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Fish ID Project Shelby Maier Block one Aquaculture / Mr. Arington


Title:

Marine

Species #: 1

Common Name: Great White Shark Scientific Name: Carcharodon carcharias Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: chrondrichthyes

Order: lamniformes

Family: Lamnidae

Geography / Habitat: They are found in every ocean and mostly on the coastal areas. Life Strategy: They are commonly known as a major predator in the oceans, and they play an important role in the ocean. Food / Feed Strategy: Ovoviviparous, a savage predator who feeds on fishes, sea otters, seals, sea lions, and sometimes crabs.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: Book: National Audubon Society- Field Guide to Fishes, Alfred A. Knopf, publisher, New York


Title:

Marine

Species #: 2

Common Name: Black-tip shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus melanopterus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae

Geography / Habitat: They are found on the coasts of most continents and are very populated in the Mediterranean sea and the gulf of Mexico. Life Strategy: When they are young, they stay in large groups for protection. They are very social animals and tend to stay in groups for life. Food / Feed Strategy: Black-tip sharks are very fast swimmers and is known to leap out of the water through schools of small fish. When boats dump their refuse overboard, it can excite a group of black-tips and make them go into a feeding frenzy. Fish make up 90% of their diet, and they eat many different types.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blacktip_shark


Title:

Marine

Species #: 3

Common Name: Atlantic Sturgeon Scientific Name: Acipenser oxyrhchus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: acidpenseriformes

Family: acidpenseridae

Geography / Habitat: they are found on the western coast from new York to florida Life Strategy: they spawn every 3 or 5 years, so they are always on the move from the north to south. They have little shields all over their body that protects them from predators while they are swimming. Food / Feed Strategy: the atlantic sturgeon eats a little bit of everything, they eat bottom dwellers, bugs, small fish, and plant material.

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Body Form or Style: sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: subcarangiform Mouth Position: inferior

Citation: http: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 4

Common Name: Ladyfish Scientific Name: Elops saurus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Elopiformes

Family: Elopidae

Geography / Habitat: They are found in warmer waters (65°F to 80°F) The ladyfish is found from Cape Cod, to Bermuda, throughout the gulf of Mexico, and southern Brazil. They are an inshore species, so they are often found in bays and estuaries, and they occasionally enter freshwater. Life Strategy: They prefer to go swimming in the very early morning, and in the early hours of night. The lady fish’s predators are birds, sharks, dolphins, and alligators. When they are adults, that helps them avoid would-be predators. Food / Feed Strategy: Ladyfish eat smaller fish, crustaceans, shrimp, and they school together to eat food at the surface.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.sms.si.edu/irlspec/Elops_saurus.htm www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 5

Common Name: American Shad Scientific Name: Alosa sapidissima Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeformes

Family: Clupeidae

Geography / Habitat: The American shad is found in bays, estuaries, and freshwater in the spring while it is spawning. These fish can be found from the Netherlands to the St. Johns River in Florida, and Alaska all the way down to Mexico. Life Strategy: In the spring, the American shad swims into freshwater to spawn. In their lifetime they will swim approximately 12,000 miles Food / Feed Strategy: young shad eat only plankton and bug larvae, while adults eat mostly plankton but also eat small fish and worms.

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Body Form or Style: fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 6

Common Name: Oyster Toadfish Scientific Name: Opsanus tau Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Batrahoidiformes

Family: Opsanus

Geography / Habitat: Oyster toadfishes are found in shallow water with vegetation, debris, or man-made objects over the sand and mud. The waters they are found in are from Massachusetts to Florida. Life Strategy: A predator of the oyster toadfish is the shark, they like to hide in oyster reefs and other structures, their sharp dorsal fin protects them from some predators. During spawning, the male makes a foghorn noise and calls a female to a nest, she lays the eggs and he fertilizes them. The males will stay with the nest to guard it until the eggs hatch and the young learn how to swim. Food / Feed Strategy: Oyster toadfish are omnivores, they eat the vegetation they hide in, small crabs, mollusks, and small fish. They hide and are motionless until the prey is close enough for them to eat it.

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Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.chesapeakebay.net/fieldguide/critter/oyster_toadfish Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 7

Common Name: Black Sea Bass Scientific Name: Centropristis straita Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Serranidae

Geography / Habitat: Black sea bass prefer warm water and are bottom-dwellers. They like places like shipwrecks, piers, and coral reefs. They also like beds of rocks and shells. Black sea bass are found from Massachusetts, around Florida, to the southern tip of Texas. Life Strategy: in May and June, mature black sea bass will spawn, development of the eggs takes 1.6 days, later in the year during winter the fish change from females to males. Food / Feed Strategy: Black sea bass eat small fish, clams, shrimp, worms, and crabs.

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Body Form or Style: fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print. www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 8

Common Name: Warsaw Grouper Scientific Name: Epinephelus nigritus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Epinephelus

Geography / Habitat: Warsaw grouper like deep rocky ledges, seamounts, and sometimes around oil platforms. They like depths around 37-458 meters. The region they are found in is from Massachusetts to Florida, they are very populated in the Gulf of Mexico and Florida. Life Strategy: At nine years old, the warsaw grouper is considered mature, they can live up to 40 years old. All warsaw grouper begin their life as a female, and some turn into males. Food / Feed Strategy: Warsaw grouper eat crab, shrimp, and fish. They attack their prey quickly, or the fish gets eaten after a short chase.

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Body Form or Style: fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: superior

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print. http://www.wildearthguardians.org/support_docs/factsheet_grouper_FINAL.pdf


Title:

Marine

Species #: 9

Common Name: Tilefish Scientific Name: Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Malacanthidae

Geography / Habitat: Tilefish are found from Nova Scotia to Florida. They are also found in most of the Gulf of Mexico. Tilefish are found in over 1,000 feet deep of water, and they make burrows on the muddy floor. Life Strategy: Young tilefish are the prey to conger eels and dogfish, but adult tilefish prey on them. One major predator of the tilefish is the goosefish. They don’t migrate, they stay in one location that meets their needs. Food / Feed Strategy: young and adult tilefish are omnivores, they eat crabs, lobsters, squid, mollusks, dogfish, mackerel, hagfish, and herring.

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Body Form or Style: fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: subterminal

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 10

Common Name: Dolphin Scientific Name: Coryphaena hippurus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Coryphaenidae

Geography / Habitat: Dolphin like to be at the surface of the open sea. Sometimes they are closer to shore. They are found in the Caribbean Sea, the pacific coast of Costa Rica, the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic coast of Florida, and many other places worldwide. Life Strategy: Dolphin are the fastest growing fish in the ocean, they can grow four feet in one year. They can grow up to 6.8 feet. Food / Feed Strategy: Dolphin travel in pairs, small groups, or schools. They eat whatever is most abundant, whether its fish, squid, triggerfish, tunas, mackerels, or even crabs. They eat many more kinds of animals.

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Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 11

Common Name: Blue Marlin Scientific Name: Makaira nigricans Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Istiophoridae

Geography / Habitat: In the Atlantic Ocean, they are found between New England and Uruguay, also Bermuda, Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. In the Pacific Ocean, they are found between California and Chile. They prefer to stay at the surface of the open ocean. Life Strategy: females an grow up to four times the size of males, the largest female can be 16 feet including the bill. When they reach maturity, they have hardly any predators, except the shortfin mako shark and the great white shark. Males can live up to 18 years old, and females can live up to 27. Food / Feed Strategy: Blue Marlin eat mackerel, tuna, squid, and also large fish like white marlin, yellowfin tuna, and big-eye tuna. Evidence has shown that they use their bill to kill their prey by stabbing and slashing, or different ways to attack their prey.

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Body Form or Style: fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: thunniform Mouth Position: inferior

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 12

Common Name: Great Barracuda Scientific Name: Sphyraena barracuda Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Sphyraenidae

Geography / Habitat: Barracudas like shallow water from mangrove areas and clear waters around coral reefs. They can be found from North Carolina to southern Brazil, including Bermuda, the Bahamas, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. Life Strategy: Barracudas are attracted to shiny things, and movement. This Barracuda has been known to attack humans. Its teeth are like blades and can cut off large pieces of flesh. Food / Feed Strategy: Barracudas feed by sight rather than smell. They ambush their prey and can swim up to 27 mph. They prey on all kinds of fish, like groupers, snappers, grunts, and sometimes even its own young.

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Body Form or Style: sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 13

Common Name: Bluefin Tuna Scientific Name: Thunnus thynnus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: Bluefin tuna are found between Canada and Brazil, Bermuda, Bahamas, and in the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. They are also found in the Atlantic Ocean. They prefer to stay offshore in temperate waters. Life Strategy: Bluefin can dive to depths of about 1,000 meters, and they can swim 40 mph. their average size is 300-1000 pounds and 16-79 inches long, while their maximum size is 1500 pounds and 120 inches long. Although the entire tuna family is warm blooded, bluefin tuna have the ability to thermoregulate, so they can travel to colder waters. Food / Feed Strategy: Bluefin normally hunt smaller fish like mackerel, herring, sardines, squid, and shrimp. They use “modified filter feeding” to catch their prey, meaning they open their mouth to catch slow moving fish.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: thunniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 14

Common Name: Yellowfin Tuna Scientific Name: Thunnus albacares Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: Yellowfin tuna are found in the Atlantic Ocean from Nova Scotia to Brazil, along with Bermuda, Bahamas, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. They are also found in the Pacific Ocean from California to Chile. Yellowfin like warm and deep waters, but come very close to shores when there are warm currents. Life Strategy: Yellowfin travel in groups of others who are the same size as them. Yellowfins are able to escape most predators because they can swim up to 50 mph. Food / Feed Strategy: Yellowfin tuna prey on smaller members of the tuna family along with other fish, squid and crustaceans. They use their speed and pursue and capture their prey.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 15

Common Name: Sailfish Scientific Name: Istiophorus platypterus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Istiophoridae

Geography / Habitat: Sailfish are found between Rhode Island to Brazil, including Bermuda, Bahamas, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. They are also found in the Pacific Ocean from California to Chile. Sailfish like to be in warm offshore waters. Life Strategy: Sailfish can swim up to 68 mph. and that helps them escape predators like large sharks and blue marlin, along with orca whales. Food / Feed Strategy: Sailfish feed on squid, octopus, mackerel, tuna, jacks, and herring.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: inferior

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 16

Common Name: White Marlin Scientific Name: Tetrapturus albidus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Kajikia

Geography / Habitat: White marlins like warm, deep blue water. They are found between Maine and Brazil. Including Bermuda, Bahamas, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. Life Strategy: White marlins migrate north in the warmer seasons. They spawn in early summer. Food / Feed Strategy: White marlins prey on smaller fish, squid, and they form small groups to herd baitfish.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: inferior

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 17

Common Name: Tarpon Scientific Name: Megalops atlanticus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Elopiformes

Family: Megalopidae

Geography / Habitat: Tarpon are found between Nova Scotia and Brazil, including Bermuda, Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. Tarpons are usually in the primarily shallow coastal waters and estuaries. Life Strategy: Tarpon can survive in brackish water. They come up for air and that gives them a small burst of energy. A tarpons swim bladder functions as a respiratory pseudoorgan, the organ can be used for buoyancy, a respiratory organ, or both. Food / Feed Strategy: Adult tarpon are nocturnal carnivores, who swallow their food whole.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 18

Common Name: Inshore lizardfish Scientific Name: Synodus foetens Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Aulopiformes

Family: Synodontidae

Geography / Habitat: Lizardfish are found between Massachusetts and Brazil. They tend to stay on the bottom of depths of about 90 feet, usually near the shore, and they frequently enter brackish waters. Life Strategy: They are considered a pest to fisherman, and they are also used as bait for larger fish and crabs. Food / Feed Strategy: Worms, small fish, crabs, and shrimp. Hides until something swims by.

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Body Form or Style: sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 19

Common Name: Wahoo Scientific Name: Acanthocybium solandri Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: The wahoo is found worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas. They gather around banks and occasionally around wrecks and deep sea reefs where little fish are. Life Strategy: Wahoo can swim up to 60 mph. They either swim alone, or in small groups of two or three. But, if conditions are good, they will form in groups of 100 or more. Food / Feed Strategy: Wahoo eat other fish and squid, and use their speed in their advantage on capturing and eating prey.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 20

Common Name: Common snook Scientific Name: Centropomus undecimalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centropomidae

Geography / Habitat: The common snook is found in the western side of the Atlantic Ocean, from the coast of North Carolina to Brazil. Snook prefer to be in shallow coastal waters and they enter freshwater often. Life Strategy: The common snook is extremely temperature sensitive, and a cold front through an area could kill many. Snook is a popular game-fish since it is a strong fighter. Food / Feed Strategy: The common snook is a carnivore and eats mostly small fish, shrimp and crabs. They are an ambush feeder, so they attack their prey if it swims near them.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: http://myfwc.com/research/saltwater/fish/snook/fish-facts-snook/ Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 21

Common Name: King Mackerel Scientific Name: Scomberomorus cavalla Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: King mackerel are found between the Gulf of Maine and Brazil, including Bermuda, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. Young mackerel are found in bays and near the shore. Adult mackerel are found in warm, open waters. Life Strategy: King mackerel are migratory. Spawning happens during the summer on the Gulf coast. Food / Feed Strategy: King mackerel are opportunistic carnivores. Their prey depends on their own size. They favor squid and smaller fish.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: superior

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 22

Common Name: Red Drum Scientific Name: Sciaenops ocellatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Sciaenidae

Geography / Habitat: The red drum are found from New York to Mexico, and are most populated from Florida to Texas. They prefer to be in the surf zone to offshore waters, their young can be found in estuaries and marshes. These fish enter freshwater occasionally. Life Strategy: The red drum are nicknamed that because of the sound they make during spawning season. They have an unusual growing pattern so a 36 inch fish could be anywhere from 6 to 50 years old. The two black spots on their tail make predators attack the tail rather than their head. Food / Feed Strategy: Red drum eat different things according to the seasons, in the fall and summer, they eat sand dollars, crabs and shrimp. But in the spring and winter, they eat smaller fish.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: subterminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 23

Common Name: Blackfin tuna Scientific Name: Thunnus atlanticus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: Blackfin tuna are found from Cape Cod to Brazil. They can be found in the deep waters or at the surface. Life Strategy: Blackfin tuna’s grow very fast but have short lives. A five year old fish is considered old. They like warmer waters that are over 68°F. Food / Feed Strategy: Blackfin tuna like to eat small fish, types of crustaceans, squid and plankton. They swim in schools that sometimes include skipjack.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 24

Common Name: Swordfish Scientific Name: Xiphias gladius Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Xiphiidae

Geography / Habitat: Swordfish are found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. They like to be at the surface of the water or in deep underwater canyons that are sometimes deeper than 3,000 feet. Life Strategy: Swordfish are highly migratory and travel alone or in very loose aggregations. Their predators are killer whales and the shortfin mako shark. Food / Feed Strategy: Swordfish eat squid, fish and types of crustaceans. They use their bill to wound or stab their prey. They are opportunistic feeders.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Inferior

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 25

Common Name: Black marlin Scientific Name: Istiompax indica Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Istiophoridae

Geography / Habitat: Black marlin are found in tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific and east Pacific oceans from near the surface to depths of 3,000 ft. Life Strategy: The black marlin is one to the biggest marlins and they can swim up to 80 mph. They are the only fish in the marlin family that cannot press their pectoral fins against their bodies. Food / Feed Strategy: Since the black marlin is such a big fish, they can eat a lot of other fish, like cuttlefish, tuna, and large crustaceans. They are known as power predators.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Inferior

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 26

Common Name: Skipjack tuna Scientific Name: Katsuwonus pelamis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: Skipjack tuna is found in the Pacific ocean between Vancouver and Peru, and in the Atlantic ocean between Maine and Argentina. In the day they are found at very deep depths, and at night they are at the surface of the water. Life Strategy: Large schools of adult skipjack tuna often mix with juvenile yellowfin and big-eye tuna. Food / Feed Strategy: Skipjack eat herring, squid, small mackerel, bonito, and shrimp. They feed near the surface.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print. www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 27

Common Name: Little tunny Scientific Name: Euthynnus alletteratus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: Little tunny are found in Bermuda, the Bahamas, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean to Brazil. They are also found in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean sea. Life Strategy: Little tunny are highly migratory and travel in large schools. Food / Feed Strategy: the little tunny is an opportunistic predator who eats small fish.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print. www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 28

Common Name: Atlantic bonito Scientific Name: Sarda sarda Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: The Atlantic bonito is common in the shallow waters of the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Black Sea. Life Strategy: The Atlantic bonito is a schooling and migratory species. Food / Feed Strategy: these fish prey on schooling fish, squid, mackerel, menhaden, anchovies and shrimp. They can also be cannibalistic.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation:

www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 29

Common Name: Spanish mackerel Scientific Name: Scomberomorus maculatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: Spanish mackerel are found in coastal waters from April to October, they prefer open waters but are sometimes found in deep waters. Life Strategy: Spanish mackerel form large, fast-moving schools that migrate long distances through waters that are 68°F or more. Food / Feed Strategy: Their diet consists of small fish, shrimp and squid.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 30

Common Name: Red snapper Scientific Name: Lujanus campechanus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Lujanidae

Geography / Habitat: Red snapper are found in the Gulf of Mexico and the south-eastern Atlantic coast of the United States. They favor rocky bottoms at depths of 60- 400 feet. Life Strategy: Young red snapper are prey for large marine animals such as jacks, groupers, sharks, and barracudas. As well as large marine mammals like killer whales. Food / Feed Strategy: Red snapper feed on fish, shrimp, crab, worms, octopus, squid, and plankton. They are opportunistic feeders.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide http://www.fishwatch.gov/seafood_profiles/species/snapper/species_pages/red_snapper.htm


Title:

Marine

Species #: 31

Common Name: Cobia Scientific Name: Rachycentron canadum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Rachycentridae

Geography / Habitat: Cobia can be found in Maryland during the summer, the Gulf of Mexico in the winter, and around Florida during March. They prefer shallow waters, and often group around buoys, wrecks, and other floating objects. Life Strategy: The cobia is a solitary fish except to spawn. Young cobia are eaten by mahi mahi, and adult cobia are eaten by the shortfin mako. Food / Feed Strategy: Cobia eat crabs, squid, and smaller fish, it has been known to follow larger animals to scavenge.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 32

Common Name: Northern puffer Scientific Name: Sphoeroides maculatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Tetraodontiformes

Family: Tetraodontidae

Geography / Habitat: The northern puffer inhabits bays, estuaries and protected coastal waters. They can be found in the Gulf of Mexico and Florida, to Canada. Life Strategy: The northern puffer will puff up in self defense. They are eaten as a delicacy in the Chesapeake Bay. Food / Feed Strategy: The northern puffer usually feeds on shellfish, by breaking the shell with its beak like mouth.

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Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 33

Common Name: Porcupinefish Scientific Name: Diodon nicthemerus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Tetraodontiformes

Family: Diodontidae

Geography / Habitat: The porcupine fish are found in the waters of southern Australia, as far north as Port Jackson to Geraldton, Western Australia. Life Strategy: Whenever the porcupine fish feels alarmed, they puff up and their spines stick out. They avoid predators this way, or at least narrow their predators to animals with bigger mouths. Food / Feed Strategy: porcupine fish feed on invertebrates from the benthic zone.

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Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 34

Common Name: Yellowtail snapper Scientific Name: Ocyurus chrysurus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Lutjanidae

Geography / Habitat: Yellowtail snapper are found along the Atlantic coast of the U.S. found from Florida to Brazil. They can be found in 30-120 feet of water on and around reefs. Life Strategy: Yellowtail snapper use the reef they live in to hide from predators Food / Feed Strategy: Yellowtail snapper eat smaller fish, crabs, worms, and shrimp.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 35

Common Name: Amberjack Scientific Name: Seriola dumerili Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Carangidae

Geography / Habitat: Amberjack is found in the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean and the Indian coasts. They prefer to be between 20 and 70 m of depth. Life Strategy: Amberjack are a fast-swimming pelagic fish. They are very strong fighters when it comes to fishing. Food / Feed Strategy: Amberjack eat smaller fish and invertebrates.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Marine

Species #: 36

Common Name: Bluefish Scientific Name: Pomatomus saltatrix Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomatomidae

Geography / Habitat: Bluefish are found from Nova Scotia to Argentina, including Bermuda and the Gulf of Mexico. They prefer shallow coastal waters. Life Strategy: Bluefish travel in schools that migrate and feed together. Food / Feed Strategy: Bluefish are aggressive feeders and they sometimes get into what is called a “bluefish blitz”. They eat small fish, and are known to eat their own young. They have extremely sharp teeth and will bite.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide

Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 37

Common Name: Gray snapper Scientific Name: Lutjanis griseus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Lutjanidae

Geography / Habitat: Gray snapper are found from Massachusetts to Brazil, including Bermuda, Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. They prefer to be near-shore or offshore near rocky reefs. Life Strategy: Predators of the gray snapper include sharks, barracuda, grouper, and moray eels. Food / Feed Strategy: Gray snapper prey on types of crustaceans and small fish. They are opportunistic predators and like to hunt at nighttime.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/GraySnapper/Graysnapper.html www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide

Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 38

Common Name: Striped Marlin Scientific Name: Tetrapturus audax Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Istiophoridae

Geography / Habitat: The striped marlin is found from California to Chile, and also the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Life Strategy: Like most marlins, they use their speed to their advantage to out-swim predators and to eat. Food / Feed Strategy: Striped marlin feed mainly on sardines.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Inferior

Citation:

Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 39

Common Name: Queen triggerfish Scientific Name: Balistes vetula Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Tetraodontiformes

Family: Balistidae

Geography / Habitat: Queen triggerfish are found between Massachusetts and Brazil, including Bermuda, the Bahamas, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. They prefer rocky and coral reefs. Life Strategy: They are one of the most aggressive fish and are horrible in fish tanks. Food / Feed Strategy: Queen triggerfish eat shrimp, squid, clams, octopus, scallops, crab, and sea urchins.

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Body Form or Style: Compresiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Marine

Species #: 40

Common Name: Black drum Scientific Name: Progonias cromis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pogonias

Geography / Habitat: Black drum are found from Nova Scotia to Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. They prefer to be near oyster beds or other plentiful food sources. Life Strategy: Black drums life strategy is similar to the red drum. Food / Feed Strategy: Their teeth are rounded and they have powerful jaws capable of crushing oysters and other shellfish. They eat mostly mollusks and crabs.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: www.dnr.sc.gov/aquaticed/pdf/SaltwaterFishPocketGuide


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:1

Common Name: Spotted gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus oculatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Lepisosteiformes

Family: Lepisosteidae

Geography / Habitat: The spotted gar is native to North America from the Lake Erie and southern Lake Michigan through the Mississippi River. Spotted gar prefer clear, quiet, vegetated waters of streams, swamps and lakes. Life Strategy: Spotted gar are eaten by larger fish, alligators, herons, and cottonmouth snakes. Gar have a specialized swim bladder which allows them to gulp air and live in the poorly oxygenated back waters of Texas' streams, swamps and lakes. Food / Feed Strategy: The diet of a spotted gar consists of four species of fish; golden topminnow, warmouth, bluegill, spotted sunfish, and shrimp.

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Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/spottedgar/

Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:2

Common Name: American eel Scientific Name: Anguilla rostrata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Anguillaformes

Family: Anguilidae

Geography / Habitat: The American eel is found along the Atlantic coast including Chesapeake Bay and the Hudson River and as far north as the St. Lawrence River region. Life Strategy: Like all anguillid eels, American eels hunt at night, and during the day it hides in mud, sand or gravel very close to shore, roughly 5 to 6 feet under. Food / Feed Strategy: They feed on crustaceans, aquatic insects, small insects, and probably any aquatic organisms that they can find and eat.

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Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:3

Common Name: White catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus catus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Osteichthyes

Order: Siluiformes

Family: Italuridae

Geography / Habitat: Originally native to the coastal river systems of the Eastern United States, the catfish spread to other parts of the U.S. Found throughout the U.S. It prefers sluggish, mud-bottom pools and backwaters of rivers and streams, and does well in lakes and large impoundments. Life Strategy: Reproduction occurs from April to July when the water temperature ranges between 65 and 75°F. A gelatinous mass of eggs is deposited in a cavity created by hollow logs or undercut banks. The male guards the nest and incubates the eggs by continually fanning fresh water over them. Food / Feed Strategy: White catfish feed mostly on the bottom where they eat other fish and aquatic insects. They feed most actively at dusk and through the night[3] mostly on bottom dwelling insects, worms, amphipods, and other small invertebrates.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:4

Common Name: Warmouth Scientific Name: Lepomis gulosus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: Warmouth are found throughout much of the south in the Mississippi River drainage, from the Gulf and Atlantic coasts and northward to the Chesapeake Bay, and westward throughout Texas to the Rio Grande, and northward into the Great Lakes basin area. Life Strategy: The warmouth is a highly aggressive and hardy fish, and they can live in ponds, lakes, rivers, and backwater streams and can often survive in streams with low oxygen levels where other species of sunfish cannot. Food / Feed Strategy: Warmouth eat crayfish, freshwater shrimp, and other small fish.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:5

Common Name: Pumpkinseed Scientific Name: Lepomis gibbosus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: Pumpkinseed sunfish have been introduced throughout all of North America. They can now be found from Washington and Oregon on the Pacific Coast to Georgia on the Atlantic Coast, and are primarily found in the northeastern United States. Life Strategy: Pumpkinseeds are active during the day and rest near the bottom in protected or covered areas such as submerged logs during the night. Food / Feed Strategy: Pumpkinseeds eat insects, mosquito larvae, small molluscs and other crustaceans, worms, minnow fry, and even other smaller pumpkinseeds. Occasionally, they feed on small pieces of vegetation, as well.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:6

Common Name: Spotted sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis punctatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: The spotted sunfish is found in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal drainages from the Cape Fear region in North Carolina to the Apalachicola River system in western Florida. Life Strategy: The spotted sunfish is a general habitat selector, but exhibits certain preferences. Juvenile and adults choose similar habitats, though younger fish sometimes show a preference for greater vegetation. Food / Feed Strategy: Spotted sunfish are largely insectivores throughout their entire lives, feeding on midge larvae and other immature insects.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepomis_punctatus


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:7

Common Name: Bluegill Scientific Name: Lepomis macrochirus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: Bluegill live in the shallow waters of many lakes and ponds, along with slow-moving areas of streams and small rivers. They prefer water with many aquatic plants, and hide within fallen logs or water weeds. Life Strategy: Most bluegills feed during daylight hours, with a feeding peak being observed in the morning and evening (with the major peak occurring in the evening). Feeding location tends to be a balance between food abundance and predator abundance. Food / Feed Strategy: The adult diet consists of aquatic insect larvae (mayflies, caddisflies, dragonflies), but can also include crayfish, leeches, snails, and other small fish.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:8

Common Name: Redear sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis microlophus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: The redear sunfish is native to the southeastern United States, but since it is a popular sport fish it has been introduced to bodies of water all over North America. Life Strategy: During spawning, males congregate and create nests close together in colonies, and females visit to lay eggs. The redear sometimes hybridizes with other sunfish species. Food / Feed Strategy: The favorite food of this species is snails. These fish are bottomfeeders, meandering along lakebeds seeking and cracking open snails and other shelled creatures.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:9

Common Name: Black crappie Scientific Name: Pomoxis nigromaculatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: Its native range is suspected to be in the eastern United States and Canada, and as of 2005, populations existed in all of the 48 contiguous U.S. states. Life Strategy: The black crappie's habitats are lakes, reservoirs, borrow pits, and navigation pools in large rivers. They prefer areas with little or no current, clear water, and abundant cover such as submerged timber or aquatic vegetation. Food / Feed Strategy: Individuals smaller than about 16 cm in length eat plankton and minuscule crustaceans, while larger individuals feed on small fishes (like shad), as well as minnows.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:10

Common Name: White crappie Scientific Name: Pomoxis annularis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: White crappie can be found in large rivers, reservoirs and lakes. White crappie are more tolerant of turbid (murky) waters than black crappie. These crappie usually outnumber black crappie in turbid waters and where there is very little rooted aquatic vegetation. Life Strategy: White crappie spawn in May and June. Spawning occurs when the water temperature reaches 56 degrees Fahrenheit. Males construct nests by creating small bowl shaped depressions on the bottom around brush, rocks, and logs in shallow water. Females lay 5,000 to 30,000 eggs.The males guard these nests until the fry swim away. Food / Feed Strategy: Adult crappies feed mainly on other fish and some large invertebrates such as crayfish and hellgrammites.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:11

Common Name: White bass Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Moronidae

Geography / Habitat: White bass are distributed widely across the United States, particularly in the midwest. They are very abundant in Pennsylvania and the area around Lake Erie. Life Strategy: White bass are found in high densities in the upstream segment of rivers. This portion of the river becomes the most degraded, as a number of different kinds of fish live in this segment, as well. Food / Feed Strategy: White bass are carnivores. They have four main taxa in their diet: calanoid copepods, cyclopoid copepods, daphnia, and leptodora.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:12

Common Name: Striped bass Scientific Name: Morone saxatilis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Moronidae

Geography / Habitat: Striped bass are native to the Atlantic coastline of North America from the St. Lawrence River into the Gulf of Mexico to approximately Louisiana. They are anadromous fish that migrate between fresh and salt water. Life Strategy: Striped bass spawn in fresh water, and although they have been successfully adapted to freshwater habitat, they naturally spend their adult lives in saltwater. Food / Feed Strategy: Striped bass eat bunker, clams, eels, sandworms, herring, bloodworms, mackerel, and shad.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: http://www.chesapeakebay.net/fieldguide/critter/striped_bass


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:13

Common Name: Flier Scientific Name: Centrarchus macropterus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: The flier is native to muddy-bottomed swamps, ponds, weedy lakes, and riverine backwaters across the American South, from southern Illinois east to the Potomac River basin and south to Texas. Life Strategy: The flier, which can live up to five years, grows to a maximum recorded length of about 30 cm (1.0 ft). The maximum recorded weight of the species is just over one-half kilogram (about 19 oz). Food / Feed Strategy: Flier eat small aquatic insects and small fishes.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: http://www.dnr.sc.gov/fish/species/flier.html


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:14

Common Name: Redbreats sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis auritus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: The redbreast sunfish is native to the river systems of eastern Canada and the United States. Life Strategy: The redbreast sunfish is a spring spawner in sand-gravel substrate depending on location, or when water temperatures reach 16-26°C. Average clutch size for the sunfish is around 2000 depending on the age of the female. Food / Feed Strategy: This fish primarily feeds on small insect larva, small crayfish, and sometimes small fish.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.outdooralabama.com/fishing/freshwater/fish/bream/redbreast/


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:15

Common Name: Flathead catfish Scientific Name: Pylodictis olivaris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictiluridae

Geography / Habitat: Their native range includes a broad area west of the Appalachian Mountains encompassing large rivers of the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio basins. Life Strategy: The fry frequent shallow areas with rocky and sandy substrates where they feed on insects and worms such as annelids and polychaetes. Young flatheads are also cannibalistic, a fact which has largely precluded their presence in aquaculture. Food / Feed Strategy: They are voracious carnivores and feed primarily on other fish, insects, annelid worms and crustaceans.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/catfish/


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:16

Common Name: Yellow perch Scientific Name: Perca flavescens Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae

Geography / Habitat: The yellow perch is only found in North America; they are are native to the Arctic, Atlantic, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River, and Mississippi River basins. Life Strategy: Their microhabitat is usually along the shore among reeds and aquatic weeds, docks, and other structures. They are most dense within aquatic vegetation, since they naturally school, but also prefer small weed-filled water bodies with muck, gravel, or sand bottoms. Food / Feed Strategy: Large adult perch feed on invertebrates, fish eggs, crayfish, mysid shrimp, and juvenile fish.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,4570,7-153-10364_18958-45696--,00.html


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:17

Common Name: Largemouth bass Scientific Name: Micropterus salmoides Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Atinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarhidae

Geography / Habitat: Largemouth bass were originally distributed throughout most of what is now the United States east of the Rockies, including many rivers and lakes in Texas, with limited populations in southeastern Canada and northeastern Mexico. Life Strategy: They prefer clear quiet water, but will survive quite well in a variety of habitats. Food / Feed Strategy: Adults consume smaller fish, snails, crawfish, frogs, snakes, salamanders, bats and even small water birds, mammals, and baby alligators.

● ● ●

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/lmb/


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:18

Common Name: Smallmouth bass Scientific Name: Micropterus dolomieu Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: The smallmouth bass is native to the upper and middle Mississippi River basin, the Saint Lawrence River–Great Lakes system, and up into the Hudson Bay basin. Life Strategy: Their habitat plays a significant role in their color, weight, and shape. River water smallmouth that live among dark water tend to be rather torpedo-shaped and very dark brown to be more efficient for feeding. Food / Feed Strategy: Carnivorous, its diet comprises crayfish, insects, and smaller fish; the young also feeding on zooplankton.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,4570,7-153-10364_18958-45689--,00.html


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:19

Common Name: Spotted bass Scientific Name: Micropterus punctulatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: One of the black basses, it is native to the Mississippi River basin and across the Gulf states, from central Texas through the Florida panhandle. Life Strategy: A convenient way to distinguish between a largemouth bass and a spotted bass is by the size of the mouth. A spotted bass will resemble a largemouth bass in coloration but will have a smaller mouth. Food / Feed Strategy: the spotted bass feeds on insects, crustaceans, frogs, annelid worms, and smaller fish.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/spb/


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:20

Common Name: Redeye bass Scientific Name: Micropterus coosae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: Native to the Coosa River system of Georgia, Alabama. The waters it is normally found in are cool streams and rivers in the foothills of mountains. Life Strategy: Growing to a maximum reported overall length of 47 cm (19 in), the redeye bass is one of the smaller black basses. The probable world record for Redeye bass is 5 lb 2.5 oz (2.34 kg) from Lake Jocassee in South Carolina. Food / Feed Strategy: Its main food tends to be insects.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://outdooralabama.com/fishing/freshwater/fish/bassblack/redeye/


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:21

Common Name: Yellow bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus natalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae

Geography / Habitat: Yellow bullhead are bottom dwellers, living in areas with muck, rock, sand, or clay substrates. Its habitat includes river pools, backwaters, and sluggish current over soft or mildly rocky substrate in creeks, small to larger rivers, and shallow portions of lakes and ponds. Life Strategy: Yellow bullheads are considered a minor game fish, and they are sought after for food. Food / Feed Strategy: They typically feed at night on a variety of plant and animal material, both live and dead, most commonly consisting of insects, snails, minnows, clams, crayfish, other small aquatic organisms, and decaying animal matter.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/fish/yellowbullhead.html


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:22

Common Name: Blue catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus furcatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluridae

Family: Ictaluridae

Geography / Habitat: Blue catfish are distributed primarily in the Mississippi River drainage, including the Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee, and Arkansas Rivers. Life Strategy: Due to their opportunistic nature, blue catfish will usually take advantage of readily accessible food in a variety of situations, which from the angler's perspective makes cut-up or dead baits, and even stink baits an excellent choice to target these fish. Food / Feed Strategy: Blue catfish are opportunistic predators and will eat any species of fish they can catch, along with crayfish, freshwater mussels, frogs, and other readily available aquatic food sources.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/blc/


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:23

Common Name: Brown trout Scientific Name: Salmo trutta Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Atinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: The brown trout is normally considered to be native to Europe, but the natural distribution of the migratory forms may be, in fact, circumpolar. Life Strategy: Brown trout can live to ages of 20 years. But as with the Atlantic salmon, a high proportion of males die after spawning, and probably fewer than 20% of anadromous female kelts recover from spawning. Food / Feed Strategy: Field studies have demonstrated that brown trout fed on several animal preys, aquatic invertebrates being the most abundant prey items.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,4570,7-153-10364_18958-45650--,00.html


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:24

Common Name: Rainbow trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: Native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. Life Strategy: Adult freshwater stream rainbow trout average between 1 and 5 lb (0.45 and 2.3 kg), while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb (9.1 kg). Food / Feed Strategy: Rainbow trout are predators with a varied diet, and will eat nearly anything they can capture.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/fish/rainbow-trout/


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:25

Common Name: Brook trout Scientific Name: Salvelinus fontinalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: Brook trout are native to a wide area of eastern North America, but increasingly confined to higher elevations southward in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia and northwest South Carolina, Canada from the Hudson Bay basin east, the Great Lakes–Saint Lawrence system, the Canadian maritime provinces and the upper Mississippi River drainage as far west as eastern Iowa. Life Strategy: The brook trout inhabits large and small lakes, rivers, streams, creeks, and spring ponds. Food / Feed Strategy: Brook trout have a diverse diet that includes crustaceans, frogs and other amphibians, insects, molluscs, smaller fish, invertebrates, and even small aquatic mammals such as voles.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,4570,7-153-10364_18958-96400--,00.html


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:26

Common Name: Walleye Scientific Name: Sander vitreus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae

Geography / Habitat: Native to most of Canada and to the Northern United States. Life Strategy: The walleye is sometimes called the yellow walleye to distinguish it from the blue walleye, which is a subspecies that can be found in the southern Ontario and Quebec regions. Food / Feed Strategy: Walleye feed heavily on crayfish, minnows, and leeches.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/tabid/6781/Default.aspx


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:27

Common Name: Chain pickerel Scientific Name: Esox niger Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Esociformes

Family: Esocidae

Geography / Habitat: Its range is along the eastern coast of North America from southern Canada to Florida, and west to Texas. On the Atlantic Coast, in Maine, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Life Strategy: The chain pickerel has a distinctive dark chain-like pattern on its greenish sides. Its body outline resembles that of the northern pike. May reach up to 30 inches only on rare occasions. Food / Feed Strategy: Chain pickerel are known to eat frogs, worms, mice, crayfish, and a wide variety of other foods.

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Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: http://www.dnr.state.md.us/fisheries/fishfacts/chainpickerel.asp


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:28

Common Name: Redfin pickerel Scientific Name: americanus americanus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Esociformes

Family: Esocidae

Geography / Habitat: The redfin pickerel's range extends from the Saint Lawrence drainage in Quebec down to the Gulf Coast, from Mississippi to Florida. Life Strategy: These fishes reproduce by scattering spherical, sticky eggs in shallow, heavily vegetated waters. The eggs hatch in 11–15 days; the adults guard neither the eggs nor the young. Food / Feed Strategy: Carnivorous, feeding on smaller fish.

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Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: http://www.dnr.sc.gov/fish/species/redfinpickerel.html


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:29

Common Name: Channel catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus punctatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae

Geography / Habitat: Channel catfish are native to the Nearctic, being well distributed in lower Canada and the eastern and northern United States, as well as parts of northern Mexico. Life Strategy: Territoriality in channel catfish is identifiable by a change in body odor, which is recognizable by other members of the same species. Food / Feed Strategy: Channel catfish are omnivores, and can be caught using a variety of natural and prepared baits, including crickets, nightcrawlers, minnows, shad, crawfish, frogs, bullheads, sunfish, and suckers.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/ccf/


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:30

Common Name: Spotted sucker Scientific Name: Minytrema melanops Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Catostomidae

Geography / Habitat: The spotted sucker has a very wide distribution. It is found in the lower great lakes and Mississippi River Basins from Pennsylvania to Minnesota and in Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages in North Carolina to western Texas. Life Strategy: Spawning season for the spotted suckers begin anywhere from early march to early may when the water temperature reaches approximately twelve to nineteen degrees Celsius. The fish migrate upstream to smaller tributaries in January to spawn in riffles containing gravel substrates. Food / Feed Strategy: Spotted suckers primarily feed upon organic fragments, copepods, cladocerans, and chironomids.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/Default.aspx?tabid=21975


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:31

Common Name: Bowfin Scientific Name: Amia calva Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Amiiformes

Family: Amiidae

Geography / Habitat: Native to southeastern Canada and eastern United States, they prefer shallow, weedy waters of lakes or protected back waters of rivers. Life Strategy: The bowfin is able to breathe air, using its swim bladder, which is connected to its gastrointestinal tract and allows it to regulate buoyancy in the water, as a primitive lung. Food / Feed Strategy: The bowfin is an indiscriminate predator that readily preys on a broad variety of arthropod and vertebrate prey, from insects and crawfish to other fish and frogs.

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Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.outdooralabama.com/fishing/freshwater/fish/bowfin/


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:32

Common Name: Longnose gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus osseus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Lepisostiformes

Family: Lepisosidae

Geography / Habitat: The longnose gar is found along the east coast of North and Central America in freshwater lakes and as far west as Kansas and Texas and southern New Mexico. Life Strategy: Predation is not a problem on adult longnose gar, but they are vulnerable to other gar predation when they are young. All species of gar have a specialized air bladder that gives them the ability to breathe air. Food / Feed Strategy: Longnose gar are aggressive predators, they eat mostly fish, but sometimes crustaceans and insects.

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Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: https://www.dnr.state.oh.us/Home/species_a_to_z/SpeciesGuideIndex/longnosegar/tabid/6677/D efault.aspx http://www.dnr.state.md.us/fisheries/fishfacts/longnose_gar.asp


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:33

Common Name: Sawcheek darter Scientific Name: Etheostoma serrifer Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae

Geography / Habitat: Warm, slow streams, swamps, and ponds, over sand and mud. Life Strategy: Found in sluggish headwaters, creeks, and small rivers, especially where debris or aquatic plants offer protection; also quiet backwaters of rivers and swamps and occasionally small natural lakes and artificial impoundments. Food / Feed Strategy: Sawcheek darters eat Insects and other invertebrates.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://web1.cnre.vt.edu/efish/families/sawcheek.html http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/202531/0


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:34

Common Name: Common carp Scientific Name: Cyprinus carpio Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Geography / Habitat: The common carp is a widespread freshwater fish of eutrophic waters in lakes and large rivers in Europe and Asia. They prefer large bodies of slow or standing water and soft, vegetative sediments. Life Strategy: As schooling fish, they prefer to be in groups of five or more. Carp are able to tolerate water with very low oxygen levels, by gulping air at the surface. Food / Feed Strategy: Common carp are omnivorous. They can eat a herbivorous diet of water plants, but prefer to scavenge the bottom for insects, crustaceans, crawfish, and benthic worms.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/Home/species_a_to_z/SpeciesGuideIndex/commoncarp/tabid/6589/D efault.aspx http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?speciesID=4


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:35

Common Name: Gizzard shad Scientific Name: Dorosoma cepedianum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Clupidae

Geography / Habitat: Native range extends from the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River area west to eastern South Dakota and central New Mexico, as well as to the Gulf of Mexico, where it has been found as far south as Rio Panuco in Mexico. Life Strategy:They avoid fast-moving water, But have been witnessed in large schools near, and under, dams, warm water outlets, and turbine outflows. Food / Feed Strategy: At about 1 inch in length, they lose the teeth, become deeper-bodied, develop the muscular gizzard, and become filter feeders, consuming both small invertebrates and phytoplankton, as well as some sand for the gizzard.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print. http://www.dnr.state.md.us/fisheries/fishfacts/americangizzardshad.asp


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:36

Common Name: Threadfin shad Scientific Name: Dorosoma petenense Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Clupeidae

Geography / Habitat: The threadfin shad is common in rivers, large streams, and reservoirs of the Southeastern United States. Life Strategy: The threadfin shad is a favorite food for many game fishes including striped bass, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, and catfishes. Food / Feed Strategy: Threadfin shad are filter feeders and eat plankton.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/threadfinshad/

Gilbert, Carter Rowekk., and James D. Williams. National Audubon Society Field Guide To Fishes: North America. NY, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002. Print.


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:37

Common Name: Blueback herring Scientific Name: Alosa aestivalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Clupidae

Geography / Habitat: The blueback herring is found from the east coast of North America from Cape Breton, Nova Scotia to the St. John’s River in Florida. Life Strategy: Blueback herring form schools and are believed to migrate offshore to overwinter near the bottom. Food / Feed Strategy: Blueback herring eat plankton, small insects, small fish and eggs of fish.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: http://www.dnr.state.md.us/fisheries/fishfacts/herring.asp

http://fishing.about.com/od/fishfacts/a/bluebackherring.htm


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:38

Common Name: Mosquitofish Scientific Name: Gambusia holbrooki Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cyprinodontiformes

Family: Poeciliidae

Geography / Habitat: The mosquitofish is found in the southeastern United States and has become an invasive species in Australia, where they were released as a method to decrease mosquito populations. Life Strategy: This species thrives in shallow water between 31 and 35°C, and seems to be able to acclimate to temperatures above and below this. Food / Feed Strategy: The mosquitofish is considered a planktivorous species which consumes algae and detritus to enhance its dietary requirements. Feeding habits seem to change based on maturity and mating season.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior

Citation: http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/eastern_mosquitofish.htm


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:39

Common Name: Atlantic salmon Scientific Name: Salmo salar Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: The Atlantic salmon is found in the northern Atlantic Ocean and in rivers that flow into the north Atlantic and, due to human introduction, the north Pacific. Life Strategy: Adult Atlantic salmon are considered much more aggressive than other salmon, and are more likely to attack other fish than others. Where they have become an invasive threat, attacking native salmon, such as Chinook salmon and coho salmon. Food / Feed Strategy: As adults, the fish feed on much larger food: Arctic squid, sand eels, amphipods, Arctic shrimp, and sometimes herring, and the fishes' size increases dramatically.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/fish/atlanticsalmon.htm


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:40

Common Name: Sockeye salmon Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus nerka Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: The sockeye salmon is found from the Bering strait to Sacramento River, California. Life Strategy: migrate from a marine environment into freshwater streams and rivers or lakes of their birth in order to mate; they spawn only once and then die. Food / Feed Strategy: In freshwater, they feed on aquatic insects and plankton.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/fish/sockeyesalmon.htm


Title:

Marine Invertebrates

Species #:1

Common Name: Yellow encrusting sponge Scientific Name: Biemna anisotoxa Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Porifera

Class: Demospongiae

Order: Poecilosclerida

Family: Desmacellidae

Geography / Habitat: This sponge is known from the west coast of South Africa to Port Elizabeth. It is endemic to this region. Life Strategy: This sponge lives on rocky reefs and other hard surfaces from 10-12m. Food / Feed Strategy: Encrusting sponges make complicated webs to filter nutrients out of the water, spreading like moss over surfaces.

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Body Form or Style: Slow spreading Swim / Locomotion Style: Clings to rocks Mouth Position: Pores all over body

Citation: http://animals.pawnation.com/sea-sponges-eat-1790.html


Title:

Marine

Invertebrates

Species #:2

Common Name: Stove-pipe sponge Scientific Name: Aplysina archeri Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Porifera

Class: Demospongiae

Order: Verongida

Family: Aplysinidae

Geography / Habitat: These sponges mostly live in the Atlantic Ocean: the Caribbean, Bahamas, Florida, and Bonaire. Life Strategy: These sponges take hundreds of years to grow and never stop growing until they die. Food / Feed Strategy: They are filter feeders; they eat food such as plankton or suspended detritus as it passes them.

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Body Form or Style: Tube Swim / Locomotion Style: Attached to rocks Mouth Position: Filter feeders

Citation: http://www.redorbit.com/education/reference_library/science_1/porifera/1112651963/stovepipesponge-aplysina-archeri/


Title:

Marine Invertebrates

Species #:3

Common Name: Moon jelly Scientific Name: Aurelia aurita Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Scyphoza

Order: Semaeostomeae

Family: Ulmaridae

Geography / Habitat: The moon jelly is found along the eastern Atlantic coast of Northern Europe and the western Atlantic coast of North America in New England and Eastern Canada. Life Strategy: is known to be eaten by a wide variety of predators including the Ocean Sunfish, the Leatherback Sea Turtle, the scyphomedusa, and a very large hydromedusa. Food / Feed Strategy: Moon jellies feed on plankton that includes organisms such as mollusks, crustaceans, tunicate larvae, rotifers, protozoans, diatoms, eggs, fish eggs, and other small organisms.

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Body Form or Style: Medusa Swim / Locomotion Style: Wave like Mouth Position: No definite mouth

Citation: http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=231


Title:

Marine

Species #:4

Common Name: Immortal jellyfish Scientific Name: Turritopsis dohrnii Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Hydroza

Order: Anthroathecata

Family: Oceaniidae

Geography / Habitat: The immortal jellyfish is found in the Mediterranean and in the waters off Japan. Life Strategy: The immortal jellyfish is the only form known to have developed the ability to return to a polyp state, by a specific transformation process that requires the presence of certain cell types. Food / Feed Strategy: Their diet consists of plankton, fish eggs and small mollusks.

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Body Form or Style: Medusa Swim / Locomotion Style: Water current Mouth Position: No definite mouth

Citation: https://sites.google.com/site/biologybfinalproject/animalia/turritopsis-nutricula


Title:

Marine

Species #:5

Common Name: Common octopus Scientific Name: Octopus vulgaris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Cephalopoda

Order: Octopoda

Family: Octopodidae

Geography / Habitat: Its range in the eastern Atlantic extends from the Mediterranean Sea and the southern coast of England to at least Senegal in Africa. It also occurs off the Azores, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde Islands. The species is also common in the Western Atlantic. Life Strategy: Training experiments have shown the common octopus can distinguish the brightness, size, shape, and horizontal or vertical orientation of objects. Food / Feed Strategy: The common octopus hunts at dusk. Crabs, crayfish, and bivalve mollusks are preferred, although the octopus will eat almost anything it can catch.

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Body Form or Style: Octopus Swim / Locomotion Style: Uses tentacles Mouth Position: Beak under tentacles in center

Citation: http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/invertebrates/common-octopus/


Title:

Marine

Species #:6

Common Name: Common periwinkle snail Scientific Name: Littorina littorea Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Order: N/A

Family: Littorinidae

Geography / Habitat: Common periwinkles are native to the coasts of northern Spain, Scotland, Ireland, Scandinavia and Russia. Life Strategy: The common periwinkle is mainly found on rocky shores in the higher and middle intertidal zone. It sometimes lives in small tide pools. It may also be found in muddy habitats such as estuaries, and can reach depths of 180 feet. Food / Feed Strategy: Omnivorous, grazing intertidal gastropod, primarily on algae grazer, but it will feed on small invertebrates such as barnacle larvae.

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Body Form or Style: In a shell Swim / Locomotion Style: Slow moving Mouth Position: Bottom-feeder

Citation: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/452111/periwinkle


Title:

Marine

Species #:7

Common Name: American lobster Scientific Name: Homarus americanus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Nephropidae

Geography / Habitat: The American lobster is distributed along the Atlantic coast of North America, from Labrador in the north to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in the south. Life Strategy: The normal coloration of the American lobster is "dark bluish green to greenish brown", redder on the body and claws, and greener on the legs. Food / Feed Strategy: The American lobsters diet is dominated by mollusks (especially mussels), echinoderms and polychaetes, although a wide range of other prey items may be eaten, including other crustaceans, brittle stars and cnidarians.

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Body Form or Style: Armored Swim / Locomotion Style: Uses legs to walk Mouth Position: Center

Citation: http://neaq.org/animals_and_exhibits/animals/american_lobster/index.php


Title:

Marine

Species #:8

Common Name: Common shrimp Scientific Name: Crangon crangon Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Crangonidae

Geography / Habitat: The common shrimp is found mainly in the southern North Sea, although also found in the Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, as well as off much of Scandinavia and parts of Morocco's Atlantic coast. Life Strategy: The animals have cryptic colouration, being a sandy brown colour, which can be changed to match the environment. Food / Feed Strategy: Shrimp eat plankton

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Body Form or Style: Armored Swim / Locomotion Style: Tail movement Mouth Position: Center

Citation: http://www.arkive.org/common-shrimp/crangon-crangon/


Title:

Marine

Species #:9

Common Name: Common starfish Scientific Name: Asterias rubens Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Asteroidea

Order: Forcipulatida

Family: Asteriidae

Geography / Habitat: The common starfish is native to the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and its range extends from Norway and Sweden, through the North Sea, round the coasts of Britain, France, Spain and Portugal and southwards along the coasts of Africa to Senegal. Life Strategy: The common starfish produces a saponin-like substance designed to repel predators, which causes a reaction in the common whelk, a common prey species. Food / Feed Strategy: Common starfish feed on mussels, crustaceans, worms and echinoderms.

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Body Form or Style: Covered in small spines Swim / Locomotion Style: Tube feet Mouth Position: Center of animal

Citation: http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/wildfacts/factfiles/418.shtml


Title:

Marine

Species #:10

Common Name: Black sea urchin Scientific Name: Diadema antillarum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Echinoidea

Order: Diadematoida

Family: Diadematidae

Geography / Habitat: It is the most abundant and important herbivore on the coral reefs of the western Atlantic and Caribbean basin. Life Strategy: This species usually lives at 1–10 metres in depth on coral reefs. They will often lodge themselves in a crevice, so that only their spines can be seen, but individual urchins who can't find a suitable crevice will live in more exposed situations. Food / Feed Strategy: The black sea urchin mostly eat algae, and sometimes seagrass. Starving urchins have been known to become carnivorous.

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Body Form or Style: Covered in spines Swim / Locomotion Style: Small feet Mouth Position: Under armor.

Citation: http://www.liveaquaria.com/product/prod_display.cfm?c=497+530+591&pcatid=591


Title:

Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #:1

Common Name: Freshwater jellyfish Scientific Name: Craspedacusta sowerbii Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Hydrozoa

Order: Limnomedusae

Family: Olindiidae

Geography / Habitat: Freshwater jellyfish have been seen in river systems such as the Allegheny River, the Ohio River and the Tennessee River in the United States and the Wang Thong River of Thailand. Life Strategy: Hydromedusan jellyfish differ from scyphozoan jellyfish because they have a muscular, shelf-like structure called a velum on the ventral surface, attached to the bell margin. Food / Feed Strategy: Freshwater jellyfish eat plankton.

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Body Form or Style: Medusa Swim / Locomotion Style: Water currents caused by tentacle movement Mouth Position: Under the bell

Citation: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=1068


Title:

Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #:2

Common Name: Grass shrimp Scientific Name: Palaemonetes pugio Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Palaemonidae

Geography / Habitat: Lives in shallow waters, often among bay grass beds. Life Strategy: Grass shrimps predators are fish like sunfish and killifish. Food / Feed Strategy: Forages for worms, algae and tiny crustaceans

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Body Form or Style: Armored Swim / Locomotion Style: Uses tail to propel backwards Mouth Position: Center

Citation: http://www.chesapeakebay.net/fieldguide/critter/common_grass_shrimp


Title:

Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #:3

Common Name: Faucet snail Scientific Name: Bithynia tentaculata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Order: N/A

Family: Bithyniidae

Geography / Habitat: This snail lives in slow-running freshwater habitat such as lowvelocity rivers, and standing-water bodies such as lakes. The species flourishes in calciumrich waters. Life Strategy: In its native Eurasian habitat, the faucet snail is host to many different species of digeneans, cercariae, metacercariae, cysticercoids, and other parasites. Food / Feed Strategy: The faucet snail is known in Eurasia to feed on black fly larvae.

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Body Form or Style: In a shell Swim / Locomotion Style: Slow moving Mouth Position: Bottom

Citation: http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/invasives/aquaticanimals/faucet_snail/index.html


Title:

Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #:4

Common Name: Freshwater pearl mussels Scientific Name: Margaritifera margaritifera Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Unionoida

Family: Margaritiferidae

Geography / Habitat: The native distribution of this species is Holarctic. The freshwater pearl mussel can be found on both sides of the Atlantic, from the Arctic and temperate regions of western Russia, through Europe to northeastern North America. Life Strategy: Like all bivalve molluscs, the freshwater pearl mussel has a shell consisting of two parts that are hinged together, which can be closed to protect the animal’s soft body within. Food / Feed Strategy: Freshwater pearl mussels eat algae, other small plants and tiny animals. They are also known to eat bacteria that grow on pieces of plant debris. They filter their food out of the water.

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Body Form or Style: Hard shell Swim / Locomotion Style: Muscular foot Mouth Position: Filter feeder

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Margaritifera_margaritifera/


Title:

Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #:5

Common Name: Rhino shrimp Scientific Name: Caridina gracilirostris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Anthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Atyidae

Geography / Habitat: The rhino shrimp is native to India and is found in marshes and mangroves. Life Strategy: These shrimp are favorites in aquariums due to their unique appearance. They interact well with other shrimp of similar size and temperament. Food / Feed Strategy: The rhino shrimp eats algae.

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Body Form or Style: Armored Swim / Locomotion Style: Fast moving Mouth Position: Center

Citation: http://www.aquascapingworld.com/invertpedia/full_view_invert.php?item_id=123&invert=Caridina%2 0gracilirostris


Title:

Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #:6

Common Name: Crawfish Scientific Name: Procambarus clarkii Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Cambaridae

Geography / Habitat: The native range of crawfish is along the Gulf Coast from northern Mexico to the Florida panhandle, as well as inland, to southern Illinois and Ohio. Life Strategy: Crawfish are most commonly found in warm fresh water, such as slowly flowing rivers, marshes, reservoirs, irrigation systems and rice paddies. Food / Feed Strategy: They eat anything they can.

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Body Form or Style: Armored Swim / Locomotion Style: Legs Mouth Position: Center

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procambarus_clarkii


Title:

Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #:7

Common Name: Great pond snail Scientific Name: Lymnaea stagnalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Order: N/A

Family: Lymnaeidae

Geography / Habitat: This large snail lives only in freshwater: it prefers slowly running water, and standing water bodies. Life Strategy: It lays large gelatinous egg-masses on weeds and other objects in the pond. Food / Feed Strategy: Algae.

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Body Form or Style: In a shell Swim / Locomotion Style: Slow moving Mouth Position: Bottom feeder

Citation: http://www.arkive.org/great-pond-snail/lymnaea-stagnalis/


Title:

Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #:8

Common Name: Giant ramshorn snail Scientific Name: Marisa cornuarietis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Order: N/A

Family: Ampullariidae

Geography / Habitat: It is widespread in northern South America, although the type locality is unknown. The giant ramshorn snail is native to northern South America and several of the southern islands of the Caribbean. Life Strategy: This species has gills as well as a lung, to ensure efficient underwater respiration even in condition of low levels of dissolved oxygen. Food / Feed Strategy: This species eats aquatic plants, algae, and dead fish and snails.

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Body Form or Style: In a shell Swim / Locomotion Style: Slow moving Mouth Position: Bottom feeder

Citation: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=981


Title:

Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #:9

Common Name: Red-rimmed melania Scientific Name: Melanoides tuberculata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Order: N/A

Family: Thiaridae

Geography / Habitat: This species is native to subtropical and tropical northern Africa and southern Asia. Life Strategy: This is primarily a burrowing species that tends to be most active at night. Food / Feed Strategy: The red-rimmed melania feeds primarily on algae.

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Body Form or Style: In a shell Swim / Locomotion Style: Slow moving Mouth Position: Bottom of body

Citation: http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/ansrp/ANSIS/html/melanoides_tuberculata_red_rimmed_melania.h tm


Title:

Freshwater Invertebrates

Species #:10

Common Name: Mystery snail Scientific Name: Pomacea bridgesii Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Order: N/A

Family: Ampullariidae

Geography / Habitat: The native distribution of this snail is Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Peru. Life Strategy: Mystery snails possess structurally complex eyes at the tip of a cephalic eyestalk. These snails possess the ability to regenerate the eye completely after amputation through the mid-eyestalk. They are born with both gills and lungs. Food / Feed Strategy: Plants.

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Body Form or Style: In a shell Swim / Locomotion Style: Slow moving Mouth Position: On the bottom

Citation: http://www.theaquaphile.com/snailmystery.php


Shelby maier's fish id project