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Logbook Constructing Environments ENVS10003 Zixiao Shelley Wu 632168

Introduction to Construction Materials • • • •

Strength – compression/tension Stiffness – flexible? Shape – Volumetric, linear, planar Material behaviours – isotropic/anisotropic (characteristics are similar no matter which direction force is applied Economy Sustainability

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Basic Materials in Construction

Major forms of Structures • • •

Framed Construction – Column and beam Mass Construction – Masonry Tensile – fabraical


Structural principles Materials and material usage Efficiency Properties Trades Costs Site processes Systems

Concrete Steel (Iron ore + Carbon) Timber

Forces Codes •

BCA – Building Code Australia (regulations)

Steel Constructing Environments

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• • • • •

UB – Universal Beam UC – Universal Column PFC – Parallel Flange Channel CHS – Circular Hollowed Section SHS – Square Hollowed Section

A vector quantity that has both magnitude and direction; can produce changes in shape or movement of an object/structure. Compression - a pushing force; occurs when an external load pushes on a permanent structure compacting the particles of materials

Tension – opposite of compression, tension is a pulling force; stretches and elongates the material 1

Constructing Environments ENVS10003 | Zixiao Shelley Wu 632168

Load Paths Static Loads - loads which are applied slowly to the system until it cannot withstand anymore force. The force is generally in one direction with no/minimal change in magnitude and position. Dead loads – permanent (unmoving loads on a structure: self-weight, building elements, equipment, permanent attachments). The force acts vertically downwards.

mass construction. This method is used to disperse forces applied downwards to the foundations using the mass of the materials.

Large Modular Mass Construction (LMMC) -

Masonry Bricks are made two ways: a)

Oven baked – traditional way; disadvantage being uneven hear distribution therefore having inconsistent quality in bricks (more heat = darker bricks which are harder and stronger) b) Extruded/Pressed bricks – machine made therefore bricks are more uniform. Bricks are also then able to be reinforced by steel to resist tension forces


Constructed through the use of pre-cast concrete slabs made off-site therefore is a time-saver (compressing construction program) as well as achieving more consistent/uniform quality blocks Shorter processes as you do not need to build scaffolding Less labour and costs

Small Modular Mass Construction (SMMC) -

Typically made out of mud/clay, bricks and concrete blocks


Can create patterns and round surfaces thus aesthetically interesting

Live loads – applied/non-permanent loads (moving or moveable loads on a structure: people, weather, natural forces). Forces typically act downloads but also horizontally. Mass Construction Mass construction is structured through the use of masonry (concrete, clay/mud blocks, bricks etc.) in a layering fashion - either large modular mass construction, or small modular


Constructing Environments ENVS10003 | Zixiao Shelley Wu 632168

did not have a blunt finish unlike other groups due to the method used to build. Mass Construction Tower Like most groups, our group decided to use a layering block approach for our tower. The tower itself was going to be circular in order for the dinosaur to be housed within our structure. The blocks were laid in a fashion where there were small gaps in between each other. We concluded in this method due to testing for the clearing of the doorway for the dinosaur at one side of the tower.

The higher we went in the tower we slowly changed the placement of the blocks so that there would be enough support and weight downwards to be able to support the compressions of what will be built, as well as keeping in mind the tendency to sway the higher the tower is built. As the patterns changed, this problem is also countered the higher we went.

Although having gaps between bricks could be risky as each placement would have to support what is above and thus above it, which could be rather unstable if it were to be a more simple structure (non-rounded) however because of how dense the structure was, it was successful. The doorway created


Constructing Environments ENVS10003 | Zixiao Shelley Wu 632168

Structural Systems -





Solid: Solid Structures - stone, bricks Compression and arch efficient Surface: Planar Structure Irregular and Smooth surfaces (Opera House) Skeletal: Framework Structure (Effiel Tower) Efficient at transferring loads downwards Membrane Covers large areas efficiently and low cost Hybrid Combinational Structure


Construction Systems Enclosure/Envelope System – Roofing, outer elements (façade), exterior walls, windows, doors and the aesthetics -

The encasing of the structural system which protects from the weather, moisture her and airflow Physical access Privacy and soundproofing Spatial divisions Structural System – the design and construction of a building Support the loads applied through the vertical and horizontal attributes without exceeding the maximum limit

ESD – Environmentally Sustainable Design Structures should be a ‘filter’ to the environment; the amenities should provide comfort but at the same time energy efficiency/inclusion of renewable energy harnesses or minimal use as the design should already have in consideration the climate and natural environment properties.

Orientation Water harvesting and solar energy - Night air purging/ventilation

Mechanical System -

Hydraulics – Water system, sewage system and gas system Heating/ventilating/cooling systems Electrical systems

Other requirements


Performance Safety requirements: structurally, hazard resistance, weather resistance, accommodates to the climate and site Relatebale to context in which is built (specialist buildings – hospitals) Aesthetics Relationship with the site and the environment around it Form, shape, colour, texture design etc. Economic and Environmental Long term maintenance and resistance to weathering Energy efficiency, conservation and renewable/sustainable resources Materials used and initial costs Budget restraints Labour costs and equipment/material costs

Constructing Environments ENVS10003 | Zixiao Shelley Wu 632168


Structural Joints

Balsa Wood Tower

Roller Joint – loads are transferred in one direction (vertical), forces horizontally causes roller to move i.e. no resistance to horizontal forces

For this group activity, the idea of using triangulation was brought up immediately as the materials we had were not only long but extremely thin.

Pin Joints – truss system (bolt and screw); used for making assumptions on how systems may react/behave depending on magnitude and direction force is applied in Fixed Joints – Bending at the joint can occur if load occurs in one member thus resists rotation Frame Construction Beams used for framing purposes can be extremely long, if so the longer it is, the more work it would have to withstand; the shorter the less work done. If we were to extend this beam length wise, we would also have to increase the depth to ensure that it is able to withstand the load (up to a certain degree). Although we could keep extending the beam and increasing its depth but not only is this too expensive, but eventually it will not be able to withstand its weight force.

The triangular shape resists the deforming of the shape along with the use of longer pieces for bracing allows the overall triangular prism to stand upright with fewer pieces and as well as resisting twisting forces.

Secondary and tertiary spans/claddings are therefore added in a perpendicular manner to not only cut costs but are a more efficient way to brace the frame.


Constructing Environments ENVS10003 | Zixiao Shelley Wu 632168

References Ching, D.K.F 2008, The Building – Building Construction Illustrated, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N.J., s Construction Overview, 2014, video recording, Constructing Environments – The University of Melbourne, YouTube Construction Systems, 2014, video recording, Constructing Environments – The University of Melbourne, YouTube & Introduction to Materials, 2014, video recording, Constructing Environments – The University of Melbourne, YouTube Load Path Diagrams, 2014, video recording, Constructing Environments – The University of Melbourne, YouTube

Newton, C 2014, Envs10003 Constructing Environments – Basic Structural Forces, The University of Melbourne, Victoria ses/ENVS10003_2014_SM1/WEEK%2001/Basic%2 0Structural%20Forces%201.pdf ESD and Selecting Materials, 2014, video recording, Constructing Environments – The University of Melbourne, YouTube Structural Joints, 2014, video recording, Constructing Environments – The University of Melbourne, YouTube Structural Forms, 2014, video recording, Constructing Environments – The University of Melbourne, YouTube


Constructing Environments ENVS10003 | Zixiao Shelley Wu 632168

Zixiao Shelley Wu 632168