shadowy something far away, Where the river widens to meet the bay,— A line of black that bends and floats On the rising tide, like a bridge of boats.

And I on the opposite shore will be, Ready to ride and spread the alarm Through every Middlesex village and farm, For the country folk to be up and to arm.” 3

4

Then he said, “Good-night!” and with muffled oar Silently rowed to the Charlestown shore, Just as the moon rose over the bay, Where swinging wide at her moorings lay The Somerset, British man-of-war; A phantom ship, with each mast and spar Across the moon like a prison bar, And a huge black hulk, that was magnified By its own reflection in the tide.

7

Meanwhile, impatient to mount and ride, Booted and spurred, with a heavy stride On the opposite shore walked Paul Revere. Now he patted his horse’s side, Now gazed at the landscape far and near, Then, impetuous, stamped the earth, And turned and tightened his saddle-girth; But mostly he watched with eager search The belfry tower of the Old North Church, As it rose above the graves on the hill, Lonely and spectral and sombre and still. And lo! as he looks, on the belfry’s height A glimmer, and then a gleam of light! He springs to the saddle, the bridle he turns, STER. . A But lingers and gazes, till full onE his sight M IN WAY A second lamp in the LACKLburns! A Bbelfry N ANY

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Meanwhile, his friend, through alley and street, Wanders and watches with eager ears, Till in the silence around him he hears The muster of men at the barrack door, The sound of arms, and the tramp of feet, And the measured tread of the grenadiers, Marching down to their boats on the shore.

5

Then he climbed the tower of the Old North Church, OT ED I N C By the wooden stairs, with stealthy tread, U S I D O T PR street, ED. Iof hoofsBEinRaEvillage To the belfry-chamber overhead, 8 IGH A Thurry R O PY A shape K Tthe moonlight, a bulk in the dark, OOin And startled the pigeons from their perchOK IS CO B S I H O E Bmade FOR T And beneath, from the pebbles, in passing, a spark On the sombre rafters, that round PLhim N M E A V S I THIS of shade,— Masses and moving shapes Struck out by a steed flying fearless and fleet: NOT G S I N O I S By the trembling ladder, IS and tall, That was all! ERMsteep P To the highest window in the wall, And yet, through the gloom and the light, Where he paused to listen and look down The fate of a nation was riding that night; A moment on the roofs of the town, And the spark struck out by that steed, in his flight, And the moonlight flowing over all. Kindled the land into flame with its heat.

6

Beneath, in the churchyard, lay the dead, In their night encampment on the hill, Wrapped in silence so deep and still That he could hear, like a sentinel’s tread, The watchful night-wind, as it went Creeping along from tent to tent, And seeming to whisper, “All is well!” A moment only he feels the spell

9

He has left the village and mounted the steep, And beneath him, tranquil and broad and deep, Is the Mystic, meeting the ocean tides; And under the alders that skirt its edge, Now soft on the sand, now loud on the ledge, Is heard the tramp of his steed as he rides.

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Passage 4 10 It was twelve by the village clock, When he crossed the bridge into Medford town. He heard the crowing of the cock, And the barking of the farmer’s dog, And felt the damp of the river fog, That rises after the sun goes down. 11 It was one by the village clock, When he galloped into Lexington. He saw the gilded weathercock Swim in the moonlight as he passed, And the meeting-house windows, blank and bare, Gaze at him with a spectral glare, As if they already stood aghast At the bloody work they would look upon.

14 So through the night rode Paul Revere; And so through the night went his cry of alarm To every Middlesex village and farm,— A cry of defiance and not of fear, A voice in the darkness, a knock at the door, And a word that shall echo forevermore! For, borne on the night-wind of the Past, Through all our history, to the last, In the hour of darkness and peril and need, The people will waken and listen to hear The hurrying hoof-beats of that steed, And the midnight message of Paul Revere.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

12 It was two by the village clock, When he came to the bridge in Concord town. He heard the bleating of the flock, And the twitter of birds among the trees, And felt the breath of the morning breeze Blowing over the meadows brown. And one was safe and asleep in his bed Who at the bridge would be first to fall, Who that day would be lying dead, ED. Pierced by a British musket-ball. RIGHT 13

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A OT ED IT IS N REPRODUC O BE Y T P K O O C O OK IS OR THIS B O B E L F read You know the rest.AIn Nhave MPthe booksGyou E V S I S I T TH RegularsISfired How the British NO and fled,— N O I S How the farmers ERMIS gave them ball for ball, P From behind each fence and farm-yard wall,

Chasing the red-coats down the lane, Then crossing the fields to emerge again Under the trees at the turn of the road, And only pausing to fire and load.

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Remarkable American Achievements 1

Read these lines from the poem.

4

“For suddenly all his thoughts are bent On a shadowy something far away,”

“It was two by the village clock, When he came to the bridge in Concord town.”

What does the word bent mean as it is used here?

These lines show that

Athe poem has no rhyming pattern

Afocused

BPaul Revere was an excellent rider

Bended

Cthe poet admires Revere’s determination

Cshattered

Dthe poet did not base the entire poem

Ddelayed

on facts

2

Read the following lines from the sixth stanza.

What is the main idea that is expressed in the sixth stanza of this poem?

5

Which words best describe the mood in the belfry-chamber on that night?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

ARevere feels very alone in the belfry.

Acheerful and bright

BRevere’s friend sees that the British boats

Bquiet and serene

are leaving Boston.

CRevere’s friend is afraid because the church is near the graveyard.

Clonely and tense

Dnoisy and crowded

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L bridge across the water. B A D 6 Why didn’tSPaul the of NOTRevere let UCEpeople I D O T I R . P that E British troops HTED know GConcord BE Rthe I R O Y T P were coming? K IS CO THIS BOO Klight O O What did Paul Revere do after he saw a B R PLE EN F O AMhorse? V S in the belfry and gotHIon his I G S T T IS NO N O I S AHe started his ride ItoS Lexington. PERM DBritish soldiers are building a long, black

3

A L L

BHe crossed the river to Charleston.

CHe waited to see if a second lantern would be lit.

DHe watched British soldiers marching to their boats.

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Passage 4 7

How was the experience of Paul Revere and his friend the same on the evening night of April 18, 1775?

AThey both saw a gilded weathercock in the moonlight.

BThey both tried to see what was happening at the soldiers’ barracks.

CThey both waited to find out if the soldiers

9

After Paul Revere’s friend sent the signal, he probably

Ajoined the grenadiers for a late dinner Bwas happy because he had been helpful Cwas worried about what would happen next Drode to Lexington, so he could see the battle

were crossing the river.

DThey both looked down at the roofs of the town in the moonlight.

10 Based on the information in the poem, the weather that night was

Afoggy 8

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which stanza expresses mostly opinion about Paul Revere’s ride?

Astanza 11 Bstanza 12 Cstanza 13 Dstanza 14

Bcold Chot

Dclear

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

142 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


Remarkable American Achievements 11 Based on the map, what may be one reason that the British decided to row across the Charles River instead of marching across Boston Neck? Explain your answer.

A L L

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12

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . ED HTyou E REmore of Longfellow’s R 13IGIf want to Bread What is the author’s purpose for writing O Y T P K O O should get S BOyou K IS C R THwork, this poem? I O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S to report I Ato encourage people Aan almanac T TH NO S I N troop movements SSIO I Ba biography PERM Bto provide a factual account of Paul Revere’s ride

Cto retell the story of an important

Ca book of poems Da history book

historical event

Dto remind people that it’s important to have good friends

14 The battle at Lexington was fought during

Athe Civil War Bthe Korean War Cthe American Revolution Dthe French Revolution

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T O G E T H E R


Theme Questions Theme Questions Directions: The next three questions are about the theme “Remarkable American Achievements.” Use the four passages you have just read to help you answer these questions.

1

Where on the Mount Rushmore timeline would the completion of Hoover Dam appear?

Abefore Theodore Roosevelt was president Bbefore Gutzon Borglum built a stairway to help the workers on the project Cbetween the repair of Jefferson’s lip and the rejection of the inclusion of Susan B. Anthony Dbetween the dedication of George Washington’s head and the arrival of Lincoln Borglum in South Dakota

2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

How do the four passages support the theme, “Remarkable American Achievements”? Include details from each passage in your answer.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

144 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


Remarkable American Achievements 3

Feelings of admiration are expressed by the authors of “Portland Head Light” and “Paul Revere’s Ride.” How are these feeling of admiration illustrated? Give at least one example from each passage.

A L L

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STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

PART C: Reading Skills All Together 145

T O G E T H E R


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

146 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


PART D: Assessments

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

There are two assessments in this section of the book. Each assessment includes two passages. Each passage is followed by 14 questions. Completing these assessments will help your teacher to track your progress on each of the 14 Essential Skills for Reading Success. R.

MASTE AY. E N I L BLACK D IN ANY W A T O E Assessment 1D.. I.T. I.S. N. . . . . P . .R.O.D.U.C. . . . . .148 E E R T Assessment YRIGH 2 O. O. K. .T.O. B. E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 P O C OK IS OR THIS B O B E L NF MP E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

147


ASSESSMENT 1 Passage 1 | Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Who Invented the Radio? Radio is a very important means of communication. It has become a part of our daily life. The radio has made it possible for people to communicate with each other over great distances. From the 1920s to the 1950s, people used radios in much the same way as televisions are used today. Millions of families would gather around a radio to listen to entertaining programs and music. They would also listen to the radio for the news. They could learn what was happening around the world much more quickly than they could before radio was invented. Radio is still popular today. Now there are car radios, portable radios, and headsets. People can listen to the radio almost anywhere.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Radios have many important uses. There are radios that allow airplane pilots, police officers, sailors, and others to communicate over long distances. Scientists use radio waves to learn about the weather. A radio works by changing sounds or other signals into radio waves. These radio waves can travel at the speed of light. This means they can travel 186,282 miles in one second! Many people contributed to the development of the radio. In the early 1830s, Joseph Henry, a college professor in the United States, and Michael Faraday, a scientist in England were conducting research and formulating theories. Working independently, each developed the sameAtheory: STER. . M E AY LINtwo wiresNare electricity in one wire can produce electricity in another wire, even though Y Wnot ACKthe L A B A N I T connected. About 30 years later, another scientist named James usedUtheir CED theory to come to S NOMaxwell I D O T I R . P the conclusion that electromagnetic waves did exist. Hertz, GHTEDHeinrich BE REa German scientist, later I R O Y T P K performed experiments to prove that CO was true. BOO IS this

BOOK R THIS E O L F P N M E A THIS S IS NOT GIV SION S I M R PE

Henry

Faraday

Maxwell

1797-1878

1791-1821

1831-1879

148 PART D: Assessments


Assessment 1 At about the same time, Nikola Tesla began experimenting with electrical motors, coils, and other devices. Many of the things he used were similar to those that are used in today’s radios and televisions. Tesla, an inventor, developed the concepts and built a model radio. But it was Guglielmo Marconi who developed the first working radio. Marconi, an Italian scientist, had studied the experiments that were performed with electromagnetic waves. He began his own laboratory experiments and succeeded in sending a wireless signal over a distance of one and a half miles. It became known as wireless telegraphy. Today, it is called a radio. Marconi continued his experiments. In 1899 he transmitted a signal more than 60 miles to a boat at sea. This was an important step. It proved that electromagnetic waves were able to follow the curve of Earth’s surface. This meant that wireless telegraphy could be used over even greater distances. In 1901 Marconi sent a wireless signal from England to Canada. This was the first wireless communication across the Atlantic Ocean.

E L P M N SA O I T A C U D E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Marconi was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1901. He certainly deserves credit for being the first person to succeed at using wireless communication. But Tesla had demonstrated the basic principles and built the first model radio. He did that years before Marconi began his experiments. In 1943 the United States Supreme Court recognized Nikola Tesla as the inventor of the radio.

R.

The debate over who invented the radio still continues. Perhaps the radio, like so manyEother MASTE AY. N I L ACK work.IN ANY W inventions, should be viewed as a group effort. Many people have built upon each BLother’s A T D O N example ofODhow UCEwireless Many have added their own contributions. Today’s cell phones are Ijust Sone I T R . P communication continues to change. Undoubtedly moreRIimprovements lie GHTED BE RE but only time will tell. O ahead,

COPY IS BOOK T S I K O BO R TH E O L F P N M E A THIS S IS NOT GIV SION S I M R PE

Hertz

Tesla

Marconi

1857-1894

1856-1943

1874-1937

PART D: Assessments 149

A S S E S S M E N T S


Assessment 1 1

Who was successful at sending the first wireless signal?

4

Read the statement below from the passage. “Joseph Henry, a college professor in the United States, and Michael Faraday, a scientist in England, were conducting research and formulating theories.”

ANikola Tesla BJoseph Henry CHeinrich Hertz

What does the word formulating mean as it is used in this sentence?

DGuglielmo Marconi

Aarguing 2

Bprinting

What is this passage mostly about?

Cdrawing

Ahow the radio became popular

Ddeveloping

Bthe world’s greatest scientists Cthe history of communication

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Dpeople who helped to invent the radio

5

The first wireless communication across the Atlantic Ocean was sent from

ACanada to Italy

3

Which of the following happened after Marconi won the Nobel Prize?

AMarconi built the first working radio.

BEngland to Italy CEngland to Canada

ER. BTesla was given credit for inventing WAY. K C Y A N L A B the radio. OT A ED IN N C U S I D O T TED. I O BE REPR H G CHertz proved the existence of I R 6 OWhich PY O K T of the following events caused James electromagnetic waves. OK IS CO B S I H Maxwell to conclude that electromagnetic BO RT E O L F P N M waves existed? DHenry Tdeveloped GIVE T theory HIS SA theIS same O N as Faraday. ION ATesla built electrical motors. ISS PERM AST DFrance to Canada LINE M

BHertz proved electromagnetic waves existed.

CMarconi used wireless telegraphy to communicate.

DFaraday and Henry developed a theory about electrical currents.

150 PART D: Assessments


Assessment 1 7

Explain how the radio was at one time similar to television today.

9

Which of the following will most likely happen in the future?

ARadios will replace televisions in most homes.

BTesla will be awarded the Nobel Prize in physics.

CMarconi will be given credit for inventing the radio.

DPeople will continue to invent new ways to communicate.

10 Why is the invention of wireless communication important?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

APeople could listen to music. BIt eliminated the need for telegraphy.

8

Which of the following statements from the passage is an example of an opinion?

AScientists use radio waves to learn about the weather.

CIt made it possible to communicate using sound.

DIt made communication over great ER. AST distances possible.

M WAY. KLINE C Y A N L A B OT A ED IN N C U S I D O T TED. I O BE REPR H G I R T Supreme Court state that Tesla didOKthe COPY11 Why O inventor S B I S K I O H was the of the radio? CThere are radios that allow airplane BO pilots, FOR T E L P N M police officers, sailors, TtoGIVE HIS SAand others AHe did most of the work. O T N S I communicate over longIO distances. N S IS BHe was smarter than Marconi. PERM are just one example DToday’s cell phones BPerhaps the radio, like so many other inventions, should be viewed as a group effort.

of how wireless communication continues to change.

CHe experimented with coils used to make radios.

DHe created the first model based on concepts he developed.

PART D: Assessments 151

A S S E S S M E N T S


Assessment 1 12 Why does the author of this passage believe that inventing the radio was a group effort? Use details from the passage to support your answer.

13

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . E following is an example of What type of book should you read to learn HTED14 Which of Rthe G BE telegraphy? I R O Y T P K wireless more about Nikola Tesla? O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B Aa novel AA person listens to the radio in a car. N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T O TH N Ban atlas ISSION IS BA person sends an e-mail using a computer. M R PE a dictionary A person plays a video game using C

Da biography

C

a television.

DA person mails a letter to someone who lives far away.

152 PART D: Assessments


Assessment 1

Career Fair Conundrum LE

Passage 2 | Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

P M A S N O I T A C U D E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Colin McDonald pulled the fluorescent orange flier from the bulletin board in the school cafeteria and read it carefully: Granite Hills Junior High Career Fair, next Tuesday, 2–4 P.M. in the auditorium. As he read further down the page, Colin noted that many guest speakers planned to attend the career fair, including the president of Farnsworth Furniture, Jacob Farnsworth; Mark and Marissa, the morning show disc jockeys from 107.7 Rock Radio; Tina Catrall, a member of the Whitehall Theatre . Group; Chief Amanda Browner of the Granite Hills Police Department; and many others. ASTER

M WAY. KLINE C Y A N L A B A meeting IN Colin showed the announcement to his friends, who all seemed excited OT about EDprominent N C U S I D O T I there inRtheir EPR hometown. members of the community who had created successful careers TED.right H E G B I R O COPY IS BOOK T S I K O O and Marissa TH morning on the way to school, and they BMark “Our bus driver lets us listenLto R every E O F P N M SA friendOBrandon. are hilarious,” remarked T GIVE “They graduated from the community college a few THISColin’s N S I years ago and ever sinceISthen SIONthey’ve been hosting the morning show. They do all sorts of crazy M R PE of special events downtown. I bet their presentation will be very entertaining.” stunts and host lots Colin’s friends continued to blabber about the career fair speakers and their own hopes for future occupations, but Colin felt overwhelmed. Everyone seemed to know what they wanted to study in college and the type of career they would like to have. Emily wanted to be a pediatrician and take care of sick children, just like her mother. Janet, who wrote a weekly column for the school newspaper, wanted to become a journalist and write for a newspaper in a big city such as Los Angeles, Chicago, or New York. Marty wanted to pursue a career as a professional athlete. As Colin listened, he began to wonder if he was the only person in his class who hadn’t already chosen a career. With the career fair right around the corner, Colin began to wonder what he could possibly talk to the guest speakers about when he had no clue what he wanted to be.

PART D: Assessments 153

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Assessment 1 When Colin got home from school, he quickly finished his algebra homework and studied for his science test. At 4:30, he put away his books and headed to the kitchen to make dinner. Colin’s mother was a registered nurse, and she always worked late on Thursdays. She allowed Colin to use the stove to cook dinner as long as his father was at home. Colin liked being the household chef, so his mom could relax when she returned home from work after being on her feet all day. Colin wrapped two potatoes in tin foil and placed them in the oven to bake, then opened the refrigerator and removed the chicken he had thawed for dinner. Next, he broke a few eggs into a bowl and dipped each piece of chicken into the egg. He rolled the chicken in some bread crumbs, added a few other seasonings, and placed it in the frying pan. As the chicken fried, Colin washed lettuce, tomatoes, and cucumbers and cut them into small pieces. He tossed everything into a bowl and added a dash of Italian dressing and some Parmesan cheese.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Just then, Colin’s mother returned home. “Something in here smells absolutely delicious, STER. and .I’m A M E N shoes. Y WAY famished,” she exclaimed as she set her bag down by the door and kickedCoff KLIher

A BLA CED IN AN T O N ODU the last minute meal IT IS as Colin R . Colin’s mother slid into her chair at the table and watched finished P D E E R T BE on the table and joined his parents. IGH placed KtheTOfood YRColin P preparations. Soon everything was ready, and O O C O K IS IS B potato, spicy fried chicken, and salad. As they Hbaked O T They each loaded a plateLwith aObutter-drenched B R E O F AMP all about ate, Colin told GIVtheENcareer fair. He explained how many of his classmates were S Smother T O THIhis N IS and how he hadn’t thought much about what he wanted to do. Colin’s Ncareers, certain of their future O I S S I PERM carefully as she reached for a second piece of the fried chicken Colin had prepared. mother listened “I just don’t see how my friends can be so sure of their career choices. We haven’t even gotten to high school yet and everyone seems to know what they’re going to study in college,” complained Colin. “Colin, don’t get frustrated,” his mother advised. “Chances are that half of the people who know what they want to do right now will probably change their mind somewhere down the road.” She smiled. “You know, if you fail at everything else you try, you can always go to culinary school and become a chef, maybe even open your own restaurant. This is the most delicious chicken I’ve ever tasted!” Colin laughed, but the more he thought about it, the more he realized that his mother’s suggestion wasn’t so bad. Colin enjoyed cooking, experimenting with new recipes, altering old recipes, and getting rave reviews from everyone who tried his cuisine. As Colin got ready for bed that night he felt much more relaxed about the upcoming career fair. He couldn’t wait to meet the local chefs and restaurant owners who would be there handing out information about culinary schools, cooking techniques, and recipes.

154 PART D: Assessments


Assessment 1 1

Where is the career fair going to take place?

4

Aat the town hall

What does the word famished mean as it is used in this passage?

Atired

Bin the auditorium

Bcontent

Cat the police station

Chungry

Din the school library

Dthrilled 2

The fourth paragraph in the passage is mostly about

5

Athe dinner Colin cooks for his parents

Aencourages her son

Bthe careers that Colin’s friends want to have

Bwishes she was a chef

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Cbusinesses that will be attending the career fair

From reading the passage, you can tell that Colin’s mother

Clikes her career as a nurse Dwants to speak at the career fair

Da popular show on a Granite Hills radio station

6

3

Which of the following is NOT a reason for Colin to be nervous about the career fair?

TER. K want to be. A BLAC ANY W AColin thinks about becoming a chef. N I T D O N UCE ODtype T IS not R P He. Idoes know what of job he D BColin’s mother comes home from work. B E E R T H E G B I R O COPY IS Bwants OOK inT the future. S I CColin puts two potatoes in the oven K O H to bake. PLE BO IVEN FOR T CHe does not know which questions to ask M A S the guest speakers. THIS NOT G S I piece DColin’s mother eats a second N O I S of chicken. PERMIS DHis mother gives him the idea to become a

Which of the following happens first?

AS they Y. AAll of his friends seem toLIknow NE Mwhat A

chef or restaurant owner.

PART D: Assessments

A S S E S S M E N T S

155


Assessment 1 7

8

How do Colin’s feelings at the beginning of the story and his feelings at the end of the passage differ from each other? Use details from the passage to support your answer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . fair on Tuesday, Emily will Which sentence is both fact and opinion? HTED9 At the career G BE REwant I R O Y T P K most likely to visit with a guest COI’ve IS BOO S I chicken A“This is the most delicious K O H speaker from PLE BO IVEN FOR T ever tasted!” M A S G THIS NOaT career AGranite Hill Hospital S I to pursue as a N B“Marty wanted O I S IS professional BFarnsworth Furniture PERM athlete.” C“As the chicken fried, Colin washed lettuce, tomatoes, and cucumbers and cut them into small pieces.”

D“Our bus driver lets us listen to Mark and Marissa every morning on the way to school, and they are hilarious.”

156 PART D: Assessments

C107.7 Rock Radio DWhitehall Theatre Group


Assessment 1 10 You can conclude that Colin’s chicken tasted very good because

13 Where would you most likely find this passage?

Ahis mother said it smelled delicious

Ain a book of poetry

Bhe added extra spices to the breading

Bin a collection of short stories

Chis mother reached for a second piece

Cin a cooking magazine

Dhe cooked it in a frying pan with butter

Din the business section of a newspaper

11 At the beginning of the story, what was Colin’s biggest concern about the career fair?

14 If your school had planned a career fair, what job would you be interested in and what is one question that would you ask?

AHe does not know what type of job he would like to have.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

BHe is not sure he will be able to attend the career fair.

CHis friends have chosen better careers than he has.

DHe does not know if he will like being a chef.

12

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A The author’s main purpose in writing this S NOT PRODUCED I T I . story is to GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K IS CO THIS BOO Aexplain how to choose an interesting Kcareer O O B PLE at a IVEN FOR Mevents A of S Bdescribe the schedule S I TH NOT G S I career fair N MISSIO R E P Centertain the reader with a story about a boy who is nervous about a career fair

Dhelp the reader understand how to prepare for a career as a chef or restaurant owner

PART D: Assessments 157

A S S E S S M E N T S


ASSESSMENT 2 Passage 1 | Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Communication through the Ages The word “communicate” means to pass along information. Human beings have always wanted to communicate with each other. The earliest people probably used simple gestures and sounds. Over time, sounds were used to form languages. This made it possible for people to share more complex ideas. Tens of thousands of years ago, people painted pictures on rocks and in caves to tell stories about their lives. The Egyptians used symbols and pictures to record information on the walls of the pyramids. Symbols and pictures were eventually replaced by alphabets.

— 3500s B.C.E. People used pictures and symbols

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

— 1500s B.C.E. First alphabet developed

— 105 B.C.E. Paper invented in China — 1454 Guttenberg built a printing press

— 1831 Electric telegraph invented Once paper was invented, it was much easier to — 1876 Bell introduced the telephone in write messages and record important information. . the United States MASTER Paper was also easy to carry and could be sent great E WAY. KLIN C Y A distances. The invention of the printing press was N L A B — 1901 IN radio waves OT AMarconiDsent EDfirst N C U another significant improvement. People could S I O T PRAtlantic Ocean REthe TED. I Oacross H E record large amounts of information on paper. Many G B I R Y T 1925 First television signals transmitted COPpractical OOK — S B I copies could be made. It was much more S K I O H LE BO VEN FOR T than writing it all Aby MPhand! — 1969 Computers linked to form Internet

THIS S IS NOT GI SIONwere writing letters and S Now that people I M R PE

printing materials, they had to find ways to move them from one place to another. In the United States during the Colonial times, people asked friends and traveling merchants to deliver their letters, books, and documents. Later the Pony Express served this purpose. In 1861 the Pony Express carried President Abraham Lincoln’s speech across the country. It took seven days and seventeen hours.

158 PART D: Assessments

— 1994 World Wide Web became available


Assessment 2 During the 1800s the telegraph machine was invented. Now it was possible to communicate across great distances by sending electrical signals over wires. For the first time in history, messages were transmitted instead of transported. Samuel Morse developed a code to represent different letters of the alphabet. This improved communication using the telegraph. By the end of the century, the invention of the telephone made long-distance communication even easier. Alexander Graham Bell’s name is usually connected with the telephone, but Antonio Meucci invented it. Changes continued during the 1900s. First came the radio. Later, the invention of television made it possible to transmit images. People could now see, as well as hear, what was happening around the world. Telephones were improved. The touch-tone phone was developed in 1963. Next came the cordless phone that allowed people to talk to each other while walking around their homes. And then the cellular phone that let them have conversations from almost any location. The invention of computers was followed by development of the Internet and then the World Wide Web.

E L P SAM EDUCATION ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8

Less than a hundred years ago, it took a letter three weeks to get from Maine to Georgia. Now it takes seconds to send an e-mail across a continent. This is an amazing achievement.

STER. A M E CKLIN A AY. L B A Communication has always been important to people. New ANY W T O IN ED advances T IS N and I C inventions have improved the way we communicate these . U D D E O EPR not have RIGHT yearsBago Rcould Yhundred will continue. People livingCO one E P O S called Oe-mail. OK T How do you think people will OKa Ithing imagined that there would be O B B S I E L H AMP FOR T years from now? be able toHIcommunicate VENhundred T S S OT GIone IS N N O I S IS PERM 1

When did people first begin to communicate with each other?

2

Which sentence would fit best in the third paragraph?

Awhen paper was invented

AInk was made from paint and dye.

Bwhen this happened is not known

BBooks could be printed more quickly.

Cwhen the electric phone was invented

CJohannes Guttenberg was a

Dwhen the first alphabet was developed

German craftsman.

DChester Carlson created a photocopier for office use.

PART D: Assessments 159

A S S E S S M E N T S


Assessment 2 3

Which of the following events happened before the first radio waves were sent across the Atlantic Ocean?

7

Compare the telegraph and the telephone. Explain one way they are alike and one way they are different.

ATelevision was invented. BThe touch-tone telephone was invented. CMorse code was developed. DThe Internet improved communication.

4

Read the sentence below from the passage. “For the first time in history, messages were transmitted instead of transported.�

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What does the word transmitted mean as it is used in this sentence?

Ashown to everyone in the world Bmade into pictures

Csent across the ocean

Dsent out as electric signals

8

Which of the following statements from the passage is an example of an opinion?

ALater, the invention ofMAtelevision STER. made it possible toAtransmit CKLINE images. Y

5

WAY. N L A B A IN OTinventions EDimproved N C U S I New have the way D B O T .I PR and these advances Who invented the telephone? D E E R T H E we communicate G B OPYRI S BOOK TOwill continue. C S I ABell BOOK R THI E O L F P N M E BMeucciTHIS SA CSamuel Morse developed a code to OT GIV N S I represent different letters of the alphabet. CLincolnRMISSION PE DBell introduced the telephone in the DGuttenberg

6

Which of the following events led to the development of Morse code?

AThe telephone was introduced. BThe electric telegraph was invented. CComputers were connected to create the Internet.

DRadio waves were sent across the Atlantic Ocean.

160 PART D: Assessments

United States.


Assessment 2 9

Which of the following would most likely be true if the Internet did not exist?

AThere would be no computers. BPeople would not communicate. CPeople would not use telephones. DThere would be no World Wide Web.

10 Why was the invention of television important?

AFor the first time, information was transmitted instead of transported.

BIt proved that electricity could be used to send signals across the Atlantic Ocean.

CIt allowed people to hear what was happening all around the world for the very first time.

DIt allowed people to see what was happening all around the world for the very first time.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

11 Why was the invention of paper important? How did it improve the way people could communicate? Use details from the passage to support your answer.

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

PART D: Assessments 161

A S S E S S M E N T S


Assessment 2 12 The main purpose of this passage is to

Astate an opinion

14 Which of the following would you use to communicate with someone living far away if there were no electricity?

Binform the reader

Aa letter

Centertain the reader

Ban e-mail

Dcompare and contrast

CMorse code Da phone call

13 This passage can best be described as

Aa biography Ba work of fiction Chistorical facts

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Dscientific research

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

162 PART D: Assessments


Assessment 2 Passage 2 | Directions: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

A Treasured Antique Calvin’s mother called up the stairs urging him to hurry up, so he hastened to conclude the email. At least once a month he corresponded with his cousin, Debra. Calvin knew she was probably wondering why his e-mail was so long overdue, so he had explained that his newspaper delivery job was keeping him busy. Debra lived in California and Calvin lived in Maine, so they communicated by e-mail. Whenever something exciting occurred, Calvin would sit at the computer and start typing. Calvin enjoyed telling Debra about what was happening on the east coast and, in return, Debra would update Calvin about west coast events.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Calvin finished typing the last sentence and sent the e-mail. In a few seconds, it would be in Debra’s inbox. Turning off his computer, he raced down the stairs, out the door, and into the car where his mother was waiting with the engine running. Fortunately, there was very little traffic, so they were not delayed. Just a few minutes later, Calvin and his mother arrived at their destination, and walked up the cobblestone path. Before ER. AST Calvin could knock, the front door swung open. LINE M

WAY. K C Y A N L A B IN OT“IAwas about EDstart N C U S “What took so long?” Grandpa inquired, as he gave them each a hug. to I D O T I R RofEPyou TED.from H E cleaning out the attic by myself. But I was under strict orders the two not to do any G B I R O Y T P K O O C O heavy lifting.” OK IS OR THIS B O B E L NF MP E A V S I G S I T Calvin explainedTto H his grandfather NO about the e-mail he sent to Debra. He was still feeling IinS such N O I guilty about not having written a long time. He admitted that to his grandfather and S MIS R E P explained about his new job. His grandfather reassured him that his cousin would understand and then observed, “If they had e-mail when I was your age, I would have saved a lot of money on stamps. And I wouldn’t have taken all those walks to the post office.” Then the three of them made their way up the steep, creaking steps to the attic. Grandpa, the first to reach the top step, jerked on a string and the lights came on. Peering around the attic, they saw piles of boxes covered with dust and fluttering cobwebs dangling from the wooden beams overhead. “Let’s get started,” Grandpa suggested. “The truck will be here in less than an hour to pick up all this junk.”

PART D: Assessments 163

A S S E S S M E N T S


Assessment 2 Calvin knew that Grandpa loved to save things. Grandpa would always tell Calvin, “There are memories attached to everything.” But even Grandpa realized that his attic was becoming too cluttered. He had already sorted through all of the boxes to find the items that he treasured most, and placed these special items in an old trunk in his bedroom. The bedroom was a much better place for them. What remained was going to be carted away. Calvin and his mother worked together lifting the heavy boxes, while Grandpa carried the lighter boxes to the front curb. Finally, there was only one box left but, as Calvin bent to lift it, he noticed an object on a small table near the attic window. Straightening up, Calvin walked toward the window. A few seconds later, hearing his exclamation of surprise, his grandfather joined him. “Now, how did I forget about that?” Grandpa said, shaking his head in disbelief.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Calvin had never seen a typewriter like this one before. He remembered seeing his mother use an electric typewriter. When she pressed on the keys of the typewriter a wheel with different letters would strike an ink ribbon and ink would be transferred from the ribbon onto a piece of paper. Grandpa’s STER. . typewriter looked similar, but not the A M E same and it appeared to be very old. ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A Instead of a wheel with letters, it S NOT PRODUCED I T I . had several long bars with letters. GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K Also, it did not have a switch O toK IS CO BOO S I H O T B turn it on and off.AHowever, have N FOR MPLE it did E V S I G S I T TH similar toIStheNOone on his an ink ribbon mother’s old ISSION RMtypewriter.

PE

For many years Grandpa had been a newspaper journalist who reported on events around the world. Grandpa told Calvin that he remembered writing the very first story of his career on this very typewriter, and that this ancient machine was one of his most prized possessions. Observing Calvin’s excitement, Grandpa scratched his head and thought for a moment as he gazed at his grandson. Grandpa knew how much Calvin loved to write. I wonder if my old typewriter is ready to record some new ideas, he chuckled to himself. “I’m not sure where I’m going to find room for that typewriter around here,” Grandpa stated. “Do you happen to know a place where we can put it?” he inquired with a big smile. “Any suggestions?” Smiling back, Calvin gave his grandfather a big hug.

164 PART D: Assessments


Assessment 2 1

Why did Calvin go to his grandfather’s house?

5

Ato pack some boxes

Describe Grandpa’s attic based on details from the passage.

Bto have lunch with him Cto help him clean the attic Dto help him find his typewriter

2

What would be another good title for this story?

A“Lost Memories” B“A Box of Treasures” C“Calvin Sends an E-mail”

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

D“A Day at Grandpa’s House”

3

What does Calvin do before he goes to Grandpa’s house?

AHe finds a typewriter.

6

How does Grandpa react when Calvin finds the typewriter in the attic?

AHe is sad.

STER. . A M E BHe drops a letter in the mailbox. ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A CHe is happy. S NOT PRODUCED I CHe sends an e-mail to his cousin. T I . TEDHe is surprised. GHD BE RE I R O Y T P DHe carries a box down the stairs. K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO 7 How is the typewriter that Calvin finds in N O I S Read the sentence below from the passage. S I M R Grandpa’s attic different from the one his PE BHe is angry.

4

“Just a few minutes later, Calvin and his mother arrived at their destination, and walked up the cobblestone path.” What does the word destination mean as it is used in this sentence?

Aa place that is very pleasant Ba place that no one wants to visit

mother used to have?

AIt is an electric typewriter. BIt does not have an ink ribbon. CIt uses a wheel with letters to print on paper.

DIt does not have a switch to turn it on and off.

Ca place that someone has just been Da place to which someone is going

PART D: Assessments 165

A S S E S S M E N T S


Assessment 2 8

Which statement from the passage is NOT a fact?

A“Calvin knew that Grandpa loved to save things.”

11 How can you tell that Grandpa has not cleaned the attic in a long time?

AThere are a lot of boxes. BGrandpa left the typewriter there.

B“For many years Grandpa had been a newspaper journalist who reported on events around the world.”

CGrandpa had to turn on the light. DThe boxes are covered with dust.

C“The truck will be here in less than an hour to pick up all this junk.”

D“The bedroom was a much better place for them.”

12 With which of the following statements would Grandpa mostly likely agree?

AThings were made much better years ago. BAll personal belongings can be

9

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

What will most likely happen with the typewriter Calvin found in the attic?

AGrandpa will leave it in the attic.

BGrandpa will give it to Calvin to take home. CGrandpa will take it to a shop to be fixed. DGrandpa will ask Calvin to take it to

CThings do not have to be expensive to be valuable.

DYou should not bother to save things when they get old.

STER. . A M E IN 13 This passage isAan of Y WAY CKLexample L AN B A N I T D O E N C U IS a novel PROD . ITA D E T H E RE G Bmyth I R O Y T Why was the e-mail Calvin sent to Debra so a P B K O K IS C R THIS BOO O long overdue? O B Ca short story N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T H too tiredIStoNwrite. ACalvin Twas O Da folk tale N O I S S I M was away on vacation. R BCalvin PE the curb.

10

easily replaced.

CCalvin had been busy with his job. DCalvin had been studying for a test.

166 PART D: Assessments


Assessment 2 14 Read the sentence below from the passage. “Grandpa would always tell Calvin, ‘There are memories attached to everything.’” Explain what Grandpa means by this statement. Base your answer on details from the passage and on your own experiences.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

PART D: Assessments 167

A S S E S S M E N T S


Notes

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM

168


E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STER. . A M E ACKLIN IN ANY WAY L B A S NOT PRODUCED I T I . GHTED BE RE I R O Y T P K O K IS C R THIS BOO O O B N FO MPLE E A V S I G S I T TH IS NO N O I S IS PERM


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