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Essential Skills Welcome to Essential Skills for Reading Success: Strategies for Reading Comprehension and Test Taking. Being a successful reader means that you understand what you read. This book is designed to teach you the fourteen skills and strategies you need to be a successful reader. Essential Skills for Reading Success has different kinds of reading selections and different types of questions. Each skill is taught one-by-one in the first part of the book using Modeled Instruction, Guided Instruction, and Independent Practice. The second part of the book teaches the skills all together. Review activities reinforce the skills. Essential Skills for Reading Success is divided into four parts: • Part A – Reading Skills One-by-One • Part B – Reading Skills Review • Part C – Reading Skills All Together • Part D – Assessments

Essential Skills for Reading Success

for Reading Success

Level

C

Essential Skills for Reading Success Strategies for Reading Comprehension and Test Taking

The 14 Essential Skills: Recall Facts and Details Identify Main Idea Identify Sequence Analyze Language and Vocabulary Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting Recognize Cause and Effect Compare and Contrast Distinguish Fact from Opinion Make Predictions Draw Conclusions Make Inferences Analyze Point of View and Purpose Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information Apply Prior Knowledge

Second Edition

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Second Edition

Howard I. Berrent, Ph.D.

New & Updated Content Edward R. Nasello


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14 Reading Comprehension Skills Strategies for Understanding and Test Taking

………….. Essential Skills for Reading Success Reading Levels 2–8 • • • •

Part A: Reading Skills One-by-One Part B: Reading Skills Review Part C: Skills Altogether Part D: Assessments

Level B C D E F G H

Reading Level 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Interest Level 2-5 3-6 4-7 5-8 6-HS 7-HS 8-HS

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Level

C

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8


Acknowledgments

ISBN 978-1-4204-4913-6 R 4913-6

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Copyright © 2010 RALLY! EDUCATION All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Printed in the U.S.A. 809.MAQ.1E Printed on recycled paper. C Executive Editor: Amy Collins Project Manager: Edward Nasello Design Director: Jean-Paul Vest Illustrator: Donna Stackhouse

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2

ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR READING SUCCESS


Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

PART A: Reading Skills One-by-One Skill Skill Skill Skill

1: 2: 3: 4:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

Recall Facts and Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Identify Main Idea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Identify Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Analyze Language and Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

Skill Review: Skills 1–4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Vocabulary Review: Skills 1–4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Skill 7: Compare and Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Skill Review: Skills 5–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Vocabulary Review: Skills 5–7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Skill 9: Make Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Skill 10: Draw Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Skill 11: Make Inferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Skill Review: Skills 8–11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Vocabulary Review: Skills 8–11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Skill 12: Analyze Point of View and Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Skill 13: Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 Skill 14: Apply Prior Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Skill Review: Skills 12–14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Vocabulary Review: Skills 12–14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112

PART B: Reading Skills Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 PART C: Reading Skills All Together

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123

Theme: Everybody Wants a Pet (4 passages with questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 Theme Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143

PART D: Assessments

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145

Assessment 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 Assessment 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR READING SUCCESS

3


Introduction Welcome to Essential Skills for Reading Success: Strategies for Reading Comprehension and Test Taking. Being a successful reader means that you understand what you read. There are 14 key skills a reader needs to be a great reader. This book teaches these skills and strategies for how to use them. The 14 Essential Skills for Reading Success are: 1

Recall Facts and Details

2

Identify Main Idea

3

Identify Sequence

4

Analyze Language and Vocabulary

5

Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting

6

Recognize Cause and Effect

7

Compare and Contrast

8

Distinguish Fact from Opinion

9

Make Predictions

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

10 Draw Conclusions 11 Make Inferences

12 Analyze Point of View and Purpose

13 Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information 14 Apply Prior Knowledge

Throughout this book, you will read many different types of passages and answer different kinds of questions. Strategies, Hints, and Reminders are provided to make learning easier for you. Essential Skills for Reading Success is divided into four parts: Part A — Reading Skills One-by-One Part B — Reading Skills Review Part C — Reading Skills All Together Part D — Assessments Completing all of the lessons in this book will help you to master the 14 Essential Skills for Reading Success. You will be a better reader and a better test taker!

4

ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR READING SUCCESS


PART A: Reading Skills One-by-One

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

In this section of the book, each of the 14 Essential Skills for Reading Success is taught in a separate lesson using Modeled Instruction, Guided Instruction, and Independent Practice. Part A also includes four Skill Review and four Vocabulary Review lessons to reinforce what you have learned in the individual skill lessons.

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SKILL 1:

Recall Facts and Details

Modeled Instruction There are many facts and details in a passage. Some of them can help you answer questions about the passage. You may need to read some parts of the passage again. One sentence can have many facts and details.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Max was hungry so he got a bowl of hot soup.

Think about the facts and details in the sentence. • Max was hungry. • Max got a bowl of soup. • The soup was hot.

Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to learn about recalling facts and details. My grandmother was born in Korea. Her name is Shin Chan-su. When she was a girl, she worked on a farm. Her family grew rice. My grandmother still eats a lot of rice today. She says it reminds her of home. My grandmother has been living in America for more than 30 years. She came to America long before I was born.

STRATEGY: List the important facts and details that are in the paragraph. Complete the list below. Add an important fact or detail from the paragraph. Facts and Details About Grandmother 1. Her name is Shin Chan-su. 2. She was born in Korea. 3. Other important details include: she worked on a farm, her family grew rice, she still

THINK eats rice today, and she has lived in America for more than 30 years.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 1: Recall Facts and Details


Recall Facts and Details Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to answer a Facts and Details question.

Panda bears have black and white fur. Pandas live in deep forests full of trees. Big bugs and monkeys live there as well. Pandas mind their own business. They like to climb trees and play. Pandas also spend a lot of time eating. Pandas eat bamboo, which is a kind of crunchy plant that grows in some places. Pandas spend much of each day eating. They might eat 40 pounds of food in one day!

O N E

1 What do pandas eat?

Abugs Btrees Cmonkeys Dbamboo

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: Look for key words that will help you find the answer. The key words in this question are “pandas” and “eat.”

B Y

Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check

THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

÷ Abugs

÷ Cmonkeys

The paragraph explains that bugs live in the forests. The paragraph does not tell you that pandas eat the bugs. Choice A cannot be correct.

Btrees ÷

O N E

Monkeys also live in the forests where panda bears live. But there is no reason to think that pandas eat the monkeys. Choice C cannot be correct.

÷ Dbamboo

One sentence states that pandas climb trees. It does not tell you that pandas eat trees. Choice B cannot be correct.

There are facts and details in the paragraph that tell you pandas like to eat bamboo. Choice D is the correct answer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 1: Recall Facts and Details

7


Recall Facts and Details Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION A Secret to Share C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this fictional passage. It is an example of realistic fiction.

Ming-Lee had a secret place that she had discovered in the woods. It was under an old oak tree. In the summer, the secret place was shady and cool. Ming-Lee liked to lie on her back and watch the sun shining down through the leaves. If there was a breeze, the light seemed to dance. Ming-Lee enjoyed the different smells of the woods. There was the smell of the pine trees. The old leaves that had fallen to the ground had a dusty smell. The moss growing on the north side of the oak tree smelled like the earth. Ming-Lee also enjoyed listening to the sounds of the leaves moving in the breeze. Ming-Lee liked to sit quietly. She watched squirrels dart around and listened to birds sing. She found things that she liked in the woods. Ming-Lee made a box out of pine twigs and leaves and put her special things in it. Her favorite thing was a tiny black rock that was very shiny. One day Ming-Lee found something strange in her special place. There was a little pile of rocks, twigs, and leaves under the oak tree. It almost looked like a little house. There was even an opening that looked like a door. Ming-Lee was angry that someone had come into her special place. But she also was very curious. The next day, there was another little house. Ming-Lee stared at the unusual little houses. Where had they come from? Suddenly, she heard the sound of someone walking through the woods. Then she saw another little girl walking toward her.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 1: Recall Facts and Details


Recall Facts and Details “Hi,” said the other girl as she approached with a friendly smile. “Did you make these?” Ming-Lee asked, pointing to the little twig and leaf houses. The girl nodded her head. “They’re fairy houses.” Ming-Lee was confused and asked, “What’s a fairy house?” “A house you build, so that fairies can come and live in it,” declared the girl. “I’m Ming-Lee. What’s your name?” “I’m Grace. We just moved here. I was walking behind my house and I saw this place,” the girl explained. “You can join me if you like,” said Ming-Lee as she invited Grace to sit at her side.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Ming-Lee stretched out on the ground and looked up through the leaves. Grace did too. The two girls lay there quietly. Ming-Lee liked that Grace didn’t mind being quiet.

The girls played together all afternoon. Grace even showed Ming-Lee how to make a fairy house. Ming-Lee decided that sharing her secret place with Grace made it even better.

Passage Vocabulary Words approached – came closer

discovered – found

confused – not sure

twigs – small branches

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a list of facts and details.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 1: Recall Facts and Details

9


Recall Facts and Details Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. 1 Where is Ming-Lee’s secret place?

Ain a fairy land

Find the words “secret place” in the story. Read that part of the story again. HINT It will help you know what the answer is.

Bin her house Cin the woods Din Grace’s house

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 What did Ming-Lee use to make a box?

Acards Bpaper

Look for the word “box.” Read that part of the passage again. Find the HINT facts and details you need to answer the question.

Ctwigs and leaves Dwood and nails

3 What did Ming-Lee see after she heard the sound of someone walking in the woods? Look in the passage for the words “heard the sound.” Read this part of the passage again. Find the facts and details you need to answer the question. HINT

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 1: Recall Facts and Details


Recall Facts and Details Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 What strange thing did Ming-Lee see in the woods?

5 Ming-Lee finds out that the strange thing is

Aa tree

Aa squirrel house

Ba clearing

Ba fairy house

Ca gray squirrel eating red berries

Ca treasure box

Da pile of rocks, twigs, and leaves

Dan ant house

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

6 What does Grace teach Ming-Lee?

Ahow to find the secret place Bhow to stay very quiet

Chow to make a fairy house Dhow to find Grace’s house

7 What is something that Ming-Lee likes about Grace?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 1: Recall Facts and Details

11


SKILL 2:

Identify Main Idea

Modeled Instruction A main idea is what a passage, or part of a passage, is mostly about. You must think about all the information you have read. Ask yourself, “What is this mostly about?” Some questions may ask about the main idea of a passage. Other questions may ask about the main idea of a paragraph or sentence.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The details that you read will help you to know what the main idea is. Detail + Detail + Detail + Detail = Main Idea

Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to learn about main ideas. Rianna was walking home from school. She saw black smoke. The smoke was coming from a house. The house was on fire! “Oh no!” Rianna thought. Fire trucks came quickly. Firefighters poured water on the fire. They ran into the house and pulled out a man who was inside. They also saved the man’s pet cat. Luckily, the fire went out. Everyone was safe.

STRATEGY: Make a graphic organizer to help find the main idea of the paragraph. Details from the paragraph are shown in the graphic organizer below. Write the main idea of the paragraph in the center circle.

A house was on fire.

Firefighters poured water on the fire.

Main Idea:

Firefighters saved a man and a cat.

One of the details tells you that a house was on fire. The other details tell you what

THINK the firefighters did to help. It seems that they saved the day. Maybe this is the main idea of the paragraph.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 2: Identify Main Idea


Identify Main Idea Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to answer a Main Idea question. People change over time. Many animals do, too. Some animals change very quickly. Many kinds of animals can even change color. Some rabbits are brown in the summer. Then their fur turns white in winter. That helps them hide in the snow. Animals called chameleons change color all the time. If a chameleon is sitting on a leaf, it will turn green. If it is climbing a tree, it will turn brown. This helps it stay safe.

O N E

1 This paragraph would most likely appear in a passage titled

A“Clever Chameleons” B“Color-Changing Animals”

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

C“Where Animals Live”

D“Rabbits and Other Pets”

STRATEGY: You may want to make a graphic organizer or a list of details. This can help you identify the main idea. Then, you can think of a title that fits best with the main idea.

B Y

Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check

THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

÷ A“Clever Chameleons” Part of this paragraph is about chameleons. But there is also information about rabbits. It is not just about chameleons. Choice A cannot be correct.

B“Color-Changing Animals” ÷ There is a lot of information in the paragraph about animals that change colors. Two animals that are mentioned are rabbits and chameleons. This title goes best with the main idea of the paragraph. Choice B is correct.

÷ C“Where Animals Live”

O N E

There is not much information in the paragraph that tells you about where the animals live. This is not what the paragraph is mostly about. Choice C cannot be correct.

÷ D“Rabbits and Other Pets” The paragraph does tell you about rabbits. But it does not tell you about having rabbits, or other animals, as pets. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 2: Identify Main Idea

13


Identify Main Idea Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C You !Can Smell U D E Y L L Y L A L R When It’s Around A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8

Now read this nonfiction passage. It is an example of a science passage.

14

1

“Skunk” is a Native American word, so this animal has been around for a long time. You probably know what a skunk looks like. And you most likely know what a skunk’s spray smells like. What else do you know about skunks?

2

A skunk is about the size of a cat. Its fur is long, and it has a bushy tail. Skunks have five toes on each foot, and long claws that they use for digging. The striped skunk is the most common. It is black with two white stripes on its back. The spotted skunk is also black and white. There are hooded skunks that have thick fur around their necks. The hognose skunk has a nose that looks like a pig’s nose.

3

These small furry animals can live almost anywhere. Skunks like to live in the woods. They also like deserts and grassy areas. They live in most of the United States and in parts of Canada.

4

A skunk will eat just about anything. It likes vegetables and bugs. It likes birds’ eggs. It will even eat mice and rats. When a skunk eats insects, it helps us. It keeps those pests out of our gardens!

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 2: Identify Main Idea


Identify Main Idea 5

Why do skunks spray? A skunk will spray when it thinks it is in danger. First the skunk will stamp its front feet. If that doesn’t work, then the skunk will spray. The spray comes from under the skunk’s tail. If the spray gets in the eyes of an enemy, it will sting. It also has a very strong odor that is hard to get rid of.

6

Some people have skunks as pets. They can be funny and cuddly. Skunks that are pets are fixed, so they cannot spray their owners! Do you think you would like a pet skunk?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Passage Vocabulary Words common – something there is a lot of; easy to find odor – smell pests – people or animals that cause trouble

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a graphic organizer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 2: Identify Main Idea

15


Identify Main Idea Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. 1 What would be another good title for this passage?

A“Small Animals”

A good title can tell you the main idea of a passage. Think about all the HINT information you read to tell what the main idea of the passage is.

B“Helpful Skunks” C“Different Kinds of Pets” D“A Closer Look at Skunks”

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 Paragraph 3 in the passage tells mostly about

Athe United States

You only need to look at paragraph 3. Think about the facts in this paragraph. HINT What are most of these facts about?

Bdeserts and grassy areas Cwhere skunks live Dthe woods

3 What is the main idea of paragraph 4? Explain how you know. Think about the facts in paragraph 4. What are all the facts about? This is the main idea. Use the facts in your answer. HINT

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 2: Identify Main Idea


Identify Main Idea Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 This passage is mostly about

5 What is the main idea of paragraph 2?

Askunks

Ahow skunks walk

Bskunk spray

Bthe color of skunks

Cwhere skunks live

Cwhat skunks look like

Dwhat skunks eat

Dhow skunks are like cats

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

6 Which fact below would fit best in paragraph 5?

AA skunk’s teeth are quite sharp. BSkunk babies are called kittens.

CA skunk can spray about 10 to 15 inches.

DSkunks’ claws are very much like dogs’ claws.

7 What would make a good title for paragraph 5? Explain why you think this would make a good title.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 2: Identify Main Idea

17


SKILL 3:

Identify Sequence

Modeled Instruction Sequence is the order in which things happen. Actions or events in a passage can be put in order from first to last. Sometimes things appear in the passage in the order that they happen.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Mary put on her socks before she put on her shoes. FIRST SECOND

Sometimes things do not appear in the passage in the order that they happen. Mary put on her shoes after she put on her socks. SECOND FIRST

Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to learn about sequence. Thomas and Peter were neighbors. They did not get along, though. One day they decided to build a fence between their houses. They started nailing pieces of wood together. When Peter ran out of nails, Thomas gave him some. Later, when Thomas could not lift a heavy board, Peter helped. Soon, the neighbors were working together. By the time they were done, they had become friends.

STRATEGY: Make a graphic organizer to show the order in which things happen. Complete the graphic organizer below. Look at the details in the first and second boxes. What detail do you think belongs in the third box?

First Thomas and Peter decided to make a fence.

Second

Third

Thomas and Peter helped one another.

After Thomas and Peter helped one another, they became friends. This is the third thing

THINK that happened.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 3: Identify Sequence


Identify Sequence Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to answer a Sequence question.

Long ago, people made boats using reeds. Reeds are a kind of grass that grows near water. Reeds can float on water. People would make a boat by first cutting down many reeds. They rolled the reeds into bundles and tied them. Then, they tied the bundles together into the shape of a boat. People used reed boats for a long time. In some places, these boats are still used.

1 Which of the following happens first?

O N E

APeople use reed boats. BPeople cut down many reeds.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

CPeople tie reed bundles together. DPeople roll reeds into bundles.

STRATEGY: You may want to make a graphic organizer to help answer this question. Or you may want to make a list. You can list the things that happened in the order that they happened.

B Y

Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check

THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

รท APeople use reed boats.

This is the last thing that happens. People must make the boats first. Choice A cannot be correct.

BPeople cut down many reeds. รท First the reeds must be cut down. Everything else takes place after the reeds are cut down. Choice B is the correct answer.

CPeople tie reed bundles together. รท The bundles of reeds are tied together after reeds are cut down and after they are rolled into bundles. This is the third thing that happens. Choice C cannot be correct.

O N E

DPeople roll reeds into bundles. รท This is the second thing that happens. This happens after the reeds are cut down. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 3: Identify Sequence

19


Identify Sequence Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and pictures. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! FUNTOWN’s Y L RAL 99.RALLY 24th Annual . 8 8 8 SUMMER

Now read this functional passage. It is an example of a schedule.

Carnival and Midway ★ Thursday 6:30 P.M.–11:00 P.M. ★ Friday and Saturday 10:00 A.M.–11:00 P.M. ★ Sunday 10:00 A.M.–7:00 P.M.

FESTIVAL

July 17-20 Thursday through Sunday Carnival rides ★ Midway games Craft shows And all the delicious food you can eat!

20

Craft and Food Booths ★ Friday, Saturday, and Sunday 8:00 A.M.–7:00 P.M.

Schedule of Special Events Thursday ★ 6:30 P.M.–11:00 P.M. Bracelet Night: Buy a bracelet and enjoy unlimited carnival rides all night! A fantastic value at only $20. Friday ★ 6:30 P.M.–8:30 P.M. Annual Summer Festival Parade: See antique cars, clowns, floats, and Zoomers performing amazing tricks in their little cars.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 3: Identify Sequence


Identify Sequence Saturday ★ 8:00 A.M.–9:00 P.M. Sidewalk Art Show: Twenty-three artists will be on-hand all day to show their work. You’re sure to find something you’ll really like. ★ 8:00 A.M.–10:00 A.M. Pancake Breakfast: These pancakes are out of this world! Bring the family and enjoy a complete pancake breakfast. ★ 11:00 A.M.–12 noon Face Painting: Choose from hundreds of great designs. Or make up your own! If it fits on your face, they’ll paint it! ★ 2:00 P.M.–3:00 P.M. Pie-eating Contest: Watch or dig in at this annual favorite event. ★ 5:00 P.M.–7:00 P.M. Lobster & Clam Bake: Delicious family feast at a bargain price. Adults–$15, Children–$10. ★ 9:00 P.M. Fireworks at Bennet Field: Come see the spectacular display of fireworks. Funtown’s fire department gives a great show every year.

Sunday ★ 10:00 A.M.–1:00 P.M. Craft Demonstrations at the Mall: Craftspeople will show how they make their beautiful crafts. Watch, ask questions, and learn. ★ 1:00 P.M.–7:00 P.M. Music on the Green: You’ll hear everything from classical to rock. Bring a chair or blanket—have a picnic! Parking: Before you park, look for parking signs. Do not park on the street or in business parking lots unless there is a parking sign. There are many lots available within walking distance.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Passage Vocabulary Words antique – something that is old but people like to look at or save

bargain – a good price; does not cost much to buy

available – ready to be used

spectacular – wonderful or amazing unlimited – as many as you would like

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a graphic organizer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 3: Identify Sequence

21


Identify Sequence Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. 1 What can you do after the Pancake Breakfast but before the Pie-eating Contest begins on Saturday?

Asee a parade

Look for important times or dates. Complete this timeline for Saturday HINT before you answer the question. Saturday What is happening at each of these times?

Bsee fireworks Cgo to a lobster bake

8:00 A.M. ____________________________________

Dhave your face painted

11:00 A.M. __________________________________

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2:00 P.M. ____________________________________ 5:00 P.M. ____________________________________ 9:00 P.M. ____________________________________

2 Which of the following will happen first?

Athe art show Bbracelet night

Find the time and day when each event will happen. Then make a HINT timeline. Which event happens first?

Cmusic on the green Dcraft demonstrations 3 List four things you could do on Saturday if you arrived at 2:00 P.M. Find all of the events that begin at 2:00 P.M. or later. Think about things you could do besides going to special events. HINT

22

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 3: Identify Sequence


Identify Sequence Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 Look at the boxes below. Fireworks at Bennet Field

Music on the Green

Which of the following should be placed in the empty box?

Acraft demonstrations begin

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Bthe sidewalk art show ends Cthe midway closes

Dface painting begins

5 When you get to Funtown, what should you do before you park?

6 At which festival activity are you able to spend the most time?

Ago to the town hall

Athe carnival

Blook for parking signs

Bthe art show

Cfind a business parking lot

Cmusic on the green

Dgo to Main Street

Dthe fireworks

7 There are many things you could do between Friday night at 9:00 P.M. and the end of the festival on Sunday. Describe the three things you would do in the order that you would do them.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 3: Identify Sequence

23


SKILL 4:

Analyze Language and Vocabulary

Modeled Instruction Sometimes when you read you see new words or phrases. You may not know what they mean. You must look for clues to help you understand their meaning. If you see a new word you do not know, look at the other words around it. You may find clues that will help you to know what the new word means.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The umbrella kept the rain from falling on us.

new word

clue

In this sentence, “kept the rain from falling on us” tells you that an umbrella is something used to cover people when it rains. It keeps people from getting wet.

Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to learn about language and vocabulary. Jeremy and Sarah went to the beach. They walked along the edge of the ocean where the water was shallow. Sarah liked to sit in the water and splash her brother. Jeremy liked to look for shells. The water was only a few inches deep. Jeremy was able to see many different shells. STRATEGY: When you do not know the meaning of a word, look for clues in the paragraph. These clues can help you understand what the word means. Clues that can help you understand the meaning of the word shallow have been underlined. Two of the clues are explained in the chart below. Add the last clue to the chart and explain what it tells you. What do you think the word shallow means?

Clues

What does each clue tell you?

edge of the ocean

Water can be shallow.

sit in the water

You can sit in water that is shallow.

The phrase “only a few inches deep” tells you that shallow water is not very deep.

THINK Shallow must mean “not deep.” If you look at all of the clues, this answer makes sense.

24

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 4: Analyze Language and Vocabulary


Analyze Language and Vocabulary Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to answer a Language and Vocabulary question.

We were excited to get to the island. The sun was bright. It was very hot out. Even the wind was hot. The sand burned our toes! Some people don’t like this kind of weather. But we were all happy to be on this tropical island. We just got some cool drinks and sat in the shade. It was a great trip.

O N E

1 What does the word tropical mean?

Awarm place Bwet place Cfaraway place Dcool place

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: You may want to make a chart to list clues that can help you to understand what the word tropical means.

B Y

Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check

THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

÷ Awarm place

Cfaraway place ÷

Clues such as “very hot out,” “burned our toes,” and “this kind of weather” suggest that a tropical place is a warm place. Choice A is the correct answer.

Bwet place ÷

O N E

The island could be far away, but you cannot know for sure. Nothing tells you that the island is far away. Choice C cannot be correct.

Dcool place ÷

There is information in the paragraph about hot sun and sand. There is nothing in the paragraph about the island being wet. Choice B cannot be correct.

You can tell that the island is not a cool place. The paragraph explains that there is hot sun, hot sand, and even hot wind. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 4: Analyze Language and Vocabulary

25


Analyze Language and Vocabulary Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E My Shadow ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this fictional passage. It is an example of a poem.

by Robert Louis Stevenson

26

1

I have a little shadow that goes in and out with me,

2

And what can be the use of him is more than I can see.

3

He is very, very like me from the heels up to the head;

4

And I see him jump before me, when I jump into my bed.

5

The funniest thing about him is the way he likes to grow—

6

Not at all like proper children, which is always very slow;

7

For he sometimes shoots up taller like an India-rubber ball,

8

And he sometimes gets so little that there’s none of him at all.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 4: Analyze Language and Vocabulary


Analyze Language and Vocabulary 9

He hasn’t got a notion of how children ought to play,

10

And can only make a fool of me in every sort of way.

11

He stays so close beside me, he’s a coward you can see;

12

I’d think shame to stick to nursie as that shadow sticks to me!

13

One morning, very early, before the sun was up,

14

I rose and found the shining dew on every buttercup;

15

But my lazy little shadow, like an errant sleepy-head,

16

Had stayed at home behind me and was fast asleep in bed.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Passage Vocabulary Words coward – a person who is always afraid errant – not acting the right way; acting in a way that could get you in trouble notion – idea

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a chart with clues about the meaning of some words and phrases.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 4: Analyze Language and Vocabulary

27


Analyze Language and Vocabulary Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. 1 In line 10 the word fool means

Apet Bfriend Csilly person

Some words in a sentence are clues about the meaning of other words. HINT Sometimes you need to think about how sentences fit together to know the meaning of a word.

Dshadow

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 The words He is very, very like me from the heels up to the head suggest

Athat the shadow is another child like the poet

Compare the words in each answer choice with the words in the question. HINT Which answer choice has the same meaning as the words in the question?

Bthat the shadow has the same shape as the poet

Cthat the shadow’s heels are near its head Dthat the shadow has only heels and a head

3 What do you think the poet means when he says, The funniest thing about him is the way he likes to grow? Read the part of the poem where this sentence is used. What do the details tell you about what happens to the shadow? HINT

28

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 4: Analyze Language and Vocabulary


Analyze Language and Vocabulary Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 An India-rubber ball is a type of

5 The word rose can mean

Atoy

1. a flower

Bdance

2. got up from someplace

Cflower

3. a pinkish color

Dgame

4. part of a map that points to north, south, east, and west

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Which meaning best fits the way the word rose is used in line 14?

Ameaning 1 Bmeaning 2 Cmeaning 3 Dmeaning 4

6 Which words help you know what the word dew means?

Astayed and home Blazy and sleepy-head Cevery and buttercup Dmorning and shining

7 Read the last part of the poem again. Why does the poet think that his shadow is still in bed?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 4: Analyze Language and Vocabulary

29


SKILL REVIEW:

Skills 1–4

Directions: Read the passage below and answer questions 1–7.

All About Elephants Elephants are some of the biggest animals around. They are also some of the most interesting. Elephants do not act like most other animals. They are very calm most of the time. They move slowly and think carefully. You might think an elephant looks a little strange. An elephant has a long, skinny trunk. The trunk is like a long nose. But it acts like an arm, too. The elephant uses its trunk to eat plants. When an elephant is hungry, it uses its trunk to reach into a tree or bush. Then, the trunk grabs some plants or leaves. At last, the trunk brings the food to the elephant’s mouth.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

That’s not all a trunk is for. An elephant can use its trunk like a straw to drink. It can suck up water and then pour it into the elephant’s mouth. To get clean, an elephant will pour water on its body. It’s like a shower. On very hot days, an elephant may even use its trunk to throw mud on its body. The mud will cover the elephant and help keep it cool. An elephant can use its trunk to move things or shake trees to bring down fruit. An elephant’s trunk is very strong, but it is also gentle. An elephant can use its trunk to pick up small things. It can even use its trunk to “shake hands” with a friend! An elephant’s trunk is also used to smell things. Sometimes, an elephant might think danger is near. It can lift its trunk and smell the air. If it smells a lion, tiger, or hunter, it will be careful. The elephant will keep its distance from trouble. Elephants do not like to fight, but they will defend themselves. They can knock over harmful animals or people with their big trunks. A trunk is not the only interesting thing about an elephant. Just its size is amazing. An elephant baby is about 200 pounds when it is born. (Most baby people are less than 10 pounds!) In less than one year, a young elephant will be 750 pounds. And it will keep growing! Passage Vocabulary Words gentle – kind and soft harmful – can hurt someone or something interesting – information a person might like to know

30

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 1–4


Facts & Details, Main Idea, Sequence, Language & Vocabulary Identify Main Idea 1 What is the main idea of the last paragraph?

REMINDER

APeople are very small when born.

This question asks you to find the main idea of one part of the passage. Read this part of the passage again. Think about what it is mostly about.

BElephants are very big animals. CPeople can grow very fast. DElephants are strange animals.

O N E

Analyze Language and Vocabulary

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 What does the word defend mean?

Akeep safe Bfight others Cmove slowly Dthrow things

REMINDER

This question asks about the meaning of one word. Look in the passage for clues that help you to know what this word means.

B Y

Identify Main Idea 3 What is the main idea of this passage?

AElephants drink water with their trunks. BElephants are usually very clean. CElephants grow larger than people. DElephants are interesting animals.

O N E

REMINDER This question asks you to tell the main idea. The main idea is what the passage is mostly about.

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 1–4

31


Skill Review: Skills 1–4 Analyze Language and Vocabulary 4 Read the following sentence from the passage. “The elephant will keep its distance from trouble.” In this sentence, what does keep its distance mean?

Afind more Blook closely Cstay away

REMINDER This question asks you to tell the meaning of a group of words. Think about how these words are used. Look for clues that tell you what these words mean.

Dmove toward

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Recall Facts and Details 5 What do elephants eat?

Alions Bmud Ctigers Dplants

REMINDER

The answer to this question can be found right in the passage. Look for key words to help you find the answer.

Recall Facts and Details 6 Why might an elephant throw mud on itself? The information you need to answer this question is in the passage. Use key

REMINDER words to help you find the facts and details you need to answer the question.

32

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 1–4


Skill Review: Skills 1–4 Identify Sequence 7 Fill in the boxes to tell how an elephant uses its trunk to eat. List the things an elephant does in the order that it does them. To answer a question about sequence, you must list the things that happen

REMINDER in the order that they happen.

First

Second

Third

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 1–4

33


VOCABULARY REVIEW:

Skills 1–4

Directions: Listed below are some words that were used in each of the passages you just read. Choose the correct words to complete the sentences on this page. You may look back at the passages to find the meaning of each word. A Secret to Share

You Can Smell When It’s Around

Funtown’s Summer Festival

My Shadow

All About Elephants

approached

common

antique

coward

gentle

confused

odor

available

errant

harmful

discovered

pests

bargain

notion

interesting

twigs

spectacular unlimited

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

1 My sister liked the story and thought it was very . But I was very and did not understand what the story was about. 2 Lars

how to make different colors by mixing the paints together.

3 There were only a few more tickets were selling for was a real

for the concert. The price they

.

4 We were allowed to borrow an 5 Mr. Green painted the 6 The

number of books from the library.

table that was in his house for many years. little cat was always getting into trouble. One day it broke some in the tree and fell to the ground.

7 There was a strange might be

coming from the kitchen. We were afraid that it , so we left the house quickly.

8 My mother told me that I could hold the baby, but I had to be very 9 Katie gave us the

that she was angry when she started yelling.

10 From the beach, we had a

34

PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 1–4

view of the beautiful ocean.

.


Vocabulary Review: Skills 1–4 Directions: Some words you have already read in this book are used in the questions on this page. Use what you have learned about these words to help you answer questions 1–4. 3 Read the sentence below.

1 Read the sentence below.

“No one needed the baseball card I had found because it was a common one.”

“We approached the window to look outside.” The word approached means

The word common means

Alearned about

Ain good shape

Bran from

Bworth a lot money

Cmoved toward

Cnot easy to find

Dthought about

Dmany people have it

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 In which sentence is the word pests used correctly?

4 In which sentence is the word coward used correctly?

AThe farmer worried that pests would eat all of his plants.

B Y

AAnyone who does not like school is a coward.

BTyra put pests in her soup to make it taste better.

O N E

BDo not be a coward and run away from the cute little puppy.

CDonnie hoped to find pests in the

CI was a coward for being late to class.

playground.

O N E

DIf you do not like to eat apples, you

DCats and dogs are great pests to have.

must be a coward.

Vocabulary Challenge Directions: Choose any three vocabulary review words from the top of page 34. Write sentences using each of these words. 1 2 3

PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 1–4

35


SKILL 5:

Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting

Modeled Instruction Most stories that you read will have at least one character, a plot, and a setting. A character is who the story is about. The plot is what the story is about. And the setting is where and when the story takes place.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

When you read a story, ask yourself— Who is the story about? What is the story about? Where does the story take place? When does the story take place?

Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to learn about character, plot, and setting. One Sunday afternoon, Jodie was walking down the street. She noticed that a new hospital was opening. The hospital would help young children. Jodie thought the hospital was a great idea. When she learned that it needed more money, she wanted to help. So, Jodie and her friend Rena sold lemonade in front of the hospital. They gave the money they made to the hospital.

STRATEGY: Make a graphic organizer to help identify the characters, plot, and setting. Complete the graphic organizer below. Fill in the empty box to tell who the characters are in the paragraph you just read.

Who

What

(Characters)

(Plot) A new hospital is opening. Two girls helped raise money for the hospital.

Where

When

(Setting)

(Setting)

in front of the new hospital

on a Sunday afternoon

The characters are who a story is about. The paragraph on this page tells you about THINK Jodie and Rena.

36

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting


Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to answer a Setting question.

Justin went into the big building and looked around at the long shelves with books. Many people were sitting nearby reading. Some were reading newspapers, books, or magazines. Everyone was very quiet. Now and then Justin could hear a sneeze, but that was about it. People were too busy reading to talk or make noise.

1 Where was Justin?

O N E

Aat the bank Bon a bus Cat the library Don the beach

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: Look in the paragraph for clues about the setting. List all of details that tell you about where Justin was.

B Y

Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

รท Aat the bank

Cat the library รท

A bank is a place where people put money so that it is safe. It is also a place where people go to get money. There is no information in the passage that would make you think Justin was in a bank. Choice A cannot be correct.

The paragraph explains that Justin is in a building full of books. Many people are there. They are all reading quietly. This sounds a lot like a library. Choice C is the correct answer.

O N E

Don the beach รท Bon a bus รท The first sentence tells you that Justin went into a building. This means that he could not be on a bus. Choice B cannot be correct.

A beach is a place that is outside. Justin is inside. He is in a building where there are many books. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting

37


Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to help you answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this fictional passage. It is an example of realistic fiction.

Puff

The sun was shining in the window of Donna’s bedroom. It made a patch of warm light on the fluffy white cat lying beside her. Donna patted the cat’s soft fur and remembered when she and her brother had found him. They had been playing in the backyard when they heard a soft meowing sound. It was coming from under the shed. The children knelt down and peered into the darkness. They could see a tiny form. Donna wanted to get the kitten out. But her brother, Jake, said, “Let’s ask Mom first. Maybe its mother is coming back.” Their mother had agreed with Jake. She said, “If the mother doesn’t come back by tonight, we’ll help the kitten. It’s going to be cold when the sun goes down.” The children waited. It was hard to listen to the kitten’s cries. But they wanted to do the right thing. It began to get dark, and the mother had not returned. “Let’s take care of this little baby,” their mother said. They got the kitten out of its cold, dirty hiding place. It was white and gray. Jake patted its little round head. It was so young that its eyes were still closed. “This kitten will need a lot of love and care,” their mother said. “Are you ready to do that?”

38

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting


Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting “Yes!” they cried. They put a box in Donna’s room and placed a heating pad under it. They put a towel in the box. Their mother drove them to the pet store, where they bought cans of milk. It was like the milk the kitten would have been getting from its mother. Every couple of hours, they fed the kitten with a dropper. After each meal, they would put the kitten back in the warm box. It was a lot of work. Then one day, Donna saw that the kitten’s eyes were open just a little. In a few more days, they were opened wide. Soon the kitten was able to climb out of the box. From then on, Donna’s bed was his favorite place to sleep. When they took the kitten to see the vet, he said, “You did a wonderful job taking care of him. He’s very healthy. This little guy looks great!” That was over two years ago. Now, on Donna’s bed, the cat rolled over and put his paw on her face. “Puff, you silly cat,” said Donna, “I’m so glad we found you!”

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Passage Vocabulary Words knelt – got down on their knees peered – looked vet – a doctor for animals (short for veterinarian)

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a graphic organizer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting

39


Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. 1 Where does most of the story take place?

Aat the pet store Bin Donna’s bedroom Cin the vet’s office

Make a story map to sort the facts in the story. A story map shows who is in HINT the story and what they do. It can also show where the story takes place and when things happen.

Dunder the backyard shed

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 What can you tell about Jake and Donna from reading the story?

AThey care about animals.

Think about what Jake and Donna did in the story. The things that the HINT people in a story do or say can tell you a lot about them.

BThey would rather have a dog.

CThey do not get along very well. DThey have saved many kittens.

3 What is the story about? Explain the plot of the story. To tell what the story is about you only need to tell the important facts. Think about what information is important to know. HINT

40

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting


Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 The children’s mother is

5 Where is the kitten when the children find him?

Aangry

Aunder a shed

Bquiet

Bat the vet’s

Ckind

Cat the pet store

Dfunny

Din a bedroom

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

6 What happens when the children find the kitten?

AThey keep playing ball in the backyard. BThey feed him warm milk and cat food.

CThey take him into their mother’s bedroom.

DThey ask their mother what they should do.

7 What is Donna like? Explain how you know.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 5: Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting

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SKILL 6:

Recognize Cause and Effect

Modeled Instruction Some information you read tells you about causes and effects. Causes and effects go together like pieces to a puzzle. A cause answers the question “Why did it happen?” An effect answers the question “What happened?”

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

CAUSE — Alberto went to bed late.

EFFECT — Alberto was tired the next day.

Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to learn about cause and effect.

Miss Park told the class they would have a math test on Tuesday. Katie knew that she was not ready for the test. She took home her math book and studied very hard. Jarrod did not think he needed to study for the test. He left his math book in class. On Tuesday, Katie did well on the math test. Jarrod did not do well on the test.

STRATEGY: Make a graphic organizer to show the cause and effect that go together. The paragraph you just read explains that Katie did well on her math test. Why did she do well on the test? Fill in the empty box with the cause.

Cause

Effect Katie did well on the math test.

Part of the paragraph tells you that Katie studied very hard. This is probably why she

THINK did well on the math test.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect


Recognize Cause and Effect Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to answer a Cause and Effect question.

A cactus is a plant that grows in the desert. Cactuses are special. They can grow where there is little water. A cactus will drink all the water it can. Then, it will save much of that water inside. Sometimes, if people have no water, they open up a cactus. They can drink the water. The water in cactuses has saved people’s lives.

O N E

1 When a person opens up a cactus, he or she can

Aplant another cactus Bgo to the desert

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Csave a lot of water

Ddrink the water inside

STRATEGY: This question tells you the cause. You must find the effect. Look for information in the paragraph that goes together.

B Y

Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check

THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

÷ Aplant another cactus

Csave a lot of water ÷

There is no information in the paragraph about planting a cactus. Opening a cactus would not help someone plant a cactus. Choice A cannot be correct.

O N E

A cactus can save a lot of water. The paragraph does not tell you about people saving water. Choice C cannot be correct.

Ddrink the water inside ÷ Bgo to the desert ÷ The paragraph explains that a cactus grows in the desert. But this has nothing to do with opening a cactus. Choice B cannot be correct.

The paragraph explains that there is water inside a cactus. It also tells you that a person can drink this water if he or she opens a cactus. Choice D is the correct answer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect

43


Recognize Cause and Effect Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and pictures. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P AM S N O I T Take CareDof Yourself A C U E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this nonfiction passage. It is an example of a science passage.

Wash your hands. Remember to cover your nose and mouth when you sneeze. Take a shower. Brush your teeth after each meal. Be sure to floss. Eat all of your vegetables. It’s time for bed. Yes, you have probably heard these things many times before. You know that you should stay clean. You know that you should eat healthy food and get a lot of exercise. You also know that you should get a good night’s sleep every night. But do you understand why all these things are so important? Most of the things you touch every day have some germs on them. Germs are everywhere. Not all germs can make you sick, but many germs can. If you get germs in your eyes, your eyes can get infected. If germs get inside a cut, the cut can get infected. Germs can cause you to have a headache or a fever. When you sneeze, germs come out of your nose and can be spread around easily. When you touch your nose with your hand, the germs get on your hand. Then, if you touch something else, the germs get on that as well. When another person touches that same thing, they can get your germs. They may catch your cold and become ill. That’s why it is important to wash your hands often with warm water and soap. Taking a bath or shower gets germs off your body.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect


Recognize Cause and Effect Brushing your teeth protects your mouth from germs that can cause cavities. Flossing removes food and germs from between your teeth. If you do not remove these germs, they can make your gums sore. Walking, running, and playing are also all very important to your body. Each of these activities help to make your muscles strong. Strong muscles help you stand up straight and move easily. Exercise makes your bones strong, too. Your body also needs a lot of water. When you drink water, it helps your body to get rid of waste. This helps your body work better, and it makes you feel better, too.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L Y L L RAL A R . 9 9 . 888

Healthy food helps your body grow and gives you energy. It makes your bones and teeth strong and helps to keep your skin healthy. Chips, soda, and candy do not help your body. If you ate only that kind of food, you would have less energy. Your teeth and bones would become weak. You would not look or feel very well.

Rest is also very important, because it helps your body get ready for each new day. If you do not get enough rest, you will be very tired. When you are tired, you have less energy and it can be difficult to think. So take care of your body. You’ll look better and feel healthier. And you’ll enjoy yourself more!

Passage Vocabulary Words cavities – holes in your teeth energy – power fever – when you are sick and your body gets very warm floss – to use a special string to clean between your teeth infected – when something gets inside your body and causes harm

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a graphic organizer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect

45


Recognize Cause and Effect Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. 1 What can cause your gums to be sore?

Anot getting enough sleep Bbrushing your teeth

Look for the words “sore” and “gums” in the passage. Read that part HINT of the passage again to help you find the answer.

Ceating too many healthful foods Dleaving germs between your teeth

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 What happens when you walk, run, or play?

AYou catch a cold.

Walking, running, and playing are the cause of something. Look for the HINT words “walking, running, and playing” in the passage.

BYou eat more chips.

CYour muscles get stronger.

DYou cannot think very well.

3 What can cause you to have trouble thinking? Having trouble thinking is the effect of something else that happens. Look through the passage to find the cause. HINT

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect


Recognize Cause and Effect Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 What happens when you take a shower?

AYour gums get sore.

5 What may happen if you sneeze on your hand and then rub your eye?

AYou may get an infected cut.

BYour muscles get stronger.

BYou may need a lot of sleep.

CYou wash germs off your body. DYou touch germs that make you sick.

CYou may get an eye infection. DYou may need to drink a lot of water.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

6 If you take good care of your body

Ayou will spread more germs

Byou will be able to drink more soda Cyou will not need to sleep as much

Dyou will feel better and be stronger

7 If you ate only chips, soda, and candy, how would you feel and look?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 6: Recognize Cause and Effect

47


SKILL 7:

Compare and Contrast

Modeled Instruction To compare means to tell how things are alike. To contrast means to tell how things are different. You can compare and contrast many things—people, objects, events, ideas, or actions. COMPARING — Bears and squirrels are animals. CONTRASTING — Bears are big, but squirrels are small.

Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to learn about comparing and contrasting.

Matt and Shawna are cousins. They both live in the city and go to the same school. Matt lives in a big house. Shawna lives in a small apartment. Every day after school, they like to play games. Matt’s favorite game is checkers. Shawna’s favorite game is chess. Matt and Shawna are very glad that they are cousins.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: Make a Venn diagram to help you compare and contrast.

The Venn diagram below tells how Matt and Shawna are alike and how they are different. Add more details that tell how they are alike or different.

Matt

Both

Shawna

lives in a house

live in the city

lives in an apartment

Matt and Shawna go to the same school and like to play games. Matt likes to play THINK checkers, but Shawna likes to play chess. This information can be used to complete the graphic organizer.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 7: Compare and Contrast


Compare and Contrast Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to answer a Compare question.

Today, many movies are loud. They are full of color. Long ago, movies were different. The first movies had no color. They were only in black and white. These movies also had no sound! Many people today have never seen a quiet, or silent, movie. People in silent movies could not talk. They had to act out everything. They told their stories using their faces and bodies. New movies also tell stories. But they use sound to help tell the stories.

O N E

1 What is one way in which old and new movies are alike?

AOld and new movies both tell stories.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

BOld and new movies both have no sound. COld and new movies both show colors.

DOld and new movies both have no people.

B Y

STRATEGY: This question asks you to compare two types of movies. You may want to make a Venn diagram to help answer this question. Or you can list facts about each type of movie. Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

รท AOld and new movies both tell stories. The paragraph explains that old movies told stories without sound, and new movies tell stories with sound. This explains how they are alike. Choice A is the correct answer.

BOld and new movies both have รท

O N E

COld and new movies both show colors. รท Only new movies have color. The paragraph explains that old movies were black and white. This is one way that old movies and new movies are different. Choice C cannot be correct.

DOld and new movies both have รท

no sound.

no people.

The paragraph tells you old movies did not have sound. However, new movies do have sound. This explains how old and new movies are different. Choice B cannot be correct.

Details in the paragraph tell you that people do act in movies. The idea that no people are in movies is not true. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 7: Compare and Contrast

49


Compare and Contrast Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and pictures. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Something Fishy Y L L Y L A L R A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8

Now read this nonfiction passage. It is an example of a science passage.

People like to catch them and eat them. And some people like to keep them as pets. There are more than 20,000 different kinds of fish in the world. There might be some that no one has ever seen! All fish live in water and they all breathe through gills. Fish have a backbone. After that, not all fish are the same at all! There are three groups of fish: jawless fish, sharks and shark-like fish, and bony fish. Some live in the ocean because they need salt water. Freshwater fish live in streams, lakes, and ponds.

Tuna

Shark

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 7: Compare and Contrast

Trout

Guppy


Compare and Contrast The chart below shows how some fish are alike and different. Across the top of the chart are fish facts. Down the left side are fish names. Look at the fish name on the left. Then look at each box in the line next to it. If there is a dot in the box it means that the fact is true for that fish.

FISH FACTS Fish Names

Has Gills Has a Lives in Lives in Has Bones Has Jaws Has Backbone Fresh Water Salt Water Scales

Trout

Shark

Tuna

Guppy

Eel

Hagfish

Goldfish

E L P SAM

• •

• •

For example, look at “Trout.” The first box next to “Trout” has a dot. The fact above that box is “Has Gills.” A trout has gills.

N O I T A C U ED

Find the fact “Lives in Salt Water,” and then look at the boxes under it. Find the first box that has a dot. Now look over to Fish Name to see which fish it is. It is a shark.

! Y L L RA

There are some very unusual fish. Some fish are called flatfish. They are much flatter than other fish. And both eyes are on the left side of the body! Many animals in the ocean are not fish. The whale is a mammal, because it has warm blood. Dolphins are not fish either. Like whales, they need to come to the surface to breathe air. And the starfish has no backbone, so it is not a fish!

Passage Vocabulary Words gills – openings on the side of a fish that helps the fish to breathe surface – the top of the water unusual – strange

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a Venn diagram.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 7: Compare and Contrast

51


Compare and Contrast Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. 1 What is true of all fish?

AAll fish are flat.

List details from the passage that describe each fish. Look at the lists to HINT see how all fish are alike.

BAll fish have scales. CAll fish live in the ocean. DAll fish live in water.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 What is one way in which sharks are different from tunas?

ASharks have jaws.

Look at the chart in the passage. Which detail is true about sharks, but HINT NOT true about tunas? You may want to make a Venn diagram.

BSharks live in the ocean.

CSharks do not have scales.

DSharks breathe through gills. 3 How are sharks and eels alike?

Look at the chart in the passage. Read the information about each fish. Compare the facts. Tell how sharks and eels are alike. HINT

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 7: Compare and Contrast


Compare and Contrast Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 Which fish can live in both fresh water and salt water?

5 How is the hagfish different from every other fish in the chart?

Aeels

AIt has gills.

Bskates

BIt has a backbone.

Cguppies

CIt does not have jaws.

Dgoldfish

DIt does not have bones.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

6 Which is NOT true for all the freshwater fish shown on the chart?

AThey all have bones. BThey all have jaws. CThey all have gills.

DThey all have scales.

7 What is one way that whales and dolphins are different from fish?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 7: Compare and Contrast

53


SKILL REVIEW:

Skills 5–7

Directions: Read the passage below and answer questions 1–7.

Rose and Her Turtles Rose sat with her mother at the kitchen table. Rose told her mother about her class with Mr. Thompson. Mr. Thompson was Rose’s teacher. He asked his students to study something that would teach them about living things. Rose was having a hard time thinking of something to study. Rose didn’t want to be late for school, so she ran out the front door. Outside, she saw what appeared to be a small, green rock. Rose bent down and looked at it. It wasn’t a rock at all. It was a turtle! The turtle was dark green and had black eyes. It also had brown lines on its shell. Suddenly, Rose had the idea that she could take care of the turtle and study it. Rose asked her mother to help her get the turtle. Mother found a small box. She placed an old blanket at the bottom of the box. Rose picked up the turtle and put it in the box. Mother showed Rose how to clean her hands after picking up the turtle.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Rose took her turtle into Mr. Thompson’s classroom. She showed the turtle to Mr. Thompson. Rose told Mr. Thompson about her idea to take care of the turtle. Mr. Thompson was delighted about the turtle and Rose’s idea. He let Rose keep the turtle in the classroom. Rose fed the turtle every day. She also studied the turtle every day. Rose named the turtle Tom. One day, Rose thought that Tom looked lonely. She wanted Tom to have a friend. Rose brought in another turtle she found in her yard. She named this turtle Skippy. Skippy was small and bright green. It had black eyes and red stripes on its head. Tom and Skippy got along well together. All of the children in the class helped Rose feed the turtles. They also helped to clean their tank. Rose was the only student who studied the turtles, though. By the end of the school year, Rose had learned a lot about turtles, and she had two new pets!

Passage Vocabulary Words appeared – looked like delighted – to be very happy lonely – how you feel when no one else is around

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PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 5–7


Character, Plot, & Setting, Cause & Effect, Compare & Contrast Recognize Cause and Effect 1 Why did Rose run out the front door?

REMINDER

AShe wanted to find something to study.

Cause and effect are actions or events that go together. The question tells you what happened—the effect. You must tell why it happened— the cause.

BShe needed to study and feed her turtle. CShe saw a turtle and wanted to get it. DShe did not want to be late for school.

O N E

Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 Where does the beginning of the story take place?

Aoutside the house Bin a kitchen Cat the school Din Rose’s bedroom

REMINDER

Different parts of a story can happen in different places. You must think about where the characters are at the beginning of the story.

B Y

REMINDER

O N E

Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting 3 Why did Rose want to bring the turtle to school?

AShe wanted to care for and study the turtle. BShe wanted to show it to the other students. CShe wanted it to be a present for her teacher. DShe wanted it to have friends to play with.

This question asks about something that happens in the story. It is part of the story plot. You must think about what the characters do and why they do it.

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 5–7

55


Skill Review: Skills 5–7 Recognize Cause and Effect 4 Because Rose thought Tom looked lonely,

Ashe took the turtle back to her house Bshe put the turtle back into her yard Cshe brought another turtle to school Dshe put a blanket in the box with the turtle

REMINDER This question tells you why something happened. It is the cause. You must choose the answer that tells what happened. This is the effect.

Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting 5 How did Mr. Thompson feel about keeping the turtle in his classroom?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Compare and Contrast AHe was angry about it.

BHe was happy about it.

CHe was nervous about it.

DHe was surprised about it.

REMINDER

This question asks about how one of the characters felt. You must think about a person’s actions to find out how he or she feels about something.

6 What is one way that Rose is different from the other students in the class? This question asks you to contrast one person with a group of people. You

REMINDER must look for information in the passage that tells how they are different.

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PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 5–7


Skill Review: Skills 5–7 Compare and Contrast 7 Complete this Venn diagram to show how Tom Turtle and Skippy Turtle are alike and how they are different. You can use a Venn diagram to help compare and contrast. The center of a

REMINDER Venn diagram is where you list how two things are alike. The left and right sides of a Venn diagram are where you list how two things are different.

Tom Turtle and Skippy Turtle

Tom

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Both

Skippy

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 5–7

57


VOCABULARY REVIEW:

Skills 5–7

Directions: Listed below are words that were used in the passages you just read. Write the correct words to complete the sentences on this page. You may look back at the passages to find the meaning of each word. Puff

Take Care of Yourself

Something Fishy

Rose and Her Turtles

knelt

cavities

gills

appeared

peered

energy

surface

delighted

vet

fever

unusual

lonely

floss infected

1 The not 2 Tamara

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

looked closely at the cut on the dog’s leg to make sure it was

.

down to pick up a dime that she had dropped on the floor.

3 Fred was tired and did not have enough

to climb up the rope.

4 We knew we had to brush our teeth so we would not get Only later did we start to our teeth as well. 5 All fish have

6 I had a very bad 7 The children that it had stopped raining.

58

.

to help them breathe.

, so my mother took me to see the doctor. out the window. They were

PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 5–7

to see


Vocabulary Review: Skills 5–7 Directions: Some words you read in this book are used on this page. Use what you have learned about these words to help you answer questions 1–4. 3 Read the sentence below.

1 Read the sentence below. “A spider is a very unusual pet to have.” The word unusual means

Anot what you expect Bsomething most people want

“The crowd cheered loudly and appeared happy when their team won the game.” The word appeared means

Awanted to be

O N E

Bseemed to be

Cdoes not look real Dsomething that is lost

Cdreamed about Dlooked around

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 In which sentence is the word lonely used correctly?

AOmar looked at the lonely squirrels playing in the yard.

BTia was very lonely when she went camping with her friends.

CGeraldo felt lonely when his friends went away for the summer.

DJenny wanted to be lonely after her team lost the soccer game.

4 In which sentence is the word surface used correctly?

B Y

AThe boat moved quickly over the surface of the ocean.

BThe roof was on top of the surface of the house.

CGina wanted to learn how to surface on the big waves.

O N E

DJamal climbed to the surface of the tall tree.

Vocabulary Challenge Directions: Choose any three vocabulary review words from the top of page 58. Write sentences using each of these words. 1 2 3

PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 5–7

59


SKILL 8:

Distinguish Fact from Opinion

Modeled Instruction A fact is true. An opinion is what someone believes is true. To answer some questions, you need to know the difference between facts and opinions. FACT — Dogs have four legs and a tail. OPINION — Dogs are the best pets.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to learn about facts and opinions.

The oldest building in my town is the Brennan Library. It is also the prettiest building in town. It was built way back in 1852! The person who owned it was named Ben Brennan. He put all of his books in the library. At first, only his family used the library. Later, they let everyone in town use it. This was a nice thing to do. Today, the library has more than 10,000 books. I go to the library every week.

STRATEGY: Look at the details in the paragraph. Make a list of the facts. Then, list any opinions that you read. Complete the chart below. Add one fact from the paragraph to the first column. Add one opinion from the paragraph to the second column.

Facts

Opinions

(Things that are true)

(Things that someone believes are true)

The library is the oldest building in town.

The library is the prettiest building in town.

Another detail that you know is true is that the library has more than 10,000 books. THINK Another detail that you may believe is true is that letting people use the library was a nice thing to do.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion


Distinguish Fact from Opinion Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to answer an Opinion question.

William Shakespeare is one of the world’s best known writers. Shakespeare wrote 39 plays. He also wrote many poems. Shakespeare wrote 154 short poems. Shakespeare died in 1616. Students still read many of his works today. Most of his works are very good. Maybe you have read stories or poems written by William Shakespeare.

O N E

1 Which sentence tells an opinion?

AWilliam Shakespeare wrote 39 plays.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

BMost of Shakespeare’s works are very good.

CWilliam Shakespeare wrote 154 short poems. DStudents still read Shakespeare’s works.

B Y

STRATEGY: Read each answer choice. Decide which answer choices tell you something that is true. These are facts. Look for the answer choice that tells you something a person might believe to be true. This is an opinion. Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check

THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

÷ AWilliam Shakespeare wrote 39 plays. Shakespeare did write 39 plays. You can count them. This is a fact, so it cannot be an opinion. Choice A cannot be correct.

O N E

CWilliam Shakespeare wrote 154 ÷ short poems. This is a fact because it states something that you can prove. You can count the number of poems written by Shakespeare. Choice C cannot be correct.

BMost of Shakespeare’s works are very ÷ DStudents still read Shakespeare’s ÷

good. Some people may believe that Shakespeare did good work, but it cannot be proven. Something that cannot be proven is an opinion. Choice B is the correct answer.

works. This is a fact. Many students still do read Shakespeare’s works. You can check to prove this. This is not an opinion. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion

61


Distinguish Fact from Opinion Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U ROW SCHOOL D E ! Y L Y L L RAL NEWSPAPER WEEKLY A R . 9 9 . April 22 8 8 8

Now read this nonfiction passage. It is an example of an article from a school newspaper.

MY CASTLE TOUR Chris Kent, Staff Writer My family took a trip last week. I knew we were going to see some castles. So I promised to write about them for the school paper when we got back. We were lucky because we got to see a few different castles. Most of them were very old. No one was living in them. Most of the walls were still standing, but the upper floors inside the castles were gone. Our guide showed us holes in the walls. These were where the beams used to be. Those beams held up the upper floors. At one castle, we could also see where a moat once went all the way around it. The moat had been filled with water to keep enemies away. It must have been really frightening to have an army that close! Another castle that we saw was built on the edge of a cliff. This protected the castle even better than a moat. The cliff would have been nearly impossible to climb. It was terrifying just to look over the edge!

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion


Distinguish Fact from Opinion The castles must have been very cold in winter. Every room had a fireplace, but the rooms were enormous. Most of the heat probably went right up the chimney. I’m sure people sat very close to their fires! Our guide showed us the cellar, which is where the food was probably kept. The cellar was usually the coolest place in a castle. But there was no ice and there were no refrigerators. There was no way to keep food fresh. Most foods were salted or smoked. I thought that sounded sickening. The most interesting room we saw was a dungeon. It still had chains hanging from one wall. It was very dark and eerie, with only one tiny window high on one wall. My sister thought she saw a rat. That was scary! It must have been terrible to be a prisoner there for even a day.

E L P SAM ! Y L L RA N O I T A C U ED

Everyone should go see an old castle. It was about the most interesting thing I’ve ever done. I took a lot of pictures. Stop by and see them!

Passage Vocabulary Words beams – long pieces of wood dungeon – a dark jail enormous – very big moat – a hole dug around a castle and filled with water terrifying – very scary

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a list of facts and opinions.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion

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Distinguish Fact from Opinion Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. 1 Which statement from the passage is a fact?

A“We were lucky because we got to see a few different castles.”

B“Everyone should go see an old castle.”

If you can prove something, it is a fact. If you cannot prove something, it is an HINT opinion. Use the information in the passage to decide which statements are facts and which are opinions.

C“Most of the walls were still standing.” D“It was terrifying just to look over the edge!”

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 Which sentence from the passage states an opinion?

A“The moat had been filled with water

Read the answer choices one at a time. Look for the sentence that tells you HINT something that cannot be proven.

to keep enemies away.”

B“Another castle that we saw was built on the edge of a cliff.”

C“I took a lot of pictures.”

D“I thought that sounded sickening.” 3 Read the following sentence from the passage: “But there was no ice and there were no refrigerators.” Is this statement an example of a fact or an opinion? Explain your answer.

HINT

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Think about what makes a statement a fact or an opinion. Ask yourself if the statement tells about something that is true or something that someone believes is true.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion


Distinguish Fact from Opinion Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 Which statement from the passage is NOT a fact?

5 Which statement from the passage is an opinion?

A“Most foods were salted or smoked.”

A“Those beams held up the upper floors.”

B“It must have been really frightening to

B“The most interesting room we saw was

have an army that close!”

a dungeon.”

C“Our guide showed us holes in the walls.”

C“There was no way to keep food fresh.”

D“The cellar was usually the coolest

D“It still had chains hanging from

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

place in the castle.”

one wall.”

6 Which sentence from the passage contains both a fact AND an opinion?

A“It was very dark and eerie, with only one tiny window high on one wall.” B“I’m sure people sat very close to their fires!”

C“At one castle, we could also see where a moat once went all the way around it.” D“That was scary!”

7 Read the following sentence from the passage: ”It must have been terrible to be a prisoner there for even a day.” Is this statement an example of a fact or an opinion? Explain your answer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 8: Distinguish Fact from Opinion

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SKILL 9:

Make Predictions

Modeled Instruction To make a prediction means to guess what will happen. Answers to prediction questions are not found in passages that you read. But details in passages can be used to help make predictions. Detail — Darren missed the school bus. Prediction — Darren will be late to school.

Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to learn about making predictions. Luis hurried to put on his bathing suit. Then he ran down the street to the city pool. Many of his friends were there. He walked around and said hello to everyone. The whole time, Luis was thinking about how hot it was outside. He looked at the water. The water in the pool looked cool and wonderful. Luis walked toward the pool.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: List details from the paragraph that can help you make a prediction. Think about what might happen next. Look at the details listed below. Can you predict what will happen next? Write your prediction in the empty box.

Details that you read:

1 Luis put on a bathing suit. 2 It was hot outside.

3 The water in the pool looked cool and wonderful. Prediction:

It seems like a great day for swimming in a pool. Luis is ready to go into the water.

THINK He will probably go swimming in the pool.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 9: Make Predictions


Make Predictions Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to answer a Prediction question.

There are many kinds of seashells. They come in all shapes and sizes. One is called the conch. People say if you hold a conch to your ear, you can hear the ocean. It’s true that you can hear something. But it is not the ocean. It’s just air moving inside the shell! Try holding your hand around your ear. You can hear the same sound.

O N E

1 What will probably happen if you hold your hand around your ear?

AYou will hear the ocean. BYou will hear air moving.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

CYou will find a conch shell.

DYou will not hear anything.

STRATEGY: Look for details in the paragraph that will help you make a prediction. You may want to make a list.

B Y

Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check

THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

÷ AYou will hear the ocean. The paragraph tells you that the sound made by the conch sounds like the ocean. But it is not the ocean. If you cover your ear, it may sound like the ocean. But it is not the ocean. Choice A cannot be correct.

÷ CYou will find a conch shell.

O N E

There is no information in the paragraph that suggests holding your ear will help you find a conch shell. One thing has nothing to do with the other. Choice C cannot be correct.

÷ DYou will not hear anything. BYou will hear air moving. ÷ The sound you hear when holding a conch shell over your ear is made by air moving around. The last two sentences tell you that you can make the same sound by holding your hand over your ear. Choice B is the correct answer.

The information in the paragraph suggests that you will hear something if you put your hand over your ear. It will sound the same as when you put a conch shell over your ear. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 9: Make Predictions

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Make Predictions Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P AM S N O I T Not All Bad A C U D E ! Y RALL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this fictional passage. It is an example of realistic fiction.

As soon as Samir stepped off the bus into a puddle, he had a feeling that it was going to be a tough day at school. He had a science test first thing. And he was nervous about baseball tryouts that afternoon. “Hey, Samir!” It was Danny, Samir’s best friend. Samir felt a little better just seeing him. Always smiling, Danny never seemed to worry about anything. “Ready for the science test?” “I guess so,” Samir shrugged. “Hey, think positive! Did you bring your glove?” “Oh, no,” groaned Samir. “I got up late and had to hurry out of the house. I forgot it!” Why didn’t I get up when Dad woke me up, he thought. Why didn’t I get my stuff together last night? “That’s okay. You can use mine.” “Thanks, Danny,” Samir smiled. The bell rang and the boys headed into the building. When Mr. Case handed out the science tests, Samir knew he was in trouble. Why hadn’t he studied harder? He thought he knew all about plants, but he couldn’t remember the names of the plant parts. He labeled the plant as well as he could, and then he tried his best to answer the other questions. He felt awful by the time Mr. Case came to collect the tests.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 9: Make Predictions


Make Predictions At lunch, Danny pulled something new out of his lunch bag. It was the smallest banana Samir had ever seen. Actually, Danny had two of them. He gave one to Samir who took a bite. “This is really good!” said Samir. “Thanks!” “Sure,” said Danny. “My mom buys these all the time.” The rest of the day went pretty well, except that Samir was worried about tryouts. It was kind of Danny to let him use his glove, but Samir wished he had his own glove. What if it didn’t feel right? He might not catch as well as he usually did. He tried to think about other things so he wouldn’t be nervous. That made him think about the science test again. He was angry with himself for not studying more. He had been reading a really interesting book and had used up his science studying time reading that book. What a bad choice that had been! If he didn’t do well, he wouldn’t be the only one who was upset. His parents wouldn’t be very happy with him either!

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 . 888

At tryouts, Danny was catching when Samir went up to bat. Once Samir got in front of the pitcher, he stopped worrying. The bat felt good in his hands. It seemed like he couldn’t miss the ball! He got several good hits. Then they switched. Danny’s glove felt fine and Samir caught most of the balls that came his way, even a grounder that was moving pretty fast. “That wasn’t bad,” Samir said to Danny, as they rode home on the late bus. “I saw you get a few good hits, too!” “Yeah, and you were catching everything!” laughed Danny.

Samir smiled. The day hadn’t been all bad, he thought, and now he couldn’t wait for tomorrow. He would see if he had made the team, and he would have an opportunity to talk to Mr. Case about his science test. It’s like Danny says, he reminded himself. Think positive!

Passage Vocabulary Words opportunity - chance to do something positive – to think about good things shrugged – moved his or her shoulders (to show he or she is not sure)

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a chart or list of important details.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 9: Make Predictions

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Make Predictions Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. 1 What will probably happen when Samir gets his science test back?

AHe will hurry to show his parents his good grade.

Do not look for the answer in the passage. Instead, look for information HINT in the passage that will help you make a prediction. What does this information suggest will happen?

BHe will ask Danny what he should do. CHe will talk to Mr. Case about retaking the test.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

DHe will hide the test from his parents.

2 The next time Samir has a test, he will probably

Aread a book instead of studying

Look at the information in the passage. Does Samir do or say HINT something to suggest what he might do differently?

Bspend more time studying

Cnot worry about his grade

Dcheat to get a good grade

3 What will Samir probably ask his mother to buy the next time she goes to the grocery store? Use details from the passage to support your answer. Read the parts of the passage about something that might come from a grocery store. Think about what Samir does and says. Use these details to predict what he will ask for. HINT

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 9: Make Predictions


Make Predictions Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 Which of the following is most likely to happen?

5 What would Danny most likely tell Samir about all his worrying?

ASamir will be a pitcher on the

Ato look on the bright side of things

baseball team.

Bto worry about something else for

BDanny will get a good grade on his test.

a while

CSamir will make the baseball team.

Cthat his problems are worse than Samir’s

DDanny will not make the baseball team.

Dthat Samir should never feel worried

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

6 The next time Samir forgets to bring his glove, he will probably

Anot worry about using a different glove

Bcall his parents to bring his glove to school

Cnot be able to catch the balls thrown to him Donly hit the ball and not try to catch

7 What are some things that Samir will probably do to have a better day tomorrow? Use details from the passage to support your answer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 9: Make Predictions

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SKILL 10:

Draw Conclusions

Modeled Instruction Some information in a passage is clearly stated. But sometimes you need to think about the details in a passage to draw a conclusion. You must put all of the details together and think about what they tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Detail — Katrina is on a soccer team. Detail — Katrina plays basketball with her friends. Conclusion — Katrina likes to play sports.

Conclusions must be based on the details found in a passage. There may be many details that you need to think about to draw a conclusion.

Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to learn about drawing conclusions. Uncle Ricardo has a house full of pets. He has cats, dogs, and even a snake. He takes good care of them all. On the weekend, Uncle Ricardo likes to go walking. He walks in the woods looking at birds and deer. Uncle Ricardo takes us to the zoo. We all like seeing the animals.

STRATEGY: Make a graphic organizer to help you draw a conclusion. The graphic organizer below shows details that can help you draw a conclusion. Read each of the details. What do these details tell you about Uncle Ricardo? Write your conclusion in the empty box.

Detail:

Detail:

Detail:

Uncle Ricardo has cats, dogs, and a snake.

Uncle Ricardo likes looking at birds and deer.

Uncle Ricardo goes to the zoo to see animals.

Conclusion:

THINK

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Each detail has something to do with animals. Uncle Ricardo probably likes animals.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 10: Draw Conclusions


Draw Conclusions Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to answer a Conclusion question. Racquetball is a game that uses a small ball. Two players take turns hitting the ball off a wall. Each player uses a racquet to hit the ball. A racquet is like a paddle with strings. If one player misses the ball, the other player scores a point. Many people think racquetball is a lot of fun. It’s also a great way to work out. There are clubs for racquetball players in many cities and towns.

1 From reading this paragraph, you can tell that

O N E

Aracquetball is very hard to play Bracquetball players often get hurt

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Cyou must be on a team to play racquetball Dmany people like to play racquetball

STRATEGY: Look for details in the paragraph that will help you draw a conclusion. You may want to make a graphic organizer or a list of important details.

B Y

Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check

THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

÷ Aracquetball is very hard to play

The paragraph tells you some things about racquetball. But there are no details that would make you believe racquetball is very hard to play. Choice A cannot be correct.

Bracquetball players often get hurt ÷ It is possible that someone could get hurt playing racquetball. But there are no details that would make you believe players often get hurt. Choice B cannot be correct.

÷ Cyou must be on a team to play racquetball

O N E

The paragraph explains that racquetball can be played by two people. You do not need to be on a team to play racquetball. Choice C cannot be correct.

÷ Dmany people like to play racquetball The paragraph states that many people think racquetball is fun. It also tells you that there are clubs for racquetball players in many cities and towns. You can conclude that Choice D is the correct answer.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 10: Draw Conclusions

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Draw Conclusions Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and pictures. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P N M O I A T S A C U D E Hans Christian Andersen ! Y L L Y L A L R A R . 9 9 . 888

Now read this nonfiction passage. It is an example of a biography.

Have you ever heard the story “The Ugly Duckling”? It is a story written long ago by a man named Hans Christian Andersen, who wrote many fairy tales. People all over the world have read them.

Hans’ early life was difficult. His family was very poor. His father made shoes and his mother did washing for other families. This very tall boy was interested in things that did not interest his schoolmates. Hans was not like the other children, so they made fun of him. Hans liked fairy tales and he liked puppet shows. He wrote some fairy tales of his own. He put on shows for his parents. But when Hans was only eleven, his father died. Now Hans had to leave school and go to work. He wanted to be a singer or an actor. He liked ballet, too. But he did not find steady work. Hans continued to write his plays and stories. He wanted to sell them, but no one wanted to buy them. One day, a man read one of Hans’s plays. He liked it and wanted to help Hans. He made it possible for Hans go back to school.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 10: Draw Conclusions


Draw Conclusions Hans wrote many things, but people know his fairy tales best. “The Emperor’s New Clothes” tells about an emperor who is tricked into buying some fancy cloth. He cannot see any cloth, but the men who sell the cloth lie to him. They say that people who cannot see it are dull, so the emperor pretends to see it. He does not want them to think he is dull. He pays the men and they pretend to make fine clothes for him. When the clothes are done, the emperor goes out among his people. The people think that there is something wrong with them, because they do not see the fine clothes. So they pretend that they do. But then a little boy cries, “Look! The emperor has no clothes!” Everyone sees that this is true. Now the emperor knows that the cloth was not real after all. He is naked!

E L P SAM ! Y L L RA N O I T A C U ED

Many of Hans’ fairy tales have a lesson. What was the lesson for the emperor? He should not have listened to people who wanted to fool him. He should have believed his own eyes! Hans’ life was like his story of the ugly duckling that grew up to be a swan. When Hans was young, people made fun of him. But when he grew up, people loved his stories. And they loved him.

Passage Vocabulary Words ballet - a kind of slow dance emperor – leader or ruler schoolmates - other students in a school

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a graphic organizer.

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Draw Conclusions Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. 1 Why do you think Hans liked fairy tales?

Abecause they were short Bbecause they were fun to read

Look for details in the passage about Hans’ life and the things he liked. HINT Think about what these details tell you. What can you conclude?

Cbecause he learned lessons from them Dbecause his teacher read them to him

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 You can conclude that Hans was a bright boy because

Ahe helped his father make shoes

Find details in the passage that tell about Hans’ childhood. Ask yourself HINT what you can conclude from this information.

Bhe did not go to school very often

Chis family did not have much money Dhe wrote his own fairy tales and put on plays

3 Why do you think Hans had to go to work after his father died? Think about what the passage says about Hans’ family. How would having a job help Hans and his family? HINT

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 10: Draw Conclusions


Draw Conclusions Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 From the passage, you can conclude that

AHans looked like an ugly duckling

5 Why was the man who liked Hans’ play so important to Hans?

AHe became Hans’s best friend.

B“The Emperor’s New Clothes” was a

BHe told Hans what to write in his

true story

fairy tales.

CHans’s favorite fairy tale was “The

CHe gave Hans a chance to learn more,

Emperor’s New Clothes”

so he could write better.

Dpeople loved reading about the

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

DHe gave Hans money so that his family

duckling that became a swan

would not be poor anymore.

6 Why do you think people loved Hans Christian Andersen?

AHe wrote fairy tales about them.

BThey loved the stories that he wrote.

CHe taught them how to write fairy tales.

DWhen he became rich, he gave them money.

7 What can you conclude about the kind of person Hans Christian Andersen was?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 10: Draw Conclusions

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SKILL 11:

Make Inferences

Modeled Instruction To answer some questions, you must make inferences. An inference is when you make your best guess. You must use details from a passage AND what you already know to make an inference. Details Given + What You Know = Inference Inferences are not always correct. But they should make sense if you think about what you read.

Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to learn about making inferences. Molly was playing in her room just before bedtime. She was having fun playing with her favorite toys. Suddenly, the lights went out and the room became very dark. Molly screamed and jumped into her bed. She pulled the sheets over her head and held onto her teddy bear.

STRATEGY: Think about the details in the paragraph. Then, think about what you know. Use this information to make a graphic organizer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The first column below shows details that are in the paragraph. The second column shows facts that you already know but are not in the paragraph. What inference can you make? Complete the graphic organizer below.

Details from Paragraph +

What You Know

The room was dark when the lights went out.

It is hard to see in the dark. This can be scary.

Molly screamed.

People sometimes scream when they are afraid.

=

Inference

Use the information in this chart to infer how Molly feels.

People who are afraid of the dark may scream if the lights go out. Molly probably

THINK feels scared.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 11: Make Inferences


Make Inferences Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to answer an Inference question. Long ago, people lived in caves. These caves were not very clean or pretty. But they were safe homes. Later, people started making their own homes. They used sticks and mud to build. After many years, people used rock and wood to make houses. These houses were very strong. Today, most people live in houses. But there are many different kinds of homes. They come in many shapes and sizes. 1 From reading this paragraph, you can tell that

O N E

Awood homes are stronger than rock homes Bit is important for people to have homes

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Ccaves are not safe places to stay

Dfew people want to live in houses

STRATEGY: List details in the paragraph that can help you make an inference. Then, think about what you already know.

B Y

Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

รท Awood homes are stronger than rock homes

There is information in the paragraph about homes made from wood and homes made from rock. But there is no information that would make you believe wood homes are stronger. Choice A cannot be correct.

Bit is important for people to have รท homes The paragraph explains that people have always looked for safe places to live. People have always tried to make their homes better. You can infer that it is important for people to have homes. Choice B is correct.

Ccaves are not safe places to stay รท The first part of the paragraph tells you that people used to live in caves. It also tells you that caves made safe homes. Choice C cannot be correct.

O N E

Dfew people want to live in houses รท The last part of the paragraph tells you that most people today live in houses. This means that many people want to live in houses. Choice D cannot be correct.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 11: Make Inferences

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Make Inferences Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L Y L AL A MYSTERY! L RIT’S A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8

Now read this functional passage. It is an example of an e-mail. Included in the e-mail is a graph and a schedule.

To: From: Subject: Date Sent:

Gary Miller

Detective Santos It’s a mystery! Tuesday, May 23

How are things in Bingham? Here in Brownsville we’ve been working on a big case. I’m sure you’ve heard about the Bye-Bye Burglar. Here’s what we know. The burglar is experienced, and knows what to look for. Only the best jewelry and other small items have been taken. It all fits in the backpack he carries. And he’s a friendly sort! He was driving away from a house when the family came home. He waved and called out, “Bye-bye.” They didn’t know that they had been robbed, so they waved back. There are some leads. We’ve been watching two men. Yesterday we found out that one of them was out of town for the whole month of February. So, now we’re looking more closely at the second man. He was in town the whole time. He’s done this kind of burglary before. And he’s been seen wearing a backpack. But we can’t prove anything yet.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 11: Make Inferences


Make Inferences

I know you had a tough time last time you were here. As you found out, not everyone wanted to give your methods a chance. That won’t happen again. All my officers have heard about your work on the Jones case, and they are impressed! They’re not laughing now. People are amazed when I tell them how you solved that case. I also tell them we don’t know how you did it! You had a mental picture, a strong feeling, a sixth sense, or something. However you did it, you were right! The necklace was in that hollow tree by the river. The graph below shows what this burglar has been doing. Number of Jewelry Burglaries in Homes 10 8 7 6 5

Train Number 429 360 429 260

4 3 2 1

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Leaves Bingham

Number of Stops

Arrives Brownsville

8:15 A.M. 3:00 P.M. 8:15 A.M. 9:00 A.M.

3 2

11:45 A.M. 6:15 P.M.

3 0

11:45 A.M. 11:15 A.M.

8:15 A.M. 3 No Service 6:10 A.M. 4

11:45 A.M.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L L Y A L L R A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8 Mon. Tues. Wed.

9

0

Train Schedule

Feb.

Mar. Apr.

Thurs.

429

Fri. Sat./Sun.

221

10:05 A.M.

The sooner you get here, the better. You’ve missed the last train for today, but how about tomorrow? Just let me know. I’ll be there to pick you up! — Santos

Passage Vocabulary Words burglar – someone who breaks into a place and steals things experienced – has had a lot of practice impressed – to think that someone did a good job mental – in your mind; something you think about methods – different ways to do things

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a graphic organizer. PART A: One-by-One | Skill 11: Make Inferences

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Make Inferences Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. 1 The last time Gary Miller helped Detective Santos solve a crime

Ahe was able to solve the case quickly Bthere was a lot of support from the

You will not find the answer stated directly in the email. You must look at HINT each answer choice and try to find details in the e-mail to support it. Which answer makes the most sense?

other officers

Che did not use any special abilities to solve the case

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Dofficers made fun of his special abilities 2 What probably happened in the Jones case?

AGary Miller used his special abilities, but he was not able to help.

BGary Miller’s special abilities helped the

What did Detective Santos write about the way people feel about Gary Miller HINT now? What did they think of the way Gary Miller helped in the Jones case? What can you infer from this information?

police solve the crime.

CGary Miller didn’t help the police because they made fun of him.

DJones helped Miller solve the crime. 3 Which train do you think Gary Miller will take to Brownsville? Explain why you think so.

HINT

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Look at the train schedule. When did Detective Santos send the e-mail? What did he say about getting a train that day? Decide which train will take Gary Miller to Brownsville as soon as possible.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 11: Make Inferences


Make Inferences Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 From the graph you can tell

Athat the thief is getting tired of robbing homes in Brownsville

Bthat Detective Santos is getting closer to finding the thief

Cthat the thief will probably rob more than three homes in May

5 Who will probably turn out to be the Bye-Bye Burglar?

Athe man who was in town the whole time and wears a backpack

Bone of the officers who made fun of Gary Miller during the last case

Cthe man who was out of town during February

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Dthat the thief has already robbed most of the big homes in Brownsville

DDetective Santos, because he has the most information

6 How does Detective Santos feel about trying new ways to solve crimes?

AHe is afraid to try new things. BHe is sure they won’t work.

CHe is willing to give them a chance. DHe is sure the old ways are best.

7 Why do you think Detective Santos is so eager for Gary Miller’s help?

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SKILL REVIEW:

Skills 8–11

Directions: Read the passage below and answer questions 1–7.

Lee’s Music Lesson Lee sighed as his mother took him to his piano lesson. Lee’s parents had signed him up for piano lessons a few months ago. Lee tried very hard to play well. Playing well wasn’t easy for Lee. Lee liked listening to music. But he did not like playing the piano. Lee’s parents both took piano lessons when they were young. They thought he would like doing things they used to like. Lee didn’t like his piano lessons, though. Lee’s teacher, Ms. White, was waiting for Lee when he arrived for his lesson. She asked Lee to play a song. Lee began to play. He did not know which keys to press. Ms. White covered her ears. She asked Lee to stop playing. Lee was sad. He thought that he would never be able to play beautiful music. Lee was not sure about what to do. Then, Lee saw a drum in the corner of the room.

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Ms. White told Lee that she enjoyed playing different types of music. She said that she played the drums, too. Lee had an idea. He asked Ms. White if he could try to play the drums. Ms. White showed Lee how to play. Lee took the drum sticks. He tried to play. He sounded great! Ms. White smiled. She told Lee that he should play the drums. For a few weeks, Lee went for drum lessons with Ms. White. She taught him how to play the drums. Lee didn’t tell his parents that he was learning to play the drums. He was afraid of what they would think. Lee was very good at playing drums. Ms. White told Lee he should play in a band. The next week, Lee asked his parents to come to a music show. They agreed to come. Lee was not sure about what his parents would think. Lee’s parents were surprised when they saw him sit down behind the drums. Then, the band started to play a song. Lee was a great drummer. The band sounded good. They were the best band that played in the show. Lee’s parents jumped up and clapped at the end of the song. They smiled at Lee. They were happy that Lee found something he liked to do.

Passage Vocabulary Words agreed – to say “yes” arrived – to be at a place; to get where you are going sighed – to take a deep breath (to show you are not happy)

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Fact & Opinion, Predictions, Conclusions, Inferences Draw Conclusions 1 Why did Lee’s parents sign him up for piano lessons?

AThey knew Lee would find something he enjoyed doing. BThey thought Lee would be a wonderful piano player. CThey knew Lee could be good at anything that he did. DThey thought Lee would like playing piano just like they did.

REMINDER This question asks you to draw a conclusion. The answer is not stated in the passage. You must use information in the passage to help find the answer.

O N E

Make Inferences

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2 What did Lee’s parents think about Lee’s band?

AThey did not like the music the band played. BThey liked the way the band sounded.

CThey did not like seeing Lee play the drums.

DThey thought the band should have played louder.

REMINDER

You have to make an inference to answer this question. An inference is like a guess. Use information in the passage and what you already know to answer this question.

B Y O N E

Make Predictions 3 What will probably happen after the music show?

ALee will stop going to Ms. White for lessons. BLee will take more piano lessons. CLee will talk to his parents about playing drums. DLee will try to learn to play the guitar.

REMINDER To answer this question, you must make a prediction. Look at the information in the passage and think about what will probably happen next.

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Skill Review: Skills 8–11 Distinguish Fact from Opinion 4 Which sentence is a fact?

ALee should not have tried to play the piano. BLee's parents both used to take piano lessons. CLee is very good at playing the drums. DLee's band was the best band at the show.

REMINDER Remember that a fact can be proven true. Look at each answer choice. Some answer choices tell you what a person may believe to be true. But only one is fact.

Make Predictions

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

5 If Lee had NOT tried to play the drums, he probably would have

Anever enjoyed his music lessons Bbecome a good piano player Cstopped listening to music Dplayed piano for the band

REMINDER

This question asks what might have happened if things were different. Use information in the passage to help you make a prediction.

Distinguish Fact from Opinion 6 Write one sentence from the passage that tells an opinion. An opinion is what someone believes is true. It may or may not be true.

REMINDER Unlike a fact, an opinion cannot be proven.

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Skill Review: Skills 8–11 Draw Conclusions 7 What did Ms. White probably think about the way Lee played the piano? Fill in the boxes in the graphic organizer to draw a conclusion. To draw a conclusion, use details from the passage. List the details that you

REMINDER think will help you draw a conclusion. Then write your conclusion.

Detail:

Detail:

Detail:

Conclusion:

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 8–11

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VOCABULARY REVIEW:

Skills 8–11

Directions: Listed below are words that were used in the passages you just read. Write the correct words to complete the sentences on this page. You may look back at the passages to find the meaning of each word. My Castle Tour

Not All Bad

Hans Christian Andersen

It’s a Mystery!

Lee’s Music Lesson

beams

opportunity

ballet

burglar

agreed

dungeon

positive

emperor

experienced

arrived

enormous

shrugged

schoolmates

impressed

sighed

moat

mental

terrifying

methods

1 Many

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 were used to build an

2 We had to walk on a bridge to cross over the the castle.

house. that was in front of

3 My were afraid of some animals they saw at the zoo. They thought that the crocodiles and alligators looked . 4 Mrs. Chu was very

at baking. She used many different

to bake her cakes.

5 The

who had stolen the king’s crown was thrown into the .

6 When Beth Her mother was very 7 Everyone in the class homework to do. 8 My sister and I had the vacation. We both

home with her report card, she showed it to her mother. that Beth had done so well in math and science. when the teacher said they would have a lot of

to choose where our family would go for a we should go to the Grand Canyon.

9 When Anton did not know the answer to the question, he just shoulders.

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his


Vocabulary Review: Skills 8–11 Directions: Some words you read in this book are used on this page. Use what you have learned about these words to help you answer questions 1–4. 3 Read the sentence below.

1 Read the sentence below. “The coach told the team they had to think positive to win the game.”

“Edwin closed his eyes to make a mental picture of his favorite place."

The word positive means

The word mental means

Ato study very hard

Athoughts in your head

Bto work together

Bideas that you write

Cto think about a fun place

Cwords in a book

Dto be sure they would do well

Dsounds that you hear

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2 In which sentence is the word ballet used correctly?

ADuring the ballet, one dancer jumped very high.

B Y

AThe emperor of the house had to clean BThe emperor had even more power than the king.

CGrandpa used a ballet to build a shelf in my room.

CThe king was the ruler of a very big emperor.

DWe saw a ballet standing on the stage in front of us.

4 In which sentence is the word emperor used correctly? every room.

BI wanted my father to take me to the ballet game.

O N E

O N E

DThe people worked together to build a strong emperor.

Vocabulary Challenge Directions: Choose any three review words from the top of page 88. Write sentences using each of these words. 1 2 3

PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 8–11

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SKILL 12:

Analyze Point of View and Purpose

Modeled Instruction A point of view is what a person thinks or believes. A purpose is why something is done. To analyze point of view or purpose, you need to put yourself in the place of the author. You need to ask yourself, “What does the author probably think?” Point of View — What the author thinks or believes Purpose — Why the author wrote something

Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to learn about point of view and purpose. Lisa learned everything she could about history. She thought history was very interesting. Some of the stories in history were better than made-up stories. Lisa also thought history could teach us a lot. People who learn about the past can understand what happens today. This can help people make better choices.

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STRATEGY: Look for details that tell you what the author thinks or believes. Complete the chart below. Use the details from the paragraph to help you understand what the author believes. Fill in the empty box.

Details from the Paragraph

Point of View

(What does the author tell you?)

(What does the author believe?)

History is full of interesting stories.

History can teach us many things.

The author suggests that history can be interesting and can teach lessons. The author

THINK probably thinks that learning about history is important.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 12: Analyze Point of View and Purpose


Analyze Point of View and Purpose Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to answer an Author’s Purpose question. Have you ever seen a pogo stick? It looks like a pole, but has places where you can put your feet and hold on with your hands. You can stand up on a pogo stick and bounce around. The way it works is simple. You have probably seen springs before. Springs bounce up when you push them down and then let go. A pogo stick is like a really big spring. When it hits the ground, it springs back up. That pushes you high into the air.

O N E

1 Why did the author write this paragraph?

Ato explain how something works Bto ask where something can be found

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Cto make readers laugh at a funny story

Dto tell people about an important event

STRATEGY: List the important information from the paragraph. Think about what this information tells you. Ask yourself, “What is the author’s main purpose for writing this?”

B Y

Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check

THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

÷ Ato explain how something works There is a lot of information in the paragraph about how a pogo stick works. The author also tells how springs work. Choice A is the correct answer.

Cto make readers laugh at a funny story ÷

O N E

The author is giving information in this paragraph. The author is not telling you a story. There is nothing funny about the paragraph you just read. Choice C cannot be correct.

Bto ask where something can be found ÷ The author tells you about pogo sticks, but does not ask about where you can find one. This is not the purpose of the paragraph. Choice B cannot be correct.

Dto tell people about an important ÷ event The paragraph tells you about a thing— a pogo stick. It does not tell you about an event. Choice D cannot be correct.

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Analyze Point of View and Purpose Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and pictures. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L A GiftRAL Y L L A R . 9 9 . 8 8 from the8Heart

Now read this nonfiction passage. It is an example of an essay.

Did you ever make a present for a friend? Have you made a card for your mom or dad? Sometimes there are things in stores that you would like to buy as gifts, but you don’t have enough money. Whenever this happens, you should consider making something. It will be a great gift, and it will show how much you care. Your gift can be a simple card that you can make in a few minutes. Or it can be something that requires a great deal of time and effort. But first you need to do some thinking. You should consider what the person would like. Maybe you will choose to make something that is the person’s favorite color. You must also decide what you will use to make the present. It could be made out of clay. It might be made of wood or paper. It could be yarn or rocks and twigs. As you can see, there are many things you must decide when you make a gift for someone.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 12: Analyze Point of View and Purpose


Analyze Point of View and Purpose I remember a birthday I once had. I got a radio that played music and a pair of soft, red slippers. I also got a beautiful ring. And the present I received from my little sister was a picture that she had drawn of the two of us. I loved the radio that I got and I listened to it a lot. The cozy red slippers were great, too. I wore them until they had holes in them! I even loved to look at the pretty new ring on my finger. But what do you think was the best gift of all? What did I want to show to everyone? It was my little sister’s picture, because I knew that Ellie had thought a lot about what she would draw. She drew me in my favorite shirt. We were eating ice cream and I was having my favorite flavor—chocolate chip! There were flowers all around us and there were birds in the air. A bright yellow sun was shining in the sky. We looked so happy. And every time I look at Ellie’s drawing, I feel that happy again.

E L P SAM ! Y L L RA N O I T A C U D E

Though I enjoyed my other gifts very much, there is something very special about my little sister’s picture. That is why it still hangs by my desk. Ellie thinks it is funny that I still have it. She is older now, and wants to make me a new picture. She says it will be better. I tell her to go ahead, and I will hang that one, too. But I won’t take down the old one because it was a gift from her heart.

Passage Vocabulary Words consider – think about

requires – needs

cozy – comfortable

slippers – soft shoes worn inside a house

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a chart or list of important details.

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Analyze Point of View and Purpose Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. 1 The author of this passage probably believes that

Ayou should not buy presents Banyone can make some kind of gift

Think about the entire passage, not just a part of it. If you only think HINT about a few details, you may get the wrong idea about what the author believes or is trying to say.

Cyou should always buy cards Dpeople should always draw pictures about ice cream

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2 The author of this passage most likely agrees that

Astore-bought presents are not useful

Think about each answer choice. Look for details in the passage to support HINT each one. Which choice is best supported by the details you can find?

Bit is hard to find something people really want in a store

Ca handmade gift will always be welcome Dyou should only give gifts that you make yourself

3 What does the author suggest thinking about when you make a gift?

HINT

94

Think about things from the author’s point of view. What does the author say about gifts? Look for information in the passage that tells you about how people decide what to make.

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 12: Analyze Point of View and Purpose


Analyze Point of View and Purpose Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 The author’s main purpose for writing this passage is to

Atell people that it is nice to make a present for someone

5 The author would NOT agree that

Aa lot of thought goes into a handmade gift

Bmost people will like getting a

Bget people to stop buying birthday gifts at stores

handmade gift

Cit is possible to make gifts out of

Ctell people how to make a birthday card

almost anything

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Dget people to draw more pictures

Danything you see in a store, you can make at home

6 Which of the following does the author believe to be true?

AYou do not need money to give a nice gift.

BPeople who can’t draw should not try to make anything.

CIt is better to get no present than to get one from a store. DEveryone should have a picture just like the one Ellie drew.

7 Why does the author believe that handmade gifts can be more special than store-bought gifts?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 12: Analyze Point of View and Purpose

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SKILL 13:

Identify Literary Forms & Sources of Information

Modeled Instruction To answer some questions, you must know about literary forms and sources of information. The literary form of a passage is how it was written. Passages can be written in different forms, or styles. The source of information is where you might find a passage, or information from the passage.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Literary Forms: a poem, a fable, a fairy tale, a biography, science fiction, historical fiction Sources of Information: a newspaper, a magazine, an encyclopedia, a storybook, the Internet

Directions: Read the paragraphs below. Follow along to learn about literary forms and sources of information.

Hakim was a boy who thought he was brave, and he said so to everyone he found. He told his friends their lives he would save if ever a scary monster came around.

But one night the wind blew very strong, and a tree branch fell to the ground. Hakim ran away to hide before too long, since he was so very scared of the sound!

STRATEGY: Look for clues about the way the paragraphs were written. What literary form is this? The clues below should help you answer this question.

Clue 1: Some words rhyme (sound alike).

What literary form do you think this is?

Clue 2: It tells a story.

Clue 3: It has short lines.

If you read something with short lines that rhyme and tell a story, you are probably

THINK reading a poem.

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 13: Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information


Identify Literary Forms & Sources of Information Directions: Read the information below. Follow along to answer a Sources of Information question. stay v. to stop in one place steal v. to take what belongs to someone else steel n. a kind of hard metal steep adj. high and slanted

1 Where would you most likely read this information?

O N E

Ain a cookbook Bin a newspaper Cin a dictionary Din a storybook

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

STRATEGY: Think about the information you just read. Ask yourself, “Where would I most likely find this information?”

B Y

Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

÷ Ain a cookbook

A cookbook tells you how to make food. The information you read does not seem to have anything to do with food. Choice A cannot be correct.

Cin a dictionary ÷

A dictionary is a book that tells the meanings of words. The information you read tells you the meaning of a few words. It looks like it could belong in a dictionary. Choice C is the correct answer.

O N E

Bin a newspaper ÷ A newspaper has stories, or news, about things that really happened. The information you read does not look like it belongs in a newspaper. Choice B cannot be correct.

Din a storybook ÷ A storybook usually has short, made-up stories in it. People read storybooks for fun. The information you read does not tell a story. Choice D cannot be correct.

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Identify Literary Forms & Sources of Information Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E Paul Bunyan ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read the passage below. Look for clues that tell you what type of passage it is.

Have you heard of Paul Bunyan? There are many stories about him and his friend, Babe. Paul was a logger who cut down trees and Babe was his blue ox. The stories tell of amazing things that are very hard to believe. That is because Paul and Babe are not real. They were made up by loggers who told stories as they sat around campfires at night. The stories spread from one logging camp to another. Here are some of the tales. Paul was such a huge baby that it took five giant storks to bring him to his parents. After only one week, he was as big as his father! He grew up to be about 64 ax handles tall. During the Winter of the Blue Snow, Paul saved Babe from drowning. Babe grew to be a very large ox that could eat 30 large bundles of hay for a snack! It would take a crow a whole day to fly from one of Babe’s horns to the other. Paul’s world was filled with people and animals that were larger than life. He worked with seven men who were all over six feet tall—sitting down! Paul’s cook made huge meals. His soup kettle was very large. He had to row a boat out into the soup and shovel in the vegetables. The pancakes he made were so big that they were hard to flip. The cook’s son added popcorn to the batter. Then the pancakes flipped themselves!

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PART A: One-by-One | Skill 13: Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information


Identify Literary Forms & Sources of Information Paul’s purple cow named Lucy gave a lot of milk. One winter it got so cold that Lucy’s milk turned to ice cream before it got to the pail! Paul even had huge insects. He trained giant ants to help with the logs. Each ant was the size of an elephant! Paul Bunyan was so very big, He made trees look like tiny twigs. With just one step he walked a mile, And Babe was with him all the while. There are many stories of Babe and Paul, But you’d be silly to believe them all! The tales are so tall, they cannot be true, But I wish I’d met Paul and Babe, don’t you?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 Passage Vocabulary Words batter – flour, eggs, and milk that are mixed together (used to make pancakes) logger – a person who cuts down trees storks – type of bird that is big

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a chart or list of important details.

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Identify Literary Forms & Sources of Information Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. Ask yourself the following questions:

1 The stories about Paul Bunyan and Babe in this passage are examples of HINT

Atall tales

• What type of information can be found in the passage? • Why might you choose to read the passage?

Bbiographies Cfairy tales Drealistic stories

• Does the passage tell you about real people and real events? • Does this passage look like anything else you have read?

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Asking yourself these questions should help you to choose the correct answer.

2 The purpose of this passage is to

Ateach a lesson

Describe the passage to yourself. Think about why someone might choose to HINT read this passage.

Btell how to do something Centertain you Dget you to do something

3 Explain how you can tell that this passage is NOT an example of a news story. A news story tells about real events. Its purpose is to tell people what is happening in the world around them. Think about how this compares to the passage you read. HINT

100 PART A: One-by-One | Skill 13: Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information


Identify Literary Forms & Sources of Information Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 If you want to read more stories about Paul and Babe, you might look in

5 What kind of writing is at the end of this passage?

Aa dictionary

Aa play

Ba book of magic

Ba poem

Ca cookbook

Ca news story

Da storybook

Da fairy tale

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6 How would this passage be different if it were a play?

AIt would be very short.

BIt would have more characters.

CIt would tell a story about real people and real events.

DIt would show what each person in the play should say.

7 What makes the end of this passage different from the rest of the passage? How can you tell that it is a different kind of writing?

PART A: One-by-One | Skill 13: Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information 101


SKILL 14:

Apply Prior Knowledge

Modeled Instruction Apply prior knowledge means that you must use what you already know to answer a question. A passage will have some details that will be helpful to you. But you may also need to think about what you already know.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

When you apply prior knowledge, you connect what you read with what you know. You might read:

Things you know:

Abby saw the leaves on the trees change color and knew winter was coming soon. Leaves change color in the fall. Winter comes after fall.

Make the connection: It is probably fall.

Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to learn about using prior knowledge.

All of the students were excited. Tomorrow there would be no school. It would be the beginning of the weekend. It had been a long week of class. The children had many tests and much homework. Now the school week was almost over. The children were ready to put their books away. They all had plans for the weekend.

STRATEGY: Connect details in the paragraph with what you already know. Complete the chart below. Fill in the empty box with something you already knew before you read the paragraph. Can you tell what day it is?

What You Read Tomorrow the weekend would begin.

What You Already Know The weekend begins on Saturday.

It was the end of the school week.

You know from your prior knowledge that the school week usually ends on Friday. The THINK paragraph tells you that the next day will begin the weekend. So, it must be Friday.

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Apply Prior Knowledge Directions: Read the paragraph below. Follow along to answer a Prior Knowledge question. Long ago, cameras could not make color pictures. All of the pictures were black and white. Black and white pictures looked dark. You could not tell if it was a sunny day. You could not tell if someone was wearing a red dress. Black and white pictures could not show you the way things really looked. One man, James Clerk Maxwell, wanted to make color pictures. In 1861, he found a way to take a color picture. He took a picture of a colorful bow. Color pictures show all of the colors that we can see with our own eyes. 1 Why is it better to use a camera that takes color pictures?

AYou can take color pictures on a sunny day.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

BYou can take color pictures anywhere you want.

O N E

CColor pictures are easier to take than black and white pictures. DColor pictures show how things really look.

STRATEGY: Think about the details in the paragraph. Try to connect these details with what you already know. You may want to make a chart or a list. Think about each answer choice. Then choose the best answer. Read below to check

B Y

THINK why each answer choice is wrong or right.

รท AYou can take color pictures on a

CColor pictures are easier to take than รท

sunny day.

black and white pictures.

You can take color pictures on a sunny day. But you can also use a camera that takes black and white pictures. You do not have to use a camera that takes color pictures. Choice A cannot be correct.

There is no information in the paragraph that would make you think it is easier to use a camera that takes color pictures. Choice C cannot be correct.

DColor pictures show how things รท BYou can take color pictures anywhere รท you want. You do not need a color camera to take a picture anywhere. Cameras that take color pictures and cameras that take black and white pictures can take the same pictures. They just look different. Choice B cannot be correct.

really look. The paragraph tells you that black and white pictures do not show the way things really look. It also tells you that color pictures show all of the colors we can see with our eyes. Only color cameras show how things really look. Choice D is the correct answer.

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O N E


Apply Prior Knowledge Guided Instruction Directions: Read the passage below. Use Before You Read, While You Read, and After You Read strategies to answer questions about the passage.

BEFORE YOU READ:

WHILE YOU READ:

• Look for clues that tell you what the passage will be about. • Look at the title and picture. Make predictions about the passage. • Look at the underlined words in the passage. Read the definitions for each of these words at the end of the passage.

• Ask yourself questions while you read. • Look for information that you think is important. • Think about what the details in the passage tell you.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E A Walk in the Woods ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Now read this fictional passage. It is an example of realistic fiction.

Mike was excited about today’s field trip. Mr. Ying was taking the class into the hills outside the city. They would walk on the trails and see the tall trees. The class was going to talk about the changing color of the leaves. Mike’s favorite leaves had many colors. Some were red and yellow with green edges. Others were yellow, orange, and green. One time, Mike had picked up colorful leaves on his way home from school. His Uncle Ed had helped him press them. First, Mike placed the leaves on a piece of waxed paper. Then he put another piece of the paper on top of the leaves. Ed covered the waxed paper with a towel. He moved a hot iron around on the towel. Then Ed put the iron aside and removed the towel. Mike held his pressed leaves up to the window. They looked very pretty, so he taped them up there. He wanted to collect more leaves today. His mother had promised to help him press them. The class took a school bus to the hills in the state park. It was a perfect day for looking at colors. The sun was bright in a deep blue sky.

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Apply Prior Knowledge

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As Mike and his friends walked along, Mr. Ying pointed out different trees. They saw maple, elm, birch, and oak trees. He explained that there are two types of trees. “All the trees that we are seeing today drop their leaves during this season,” said Mr. Ying. “But some trees have needles instead of leaves. They keep their needles all year. That is why they are called evergreens. Pine trees and fir trees are evergreens.” “It’s good that we came today,” added Mr. Ying. “Next week might be too late.” At the top of the hill, the class had a wonderful view of the valley below. The trees spread out before them like a colorful carpet. Mike took a picture with his camera. One of his friends said, “Take another one! I didn’t bring my camera.” So Mike took a lot of pictures of the beautiful trees. He also took some pictures of his friends. Then he took a picture of Mr. Ying, and that finished his roll of film. After a picnic lunch, it was time to go. They gathered some leaves from the ground. Mike picked up acorns, too. He knew he would not be able to press them, but he would keep them on his shelf at home.

Passage Vocabulary Words carpet – rug film – thin strip of plastic used to take pictures iron – a tool that becomes hot (can be used to press things flat) valley – low land that is between hills

AFTER YOU READ:

• Think about what you have just read. • Read questions about the passage. • Look for information in the passage that will help you answer the questions. You may want to make a chart or list of important details.

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Apply Prior Knowledge Guided Instruction Directions: Read questions 1–3. Next to each question is a hint that will help you answer each question. Choose the best answer to questions 1 and 2. Write your answer for question 3. 1 Why did Mike need his mother to help him press the leaves?

AHe could burn himself on the hot iron. BHe would not know which leaves to press.

First, look for information in the passage about pressing leaves. Then HINT think about what you already know. Choose the answer that makes the most sense to you.

CHe could not remember how to do it. DHe would not be able to find the waxed paper.

2 Mr. Ying must be

AMike’s father BMike’s teacher Ca scientist Da park ranger

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Look for information in the passage about Mr. Ying. What does this HINT information tell you about Mr. Ying?

3 Why did Mike think that he would NOT be able to press the acorns? Think about what you know about an acorn. What would happen if Mike tried to iron one? HINT

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Apply Prior Knowledge Independent Practice Directions: Answer the following questions on your own. For questions 4, 5, and 6, choose the correct answer. For question 7, you must write your answer. 4 What will NOT happen in the park in the next couple of weeks?

AThe leaves will turn brown.

Atake the film out of his camera, and take it to a store

BThe tree branches will be bare.

Bgive his camera away because it has

CThe leaves will become more colorful. DThe leaves will fall from the trees.

5 Mike will probably

run out of film

Cgive his camera to his friend who did not bring one

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Dtake more pictures as they walk back down the hill

6 Where would be the best place to see colorful leaves?

Aa shopping mall Ba city street Ca snowy mountain Da country road

7 What time of year is it in this story? How can you tell?

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SKILL REVIEW:

Skills 12–14

Directions: Read the passage below and answer questions 1–7.

Planting a Garden Long ago, many people had gardens. Then, fewer people were interested in having gardens. But in the past few years, this has begun to change. More people are starting to make gardens again. People of all ages are learning the joy of planting. Maybe you would like to start your own garden. It’s easier than you may think. The first step is making some choices. What sort of plants do you like? What do you want to grow? Many people have flower gardens. People grow these gardens for the way that they look. They are pretty to look at. Flowers can have many shapes and many colors. Other people grow food in their gardens. They grow fruits and vegetables. These gardens are helpful. Some people like both types of gardens, so they have flowers and food. After you choose the type of garden you want, you’ll need a good location for it. The best place for a small garden is in a yard. One of the most important things to look for is sun. Always put your garden in a sunny spot. You should also put your garden in a place that is easy to get to. And you will want to put flowers in a place where everyone can see them. Each kind of plant is different. Once you choose the plants you want, you have to learn a little about them. Some plants grow best in spring. Others should be planted in summer. A few plants grow all year long. Choose when you will do your planting. Then choose the best plants to grow. You can add other things to your garden. Sometimes a birdbath is good. A sprinkler to water the garden is also a good idea. You might even add rocks between the plants. This will add to the way your garden looks. I am sure that you will enjoy your garden. Gardens can be very pretty. What’s nicer than seeing bright flowers all around you? You can also grow many kinds of great foods. Some people say food they grow themselves tastes better. And growing food saves a lot of money, too. Best of all, gardens are just plain fun.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Passage Vocabulary Words birdbath - a small pool for birds location – place where something is sprinkler – a thing used to spray water on a garden

108 PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 12–14


Point of View & Purpose, Forms & Sources, Prior Knowledge Analyze Point of View and Purpose 1 What does the author think about putting rocks in a garden?

AIt is a bad idea.

REMINDER This question asks about the author’s point of view. Look for information that tells you how the author thinks or feels.

BIt is hard work. CIt is a good idea. DIt is easy to do.

Apply Prior Knowledge

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2 Why is it so important to put a garden in a sunny place?

ASunshine can be pretty.

REMINDER

The answer to some questions cannot be found right in the passage. You must think about what you read and what you already know. This will help you to choose the best answer.

BPlants need sun to grow.

CPeople like to work in the sun. DSunny places get more rain.

Apply Prior Knowledge 3 How can having a garden help you save money?

AYou can grow food instead of buying it. BYou will never need to go to the store. CYou might find money while planting flowers. DYou will not need to eat as much food.

O N E

REMINDER Information in a passage may help you answer a question. But you may also need to think about what you already know.

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Skill Review: Skills 12–14 Analyze Point of View and Purpose 4 What was the author’s purpose in writing this passage?

Ato tell how a person can start a garden Bto explain why planting flowers is best Cto ask people for ideas about gardens Dto explain which plants are the best

REMINDER To answer this question, you must think about the author’s purpose. Look for information that gives clues about why the author wrote the passage.

Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information

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5 This passage is an example of

Aa letter Ba story Cfiction Dnonfiction

REMINDER

This question asks about the literary form of the passage. Look for clues that tell you what type of passage it is. Think about how it is like other passages you have read.

Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information 6 Where would you find a passage like this? This question asks you about the source of the information. This means you

REMINDER must think about where you would need to look to find the information.

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Skill Review: Skills 12–14 Analyze Point of View and Purpose 7 What does the author think about having a garden? List three details you read in the passage. Use this information to help you answer this question. The details in the passage will help you to know what the author thinks.

REMINDER List details from the passage in the graphic organizer. Then, write what you think the author’s point of view is.

Details from the Paragraph

Point of View

(What does the author tell you?)

(What does the author believe?)

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

PART A: One-by-One | SKILL REVIEW: Skills 12–14 111


VOCABULARY REVIEW:

Skills 12–14

Directions: Listed below are words that were used in the passages you just read. Write the correct words to complete the sentences on this page. You may look back at the passages to find the meaning of each word. A Gift from the Heart

Paul Bunyan

A Walk in the Woods

Planting a Garden

consider

batter

carpet

birdbath

cozy

logger

film

location

requires

storks

iron

sprinkler

slippers

valley

1 My mother asked me to

where I would like to have my birthday party.

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2 Dad made sure to warn Aaron not to touch the hot 3 I saw many small birds in the any big birds such as 4 Misty put

.

next to the house. But I did not see

.

inside of her camera so she could take pictures.

5 We walked in the

that was between the hills.

6 Miss Myers asked Sao to help her put a new 7 The was put in a all the flowers in the garden. 8 Calvin and Kasia helped their father make the

112 PART A: One-by-One | VOCABULARY REVIEW: Skills 12–14

on the floor. where it could spray water on

for the pancakes.


Vocabulary Review: Skills 12–14 Directions: Some words you read in this book are used on this page. Use what you have learned about these words to help you answer questions 1–4. 1 Read the sentence below.

3 Read the sentence below.

“Tara loved her cozy new sweater so much that she wore it all day.”

“Anita requires glue and paint to make her model airplane.”

The word cozy means

The word requires means

Afun and exciting

Amust have

Bnice and soft

Bneeds help

Cold and pretty

Cto give

Dthick and heavy

Dto ask

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 In which sentence is the word logger used correctly?

4 In which sentence is the word slippers used correctly?

AJamil used a logger to cut down the tree.

ABananas are very good to use as slippers.

BMr. McCoy placed the wood inside the

BEli put slippers on his hands before

logger.

going outside.

CPeople used to live in logger houses.

DThe logger cut down ten trees in one day.

O N E B Y

CI slippers on the ice and almost fell in the snow.

DI took my slippers off and jumped into bed.

Vocabulary Challenge Directions: Choose any three review words from the top of page 112. Write sentences using each of these words. 1 2 3

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114


PART B: Reading Skills Review

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The passage in this section of the book is followed by 14 questions. There is one question for each of the skills you learned about in Part A. Next to each question is a reminder to help you recall which skill you must rely on to answer the question correctly.

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READING SKILLS REVIEW Directions: Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow. Use the reminders to remember the correct strategy for answering each type of question.

Every year in September, the schools in Will’s town have a day off. It is “Fair Day.” That is the day for the state fair. There are many fun games and exciting rides at the fair. Some of the rides are fast roller coasters or similar thrill rides. The fair also has all different kinds of food. You can buy giant pretzels and cotton candy. No matter where you are at the fair, the air is filled with the smells of food. You can smell hot dogs and popcorn everywhere. The many gift shops at the fair sell everything from hats and T-shirts to key chains and posters. Will has been going to the fair for the last five years. Every year, he meets his group of friends on Fair Day and they spend the whole day walking around. They play many games at the fair. One of Will’s favorite games is “Dunk the Clown.” In this game, a man dressed as a clown sits on a platform over a tank of water. Next to the tank is a round, red-and-white target. If the player can throw a ball and hit the target, the clown is dropped into the tank of water. Playing “Dunk the Clown” is a lot of fun. Over the years, Will became very successful at this game. The first year he played he threw the ball eight times before hitting the target. Now he hits it on his first try every time. At school, Mr. Jenkins heard how good Will is at “Dunk the Clown.” Last year, he asked Will to be the pitcher for the school baseball team. Will is one of the best pitchers in the league.

E L P M SA N O I T A C U D E ! Y RALL 9.RALLY 9 . 8 8 8

As soon as Will arrived at the fair he wanted to look for the dunk tank. He couldn’t wait to play. He was sure that he would hit the target on his first try. But his friend, Carlos, suggested that they all go for a ride on the roller coaster. Will had never been on the roller coaster. He was nervous about the ride. The roller coaster was very fast. Will did not like fast rides. He always seemed to have more fun playing games. Will began to walk away from the roller coaster, but Carlos pulled him by his arm. Carlos and the rest of Will’s friends all wanted to go on the roller coaster. Even though Will was scared, he got on the roller coaster with his friends.

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Reading Skills Review

It was not bad at first. The car slowly crept up a steep track. When the car reached the top and started the steep plunge down, Will closed his eyes and held on tight. Then the roller coaster swung around a turn. Will began to feel his stomach turn as well. He did not like the speed or the sharp turns of the roller coaster. As the ride continued, he slowly opened his eyes and looked around. The roller coaster was moving so fast that it made Will dizzy. When the ride was finally over, Will was happy. Most of his friends really liked the ride and wanted to take another turn. Will told them that he did not want to ride again and began to walk toward the dunk tank.

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On his way to the dunk tank, Will met another friend from school. Her name was Sarah. She also like playing “Dunk the Clown.” When they arrived at the dunk tank, Sarah threw the ball first. She reached back with the ball in her hand and threw it as hard as she could. Will was amazed at how fast Sarah was able to throw the ball. Not only could she throw fast, but also right on target. The ball hit the center of the target and the clown fell into the water. Both Sarah and Will laughed. Then it was Will’s turn. He reached back and threw the ball as hard as he could. It was not as fast as Sarah’s ball, but it hit the target. Again the clown fell into the water. After playing “Dunk the Clown,” Will and Sarah bought some popcorn. The popcorn smelled good and tasted great. They walked around and looked for more games to play. As they passed the roller coaster, Will looked up and saw his friends speed by. He smiled and thought to himself how great it was that the fair had something for everyone.

Recall Facts and Details 1 How many times did Will throw the ball before hitting the target the first time he played “Dunk the Clown”?

Aeight Bfive Cthree

REMINDER Look for key words in the story. Read carefully to find the detail or fact needed to answer the question correctly.

Done

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S K I L L S R E V I E W


Reading Skills Review Identify Main Idea 2 What would be the best title for this story?

A“Dunk the Clown” B“A Day at the Fair” C“The Roller Coaster” D“Food at the Fair”

REMINDER The main idea is what the whole story is about. Think about the whole story, not just one part.

Identify Sequence

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3 What happened after Will and his friends rode on the roller coaster?

ACarlos pulled Will’s arm. BWill met all his friends.

CWill walked away to play “Dunk the Clown.”

REMINDER

Find each of the answer choices within the story. Make a timeline to help you choose the correct answer.

DWill slowly opened his eyes and looked around.

Analyze Language and Vocabulary 4 Read the sentence below from the story. “In this game, a man dressed as a clown sits on a platform over a tank of water.” In this sentence, you can tell that the word platform means

Aa type of bed Ba pair of shorts Ca small chair Da raised surface

118 PART B: Reading Skills Review

REMINDER To answer this question, you must find the meaning of a word. Think about how the word is used in the story.


Reading Skills Review Analyze Character, Plot, and Setting 5 Who is this story mostly about?

ACarlos

REMINDER The characters in a story are the people the story is about. To answer this type of question, you must tell who is the main character.

BSarah CWill DMr. Jenkins

Recognize Cause and Effect

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

6 Why did Mr. Jenkins ask Will to be the pitcher for the school baseball team?

AMr. Jenkins heard that Will loves to play baseball. BMr. Jenkins heard how good Will is at playing “Dunk the Clown.�

CMr. Jenkins saw how fast Will could throw a ball. DMr. Jenkins saw how far Will could throw a ball.

REMINDER

Cause and effect go together. To answer this question, you must find the event or action in the answer choice that goes with the event or action in the question.

Compare and Contrast 7 How are Sarah and Will alike?

AThey both like to eat hot dogs. BThey both like to go on the roller coaster. CThey both like to play games. DThey both like rides that are fast.

REMINDER Compare questions ask you to tell how things are alike. Contrast questions ask you to tell how things are different. Use details from the story to choose the correct answer.

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S K I L L S R E V I E W


Reading Skills Review Distinguish Fact from Opinion 8 Which of the following sentences from the story is an example of a fact?

A“There are many fun games and exciting rides at the fair.” B“You can smell hot dogs and popcorn everywhere.” C“Playing ‘Dunk the Clown’ is a lot of fun.” D“The popcorn smelled good and tasted great.”

REMINDER To answer this question, you must decide which answer choices are opinions and which one is a fact. Facts can be proven true, opinions cannot.

Make Predictions

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9 What will most likely happen next?

AWill and Sarah will play more games.

BWill and Sarah will go on the roller coaster. CWill and Sarah will buy some popcorn. DWill and Sarah will go home.

REMINDER

To make a prediction, you must use information in the story to decide what you think will happen next. More than one answer may seem possible. You must choose the best answer.

Draw Conclusions 10 Why was Will happy when the roller coaster ride was over? To draw conclusions, you must think about many different details in the

REMINDER story. The story does not tell you the answer, but it does give you the information you need to draw a conclusion.

120 PART B: Reading Skills Review


Reading Skills Review Make Inferences 11 Why did Will go on the roller coaster?

AHe thought it would be fun. BThere was nothing else to do. CIt was the only ride at the fair. DAll of his friends went on the ride.

REMINDER The answer to this question is not stated directly in the story. However, the details in a story can be used to infer, or guess, what the correct answer is.

Analyze Point of View and Purpose

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

12 Do you believe that the person who wrote this story thinks going to a fair is fun? How do you know? Use details from the story to explain your answer. How the author feels about a topic is a point of view. Details in a story can

REMINDER tell you about an author’s point of view.

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S K I L L S R E V I E W


Reading Skills Review Identify Literary Forms and Sources of Information 13 This story would most likely appear in

Aa newspaper Ba dictionary Ca storybook for children Da storybook for grown-ups

REMINDER To answer this question, you must think about the way the story is written. Different books contain different types of stories and different information.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Apply Prior Knowledge

14 You can tell that the fair is NOT on which day?

AMonday BWednesday CThursday DSaturday

122 PART B: Reading Skills Review

REMINDER

The answer to this question cannot be found in the story alone. You must use details from the story and think about what you already know to answer the question.


PART C: Reading Skills All Together

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

There are four passages in this section of the book. These passages are thematically linked. Each passage is followed by 14 questions—one for each essential reading skill. There are also three theme questions at the end of this section. You will need to use all four passages to answer the theme questions.

Theme: Everybody Wants a Pet Potbellied Pigs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 Tammy’s New Friend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128 Getting His Wish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 The Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 Theme Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143

123


Passage 1 Theme: Everybody Wants a Pet Passage 1 | Directions: Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow.

Potbellied Pigs 1

Many people have dogs, cats, and fish as pets. Some people own birds and even snakes. But did you know that there are many people who have pigs in their houses? This may seem like a strange idea at first, but these animals make great pets. They can be friendly and they love to play!

2

Potbellied pigs were brought to the United States from Asia in the 1980s. At first, these pigs cost a great deal of money to buy. They do not cost so much today. Now, many people can afford them.

3

Potbellied pigs are much smaller than other pigs. They are only about 24 inches tall. That’s about the size of a small dog. But potbellied pigs can weigh up to 100 pounds. That is a lot less than some hogs that can weigh over 1,000 pounds each. But potbellied pigs are still heavier than most dogs.

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124 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


Everybody Wants a Pet 4

Potbellied pigs can eat many things. They are not fussy eaters. They like to eat fruits and vegetables. You don’t have to buy special food that is just for pigs. But, as with all animals, make sure they always have enough water to drink.

5

These animals can cause some problems. Some potbellied pigs like to defend their space, so you will need to be careful. If you get too close, they will snap at you. But, with time, they can get used to you and they can be trained to be nicer. Potbellied pigs also like to dig in the dirt. This can be a problem if a pig is near a garden. But that problem can be solved, too. Just give the pig a spot of its own to dig and it will soon learn to leave the garden alone.

6

Please don’t get the idea that these pigs are too much trouble. They really aren’t. They are very smart and can learn almost anything. If you take good care of them, potbellied pigs can live to be about 15 years old. Some will even live as long as 20 years. Now that you’ve learned about these unusual animals, how would you like one as a pet?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

1 How much can a full-grown potbellied pig weigh?

A1,000 pounds B24 pounds C15 pounds D100 pounds

3 What happened before 1980?

AThere were not many potbellied pigs in Asia.

BNot many people had potbellied pigs as pets.

CPotbellied pigs lived mostly in the United States.

DMany people kept potbellied pigs in 2 What is the main idea of paragraph 4?

the houses.

AMake sure the pig has enough water to drink.

BPotbellied pigs love vegetables. CPotbellied pigs eat many things. DYou can buy special food for pigs.

4 What does afford mean?

Ato train pigs as pets Bto have enough money Cyou really like something Da pig costs too much PART C: Reading Skills All Together 125

A L L T O G E T H E R


Passage 1 5 Which word best describes potbellied pigs?

8 Which of the following is NOT a fact?

Amean

APotbellied pigs came from Asia.

Bclever

BPotbellied pigs need water.

Clazy

CPotbellied pigs dig in the dirt.

Dshy

DPotbellied pigs make great pets.

6 What happens if a potbellied pig feels that you are getting too close?

9 If a potbellied pig is near a garden, it will probably want to

AIt will be very nice to you.

Aeat the vegetables

BIt will try to dig in the dirt.

Bdig in the dirt

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CIt will try to bite you.

Csleep

DIt will not have enough food.

Drun

7 Describe two ways potbellied pigs are like other pets.

10 Why do so many people have potbellied pigs as pets?

AThey can be very playful. BThey eat many types of food. CThey like to dig outside in the dirt. DThey never snap at someone.

11 You can tell from the passage that some people

Adon’t like pigs as pets Blike to have pets that are different Cdon’t have much money Dwant to have a large backyard

126 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


Everybody Wants a Pet 12 Why did the author write this passage?

13 What kind of passage is this?

Abecause he doesn’t like cats and dogs

Afiction

Bto show that these animals are smart

Bbiography

Cto describe a different type of pet

Cfolktale

Dbecause he wants to buy a pig

Dnonfiction

14 What could be one problem with having a potbellied pig? Explain what you can do to solve this problem?

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A L L T O G E T H E R


Passage 2 Passage 2 | Directions: Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow.

Tammy’s New Friend Tammy enjoyed walking to school every day. She would think about her homework and her friends. Sometimes, she would even daydream. Walking to school may not have been very exciting, but it was pleasant. Until one day her walk was very exciting indeed. One Tuesday morning, Tammy left her house very early. As she was walking along, Tammy noticed something out of the corner of her eye. Something moved in the bushes. Tammy went over to take a closer look and noticed a turtle. It was very cute! There was still a lot of time before school started, so Tammy decided to take the turtle home.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL Y L L A R . 9 9 888.

When Tammy arrived at her house, she put the turtle in a spacious jar and left it in her bedroom. She thought about the turtle as she hurried to school. The rest of the day seemed to last forever. Tammy couldn’t wait to get back home to see the turtle again. She was sure that it would make an ideal pet. Tammy rushed into her bedroom and peered into the jar. The turtle seemed to be sleeping. Tammy took the turtle out of the jar and it started to wiggle its legs. She gently put him back in the jar and went to find her mother. Tammy’s mother was quietly sitting on the sofa in the living room. Tammy sat down next to her mother and told her all about the turtle. She asked her mother if she could keep it for a pet. Her mother did not speak for a while. Tammy waited patiently. Finally her mother said, “Tammy, I think the turtle will make a wonderful pet. But first you need to find out how to take care of it.” Tammy hugged her mother and then ran quickly to the library. She found two books about turtles. The books were very helpful. First, Tammy learned that the type of turtle that she found might grow as large as 6 inches. That’s a good size for a pet. Also, if she took good care of the turtle, it would

128 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


Everybody Wants a Pet live a long life. It could live for more than 20 years. Tammy learned a lot by reading books about turtles. In one of the books, she read that most turtles are very gentle and will not bite people. But Tammy couldn’t find out what turtles like to eat and wanted to know more about caring for a turtle. So, she decided to go to the pet store. When Tammy arrived at the pet store, she told Mr. Jones about her turtle. “Can you please help me, Mr. Jones? I want to take good care of my turtle.” Mr. Jones wrote a list of things that Tammy would need and told her to show it to her mother. Tammy thanked him and then exited the store. On the way home, she read the list:

A L L

20-gallon fish tank

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 5-pound bag of rocks box of turtle food

water heater

When Tammy’s mother read the list, she said, “Well, it looks like we better go see Mr. Jones about buying these supplies.” During the ride to the pet store, Tammy decided that “Tony” would be a good name for the turtle. But what if it wasn’t a boy? Then Tammy smiled and laughed to herself. She had plenty of time to find out—about 20 years.

1 The passage did NOT say that

ATammy found a turtle in the bushes BMr. Jones gave Tammy a list CTammy stayed home from school DTammy went to the library

2 Another good title for this passage would be

A“Tammy’s Wish” B“Mr. Jones’s Store” C“A Very Nice Mother” D“A New Home for Tony” PART C: Reading Skills All Together 129

T O G E T H E R


Passage 2 3 What does Tammy do right after she speaks to her mother?

7 What do Tammy and Mr. Jones have in common?

AShe walks to school.

AThey both like animals.

BShe goes into her bedroom.

BThey both like to go walking.

CShe visits the library.

CThey both enjoy reading books.

DShe goes to the pet shop.

DThey both live near the library.

4 An ideal pet is one that

Alives in a tank Blives a long time

8 Which statement from the passage is a fact?

A“The books were very helpful.” B“That’s a good size for a pet.”

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Cdoes not try to bite you Dis perfect in every way

C“It could live for more than 20 years.” D“It was very cute!”

5 How does Tammy change by the end of the passage?

AShe likes her mother a lot more.

BShe is looking forward to school.

CShe doesn’t like turtles any more.

DShe has learned a lot about turtles.

6 Tammy went to see Mr. Jones because

Ashe liked visiting pet stores Bshe didn’t know what turtles eat Cshe didn’t want to go to the library Dshe always enjoyed talking to him

130 PART C: Reading Skills All Together

9 When Tammy and her mother return from the pet store, what will Tammy probably do next?


Everybody Wants a Pet 10 A lesson to be learned from the passage is that

Ait is a good idea to go for a walk Bturtles are the best pets Cyou need to know how to take care of a pet Dpet supplies can cost a lot of money

11 Explain how you can tell from the passage that Tammy knows how to talk nicely to other people.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

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A L L T O G E T H E R


Passage 2 12 The author would agree that

AMr. Jones was not helpful BTammy should find another pet Cturtles are gentle animals Dturtles eat a lot of food

14 What will Tammy need to put in the tank?

Asome water Bnew plants Canother turtle Da bright light

13 You might expect to find this passage in a book titled

APet Supplies BThis is a Library CThe Pet Shop DPet Stories

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132 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


Everybody Wants a Pet Passage 3 | Directions: Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow.

A L L

E L P M A S N Getting HisCAWish O I T U D E ! Y L L Y L L RA A R . 9 9 . 8 8 8

Today was Tim’s birthday. His parents had promised to get him a dog for his birthday. They told him he could pick out any dog he liked. There was a pet shop in town. Tim walked by it on his way to school. He saw all kinds of cute puppies in the window. It would be a great place to go with his parents to pick out his birthday present. Tim wanted to make sure his parents took him to that pet store. Tim went to the hall closet in his house. He took out the telephone book and opened to page 157. He left it on the kitchen table. He wanted his parents to see the ad for the pet store. Tim’s mother came into the kitchen and looked at the page. “This looks interesting, Tim. And I wanted to tell you about another pet store. I see it on the way home from work every day.” She turned to page 155 in the telephone book. “I’ll let you decide which you like best,” she said. Tim looked again at both pages. He tried to make up his mind. Both stores looked great.

PART C: Reading Skills All Together 133

T O G E T H E R


Passage 3 “Mom, I’d like to go to The Pup Palace first. I think I have a better chance of finding the dog I want there. If that doesn’t work out, we can go to Plenty of Pets.” “I’m sure you’ll select the best puppy,” his mother said with a smile. Tim couldn’t believe his longtime wish was about to come true! By this afternoon, he would have his own dog. This was going to be the best birthday ever.

THE PUP PALACE • We have the best puppies in town.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . PLEN T 8 8 8 Y OF P

• Choose your pet from over 200 puppies. • More puppies arrive every day. STORE HOURS

Monday to Saturday: 9:00 A.M.–7:00 P.M. Sunday: 10:00 A.M.–5:00 P.M.

• We

have f ish,

ETS

birds, • All t cats, a he pe nd do t supp gs. you’ll l i e s ever n eed are rig ht her e. • Our prices are the be st! STOR E HO URS Mond ay to F riday: Saturd 1 0 :0 0 ay: 10 A.M.– 8:00 P. :00 A.M M. Sunda . – 6 :0 0 y: 11:0 P.M. 0 A.M. –5:00 P.M.

134 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


Everybody Wants a Pet 1 When is The Pup Palace open on Sunday?

5 The story takes place in

A11:00 A.M.–5:00 P.M.

ATim’s home

B9:00 A.M.–7:00 P.M.

Bthe pet store

C10:00 A.M.–6:00 P.M.

Ctown

D10:00 A.M.–5:00 P.M.

Dschool

2 The main idea of this passage is that

Athe Pup Palace is a pet store

6 Why did Tim leave the telephone book open on the kitchen table?

BTim walks home from school every day CTim will get to pick out a dog today

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A L L

DPlenty of Pets sells puppies

3 Which of these events happened first?

ATim looked at page 155.

BTim’s mother came into the kitchen.

CTim’s mother read The Pup Palace ad. DTim opened the telephone book to page 157.

4 In this passage, the word select means

Alove Bsell Ccuddle Dchoose

7 According to the passage, how are the two pet stores different?

APlenty of Pets sells dogs. BThe Pup Palace is open on Saturday. CThe Pup Palace sells only puppies. DPlenty of Pets is in a different town.

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T O G E T H E R


Passage 3 8 Which statement from the passage is an example of an opinion?

A“We have the best puppies in town.” B“Choose your pet from over 200 puppies.”

9 What will probably happen next?

ATim’s mother won’t let him get a puppy. BTim and his mother will go to The Pup Palace.

CTim will decide to find another

C“We have fish, birds, cats, and dogs.” D“He left it on the kitchen table.”

telephone book.

DTim and his mother will go to Plenty of Pets.

10 Why do you think that Tim’s mother opened to a different page in the telephone book?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

136 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


Everybody Wants a Pet 11 How can you tell from the passage that Tim’s mother respects his opinions?

13 To find more about puppies, you should look in

AShe knows that her choice is best.

Aa history book

BShe wants him to get another dog.

Ban encyclopedia

CShe lets him explain his reasons.

Ca science book

DShe will drive him to the pet store.

Da dictionary

12 How did the author want you to feel when you read this story?

14 When Tim brings the puppy home, what will he need?

Ahappy

Aa rug

Btired

Ba bottle

Csad Dangry

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

A L L

Cpet food

Dwarm milk

PART C: Reading Skills All Together 137

T O G E T H E R


Passage 4 Passage 4 | Directions: Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow.

The Letter Ever since she was a small child, Anna loved animals. She fed the ducks in the park and went to the zoo many times. Now that she was getting older, Anna felt that she wanted her own pet. She thought that a cat would make a wonderful pet. There was a problem. Anna’s parents did not think she was old enough to have a pet. Anna tried talking to them about it, but this didn’t work. One night, she sat down and wrote them a letter. She hoped this would make them change their minds.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Dad, Dear Mom and

me to have a r o f e im t ’s it I think too young, but m a I k in like to explain h t d u ul o w I . t I know yo lo this a thought about ve a h I n. w o y pet of m ea. his is a good id t k in h t I ns so the rea take care of o t rn a le o t e for m d be a good way d ul o w clean it. I woul et nd p a a ed fe o t Having rn to lea ice et, I would have p a d a be good pract h d I ul o If w is h T things. y. every da lways ood and water f it e Both of you a iv g e. o us t o h e h need t d s aroun to help of other thing re ca g in help me learn k d ta ul r o w fo is h T . p out ke it when I hel say that you li d even more. rk. First, I woul o lw o o h sc y m prove g ight help me im m it , et ore time readin p m a d d en sp o If I ha ls a could ks. My ing television. I ch at w e im read more boo t d ss ul o w I at spend le h t eans better my pet. That m ut o b a g in so I would have , rn a ut o b a and le te ri w ing to give me someth l! o ls a d ul o w pet grades in schoo y m p el h y ll a his would re writing skills. T

138 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


Everybody Wants a Pet

The pet would allow me to se t a good exam also see me act ple for Julie. ing more like a She would g ro w nu p . I like teaching new things. I co my little sister uld show her h ow to take care of her own pet someday. I hope you say yes. Love, Anna

Anna knocked on her parents’ door and went into their room. She handed her father the letter. She watched while her parents read it. Anna was so nervous. At last, her father put the letter down. Her parents smiled at each other and then at Anna.

E L P SAM ! Y L L RA N O I T A C U ED

“You know, Anna, it does seem as if you’re old enough to get a pet,” her mother said. “Let’s talk about it at breakfast.” It seemed as if Anna had made her point.

1 Anna did NOT

Awrite a letter to her parents Bmail a letter to her parents Clike to go to the zoo Dtry to help Julie

2 Another good title for this passage would be

A“Anna Likes to Read Animal Stories” B“Anna’s Parents Change Their Minds” C”Letters Are Fun to Write” D”All Children Should Have Pets”

PART C: Reading Skills All Together 139

A L L T O G E T H E R


Passage 4 3 According to the passage, when did Anna write the letter?

Aafter she changed her parents’ minds Bbefore she fed the ducks in the park Cafter the family had breakfast

6 Anna wrote the letter because

Atalking had not worked Bshe liked to write letters Cshe needed to practice writing Dshe wanted to visit the zoo again

Dbefore she knocked on her parents’ door

4 Read this sentence from the passage. “It seemed as if Anna had made her point.” What does the phrase Anna had made her point mean?

BAnna was upset because her letter was long.

CAnna’s parents enjoyed reading her letter.

AThey both have little sisters. BThey both have the same parents.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

AAnna had gotten her parents to agree with her.

7 According to the passage, how are Anna and Julie alike?

DHer parents thought that Anna was wrong to want a pet.

CThey both watch too much television. DThey both like to take care of things.

8 Read this sentence from the passage. “Now that she was getting older, Anna felt that she wanted her own pet,“

Which word signals that the sentence states an opinion?

Apet Bfelt 5 Anna seems to be a smart person. Which clue from the passage helps you to know this?

AAnna hoped the letter would change her parents’ minds.

BAnna was very nervous as her parents read the letter.

CAnna felt she was old enough to have a pet.

DAnna explained the reasons why she should have a pet in her letter.

140 PART C: Reading Skills All Together

Cown Dwanted


Everybody Wants a Pet 9 What do you think would have happened if Anna had NOT written the letter to her parents? Use details from the passage to help explain your answer.

A L L

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 10 What is a lesson that can be learned from the passage?

AHaving a pet is a great deal of trouble. BIt’s not a good idea to bother your parents.

CYou can try many ways to change people’s minds.

DYou might not be old enough to have a pet of your own.

11 How can a pet help Anna with her schoolwork?

AAnna will take care of the classroom pets.

BAnna will tell her parents about other pets.

CAnna will go to bed early and get up early.

DAnna will spend more time reading and writing.

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T O G E T H E R


Passage 4 12 The author would agree that you should

Anever give up

14 If Anna gets the pet, what will she have to do before she goes to school in the morning?

Bstay away from pets Cmind your own business Ddo whatever you want to do

13 A book with more passages like this one would most likely be called

AImprove Your Writing Skills BAll About Pets for Children

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

CHow to Do Better Work at School

DHow to Get Others to Agree with You

142 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


Everybody Wants a Pet Theme Questions Directions: The next three questions are about the theme “Everybody Wants a Pet.� Use the four passages you have just read to answer these questions.

1 Why might Tammy like to have a potbellied pig?

A L L

APotbellied pigs like turtles. BShe likes taking care of pets. CShe used to have a potbellied pig as a pet. DHer house has enough room for pigs and turtles.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

2 How are Tim and Anna alike? How are they different? Use details from the passages to support your answer.

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T O G E T H E R


Theme Questions 3 How does each of the four passages help show that “Everybody Wants a Pet”?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

144 PART C: Reading Skills All Together


PART D: Assessments

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

There are two assessments in this section of the book. Each assessment includes two passages. Each passage is followed by 14 questions. Completing these assessments will help your teacher to track your progress on each of the 14 Essential Skills for Reading Success.

Assessment 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 Assessment 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155

145


ASSESSMENT 1 Passage 1 | Directions: Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow.

A Peanut-Butter-and-Jelly Problem “We have a small problem,” Shelby’s mother said as she looked into the refrigerator. “We are out of jelly, and we do not have enough peanut butter to make a sandwich.” Shelby could not believe what her mother had just said. This was not a small problem. It was a big problem! Shelby had eaten a peanut-butter-and-jelly sandwich for lunch every day this year. It was her favorite food and was an important part of her day. Shelby was very particular about food. She liked macaroni and cheese, but only if it was very warm. She liked scrambled eggs, but not with pepper. She liked spaghetti, too, but not with sauce.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

“What am I going to do?” Shelby asked her mother.

“You’re going to eat a different sandwich today,” replied her mother. “How about a ham sandwich?” Shelby scrunched up her nose and shook her head.

“Okay, well, how about a cheese sandwich?” asked her mother. Shelby stuck out her tongue.

“I bet you would like a tuna fish sandwich! I’ll put lettuce on it because I know you love lettuce.” “I only like lettuce in salads,” Shelby explained. Finally, she agreed to take the tuna sandwich to school, but she didn’t plan on eating it. She would simply skip lunch for the day. At school, when Shelby told her friends about her problem, they laughed. They said she was being silly, but Shelby didn’t think so. She did not like it when things changed. She liked things to stay the same. In math class, Shelby’s stomach began growling. Skipping lunch was going to be harder than she thought. When the bell rang, Shelby walked to the closet, grabbed her lunchbox, and then walked to the lunch room. Shelby ate her apple and her pretzels too, but she was still very hungry. “Come on, Shelby, just eat your sandwich,” pleaded her friend Katelyn.

146 PART D: Assessments


Assessment 1 Shelby slowly unwrapped the sandwich. Her mother had mixed the tuna with mayonnaise and placed a piece of lettuce on top. Shelby looked closely at the sandwich and made a funny face. Her friends laughed. “Shelby, that looks good!” said Katelyn. “I bet you’ll like it if you try it. Change is nice sometimes, and you don’t want to be hungry all afternoon.” Shelby knew Katelyn was right. Being hungry was no fun at all. Shelby slowly lifted the sandwich. She closed her eyes and tried to pretend that it was a peanut-butter-and-jelly sandwich, but it smelled different. She opened her eyes and bit into the sandwich. The fresh bread was delicious, and the fresh lettuce made a crunching sound. At first the tuna tasted strange, but as she chewed it, she realized that it wasn’t all that bad. In fact, it was pretty good. “Mmmm,” Shelby said. “This is really good. I guess I like tuna fish sandwiches after all.”

E L P M SA N O I T A C U D E ! Y RALL 9.RALLY 9 . 8 8 8

“See! I told you it would be good!” shouted Katelyn. “What kind of sandwich are you going to eat for lunch tomorrow?” “Peanut-butter-and-jelly,” replied Shelby. “Too much change isn’t good for a person.”

1 How does Shelby like to eat spaghetti?

Awith lots of pepper Bwithout the sauce

Cwhen it’s very warm Dwith extra cheese

3 What does Shelby do right after she eats her pretzels?

AShe eats her apple. BShe eats her sandwich. CShe walks with her friends. DShe unwraps her sandwich.

2 What is this passage mostly about?

Aa girl who tries something new Ba girl who listens to her best friend Ca girl who likes to make funny faces Da girl who likes peanut-butter sandwiches

PART D: Assessments 147

A S S E S S M E N T S


Assessment 1 4 Read this sentence from the passage. “Shelby was very particular about food.”

7 How is Katelyn different from Shelby?

AShe thinks Shelby’s sandwich looks good.

In this sentence, the word particular means

BShe thinks it is okay to eat nothing

Aplain

CShe does not like lettuce on

for lunch. her sandwiches.

Bpicky

DShe does not eat peanut-butter-and-jelly

Ccertain

sandwiches.

Dcurious

5 Where does the beginning of this story take place?

8 Which of the following sentences from the passage is a fact?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Ain the classroom

Bin the school lunch room Cin Shelby’s house

Din Shelby’s friend’s house

A“This is really good.” B“Too much change isn’t good for a person.”

C“I bet you would like a tuna fish sandwich!”

D“She opened her eyes and bit into the sandwich.”

6 Why does Shelby’s mother put lettuce on Shelby’s sandwich?

AShe is trying to hide the tuna. BShe knows Shelby likes lettuce. CShe wants to keep the bun fresh. DShe thinks it goes good with tuna.

148 PART D: Assessments

9 What kind of sandwiches do you think Shelby will eat for lunch for the rest of the school year? Explain how you know.


Assessment 1 10 You can tell that Katelyn

Ais a good friend

11 Katelyn wants Shelby to eat lunch because

Ashe thinks Shelby is acting silly

Bhas many friends Clikes to eat the same thing for lunch

Bshe is worried Shelby will get sick Cshe knows that Shelby is very hungry

every day

Dlikes peanut-butter-and-jelly

Dshe knows that Shelby likes to eat tuna

12 Do you believe that the person who wrote this story likes tuna sandwiches? How do you know? Use details and information from the story to support your answer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

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A S S E S S M E N T S


Assessment 1 13 You would most likely find this passage in a book called

AShelby’s Friends BGreat Sandwiches CWhy Tuna Is Great

14 Where does tuna come from?

Aa farm Bthe ocean Ca cow Dthe school

DMother Knows Best

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150 PART D: Assessments


Assessment 1 Passage 2 | Directions: Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow.

Crash Test Dummies If someone called you a dummy, you would probably be upset about it. Most people think of a dummy as a silly or stupid person. But there is another kind of dummy that does an important job in our world. This is the crash test dummy, which is a plastic statue of a person, sort of like a huge action figure. Crash test dummies are not dumb at all—they help save people’s lives every day.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

How can a big plastic statue save a life? When scientists are building a new kind of car, truck, boat, or airplane, they need to make sure it is safe. So, these scientists do special tests. Let’s say a scientist named Bob wanted to test a car to make sure it was safe. Bob would take the car to a special building for testing. Bob would put a crash test dummy inside the car as if it were a real person. Then Bob would use a special machine to make the car crash into a wall! The car would be wrecked, but Bob would want to see what happened to the dummy. If the dummy was broken, Bob would know that the car was not safe enough. A real person in the car would have been hurt—or even killed. Bob would not want people to drive in the car until it was safe. If the dummy was not broken, Bob would know the car was strong and safe. If a real person got in an accident, he or she would not be hurt. Bob and the other scientists would agree that the car could be sold. Crash test dummies let people test what is—and what is not—safe. This is an important job, and it has been around since 1949. That was the year the first crash test dummy was made. Its name was Sierra Sam, and it was very similar in size and weight to a grown-up man. Sierra Sam was used by the Air Force to test jet planes. To keep pilots safe, jets have a special chair that can fly. If the jet was going to crash, the chair would fly up and let the pilot escape. Sam was used to test this flying chair. He was strapped to the chair and then sent flying, high up into the sky! Scientists checked out Sam each time he went for a flight. When he was not broken, the scientists knew the flying chair was safe for real people to use. In the years after Sierra Sam, crash test dummies got better and better. Scientists made new dummies that let them do better tests. These dummies had special machines on them. These machines record information about crashes. The machines might record how hard a dummy hits its head during a crash. This could show if a real person would have been hurt. Scientists have also made a whole family of dummies. Now there are even dummy babies! Scientists use the baby dummies to test when real babies would be safe. Because of these brave dummies, now adults, children, and babies are safer than ever. PART D: Assessments 151

A S S E S S M E N T S


Assessment 1 1 Scientists used Sierra Sam to test what sort of machine?

Aa car

5 Sierra Sam can best be described as

Aa dummy Ba scientist

Ba jet

Ca friend

Ca boat

Da pilot

Da truck

2 What is this passage mostly about?

6 Why do scientists check if a dummy was broken during a crash?

Awhy scientists test machines

Ato decide if they need a new dummy

Bscientists that build dummies

Bto find out how fast the dummy was moving

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Chow dummies make people safer Dthe first crash test dummy

Cto learn if a person would have been injured

Dto figure out how to fix the dummy

3 What would a scientist do right after placing a crash test dummy in a car?

ACheck if the car is wrecked.

BCheck if the dummy is broken.

CMake sure the dummy is as big as a person.

DMake the car crash into a wall.

4 Read this sentence from the passage. “He was strapped to the chair and then sent flying, high up into the sky!� What does the word strapped mean as it is used here?

Atied Bthrown Cflown Dremoved 152 PART D: Assessments

7 Why are dummies used in safety tests instead of real people?


Assessment 1 8 Which is an example of a fact from the passage?

11 What can you tell from the picture of the dummy in this passage?

A“This is an important job.”

AThe dummy is Sierra Sam.

B“Most people think of a dummy as a

BThe dummy is made to look like

silly or stupid person.”

C“If someone called you a dummy, you would probably be upset about it.”

D“Sierra Sam was used by the Air Force to test jet planes.”

a person.

CThe dummy has soft plastic skin. DThe dummy weighs as much as an adult man.

12 The author probably wrote this passage to 9 What would probably happen if a dummy was broken during a car crash?

Atell readers to visit a car-testing building

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

AThe car would be made safer.

BThe car would be sold to drivers. CA smaller dummy would be used. DA larger dummy would be used.

Bteach readers about how dummies test safety

Cask readers to stop using the word “dummy”

Dentertain readers with a funny story about dummies

10 What can you conclude about scientists who test cars?

AThey no longer use dummies. BThey are less important than other scientists.

CThey wreck cars to make sure the cars are safe.

DThey do not like using dummies in tests.

13 Which source of information would likely give you the most information about jets?

Aa newspaper Ba storybook Ca book about planes Da magazine about travel

PART D: Assessments 153

A S S E S S M E N T S


Assessment 1 14 What are some things scientists can learn about car safety by using dummies? Explain at least three things scientists can learn.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

154 PART D: Assessments


ASSESSMENT 2 Passage 1 | Directions: Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow.

Katie’s Very Long Week It was Friday morning and Katie was sitting at her desk in Mrs. Smith’s class. Katie was thinking about what she was going to do that weekend. First, she would watch cartoons on Saturday morning. Then, she would eat pancakes for breakfast. After that, Katie’s mother would take her to her soccer game. Of course, in the afternoon, she would go over to Allie’s house to play with her friend. It was going to be a perfect day! Suddenly, Katie heard a voice call out her name. It was Mrs. Smith.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

“Katie, what is the answer to the first problem?”

Katie had no idea what Mrs. Smith was talking about, and she heard some of her classmates laughing. Katie was sure that she was in trouble. “Katie, I’d like to speak with you before you go to lunch.”

At 12:00, the rest of the class went to lunch. Katie sat in a chair by Mrs. Smith’s desk and wondered what would happen next. “Katie, it seems like you are always daydreaming in class. Most of the time you don’t know what is going on in this classroom. Your mind is a million miles away. I was going to ask your mother to meet with me, but I changed my mind. I want to try something first. Tomorrow, a new student will be joining our class. Her name is Linda. I want you to explain our class rules to her. You can help her get used to our class. But you will have to pay attention to everything that is going on, so you can help Linda. I know you can do this, Katie.” Katie laughed to herself as she walked down the hall to the lunchroom. “This is going to be so easy!” The next day, Linda joined the class and Mrs. Smith told her to sit next to Katie. Then Mrs. Smith started teaching math. Katie told Linda to take out her math notebook and a pencil. Katie started doing her own math work. A few minutes later, Katie looked over at Linda. Linda hadn’t taken out her notebook. She was drawing a picture on her homework pad!

PART D: Assessments 155

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Assessment 2

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

The same thing happened over and over again. Katie would explain something to Linda. Linda seemed to listen to Katie, but then she would start drawing or daydreaming. Katie was getting very angry. Why didn’t Linda listen? By the end of the day, Katie was very upset. Every day that week, Katie tried and tried, but Linda did not pay attention. At the end of the day on Friday, Mrs. Smith asked Katie to stay after class. “I know you had a difficult week, Katie. But I think you’ve learned something. Now you know how hard it is when someone just won’t pay attention.” Katie realized how she must have made Mrs. Smith feel and nodded her head yes. “Thank you for trying to help Linda. Next week you don’t have to explain things to her. Just pay attention to your own work.” Katie had never been so happy in her life. Paying attention herself was much easier than trying to get someone else to pay attention. “Don’t worry Mrs. Smith, you can count on me!”

156 PART D: Assessments


Assessment 2 1 What time did the class go to lunch?

5 The story takes place

A11:30

Ain the lunchroom

B12:00

Bin the classroom

C12:30

Con the school bus

D1:00

Din Katie’s house

2 Another good title for this passage would be

A“How to Do Homework” B“Being a Good Friend”

6 Why did Katie get in trouble?

AShe was thinking about the weekend instead of math.

BShe was talking to her friend, Allie, about the soccer game.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

C“Katie is Punished”

D“Learning a Lesson”

CShe didn’t like Mrs. Smith. DShe forgot to do her homework.

3 Which of the following happened after Linda came to Katie’s class?

7 How are Katie and Linda alike?

AKatie was thinking about pancakes.

AThey’re both good in math.

BMrs. Smith spoke to Katie at the end of

BThey both daydream in class.

the day.

CKatie didn’t know the math answer.

CThey’re both new in the class. DThey both ride the same bus home.

DMrs. Smith asked Katie to teach Linda the class rules. 8 Which sentence from the passage is a fact? 4 Read this sentence from the passage. “Your mind is a million miles away.“ What does this sentence mean?

AYou are late for class.

A“It was going to be a perfect day!” B“This is going to be so easy!” C“I know you can do this, Katie.” D“Linda hadn’t taken out her notebook.”

BYou’re not very smart. CYou aren’t paying attention. DYou’re thinking about a long trip.

PART D: Assessments 157

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Assessment 2 9 What will Katie probably do in school next week? Why do you think she will do this? Use details from the passage to explain your answer.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

158 PART D: Assessments


Assessment 2 10 A lesson to be learned from the story is

Athat soccer is the best sport to play Bto be careful about the friends you make Cit is important to always try your best Dit is easy to change another person

13 You might expect to find this passage in a book titled

ATeacher Tricks BMeeting New People CLessons Learned in School DHow to Pay Attention

11 How can you tell from the passage that Ms. Smith is kind?

AShe takes the time to talk to Katie.

14 Why is it important for a new student to learn the class rules?

BShe let Linda sit next to Katie.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

CShe called on Katie to answer the first problem.

DShe let the class go to the lunchroom.

12 You can tell from the passage that the author believes

Astudents should listen to the teacher Bit is hard to make good friends

Cchildren don’t always have to listen DKatie is not very helpful

PART D: Assessments 159

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Assessment 2 Passage 2 | Directions: Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow.

It’s Everywhere It’s all around you. Pick up a book to read, and there it is. Write a story, and there it is. Look at the pictures and maps and charts in your classroom, and there it is again. Have you guessed what “it” is? It’s paper! All of your schoolbooks are made using paper. You also write on many different types of paper: loose-leaf paper, white paper, yellow paper, paper with lines, and paper without lines. When you go to the school library, every book there is made of paper. Where does all this paper come from?

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Most paper is made from trees. After a tree is cut down, the bark is removed. Then the tree is washed and chopped up into small chips. The wood fibers in the chips are then turned into a soft, wet pulp. The next step is to drain the water from the pulp. The pulp is placed on a large screen. Some of the water in the pulp goes through the screen, but the wood fibers do not. The wood fibers stay on top of the screen and form a thin mat. The mat is squeezed through rollers to remove more water. The mat of wood fibers now begins to look like paper, but it still has too much water in it. Next, the mat is put through hot rollers. The mat goes through many of these rollers. The heat and the pressure gets rid of the rest of the water. Only the wood fibers are left as the pulp has now become paper. Finally, the paper is rolled onto large spools. Some rolls of paper are sent to factories. This paper will be used to make cardboard boxes, tissues, cups, and many other paper products. Some rolls of paper are cut into smaller sheets of paper. Some paper will be used to make the things that are in every classroom, including yours! Most of the trees used to make paper are grown on tree farms. When trees are cut down, more trees are planted. This is one way to make sure that there will always be enough trees to make the paper we need. In schools, homes, stores, and many other places, paper is something we all use every day.

160 PART D: Assessments


Assessment 2 1 Paper pulp is put on screens in order to

Amake it smooth

4 Read the sentence below from the passage. “The next step is to drain the water from the pulp.�

Bdrain off water Cget rid of fiber

What does the word drain mean as it is used in this sentence?

Dmake it hot

Ato heat 2 This passage is mostly about

Bto remove

Awhy trees are important

Cto clean

Bhow trees are planted

Dto smooth

Chow paper is made

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

Dwhy we need books

5 Most trees that are used to make paper are grown

Ain rainforests

3 What is the first thing that is done after a tree is cut down?

AThe tree is chopped into small wood chips.

Bby large rivers Con tree farms Dnear schools

BThe wood chips are put through rollers. CThe wood is washed. DThe bark is removed.

6 Why is the mat of wood fiber put through hot rollers?

Ato dry it Bto stretch it Cto make it flat Dto make it warm

PART D: Assessments 161

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Assessment 2 7 How are library books, science books, and math books the same?

10 Why aren’t all the rolls of paper cut into smaller sheets of paper?

AThey are all very easy to read.

AIt takes too much time.

BThey all have more than ten pages.

BNo one wants to do the work.

CThey all have pictures.

CSome rolls of paper are too large

DThey are all made of paper.

to be cut.

DSome things will be made from large pieces of paper. 8 Which of the following is an opinion?

AMany things are made of paper.

11 Why is it important to have tree farms?

BPaper is rolled onto large spools.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

CYellow paper with lines is the best kind. DSome rolls of paper are cut into sheets.

9 What would happen if the tree farms did not keep planting new trees?

AThe tree farms would not have any more trees.

BPeople would stop using paper to make books.

CThe tree farms would not be able to dry wood pulp.

DThere would be no more trees anywhere in the world.

162 PART D: Assessments


Assessment 2 12 Why was this passage most likely written? Explain what a person could learn by reading this passage.

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8 13 To learn about other things that paper is used for, you would read a book titled

14 Which of the following is NOT needed to grow trees?

ALife on a Tree Farm

Arain

BYou Can Make It with Paper

Bdirt

CHow to Prepare Pulp

Crocks

DClassroom Projects

Dsun

PART D: Assessments 163

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Notes

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

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Notes

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165


Notes

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

166


Notes

E L P SAM ATION C U D E ! Y L RAL 99.RALLY . 8 8 8

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Essential Skills for Reading  

Grade 3 Sample Essential Skills for Reading Comprehension

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