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How will we live together in a world of 10 billion people?


Introduction

page 18

page 4

food energy

page 42

environment

population

page 72

page 28

festival

page 52


foreword 1010 is the combined efforts of students

Problems regarding immigration

from the University of Sheffield to

and population will require not just

acquaint themselves with the reality

a political solution but economic

of the next fifty years - a world where

and agricultural ones. There are no

the population of this planet will

closed systems in this world anymore,

dramatically increase to that of ten

whatever action is taken on one side of

billion. This publication endeavours to

the world will affect the other, whatever

explore this world accordingly. Firstly

problem is tackled the solution will have

understanding how it could manifest

implications for others.

itself, secondly the problems it will face and thirdly bold thinking and new ideas

The result of this is that the next fifty

as to how we could solve the inevitable

years of population growth towards ten

problems that will accompany and arise

billion and beyond offers us with the

from it.

perfect storm, one in which no member of society will remain unaffected. The

The articles found within prove

problems are like none we have faced

both insightful and creative and

before which means our solutions must

communicate to this end; covering a

be equally ambitious. This publication

vast array of mediums from poetry to

will hopefully foster this discussion,

infographics. Discussions can be found

both as to what can be done but also

on energy, food, environment and more

what must be done to preserve the

whilst in doing so acknowledging the

human race as we enter the 21st

broader implications, not just of the

century and this tipping point in our

problems but of the solutions also.

existence.

This is the sustained understanding throughout, more so than ever in this connected world there is no one solution to one problem and vice versa. Problems regarding energy will require not just technological revolutions but social, cultural and political ones.

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introducing It can be quite hard to figure what

unfortunately observe that religion

a world of 10 billion people would

today is often used from all sides

look like. While it instinctively brings

as an apparatus to subject certain

us to think through environmental,

groups of populations, justify violence

scientific or political lenses, what are

towards others or install discriminatory

the consequences for ourselves as a

policies. Will this matter more likely

culture, individuals, and ethical beings?

to increase as we grow in population?

This section regroups a diverse panel

Is there no alternative for us as global

of artefacts which all indicate shared

citizens but to watch things slowly

concerns about the population’s

decay? Do we just keep forgetting the

growth and the following conflicts

lessons from the past and recreate

likely to emerge from it. We can all

our mistakes? Or is there something

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a world of about human beings, our constant innovation, adaptation and reliance that can make us bounce back and excel in a world of 10 billion? Both concerns and hopes are justified. Like Lord Robertson mentions, ‘Globalisation will make our societies

this constraining global structure.

more creative and prosperous, but also

The following submissions provide us

more vulnerable’. It seems then that

these sparks of reflexion necessary

our increased connectedness has no

for individual questioning. What would

finished storyline yet, and that there is

we want a world of 10 billion people to

still space for individual action within

look like?...

5


introduction

Checkmate Jack Field & Jamie Malley Cloak and cover the capitalist man, let him do his work. Testing, testing; one, two, three. Check one, check two. Checkmate. Find a way to help the world, provide them new-trition. Check, check. Keep playing, this game is too important to end. Increased profits - deceased prophets. Now they scrape the sky and the barrel, and the car park is full to the brim. That concrete residence that formerly homed a family, or, perhaps, used to sew a different seed. We missed our chance to set the world up, blindly pairing her with our own ignorant desires. She needed someone to look after her, and we’re riddled with regret. She could have been so happy. See this devolution and demise, and despite the sight of warning signs, we leave our poor children to scrutinise the gift we’ve given them.

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Let them clean the mess we made from our festered feast, from that old cow that ate the grain they now desperately require. Elsewhere, a child journeys through the dusk, searching to sip their malicious remedy. What resounding irony in fainting to die from the solitary thing they need. Such thirsty work, writing, I need a beer. Or perhaps a single malt. But change is going to come. We will lose the double digit, and hunger, our dear old friend, will creep silently on the street corner, hoping and praying that they go unseen, as troops begin to circle the vicinity in ceaseless searching for the fat controller. No, change will never come. Because as the scraper pierces the sky the banker slaps his thigh. And as he stares away from his wasted tray, another infant wastes away. We saw the warning signs. If only they were glamorous.

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introduction

Checkmate commentary Through outlining of theory and facts

updated: 2016), this stanza portrays

this stanza-by-stanza commentary

the skyscrapers that represent our in-

aims to provide a more concrete eluci-

ability to plan for the future and failure

dation of the poem’s basis, highlight-

to secure suitable land for sustainable

ing the seriousness that the issue of

agriculture. As urbanisation continues

population growth presents:

at an alarming rate, it is crucial that in the coming years humans do not ignore

Stanza 1: This opening stanza refer-

moral responsibility, but refute the ig-

ences the limits to biocapacity theory

norance touched upon in the poem and

proposed by Thomas Malthus, with

adapt accordingly.

threatening ‘checks’ on population highlighting the capitalist man’s

Stanza 3: This stanza is based on two

reliance on technology (genetically

key issues presented by population

modified crops to feed the new world

growth. Firstly, the issues created today

population in this case). With respected

will affect those born tomorrow the

academics already hopeful technology

most- can we morally justify passing

will provide the answers to a population

the challenges associated with 10 bil-

of 10 billion (Godfray et al., 2010) ‘this

lion onto future generations? Secondly,

game is too important to end’- should

this verse touches upon the ineffi-

the prospect of GM crops feeding the

ciencies of producing meat when food

world fail to materialise, pessimistic

scarcity is such an issue: for every 1kg

Malthusian predictions could become a

of meat produced, 3-10kg is unsustain-

dystopian reality.

ably fed to the animal before slaughter (Tilman et al., 2002).

Stanza 2: With predictions of world food requirements increasing by 70-

Stanza 4: Following stanza three, here

100% by 2050 (Godfray et al., 2010),

we see the inequity in distribution of

rising incomes exacerbating food de-

other resources- primarily water. The

mand issues (Tilman et al., 2002) and

portrayal of the child who perishes

70% of global population residing in

following the walk to collect water

cities by 2050 (Growingblue.com, last

highlights the uneven impact a pop-

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ulation of 10 billion will have across

Stanzas 7 and 8: Analysed together due

the world: with 90% of deaths from

to their clear connection, these present

water-borne diseases children and 50%

the expected maintenance of hegemo-

of the global population being predict-

ny and international inequality enforced

ed to live in water-scarce conditions by

by wealthy nations. If change is inevita-

2050 (Growingblue.com), we will likely

ble, current world order indicates the

see developing nations bear the brunt

‘banker’ (in his/her wealthy city) will

of the impact. Finishing the stanza

continue to waste their excess food,

with the celebration and choice of an

while the ‘infant’ elsewhere is forced to

alcoholic drink represents the inequali-

suffer from malnutrition. In this respect

ties in resource availability that we can

‘change will never come’.

expect. Stanza 9: To conclude the poem, the Stanza 5: ‘Change is going to come.’

ignorance of humans to future crises

This simplicity displays the certainty of

is suggested in plain terms. With world

change as our population reaches 10

population rapidly heading towards 10

billion. Whether we experience Malthu-

billion, it remains to be seen whether

sian ‘checks’, Boserupian inventions,

this will become a ‘glamorous’ issue

resource conflicts and/or mass migra-

that demands a response, or whether

tion, significant change is inevitable.

the warning signs (current global issues: overcrowding of cities, inequality,

Stanza 6: Whether we ‘lose the dou-

famine, water stress) will be ignored.

ble digit’ of 10 billion to hunger or the

References: Godfray, H. Charles J.; Beddington, J. R..; Crute, I.R., 2010, ‘Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People’ , SCIENCE Volume: 327 Issue: 5967, pp.812-818 Growing Blue, last updated: 2016, Growing Blue: Water. Economics. Life.. [ONLINE] Available at: http://growingblue. com/. [Last accessed 06 March 16]. Tilman, D; Cassman, K.G;, Matson, P.A.; Naylor, R; Polasky, S.; 2002, ‘Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices’. Nature 418, pp.671-677

resource wars predicted by Vorosmarty et al. (2000), this stanza paints a pessimistic picture of international tension in the future.

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introduction

Stuck in the Past? Hermoine Hellyer

A wise philosopher once said:

those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it - Santayana, 1905

It is with this mantra that I intend to explain the benefits of historical analysis when it comes to looking forward to sustainability for our future.

graphic change. Through looking back with the gift of hindsight, we will be able to learn how to progress through

By 2050 it has been estimated that

this new era without inciting panic or

there will be a population of 10 billion

fear.

people on our planet. The phrase 10 billion has now become synonymous

The world was faced with the problem

with thoughts of crisis and panic. How

of overpopulation during the indus-

will we sustain all these people? Are

trial revolution, which saw a marked

there enough resources? Is this the

increase in the population due to the

end of life as we know it? This article’s

increased availability of food. The

purpose is to put at ease the panicked

population increase came as a great

minds of this ever-expanding popu-

concern for scholar Malthus who wrote

lation, with references to the past and

about the dangers of overpopulation.

how our ancestors dealt with demo-

Malthus voiced his concerns over

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the lack of resources to sustain the

1960s questions were beginning to be

ever-growing population, stating that

asked about the impact of humans on

‘misery and vice’ were the elements

nature and one of the most influential

that kept population growth in check

books Silent Spring was written by

(Malthus, 1985). In short, disease, fam-

Rachel Carson, who made the issue of

ine and natural disasters were essential

sustainability global.

in controlling population growth. 200 years later, the fears over population

By looking back at how our ancestors

growth and sustainability are still here.

navigated their way through what they

It cannot be said that these fears are

saw as a complex problem, we are able

completely unfounded. Examples such

to progress into the world of 10 billion

as Easter Island demonstrate the pro-

people. Advancements in technology

found effects of overpopulation paired

and science mean that we are able to

with the result of an intense deforest-

explore sustainable options and alter-

ation. The lack of trees meant that the

natives for energy, heating and even

inhabitants of the island were unable to

food. For example, the first syntheti-

build boats to fish with, unable to hunt

cally grown beef burger was eaten in

birds and affected the crop yield. As

2013 (BBC News, 2013). Also, it gets

a result, the rather large population of

even better, as research shows that

Easter Island had no means of getting

synthetically grown meat has far fewer

any food. Although we have inevitably

environmental effects than slaughtered

learnt from these mistakes, and civili-

meat. It has been suggested that the

sation has progressed to a point where

world of 10 billion people will not be a

supply and demand of basic resources

hindrance, but rather the beginning of

are of no concern to the everyday citi-

a new revolution. The sustainable rev-

zen, the larger issue surrounding over-

olution, where new ideas are developed

population of our planet still resonates.

and used to sustain the ever growing population of our world.

But, just like during the industrial

References: BBC News. (2013). World’s first lab-grown burger is eaten in London - BBC News. [online] Available at: http:// www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-23576143 [Accessed 29 June 2016]. Malthus, T. and Flew, A. (1985). An essay on the principle of population and a summary view of the principle of population. London [u.a.]: Penguin Books, p. 106. Santayana, G. (1905). The life of reason, or, The phases of human progress. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, p. 284.

revolution, there are options. Sustainable living took off around the end of the industrial revolution, creating a new type of living concerned with the conservation of our resources. In the

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introduction

Religion, Culture and History in a World of 10 Billion People Hollie Jane Lloyd

The idea that 10 billion people could be living on our planet is an unimaginable, but real possibility for our future.

involving 10 billion people? I believe

In this article I wish to explore the

In our world today, with seven billion

impact 10 billion people would have on

people, we see a variety of religious

cultural areas such as religion and his-

views and practices. If the world’s

tory. For example, how would one cat-

population increased, how would this

egorise billions of individuals’ religious

affect religion? Would we witness more

views? How would 10 billion affect a

varieties of Christianity or Buddhism?

country’s unique, identifiable culture?

What effects would the formation of

And finally, how would the historians

new religions have on existing ones? It

of the future record and portray a past

can be argued that a future of 10 billion

that if the world’s population reaches 10 billion, this will end up defining the world.

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may cause a change in the dynamics

a world of 10 billion. The role of a histo-

of religious practice – logistically, how

rian is to look into the past to uncover

many churches, mosques or temples

the secrets of how people lived their

would we have to build to accommo-

lives under certain circumstances. In

date billions more believers? I interpret

a world of 10 billion people, I believe

religion as a close personal relationship

that, like religion and culture, this could

with the believer and their chosen God.

be compromised due to the size of

I wish to highlight this issue of faith

the population. It is hard to imagine

and how potentially 10 billion people

that a world of 10 billion people would

would alter this. Would faith become

have time to look back to the past,

defined by a world of 10 billion people?

and be able see beyond their current over-populated state. Will the ancient

The identification of certain cities,

past be lost on these people, because

countries and nations is dependent on

they have to fight for important things

its unique culture. I wish to look at how

such as food or freedom of speech in

a world populated by 10 billion would

their crowded world? Will there be an

affect the culture and the values it pos-

accurate historical account of 10 billion

sess. The unique culture of a certain

people? Or, will this historical account

place is arguably made up of its history,

merely be dominated by one factor –

art, politics and – in my opinion, most

the amount of people living at the time.

significantly - its people. So, in a world

I believe that in a world of 10 billion

of 10 billion, I believe the culture of a

people, history will become a study of

certain place will become significantly

past and current population trends.

affected, and maybe even identified, by its population alone. I go as far to argue

Overall, I believe that a world of 10 bil-

that in a world of 10 billion people, a

lion people will result in academic sub-

place would not be identified by its cul-

jects being based upon one key area:

ture as it is today, but by its population.

population. In a world of 10 billion, this

In a world of 10 billion people, what

theme of population will become the

becomes of culture? Would it cease to

central focus of subjects like religion,

exist?

culture and history. I believe that a world of 10 billion people will transform

Finally, I wish to highlight the issues

religion, surpass culture and become

surrounding the subject of history in

the main topic of academic disciplines.

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introduction

Is all individual action pointless when facing environmental challenges? Dinora Kruja & Elka Hubenova

While global warming is now more commonly accepted in people’s minds as a reality, its consequences are still a hot topic of debate, let alone coming up with potential solutions.

amount of political challenges directly linked to environmental degradation. In a world of 10 billion people, this would mean new refugees crises due to climatic disaster, resource scarcity and problems with the food supply, which would most likely lead to severe poverty and conflict.

The recent study done by the World Bank in India indicated that a 2 degrees

This sounds pretty serious, and

increase in temperature would result

somehow discouraging. Especially

in a 25 per cent cut in Indian food

when our world is infected with one

production (Dyer, 2011). This implies

of the most paralyzing diseases:

not only a threat to biodiversity and

victimism, the feeling of tragic

sea levels, but an unprecedented

impotence before fate. The more

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recent philosophical movements

water and put them on the fire. It did

accepting and embracing the absurdity

it again and again, repeatedly. One

of our lives, along with the idea that

animal warned the bird, mentioning the

we do not have any external or pre-

fact that it would be too tiny for such a

determined purpose in life other than

task and that a drop cannot stop a fire,

what we set ourselves to do, have also

to which the hummingbird answered: ‘I

unintentionally contributed to general

am doing what I can’ (Sechangersoi).

hopelessness. If even environmentalist authors such as Gwynne Dyer tell us

There are two lessons we can take from

that individual actions are useless,

this tale: a moral one and a practical

and that only governmental decisions

one. The moral part tells us that while it

can bring change, then it seems like

is far from ensured that our enterprise

any hope for improvement is already

will become a success, it is important

doomed (Dyer, 2011). And it might

to express ourselves by taking position.

be true. Maybe turning down the

This awareness of our actions and

temperature on our refrigerators

their consequences has the potential

will never be enough for a problem

to create a ‘family of identity and

of such proportions. But it seems

conscience’ (Rabhi, 2014). This enables

to me here that this is where we are

us to step up to the practical dimension

missing the point. Although results

of the affair: deciding to not be

of actions are ultimately what seem

powerless and facing the fire together.

to matter the most when we seek to define the worth of something or some

This message, contrasted to the

situation, intentions DO matter. In

general cynicism that I was referring

this regard, the Amerindian legend of

to earlier, may seem naive. But in

the hummingbird is an abstract and

certain cases, there is no need to wait

juvenile story yet remains powerful in

for governmental action in order to

its meaning.

reduce our ecological footprint in a simple yet radical manner. The plastic

It tells the story of a fire that breaks

bag pandemic is a good example of

out in a forest, destroying absolutely

this. In China, a country totalling 1.3

everything. All animals felt powerless

billion people, three billion plastic bags

and ran away, except for one

are consumed daily. Extrapolating this

hummingbird. It picked up drops of

to a world of 10 billion people would

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introduction tragically entail more than 30 billion

create itself around a set of shared

plastic bags, which take more than 500

ethics. Now, individual action might

years each to degrade. The Plastic Tax

not appear to be significant when it

implemented in Ireland since 2001, and

comes to an issue as big as global

more recently in England, is a solution

warming. However, it is the necessary

that has not relied on a plastic-bag

milestone for others to start acting

ban, but on people’s natural response

upon. Individual action, no matter how

to the market. While this governmental

little, is by its intrinsic worth a political

action has enabled plastic bag usage

act of resistance.

to drop 93.5 per cent in Ireland, it

References: Dyer, G. (2011). Climate Wars: The Fight for Survival as the World Overheats. Oneworld Publications. Rabhi, P. (2014). Sommes-nous des colibris? Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hVq_MzrMJMI. Last accessed 6th March 2016. Reuse it. Facts About the Plastic Bag Pandemic. Available: http://www.reuseit.com/facts-and-myths/learnmore-facts-about-the-plastic-bag-pandemic.htm. Last accessed 6th March 2016. The Story of the Hummingbird. Available: http:// sechangersoi.be/EN/5EN-Tales/Humminbird.htm. Last accessed 6th March 2016.

is not so much a restrictive policy that constrains people to behave in a certain way, but rather shows the degree of freedom one significantly has in reducing their environmental impact (Reuse it). This reflection opens up the space for deeper action. When looking at the world in a schematic manner, there are clear divisions. On one side is a hyper consumerist society and the problem of food waste, and on the other side parents that struggle to feed their children. I do not aim here to recreate simplistic dichotomies to summarize a complex reality, but the truth is, this image represents a society that is neither intelligent nor generous. This grim conclusion comes back to the necessity of intentions. Intentions in taking a part, like the hummingbird does, are essential in creating resistance. By doing this, we enable

{{PD-US}}

a community of hummingbirds to

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What is

Lizzie Jewitt I wanted to represent the diversity of

ple’s perceptions of the future differ

challenges associated with a growing

so widely, and also which issues are

population, which reflects the interdis-

most common. Whilst certain expected

ciplinary nature of the challenges and

issues were mentioned regularly, such

changes in the future as our population

as ‘climate change’ and ‘food securi-

grows.

ty’, it is interesting to see words like ‘equality’ and ‘hope’ in the mix as well.

I asked a wide range of people of

I feel that this artefact really reflects

varying ages, including university

the interdisciplinary nature of the topic,

students, academics and members of

and highlights the need for integration

the general public about the first things

of work between faculties within the

they thought of when they hear the

university, mixing science, technology

phrase “world of 10 billion”. I think it

and humanities.

is really interesting to see how peo-

17


FOOD 18


in a world of

The definition of food security was decided upon at The World Food Summit 1996 as: will have to be solved along with “when all people at all times have

the problem of producing the extra

access to sufficient, safe, nutritious

food needed to feed the increased

food to maintain a healthy and active

population. Public opinion on certain

life�

techniques like genetic modification has held back the advancement in the

Currently the world doesn’t have food

field of improvements to crop yield and

security as there is a problem with the

disease resistance, so this attitude will

distribution of food produced globally,

likely have to be overcome before major

so in a world of 10 billion this problem

change can occur.

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food

Producing food to feed and sustain a10bn population Anmol Ahmed

The 10bn population projection for 2100 will see a significant increase for the demand for food. Food is something used by everyone, so is a topic we cannot ignore. Current agricultural practices are some of the greatest contributors to the enhanced greenhouse effect such as: lorries moving cereals from farms to factories; carbon dioxide released from deforestation and clearing land for farming. It’s a topic that will affect us all, and our environment. The environmental pressures of more intense farming methods, even more intense than those already implemented, will place greater pressure on the already nutrient depleted soils on earth. Furthermore, the loss of ecosystems and niches will cause a reduction in biodiversity and affect global food chains. The challenge that scientists will face to feed a population of 10 billion is to

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increase food availability, but not at the

billion in a sustainable manner, without

expense of the environment.

harming the environment. Some of

Currently, the Earth produces enough

these are discussed below.

food to feed its population of seven billion (CIA.com). That’s a surprising

For centuries, if we’ve needed more

fact, as there are still enormous

land we’ve ploughed meadows and cut

problems with world hunger and food

forests. However, today arable land is

poverty. The issue is that the current

scarce, and food cultivation has led to

distribution of food is not efficient

ecosystem harm on a global scale. The

enough, nor is it distributed equally

future needs to see cleaner agricultural

amongst upper and lower classes.

methods which don’t compromise ecosystems. The current agricultural

Increasing prosperity and the

footprint needs to be reduced to

emergence of newly industrialized

sustain the food production for 10

countries is raising the demand for

billion people.

meat, eggs, dairy and cereals. A richer diet requires two times the amount

We need to grow more food on the

of crops we currently grow, and that’s

land we currently have, especially

only until 2050. What will 2100 require?

on unproductive lands in Asia in

Scientists from National Geographic

harsh environments, by using new

have devised a five point action plan

technologies and precision farming

to help decide which particular areas

systems to boost crop yields. This

we need to work on if we are to feed 10

shouldn’t come at a cost to the

The global diet has to also shift to eating more vegetables and less meat

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food environment or pollute water systems.

But shifting to less meat-intensive

Resources should be used to produce

diets—even switching from grain-fed

high yields of food efficiently.

beef to meats like chicken or pasture-

Commercial farming in economically

raised beef—could free up substantial

developed countries has started to

amounts of food stocks across the

find new ways of achieving targeted

world. Reducing the use of food crops

application of fertilizers and plant

for biofuels could also enhance food

nutrients via GPS, but this needs to

availability.

be done a global scale, particularly in areas that rely on farming as their

These methods are just some of the

primary industry.

ways in which a population of 10 billion could be fed, but the methods here

The global diet also has to shift to

are a small introduction to a much

consuming more vegetables and less

larger debate. As we use one method

meat. 36 per cent of crops are fed

of increasing crop yields this usually

to livestock, and 9 per cent used to

leads to a negative knock on effect, for

produce biofuel, with only 55 per cent

example loss of biodiversity. We will

used to feed people directly (Foley,

have to find a balance between meeting

J. 2014). Realistically, the world will

the food needs of our population whilst

not shift to an entirely meat free diet.

protecting our planet sustainably. Foley, J. (2014). Feeding 9 Billion. www.nationalgeographic.com/ foodfeatures/feeding-9-billion/

22


problems with feeding10 billion Evelyn-Andrada Mantoiu

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food

The future of agriculture Boglarka Gulyas An inevitable consequence of

global population.

population growth is an increased demand for food.

Setting aside more land for food production cannot be the solution

Considering the shocking amounts of

to this problem, because of the

food we waste on a daily basis, many

intensifying competition for suitable

might – rightfully – argue that the

land from increased urbanisation

real problem is not lack of produce,

and expansion of industries, due

but inefficient use and distribution

to population growth. Also, there is

of supplies. Therefore, changes in

the issue of whether we wish to set

legislation and the way we think about

aside areas of land for biodiversity

food can, and should, play a major role

conservation. Therefore, it seems that

in achieving food security now as well

the only way to meet the increasing

as in the future. Such reforms, however,

demand for food is to increase

take time and are difficult to realize due

production on the same, or ideally, even

to various underlying socio-economic

smaller areas of land than we are using

factors. Moreover, even if waste

today.

could be reduced to a minimum, and equitable distribution was achieved,

In recent decades this has been

there is a limit to the productivity of

achieved by the application of large

the current agricultural system, which

amounts of artificial fertilizers,

means that we are only going to be

herbicides and pesticides, and the

able to feed a certain proportion of the

use of heavy machinery and irrigation

24


systems. Although these methods

Simply switching to low-impact,

proved to be very effective in increasing

organic farming is out of the question,

yields in the short-term, we are

since, although it could make a huge difference for the environment, it would cause yields to decrease so much that we would struggle, if not fail, to feed

Not only do these chemicals pollute the environment directly, their industrial production has a huge carbon footprint

even the current population – not to mention the 10 billion it is projected to reach in the not-so-distant future. The problem is that the commercial crop varieties that we rely on today have been selected so that they are adapted to, and perform best, under high-input conditions. Their growth and productivity depend on receiving large amounts of water and nutrients from fertilisers, as well as protection from

now starting to realize the severity

pests, diseases and weeds.

of their environmental impact. Not only do these chemicals pollute the

Therefore, we need to find or create

environment directly, their industrial

new crop varieties with higher nutrient

production creates a huge carbon

and water uptake efficiency and

footprint. What is more, high-intensity

resistance to different forms of biotic

farming is known to be the main

and abiotic stress that can thrive and

cause of soil erosion, a major problem

produce high yields under low-input

threatening crop production globally. To retain productivity of agricultural land we must move away from current practices, and replace them with alternative methods that have less negative environmental impacts. How, then, can we achieve high yields?

25


food conditions. For this to become a reality

some of the concerns about potential

in the near future it is important that we

negative impacts of widespread use

take advantage of the scientific tools at

of genetically modified crops may

our disposal, such as assisted breeding

have some grounding, it is essential

technologies and genetic modification,

to assess these risks realistically

or GM.

and compare them to the potential

Many people associate organic farming

consequences of not making use of

and GM with opposite, mutually

such technologies. This appears to be

exclusive ends of a scale with the

the much greater threat.

former representing “natural and healthy” and the latter being “artificial

Once we have the right plants,

and harmful to health”. However, these

minimising water, fertiliser and

terms describe different aspects of

chemical use and adopting low impact

agriculture, and are in fact perfectly

cultivation practices, such as minimum

compatible with each other.

tillage, crop rotation and use of livestock manure, will become a much

Public opposition to GM is largely due

more viable option.

to misconceptions and fear caused

In addition to these traditional organic

by lack of understanding as well as

farming methods, another low impact

the negative, and often distorted,

practice of great potential is the use of

image created by the media. Although

mutualistic fungi and bacteria. These

26


symbiotic organisms can improve soil

Bishopp, A., & Lynch, J. (2015). The hidden half of crop yields. Nature Plants, 1(8), Nature Plants, 2015 Aug 4, Vol.1(8). Chapagain T, Super L, Riseman A. (2014). Root architecture variation in wheat and barley cultivars. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 4: 849-856. Godfray HCJ, et al. (2010) Food Security: The challenge of feeding 9 billion people Science 327, 812‐ 818. Nadeem SM, Ahmad MA, Zahir Z, Javaid A, & Ashraf M. (2014). The role of mycorrhizae and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in improving crop productivity under stressful environments. Biotechnology Advances 32: 429-448. Pagliai M, Vignozzi N. & Pellegrini S. (2004). Soil structure and the effect of management practices. Soil and Tillage Research 79: 131–143. Vacheron J, Desbrosses G, Bouffaud M, Touraine B, Moenne-Loccoz Y, Muller D, Legendre l, Wisniewski-Dye F, & PrigentCombaret C. (2013). Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning. Frontiers in Plant Science 4: 1-19.

properties and provide various benefits to crops, ranging from enhanced nutrition and growth to resistance to various forms of stress, such as drought and pathogen attack. They can act as a natural “all-in-one” alternative to different types of chemical treatment, therefore playing a key role in promoting sustainable agriculture. These approaches, combined with educated changes in consumer behaviour and reforms in the food industry could ensure food security for the rest of the 21st century, as well as a decrease in negative environmental impacts of agriculture, thus contributing to the long-term sustainability of the system.

27


Energy The world of 10billion comes with

is one of the main reasons behind

complex challenges, some of which

rising temperatures. The dependency

have already been explored in this

on fossil fuels has no place in a

magazine, and some which are yet

world of 10 billion with resources

to be uncovered. It is not hard to see

slowly dwindling. The shift to green

what part energy plays in a world

technology seems as the viable

of increasing population. The world

solution, yet change might come too

as we know is grounded in energy

slow. Scientists claim that to solve the

consumption. Our lifestyle comes at

issue of climate change, the sector that

the expense of our ability to generate

needs the most attention, is in fact, the

high amounts of energy, which is

energy sector. Increasing population,

then consumed. This process comes

paired with an increasing middle class,

at cost of the environment and it

all these mean an sharp increase in

28


in a world of

energy consumption. The trend is the same, and it does not look like is going to change, both renewable energy and fossil fuel energy consumption

the way to produce it? Is it all about

increased in the last decades. With

people’s reluctance to change and the

the environmental cost of fossil fuel

idea that they want to conserve their

exploitation and the awareness of the

way of life, lead the same lifestyle or

issues arising from that, the future is

could it be about the political power

towards the greener forms of energy.

game. In this section of the magazine,

There are alternative solutions, yet

we explore the topic of energy as seen

there is also opposition to changes.

through different perspectives and try

What makes people reluctant to change

to shed light on some of the pressing

the way they consume energy? Or

issues regarding energy.

29


energy

The case for solar power Michael chilton If one thing is clear a world of 10bn will not be fuelled by fossil fuels, or other carbon based energy sources. With peak oil, coal and gas expected

Holly Gregory & James Harrison

within this century an alternative will be needed to keep the lights on. Unlike

The only shortcoming currently for

many other alternative energy sources,

solar energy would be its efficiency;

solar power has a far greater potential,

particularly in relation to costs. Current

both in production and development,

solar panels could be far better at

and research.

catching the sun’s energy and their costs could still be lower, particularly

Production is both cheap and easy to

if this energy source wishes to power

maintain compared to other emerging

the developing world. However, one of

alternative green energy solutions.

the reasons it continues to be a growth

Furthermore solar power has been, and

market is because it is very easy to

continues to be, a growth market with

develop. The full extent and application

an exponential increase. With this lies

of solar power is still yet to be fully

a huge potential if backed by serious

discovered and with the increasing

investment. Even now there is some-

investment in the industry it will only be

what of an arms race to dominate this

a matter of time before this potential is

market with the mantle having been

realised.

passed from the United States to Japan to Germany which is now the leader in

What this amounts to is solar power

solar energy. However this is soon to

being a leader in the alternative energy

be hotly contested by China which is

market and a serious contender for

seeing a rapid increase within their so-

powering a world of 10bn. Time is of

lar energy market. If this fight for solar

the essence so in order to ensure this

power supply can be met with both a

transition countries must redouble their

coherent demand and more tangible

efforts in order to achieve solar energy

gains then solar power already has a

goals to coincide with the growth in

strong lead over other green energy

population while also moving away

sources to power the world of 10bn.

from fossil fuels.

30


The energy problem: How can we move forward? Anita Chen, Ahmad Mgasbi, Hao Xu, Steve Belabbas

Technological Standpoint In order to have a sustainable population we must be able to keep up with the required energy consumption. However we must consider optimising renewable and sustainable alternatives, otherwise this will lead on to devastating effects on the environment. We must consider the following: We currently have the ability to access renewable energy, however, we have not implemented them effectively due to numerous hindrances - primarily, financial restrictions and societal complications.

31


energy In the following section, we will pro-

energy alternative with a good return

pose several methods of implementa-

on energy.

tion of renewable energy technology Psychosocial Perspective

that could attempt to overcome these issues and increase overall efficiency.

As we attempt to introduce the usage 1. We must optimise the deployment of

of more sustainable resources, the

renewable sourcing technology region-

multitudes of constraints we face are

ally, which will allow us to have an opti-

not simply limited to financial and tech-

mised energy resource for each region.

nological. With regards to the social

This will be cheaper to implement and

aspect, any major changes proposed

will create a regional community that

that will require public expenditure

is responsible for greater eco-friendly

warrants the need for public consent.

behaviour.

Perhaps the most prevalent issues we could potentially face are a lack of

2. We have to rethink our way of using

acceptance and in some cases even

traditional resources more effectively

active resistance to change.

and try to extract energy from materials which were once considered waste,

“Without public acceptance, it may be

such as corn stems, surplus food,

impossible for electric sector innova-

etc. This way of using surplus food

tions to gain regulatory approval, find

and waste confronts various social

sites, or secure funding”

challenges, which is the reason why it

– Apt & Fischnoff (2006)

needs to be promoted for mainstream Generally, it is assumed that environ-

usage.

mentally friendly actions carry a posi3. The development of modular nuclear

tive normative belief, meaning that they

technology is essential for nuclear

are viewed in a positive light. However,

energy to be able to be viable interna-

although these actions are viewed as

tionally. The modular design is signif-

positive, there is the matter of NIMBY-

icantly cheaper as it is a large differ-

ism. Standing for ‘not in my backyard’,

ence in construction costs compared

it is defined as the opposition of local

to building a nuclear power station.

residents to a proposed development

The modular designs offer a flexible

because they believe that the negative

32


efits of using sustainable resources. If self-interest is the reason, however, then extensive behavioural interventions could be implemented to transform attitudes, beliefs and behaviours on a global scale. http://www.philhandscartoons.com/cartoons/nimbyrail. htm - Phil Hands, Wisconsin State Journal, 29 May 2010 References Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Action control: From cognition to behavior. Berlin, Heidelber, New York: Springer-Verlag. (pp. 11-39). Apt, J., & Fischhoff, B. (2006). Power and people. The Electricity Journal, 19 (9), 17 - 25.

outcomes will affect them directly and refuse to accept these consequences as they do not believe they are obligated. In order to change this, there needs to be a change in attitudes, which – according to the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) – will subsequently lead to behavioural change. TPB proposes that behaviour is determined by intentions to engage in that behaviour (Ajzen, 1985) and in turn, intentions are determined by attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. It is used to explain why there is an inconsistency between sustainable attitudes and unsustainable behaviour. Since cognitions have the capability to produce certain behaviours, it is reasonable to conclude that a fear of change would lead to resistance to change. If the underlying cause of this resistance is ignorance then one potential method of changing this behaviour would be to promote widespread education about the ben-

33


energy

FUEL FOR THE FUTURE BALQIS BINTI MD RUSLAN & CARMEN-VALENTINA APOSTOL

July 1st, 2015 marked a world population estimate of 7.349 billion people. Almost 70 per cent of the Earth consists of water, leaving just 30 per cent land for humans to live in. The world population has increased from 4.066 billion in 1975, to 7.349 billion people 40 years later. In 30 years the population could reach up to 10 billion. The roads seem to be congested already, there are more crowds in shopping centres, more houses are being built and more land is used for agriculture. Of course, there are still some rural undeveloped areas {{PD-US}}

with less people, but what will happen when there are more people than spaces available? What can 10 billion people depend on in the future? Will there be enough resources for us? More food will be consumed, meaning crops and humans will have to compete for land, and more waste products will be created. On the other hand, fuels, particuDiagram 1: The increase of world population from 1950

larly fossil fuels will be depleted. One

34


Second Generation Biofuels

approach to overcome these issues is to recycle the waste products by trans-

Second generation biofuels are made

forming them into fuels: BIOFUELS.

from sustainable feedstock. They are sustainable in terms of the availabil-

What are Biofuels?

ity of the feedstock, their impact on The term biofuel means any fuel in

biodiversity, the impact of their use on

which energy is obtained from biolog-

greenhouse gas emissions, and their

ical carbon fixation; a process where

impact on land use, which alleviates

inorganic carbon such as CO2 is taken

the 10bn problem.

and converted into organic compounds in a living organism. Although the

What differentiates them from first gen-

biological carbon fixation should occur

eration biofuels is that the feedstock

in living organisms, it doesn’t mean

used in producing second generation

that the production of fuel should be

biofuels are generally not food crops

inside a living organism too. [They can

(e.g. grass, Jatropha and other seed

also be made by chemical reactions by

crops). For some second generation

rules that the starting material must be

biofuels, they would require feedstock

CO2 that was fixed (turned into another

which should not be suitable for human

molecule) by a living organism and the

consumption and which is grown on

final fuel product must be produced

marginal land (the land that cannot

quickly, unlike fossil fuels.]

be used to effectively grow food). The hidden message here is they should not require a great deal of water or

Types of Biofuels

fertilizer to grow, a fact that has led to disappointment in several second

First Generation Biofuels

generation crops. An example is grass First generation biofuels are the “orig-

feedstock. Water demands are the

inal” biofuels made from starch, sugar,

biggest drawback to grasses, and the

or vegetable oil. However, they are

factor that prevents them from becom-

problematic as they disrupts the food

ing more popular than second genera-

supply, because plants could be used

tion biofuels. {{PD-US}}

to feed people rather than fuel cars.

35


energy Waste products-based Biofuels

Besides having WVO and planting noncrop feedstock, it might be possible to

Despite this shortcoming, we can also

harness energy from waste products

make use of waste vegetable oil (WVO)

such as wood, paper, pulp, grass fruits

as second generation biofuel feed-

and inedible plant matter. Although

stock. WVO has been used as a fuel for

there is still ongoing research and it is

more than a century and its use in food

not widely available, it could be a great

preparation has been expended. In fact,

solution for the 10bn problem. This is

recycling it for fuel can help to improve

the challenge that we have to overcome

its overall environmental impact.

for future research.

The advantages of WVO are: Algae-based Biofuel

• It does not threaten the food chain • It is readily available • It is low in sulphur

In addition, besides waste products, al-

• It can be burned directly in some

gae could contribute to better biofuels.

diesel engines

They encompass a large number of dif-

• There are no associated land use

ferent types of organisms and are very

changes

versatile in their growth requirements.

• It is easy to convert to biodiesel

Here are a few advantages of culturing

Diagram 2: The process of transforming waste products into biofuels (4)

36

{{PD-US}}

algae for biofuels:


Diagram 4: A photobioreactor is shown next to a power plant. 1. They produce much better yields

are adaptable organisms and they

than even the best current feedstock. It

respond by producing oils to a number

has been proposed that algal cultures

of stimuli, such as nutrient limitation,

could produce as much as 136,900

increased salinity or pH, high tempera-

litres of oil per hectare. Compare this to

ture or light intensity. Also, the cultures

172 L/Ha of corn crops or even to 2700

grow relatively quickly and don’t take

L/Ha of coconut culture and it becomes

up much space, so fertile land wouldn’t

apparent what a staggering improve-

need to be occupied. Even dry lands

ment it would be.

and deserts are suitable, provided the temperature is right.

2. Algae cultures are easy to grow. The cheapest method of growing algae are

In the future, it may be possible to

raceway ponds- the main requirements

connect the two so that CO2 emissions

are adequate temperature and plen-

from power stations feed directly into

ty of sunlight. However, considering

culture tanks like the one in the picture,

the risks of contamination and large

and support photosynthesis and ulti-

water and CO2 losses, new generation

mately oil production by microalgae.

machines were developed for growing 3. The strains can be genetically

algae called photobioreactors. Algae

37


energy manipulated to generate a number of

biofuel derived from algae. However,

fuels; it is not just oils that one can

a big drawback is the fact that algal

extract from algae. Strains have been

cultures require large amounts of water,

modified to produce butanol, ethanol

nitrogen and phosphorus to grow. It is

biogas (methane), gasoline and jet fuel.

a large economical setback and one reason why biofuels would be very

4. Since algae are photosynthetic

costly if used on a large scale. Some

organisms, they can take CO2 from the

changes must be in place before large-

atmosphere and convert it into biofu-

scale production can be successfully

els. This means that no more carbon

implemented at this moment in time.

needs to be extracted from underground deposits and released into the atmosphere since the microorganisms use what is already present, so it is almost carbon-neutral technology. Algal ‘farms’ could even be connected to power plants, and the CO2 generated used as the substrate for oil production. Even more surprisingly, waste products and sewage could provide suitable organic substrates for growing algae. This also works to reduce the economic strain on municipalities when it comes to waste disposal and sewage treatment. Third Generation Biofuels When it became apparent that algae are capable of much higher yields with lower resource inputs than other feedstock, many suggested that they be moved to their own category of third {{PD-US}}

generation biofuels, which refers to

38


Conclusion Both waste products and algae can work together in order to compensate for the reduced amount of fuel available, whilst reducing global warming due to less CO2, resulting in a greener space. However, even with high oil prices, second generation biofuels will probably not become fully commercial before 2020 without the support of governments. The advantages and disadvantages of second generation biofuels are still not yet fully understood. The potential for production of second generation biofuels in developing countries and for algae derived biofuel is hindered by a number of key economic and technical barriers. References 1) http://biofuel.org.uk/third-generation-biofuels.html 2) http://energy.gov/eere/bioenergy/algal-biofuels 3) https://vle.shef.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-1698130-dtcontent-rid-3879514_1/courses/MBB163.A.146825/ MBB163%20Analysis%20Session%201%202014-15.pdf 4) http://www.semanticsoftware.info/genozymes-project 5) https://www.census.gov/population/international/data/ idb/worldpopgraph.php 6) http://biofuel.org.uk/second-generation-biofuels.html

39


energy

Power Politics

for everyone to live a comfortable, modern life. Let’s ignore the astronom-

& the World of Tomorrow

ical cost of building millions of solar panels, and the drain on the world’s resources to achieve this. Let’s assume

Jamie Hakham

a wondrous scientific discovery solves

We already have enough food to easily feed our population. We already have more than enough water to quench our population’s thirst. We could feasibly make enough power for each person to live a first world lifestyle.

the issue of building all these solar

Production isn’t the issue. Science isn’t

locked up in Spain. And that is the

the issue. The issue runs far deeper

exact moment that science falls by

than that. It is an issue that cuts across

the wayside. This is the exact moment

the human psyche in a fundamental

where culture, politics, sovereign ter-

way.

ritory and commercial gain come into

panels. Does this change anything? Is this discovery the solution to the power problem? Even if we could reliably capture this remarkable amount of energy every single year without fail, it is all still

Let’s take the example of power, as it’s

government of Spain, currently operat-

the simplest one to explain. Imagine

ing out of a Luxembourg sized chunk of

that we have put an enormous num-

land near Gibraltar, literally have all the

ber of solar panels down in Spain. Or

power. For everyone to get this power,

rather, as it would take up a projected

Spain would need to be able to give this

500,000 square kilometers, on Spain,

energy equally, fairly, without preju-

with enough room for Luxembourg on

dice, and without slowing down the

the side. These millions of solar panels,

flow. This would require Spain to give

arranged in up to a million solar arrays

up sovereign territory; to allow foreign

would generate a monstrous 700

powers to build powerlines, or help

petajoules of energy every year, or the

build power lines to a now universal,

equivalent of harnessing the power of

and therefore not Spanish, solar me-

every volcanic eruption a year multi-

ga-array. It would require Spain to give

plied by a thousand, which is enough

up their political position as the holder

40

Image: Diego Delso, Wikimedia Commons, License CC-BY-SA 4.0

play. Because at this exact moment, the


pliance be allowed?

of the power, and, most importantly, the creation of this mega-array would displace millions and millions of Spanish

This is an issue that is being discussed

families and businesses. So why would

as a science issue, and I agree that

Spain ever agree to this? They would

science has a responsibility to do as

give up everything that makes Spain,

much as it can to help inform the wider

well Spain, for no tangible, material

debate. It’s a debate that is as much

benefit.

about ingrained social cohesion as it is about sovereignty, as much about

Even if we don’t choose a developed

energy security as it is about politics.

first world country, and let’s for the

And that’s the easy one. The debates

sake of argument choose the Sahara,

concerning food and water security are

the problem persists. Let’s put our half

complicated and varied, recalling our

a million square kilometers of solar

prehistory where the food you grew

mega-array in the middle of one of the

was your own, and everyone else could

most inhospitable environments on the

fend for themselves.

planet. Let’s ignore the maintenance costs that this would be constantly

We are quickly finding that in this

incurring due to sand on the panels.

modern world that the dog eat dog

Let’s just focus on the power. What

mindset isn’t feasible. United we stand,

about running the power through one

divided we fall. And fall we will if we

country to another country with bad

cannot overcome our nature, and find

foreign relations towards each other?

the problems to our rapidly expanding

What about running the power through

population, before it’s too late.

countries with a very high power consumption, and then into countries with a very low power consumption? What would happen if a cable breaks? Whose responsibility is it to fix it? If everyone owns it, does anyone own it? Why should a country fix a cable if the only break is at the border to their neighbour? What is in it for countries that don’t sign up to this? Would non-com-

41


environment

42


in a world of

Currently the world is losing its’ green spaces to urbanisation for the current population size, we have to consider the availability of space for a world containing 10 billion. Deforestation has been a big issue with lots of publicity in the past few years but there are many other environmental

no longer be feasible in a world where

problem s such as nitrogen and

efficiency is the only way to persevere

phosphorus use in crop production and

, hard decisions will need to be made

whether this is sustainable and the

concerning what is important to include

consequences of leeching to the wider

in a world where available space is

ecosystem. Conservation efforts may

continuously shrinking.

43


environment

A World of 10 Billion? Covey Sutherland Timothy, Alif Ezrul Azrin Esmady, Mohammad Faiz Mohd Zaki

Reaching a world population of 10 billion was once just a thought, but now it seems as though it will become a reality.

world to live in? This is the primary idea that we are going to explore. Every organism requires nutrients to continue living and with 10 billion

The current population of seven billion

people in the world, the amount of food

is growing at an increasing rate and

required to feed the general population

it is expected to reach 10 billion by

would be staggering. As we stand now,

2050.* A growing population in the past

(HowMany.org, 2016) one individual

was usually the result of a need to pass

in every seven will suffer from hunger

on our genes to future offspring, and

with 25,000 deaths from malnutrition

to develop as a species, but increasing

daily. Food production has not reached

industrial might and booming econo-

a self-sustaining rate around the world,

mies of countries have increased this

especially not in third world countries.

explosively. However, does an increas-

More land will be needed for crop

ing population mean a prosperous

growth, and the amount of livestock

44


required for fresh meat must not be

keeping our body hydrated are a few

taken lightly. More research will have

of its uses. We tend to waste gallons

to be invested into developing efficient

of water per year whilst others are

means of producing rapidly and safely

finding it difficult to acquire. To prepare

grown crops which are environmentally

the world, we need to build abundant

friendly. Progress in food production

water treatment infrastructures for the

must not be made when the demand

large amount of clean water needed.

starts to increase greatly, it must be

The cost of this will be high but every

made now to prepare the world for the

individual deserves access to readily

inevitable.

available water. When clean water is no longer a limited resource in third world

Since (Perlman, 2016) 71 per cent of

countries, the amount of water-borne

the earth is covered with water, we

diseases and deadly infections will

would expect the world’s population

be reduced significantly. Currently

to be rich in terms of its usage. This may be the case but people in third world countries suffer from limited water supplies. For a beautiful planet to be so abundant in one resource, the

these diseases are

For a beautiful planet to be so abundant in one resource, the lack of its availability brings despair to those who are unfortunate.

lack of its avail-

primarily caused by the consumption of untreated water. Aside from water, fecal matter will be a foul problem. Effective sewage treatment infrastructures must be built to prepare for

ability brings despair to those who

the amount produced by a population

are unfortunate. This is because only

of 10 billion, and prevent potentially

(Society, 2016) 2.5 per cent is fresh,

putrid environmental pollution.

whilst a limited amount of 1 per cent is readily accessible. Compare the

An increase in population will cause an

amount needed for a population of

increase in energy demand. Non-re-

10 billion and we have a significant

newable energy such as fossil fuels will

problem. Water is a necessity in our

run out as our population reaches 10

life. Hygiene, agricultural purposes and

billion. Shortage of energy supplies will

45


environment become a serious problem in the future

Experimental Reactor, known as ITER,

if we do not have sustainable supplies.

is a project undertaking nuclear fusion

Therefore, renewable energy will be

research, and is expected to be com-

crucial for the future population. We will

pleted before our population reaches

need to find a way to utilise renewable

10 billion. Nuclear fusion seemed

energy, especially solar energy, so that

impossible as it was something beyond

we will have an abundant energy supply

man’s capability decades ago. We will

in the future. Further development and

finally realise the valuable impact that

research in renewable energy would

nuclear fusion has to offer when we live

make it possible to use renewable en-

a world of 10 billion.

ergy as our main energy supply in the future. Another interesting topic within

Imagine what the population will look

energy production is that we should

like when there are 10 billion people.

explore nuclear energy. The immense

It will be fascinating to see a multicul-

benefit resulting from the utilisation

tural society living together. Migration

of nuclear fusion and fission is a fact

is an important facet of a country’s

that we must take into account when

population, and movement of people

considering the needs of 10 billion peo-

across different parts of the world

ple. The International Thermonuclear

will lead to significant demographic change. How will people interact with one another and familiarise themselves with a different perspective on society? Migration is a contentious topic which is being debated by governments, politicians and economists. It is said to be the root cause of many social issues such as poverty, racial tension and unaffordable housing. Living with people that we are not familiar with can be a major challenge. Tolerance is the key to living peacefully in a world of 10 billion; war arises as a result of unresolved political conflicts. This is certainly something that we want to

46


avoid when the population reaches 10

References HowMany.org, 2016. Overpopulation:Environmental and Social problems. [Online] Available at: http://www.howmany.org/environmental_and_social_ills.php [Accessed 05 March 2016]. Perlman, H., 2016. How much water is there on, in, and above the Earth?. [Online] Available at: http://environment. nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/freshwater-crisis/ [Accessed 05 March 2016]. Society, N. G., 2016. Clean Water Crisis, Water Crisis Facts, Water Crisis Resources - National Geographic. [Online] Available at: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/ environment/freshwater/freshwater-crisis/ [Accessed 05 March 2016].

billion. First and foremost, let us look at some notable examples of wars, such as World War I and World War II, American Civil War, Iraq War, and the ongoing Palestine-Israel conflict. Some of these wars were fuelled by religious and racial sentiments, whilst others were caused by the need to exert dominance and fight for natural resources. Whatever the reasons, we need to resolve our differences and set them aside in order for it to be possible to co-exist in the future. With 10 billion people, overpopulation will become a fundamental issue in society. For example, there might be a huge social difference in society, and an increase in poverty in developing countries. This will widen the gap between the upper class and the lower class. There will be an imbalance in wealth distribution as the rich get richer whilst the poor get poorer, and the food supply becomes limited. To summarise, discussing the impacts and possibility of living in a population of 10 billion has never come at the right time. The questions surrounding the 10bn theme are ones worth considering in detail. Its relevance is more important now than it ever has been.

47


environment

The 10 Billion Biosphere Lucy Vaughan, Ella Jordan, Tayma Bartram

Interactions between species and their surrounding environment are common, however the extent to which human beings impact the environment is tremendous. In a world inhabited by 10 billion human beings these interactions and effects would be disastrous to other

the picture of a scuba diver next to a

Earth dwellers. Being able to influence

shark with the caption “this is the most

the environment is one of the defining

dangerous animal in the world. It is

features of many ecosystems; this

responsible for millions of deaths each

ability is partly what has caused the

year. By its side swims a great white

success of so many of this planet’s

shark.” (Richard Branson 2015).

varied habitats. Humans as a species have an amazing ability to destroy var-

Humans have not only hunted various

ious environments without necessarily

species to the point of extinction, but

understanding the damage that we are

according to NASA, we have burned

doing. We maintain the belief that we

so much carbon that we have warmed

can invent something, or discover a mi-

our atmosphere beyond that which

raculous organism that will “fix it”. We

could have been possible from natural

have this idea that we are the most su-

climatic fluctuations. Humans have

perior species and therefore the most

many other effects too: we have wors-

important, and the impacts we have on

ened the phenomena of acid rain and

lesser species are not necessarily as

we are huge believers in deforestation-

important as our wellbeing.

destroying acres and acres of forests each year. Despite this, the most

Humans have caused severe levels of

concerning impact that we have had is

global destruction. Everyone has seen

48


the extinction of hundreds of species.

Combined, they correspond with the

This is a fact made acceptable because

idea that the more people there are,

“we have zoos” and other conservation

the more resources and energy we

methods in place, meaning that we are

need, and ultimately fossil fuel con-

trying our hardest to limit our effects on

sumption will be increased. With the

the environment around us. These im-

UN’s estimates, we can predict that the

pacts have increased as the population

global population will reach 10 billion

size has increased despite the meas-

by 2060, using the ‘business as usual’

ures we currently have implemented-

model (where the global temperatures

bringing the real question: what would

continue increasing at the current rate)

the impact of 10 billion people be? How

we can estimate that temperatures will

much worse will these effects be? Can

be approximately 3 degrees above 1765

we stop this, or is there any way we can

temperatures (best and worst scenar-

significantly limit the future impacts?

ios graph from the IPCC report). Even

One of the most obvious impacts of

using the alternative scenario where

our generation is the induction of rapid

emissions are tightly controlled there

climate change. The two graphs in-

would be an increase of 2.5 degrees. Is

cluded show global temperature since

this 0.5 degree change worth the tight

1980 and world population increase.

regulations? In the best case scenario,

49


environment with a 2 degrees temperature rise we

China are having to pay people to hand

can expect an increase in the number

pollinate their crops, a job once done by

of natural disasters such as drought,

bees. This extra cost will drive up the

wildfires and flooding. These disasters

prices of valuable food, meaning that

would have enormous global impacts

fewer and fewer people will be able to

for both developing and developed

afford them, increasing the global food

countries, as well as many secondary

poverty crisis. So how do we fix this

impacts on fauna and floral species.

and grow more food?

(New Scientist: 16th May 2007, Climate

Clearing massive plots of forest to

Myths)(UN Estimate of World Popula-

intensively grow food can’t be bad

tion Prospects) Despite the destruction of the planet, the biggest challenge with a population of this size is feeding 10 billion people. Currently food poverty

Currently food poverty is one of the largest global issues, and efforts to combat it have had little success. But, what if we put an additional three billion people on the planet?

is one of the largest

when the food is needed surely? The typical process for clearing the forest initially is the ‘slash and burn’ technique, in which the forest is cut down and the remnants burned to create a layer of fertile soil. This

global issues, and efforts to combat it

contributes to an increase in tempera-

have had little success. But, what if we

ture through emissions. Once the layer

put an additional three billion people on

of fertile soil has been depleted of its

the planet? Will we have enough space

nutrients, fertiliser must be added to

to grow our food? Will we be forced to

continue growing crops on this land.

change our diets and consume more

This fertiliser gets washed out of

genetically modified food? What about

the soil in a process called leeching,

people’s ethics and religious beliefs?

causing disruption in rivers, altering the aquatic ecosystem and affecting those

We are already seeing some effects of

who rely on these systems for suste-

ecosystem disruption on food. Polli-

nance.

nators are becoming increasingly rare

What’s more is that, through damag-

to the point where some farmers in

ing the ecosystem, many scientists

50


believe we are affecting our own health.

directing this ingenuity at increasing

By changing the habitat of disease

our fortunes, we should aim to prolong

carrying organisms, we allow them to

the life of the only home we have.

carry human diseases affecting more and more people. The most obvious

Anderson, J., Panetta, A. and Mitchell-Olds, T. (2012). Evolutionary and Ecological Responses to Anthropogenic Climate Change: Update on Anthropogenic Climate Change. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 160(4), pp.1728-1740. Barnett, T. (2001). Detection of Anthropogenic Climate Change in the World’s Oceans. Science, 292(5515), pp.270274. Briggs, D. (2009). Plant microevolution and conservation in human - influenced ecosystems.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cohen, J. (1995). Population growth and earth’s human carrying capacity. Science, 269(5222), pp.341-346. de Vasconcelos, A., Schlindwein, S., Lana, M., Fantini, A., Bonatti, M., D’Agostini, L. and Martins, S. (2014). Land use dynamics in Brazilian La Plata Basin and anthropogenic climate change. Climatic Change, 127(1), pp.73-81. Human Population Growth Author(s): Subbiah Arunachalam, Imre J. P. Loefler, Therese Hesketh and Zhu Wei Xing Source: BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol. 320, No. 7232 (Feb. 12, 2000), p. 443. McKibben, B. (1989). The end of nature. New York: Random House. Riou, S., Gray, C., Brooke, M., Quillfeldt, P., Masello, J., Perrins, C. and Hamer, K. (2011). Recent impacts of anthropogenic climate change on a higher marine predator in western Britain. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 422, pp.105-112. UN department of Economic and Social affairs, World Population Prospects, 2015 revision Climatic Changes Author(s): Ernst Antevs Source: Science, New Series, Vol. 58, No. 1508 (Nov. 23, 1923), pp. 420-421. Ziska, L. and Beggs, P. (2012). Anthropogenic climate change and allergen exposure: The role of plant biology. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 129(1), pp.2732. Policymakers summary IPCC

example of this is malaria. Malaria is carried by female mosquitoes that are sensitive to temperature and therefore, in normal conditions, would not found at higher altitudes. However, as temperatures have risen, mosquitoes have migrated to higher altitudes, thus allowing them to infect more individuals, making the disease much more prevalent amongst the population as a whole. This effect has been observed in many diseases and with factors other than an increase in temperature too, such as exposure to humans through deforestation. All this seems desperate at best, but as we have the power to destroy an ecosystem we also have the power to save it. But this requires teamwork on a global scale, and as there is no resounding global body proves challenging at best. However, it is in our best interests to save our planet’s biosphere as we are intimately and irreversibly linked to it. We are in desperate need of conservation and this is possible. Human ingenuity when faced with a problem can be astounding, but rather than

51


population

52


in a world of

It is obvious that the issue of population lies at the core of the 10bn project. What isn’t obvious is the way in which we will choose to deal with such an issue. The articles that

idealist societies and population

follow will explore possible ‘coping

control, may give us some insight into

strategies’ and various methods

the way in which the world may have

of dealing with such a high global

to be governed in regards to such

populace. Considerations such as

matters.

53


population Matthew Pearson

54


Kia J Muukkonen

55


population

56


57


population

58


The Problem of Utopia Michael Chilton

When considering a world in which the human race has surpassed a population of ten billion a whole host of issues emerge; from security to health, food to water, on a scale of which we have never experienced as a species.

to sterilize the human race through creating a disease that only they have the vaccine for. And of course this vaccine’s main purpose is to sterilise, not vaccinate the patient. It is not the ethics of this proposal that we should see as the main problem

However chief amongst all these

however, rather the conceivability.

concerns it is the issue of the popula-

Utopia remains a fiction, be it a rather

tion itself- its number and its constant

useful one that is as implausible today

increase. In a world where the last of

as any other conspiracy or science

its fossil fuels are being burnt and its

fiction thriller we enjoy. Therein the

arable land slowly decreasing the pos-

problem lies. To avoid calamity we

sibility of yet more mouths to feed is

have to carry out population control,

one we cannot accept and must strive

the problem is just how difficult it is to

to avoid. That is why population control

implement. The idea today amongst the

has to be seen as the most pressing

general population would be met with

issue facing this very real future that

disgust and horror, but it is something

we are now approaching.

we will have to undertake.

Dennis Kelly’s show Utopia has this

However what about in this world of ten

in mind as its chief theme, and as the

billion? Would there be enough differ-

story unfolds an exploration of this

ences in our present reality and the

highly contentious issue is undertaken.

one of ten billion that we could execute

The show’s treatment of it is perhaps

population control? To this one has to

one of the most extreme and radical to

answer again, no. There are a multi-

date as we are faced with an organisa-

tude of reasons for this however I shall

tion, decades in the making, attempting

cover just two.

59


population

Firstly there is no general political will.

meaningful and worthwhile population

Both on a state and international level

control is to be implemented it has to

it seems hard to imagine how any pop-

be done on a global level. No one state

ular appeal can be gained on this issue.

can solve this problem alone. Given

No states citizenry will be accepting

then the difficulties already facing

of having to limit their population;

international cooperation over issues

evidence of this can be seen in China

like climate change this seems again

and India, and even under their more

unlikely to happen.

authoritative regimes both population control policies have been repealed.

The second reason for why there would

A world of ten billion will be likely no

be no action regarding population

different, especially when the public

control stems from the international

trends of today (blaming things like

economic system and its various insti-

immigration and government inepti-

tutions. Despite vast changes we would

tude for these problems) are increased

see in a world of ten billion it is difficult

further as our situation worsens.

to see how, in that short amount of time, free market capitalism would have

This will only exacerbate the problem

changed radically enough to deal with

of general political will on the interna-

these problems.

tional stage where already there will be difficulties. Even today international co-

This economic system is incompatible

operation is a constant struggle so the

with any population control. Population

chances of this improving given even

control not only requires substantive

more problems are unlikely; especially

investment and resources but also a

when these are all essentially com-

regulated economy. The impact of even

mons problems that do not fall under

the mildest form of population control

a particular set of states. Also if any

would have huge economic ramifica-

60


tions such as an aging population. This

worlds problems seem out of reach.

is just one consequence of population

To conclude then it is maybe worth

control that our current economic

considering a line by Wilson Wilson

system is not prepared for given its

from Utopia. “Your problem is you think

unregulated nature and reliance on

we can all just get along, co-operate...

private investment. Greater investment

When the fuck have we ever done

in welfare as well as increased regula-

that?�. The world of ten billion and

tion on speculation on stocks and other

beyond may very well look back on us

commodities would need to be imple-

and blame the very people who now are

mented to prevent a huge economic

trying to save them from that predica-

crash that could make the world of ten

ment. The idealists and the optimists

billion even worse. Again, however, I

who believe we can just work together

struggle to see these measures being

to sort out our problems, that we will

implemented. The current international

just invent ourselves out of the threats

economic order is far too difficult to

we face. But in the same way they have

change in such a short space of time

failed those advocating population

given the lock in effect it has had over

control will likely also fail too. As we

the past decades. It would be uprooting

also are too optimistic that the popu-

a way of life in a matter years that has

lation at large will come to terms with

developed over the last century which

these harsh realities. It thus seems

obviously will not happen.

unlikely; if not impossible that we will avoid disaster and instead succumb to

Above are just two considerations

the gradual collapse of human society

(political and economic) as to why

over the coming century and into the

population control, though needed, will

next.

never be achieved. Even in a world of ten billion the solution to many of that

61


population

62


4th Industrial Revolution

& Africa’s democracy

In a world of 10bn Kiyumbu Wilkister Ludenyi

The main theme of the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2016 was “Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution.� Amongst the panel discussions was what that would mean for African countries and the continent as a whole. As we reflect on the projection of the world population by 2050, it is important to consider the proactive things that the continent can do to address the anticipated challenges. In this article, I will draw upon the implications of the Fourth Industrial Revolution for African economies. Coupling that with Modernization theories of Democracy, I will point out the areas of study that could be investigated to show a correlation between policies on Information and Communication Technology as a driver for economic development, and the stability for democracies in the continent. In his new book The Fourth Industri-

al Revolution, Klaus Schwab makes strong arguments about the global economy being on the verge of a fourth industrial revolution. This would be an era that builds on the impact of digitization, which would change the way we live, work and relate with one another. It is marked by the beginning of cyber-physical systems influencing machines and people (Nicholas, 2016). With its new technologies that blend the physical, digital and biological worlds, he argues that this era holds potential for either great promise or peril depending on how the world adapts to it. The three main areas of concern that Schwab highlights are inequality, security and identity-issues relevant to everyone. The fourth industrial revolution is therefore an era building on the technological advancements of the previous industrial revolutions in new and unanticipated ways, never mind that many parts of the world have

63


population not fully experienced second and third

diversification of the economy, which

revolutions.

promotes growth and inclusion. Ross (2011) argued that increased income

Information and Communication

leads to increased occupational

Technology has the capacity to change

differentiation, improved education,

the composition of Africa’s economy

and growth of the service economy, all

and social structures. In other words,

necessary for enhancing democracies.

“what the Great Western Railway was

It also has an impact on government’s

to Victorian England, the mobile net-

efficiency and effectiveness in their

works are to Africa” (Miles Morland.)

services as in the resources available

There is an already established mobile digital revolution in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the region’s challenges with infrastructure, mobile phone usage has grown more rapidly than researchers imagined, and is expected to continue that way. Even with

innovation has seen mobile phones used for transferring money and enhancing the agricultural sectors. The region seemingly bypassed the landline communication stage of development, moving straight into the digital age.

to governments through revenue from a diversified economy. Secondly, it enhances promotion of civic culture. For example, in North Africa spring political movements mobilized support against oppressive

low smartphone penetration, innova-

government using SMS and social me-

tion has seen mobile phones used for

dia. Information and Communication

transferring money and enhancing the

technology also increases exposure

agricultural sectors. The region seem-

to other democracies. Besides natural

ingly bypassed the landline communi-

resources, youth population is another

cation stage of development, moving

main asset of the continent. As approx-

straight into the digital age.

imately 65 per cent of the population are youths-those who are actively

Information and Communication

involved in matters of telecommunica-

Technology is also a powerful political

tion-it means the highest proportion of

tool in two ways. Firstly, it promotes

the population will be encouraged to

64


promote democracy in their country.

mocracies and economic development are central to the solutions that other

The modernisation theories of de-

sectors come up with.

mocracy argue that there is a strong correlation between economic devel-

An empirical testing of the existing ICT

opment and democracy. The argument

policies based on economic theories of

is that economic development diversi-

industrialisation would be interesting.

fies the economy, thus increasing the

To what extent do the policies increase

government’s reliance on its people,

dependence of governments to its

increases involvement of citizens in

population rather than multinational

politics as well as satisfaction of the

co-operations in the technology sec-

population as most of their needs are

tor? Do the policies promote intra-Af-

met. As such, economic development is

rica trade? What do they mean for the

a key ingredient for the emergence and

firms in this industry, especially mobile

stability of democratic governments.

phones and data service providers?

If mobile networks are crucial for eco-

How do they promote value addition of

nomic development, they may be just

the continent’s natural resources? Do

as crucial for a stable democracy.

the policies promote diversification of the economy as to be more inclusive?

With regards to the role of African

These and other questions are worth

countries and their role in addressing

exploring.

the challenges that would arise in a world of 10bn, the changes set with the unfolding of the 4th Industrial Revolution will be of great significance. Should the 4th industrial revolution be considered as a new era or just a diversification of the 4th? If it is new, is it predominantly a reserve of the west and the developing nations are yet to enter in? The continent is expected to be home to a quarter of the world population in 2050- holding other factors such as migration constant. Stable de-

65


population

The Issue of Social Housing in Cities Across the World Shaun Thomas

A serious problem facing the world today – which will only increase with a population of 10bn – is that of social housing and accommodation for an increasingly urbanised population. Informal cities (i.e. slums) are growing in many parts of the world. It is important that all disciplines provide some form of contribution to this issue. Conjunto Piedrabuena in Buenos Aries is a paramount example of an informal city ated with slum-life, but also the unique vibrancy found in such an environment. Recently at Piedrabuena there was a significant gas explosion, leaving the complex largely without water or heating and a staircase also collapsed. These are health and safety concerns

66

Township in Soweto Source: Matt-80 {{cc-by-2.0}}

scenario, depicting problems associ-


that rarely happen on this scale, or would receive much more attention, in a formal city. Radical Cities author Justin McGuirk states “to get anything done residents have to kick up a fuss.” Is this socio-political dynamic healthy? Taking an ethical standpoint, shouldn’t the citizens of an informal city have access to basic human necessities and rights equal to those of a formal city’s populace? However, a positive light can be shed on informal cities. These places, like Piedrabuena, can be a hub of creativity, and instead of condemnation, deserve more value and recognition than they are currently given. McGuirk remarks that the area is “home to lovers of modernist ruins, artists and documentary makers”, so it is one which should be treasured. Artists are beginning to move away from slums such as this, undoubtedly because of the numerous problems associated with them. In an interview, Pepi, an artist who worked in Piedrabuena, but has since moved elsewhere, discussed how art is especially beneficial in these areas because it is free and accessible to all. Murals cascade along the walls of the complex depicting famous works of art including Dali’s melting clocks. Many disciplines and areas of society need to play their

67


population

part in resolving these issues so that

think that buildings have an impact on

these hubs of creativity are not at risk

the residents or at the very least, the

of becoming devoid of their artistic

character of a city or the landscape

heart.

surrounding it. This needs to be taken into account when considering infor-

Institutionally-constructed-accommo-

mal settlements and social housing

dation is problematic here as well. For

projects.

example, the University of Sheffield’s student accommodation has, in some

Every contemporary city has this kind

cases, proven to be more than twice

of microcosm, be it in the form of fave-

as expensive as renting privately in the

las (social housing projects turned into

city, as outlined in Chris Saltmarsh’s

heritage landmarks in the urban en-

petition to resolve the university hous-

vironment), Romany travellers setting

ing crisis in the University newspaper

up camp or ghettos. These should be

Forge Press.

cherished and worked with, rather than condemned.

Another social housing example, Park

What should be remembered is that

Hill Flats in Sheffield has become an

cities have more than managed without

English heritage landmark, showing

architects for millennia. Architects

that social housing impacts the city

should not replace the “ineluctable

and its many communities culturally

logic of the informal city” as McGuirk

to this day. An emerging idea with-

terms it, but rather they should merely

in archaeological theory is that of a

be agents in enhancing it.

building’s agency. Many academics

68


Tiny House Movement

Image: Jonathon Ross-Mooneyham;charles mooneyham CC-BY-SA-4.0

Kahmin Goh

The tiny house movement means choosing to downsize the space that you live in. This interest in very small houses has been revived in some developed countries such as Japan, Britain, Germany and Russia, though it is most active in America. 69


population The typical American home is around

the down payment is about $58,000

2600 square feet, whereas the typical

(Vermes, 2015). This isn’t affordable

small or tiny house is only between 100

for most Americans, as between a third

and 400 square feet (Meyers 2016).

and half of their income is dedicated to

Tiny houses come in all shapes, forms

their living expenses, which is equiva-

and even mobility, and enable people

lent to working 15 years over a lifetime.

to live a simpler lifestyle whilst using

About 76 per cent of people in Amer-

space more efficiently.

ica are living paycheck to paycheck because of this (The Tiny Life, 2009).

More and more people are joining this

Therefore, people started searching for

movement for many reasons, but the

solutions, and tiny houses turned out to

most popular reasons have environ-

be one of the best alternatives. Due to

mental and financial considerations, as

the higher sustainability and financial

for more time and freedom. In 1900, the average American home size was less than 1,000 square feet, and this remained the case until around

The typical American home is around 2600 square feet, whereas the typical small or tiny house is only between 100 and 400 square feet

stability that comes with smaller houses, about 55 per cent of tiny house owners have more savings than average as well (Quinn, 2016). Shrinking space

World War II (Small-

doesn’t mean a

houseliving.org, 2016). It was not until the war that people started thinking

shrinking quality life. On the contrary,

about house expansion, and since

it boosts the quality of life as it be-

1973 the average American home size

comes easier to find everyday items

has ballooned by 60 per cent to 2657

when needed. Also, since less time is

square feet (Nationalgeographic.com,

required for cleaning and maintaining

2016). Most people had the concept

the home, there is more freedom for

“bigger is better” instilled upon them.

residents who no longer feel like they are a “slave to the home”.

However, the average purchase price of

Reducing home size is one of the

a single-family home is $290,000, and

affordable actions individuals can take

70

Image: Jeangagnon{{cc-by-3.0}}

well as the desire


to help save our planet. According to

save energy resources, but will also

Swiss scientists, humans could limit

increase the availability of land for our

the effects of climate change if each

next generation of 10 billion people.

person used just 2000 watts of power

Therefore, the tiny house movement

per year (Ourworld.unu.edu, 2016). An

should be one of the most highly pro-

average American consumes 12000

moted ideas worldwide.

watts per year, and a Bangladeshi consumes only 300 (McDermott, 2016). Talking only about the building itself, an average house takes about seven logging trucks to provide lumber, while an average tiny house uses only a half to one logging truck (Vermes, 2015). Assuming that all of the light bulbs in the building are compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs), an average house has about 45 light bulbs consuming 639kWh of electricity per year, but it is merely 85.2kWh (6 light bulbs) for a tiny house (Vermes, 2015). This may McDermott, M. (2016). You Are Entitled to 2,000 Watts, Use Them Wisely (Updated). [online] TreeHugger. Available at: http://www.treehugger.com/corporate-responsibility/youare-entitled-to-2000-watts-use-them-wisely-updated.html [Accessed 1 Jul. 2016]. Meyers, G. (2016). Strategies For Thinking About A Tiny House. [online] Green Living Ideas. Available at: http://greenlivingideas.com/2016/01/29/strategies-for-people-thinking-about-tiny-houses/ [Accessed 1 Jul. 2016]. Nationalgeographic.com. (2016). 5 Ways to Curb Climate Change: You. [online] Available at: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/climate-change/how-to-fix-it/you.html [Accessed 1 Jul. 2016]. Ourworld.unu.edu. (2016). 2,000 Watt Society - Our World. [online] Available at: http://ourworld.unu.edu/ en/2000-watt-society [Accessed 1 Jul. 2016]. Quinn, M. (2016). Cbsnews.com. 9 reasons you should retire to a tiny house. [online] Available at: http://www.cbsnews. com/media/9-reasons-you-should-retire-to-a-tiny-house/ [Accessed 1 Jul. 2016]. Smallhouseliving.org. (2016). Small House Living : Little Homes : Old Homes : Kit Homes. [online] Available at: http:// www.smallhouseliving.org/random-thoughts/history-smhouse-mvmnt.htm [Accessed 1 Jul. 2016]. The Tiny Life. (2009). What Is The Tiny House Movement?. [online] Available at: http://thetinylife.com/what-is-the-tinyhouse-movement/ [Accessed 1 Jul. 2016]. Vermes, K. (2015). The Tiny House Movement and Its Impact on the Environment. [online] RecycleNation. Available at: http://recyclenation.com/2015/04/-tiny-house-movementand-its-impact-on-environment [Accessed 1 Jul. 2016].

sound unbelievable, but the building itself accounts for 72 per cent of total electricity used, 38 per cent of carbon dioxide and also 18 per cent of greenhouse gases released each year for an average household in America (Vermes, 2015). The tiny house movement may sound like a trivial action, but it improves quality of life and freedom whilst helping to save the Earth. Unity is strength, and when more and more people start living in smaller areas, this will not just

71


festival ‘How are we to live together in a world

Sheffield on the 14-18th February

of 10 bn?’ This pivotal question is

2016. The diversity of themes

the inspiration behind the Festival

covered during these events reflect

of 10bn, which was a collaboration

the festival’s interdisciplinary nature,

between all five faculties of the

as topics ranged from technology

University of Sheffield: Arts and

and the environment to energy and

Humanities, Engineering, Medicine,

philosophy. However, all the events

Dentistry and Health, Science

presented various perspectives on

and Social Sciences. Interactive

how the human race could survive

discussions, open lectures,

once it reaches a population of 10bn.

exhibitions and a poetry night were

A festival wouldn’t be complete

amongst the vast array events

without food, and The Sheffield Junk

which took place at the University of

Food Project ensured no stomachs

72


of

were left empty! A meal was prepared from surplus food in an attempt to tackle the colossal problem of excessive waste that is created by our issues relating to 10bn need to

society.

be facilitated not just amongst Since the festival’s primary focus is

academics, but everyone in order to

how to cope with a rapidly increasing

have a holistic approach to tackling

population, which affects everyone,

key questions. There was a lot of

it seemed only fitting that the festival

positive feedback from festival goers

was not just accessible to university

on social media, and the inaugural

students, but was also open to the

Festival of 10bn was a huge success,

general public. Discussion about

with high attendance at many events.

73


afterword This magazine has been the collective

roadmap to protecting our species over

effort of second year students at

the next fifty years and into the next

the University of Sheffield who have

century.

managed to come together from different subjects, disciplines and mind-

Most important of all however these

sets to address what will be the defining

solutions will not come from one

question of this century for our species.

individual because the problems are

How can we live in a world of ten billion

too vast and the challenge is too much.

people?

This does not mean however they are unachievable. Collaboration is what is

To this end we hope to have offered

needed now and that is what a world

a glimpse of what is to come; the

of ten billion must be built around in

good, the bad, the adversity and the

order for it to not be seen as a future

opportunity a world of ten billion people

nightmare but a future opportunity.

will be. And furthermore how we cannot Tayma Bartram and Michael Chilton

just survive in that world but thrive provided we are willing to accept its realities and work towards solutions to them. The key to this is recognising and understanding that the problems of a world of ten billion are multifaceted and will transcend one singular approach to them. We cannot expect solutions that don’t have their own implications that must be recognised beforehand. In this sense we face a jigsaw puzzle where the pieces by themselves do not make sense but together can offer us a

74


Tayma A Bartram Picture editor Michael CW Chilton Editor Harriet A Hales Copy editor Elka Hubenova Online editor Dinora AA Kruja Deputy editor Evelyn A Mantoiu Contributor Kate M Marron Graphic Design Contributor

Digital copy of the magazine available: 10bn.sheffield.ac.uk/magazine Graphic design and layout by Thomas Wilson. All opinions are the authors’ own; the University of Sheffield takes no responsibility for accuracy nor do these opinions necessarily reflect the views of the University. Published by the University of Sheffield 2016 for Achieve More L2: 10bn. Š UoS 2016


10bn Student Magazine  

Second year students at the University of Sheffield explore, how will we live in a world of 10 billion people?

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