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Jan ‘ 2012
Public Health Public Health is the science and art of prevent- Ÿ Housing must be constructed and maintained ing disease and injury through the organized to ensure that healthful conditions are mainefforts of society, the community and individutained at all times. als. Unlike medicine, public health studies pat- Ÿ Communicable diseases can be prevented by terns of disease and injury in a population of following accepted sanitation practices in individuals to determine effective preventive sports and recreation facilities. measures. The health of the community is protect“Modern public health practice requires ed by following good pubmultidisciplinary teams of professionals lic health practices: ŸFood and drinking water can transmit disease if not protected from contamination while stored, processed and distributed to each member of the community. Ÿ Sources of disease such as sewage and solid waste must be controlled at all times to prevent contact with hazardous agents.
including physicians specialising in public health/community medicine/infectious disease, epidemiologists, biostatisticians, public health nurses, medical microbiologists, environmental health officers, dental hygienists, dietitians and nutritionists, health inspectors, veterinarians, public health engineers, public health lawyers, sociologists, community development workers, communications officers, and others.
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Jan ‘ 2012
disposing of asbestos, to protect people from further expoAsbestos has a number of uses sure to asbestos fibres. in building construction, main- plaques, pleural thickening, ly insulation. It can be found in and pleural effusions. lagging and fire retardant materials. All forms of asbestos Special precautions need to be are confirmed cancer causing taken when removing asbesmaterials, mostly affecting the tos from a building. Sampling respiratory system. Diseases is required and depending on caused by asbestos may not the type of asbestos, extenshow for 10 to 50 years after sive removal measures may exposure. be required. The most dominant usage of asbestos in the Pacific, is in All forms of asbestos should be handled only by persons wearing the appropriate PPE. Friable asbestos requires full disposable body protection suits and respirators with the correct filters, gloves, boots etc. A decontamination unit will need to be constructed to set up a negative air atmosasbestos cement sheeting phere and wetting agents will used for building materials, be needed to ensure asbestos and to a much lesser extent, release is minimised. insulation around boilers and associated pipes. Asbestos re- Asbestos should be wrapped in lease occurs when the material plastic, disposed to a secure has been damaged or when landfill and covered with at buildings are being demol- least one metre of soil. ished. Ergonomics of Safe Lifting Asbestos disposal is mostly through uncontrolled dumping The simple act of bending over at illegal dumping sites across to lift a 5 gallon water jug to small Pacific Island Countries place on a bubbler in your and also in controlled burial office can have far reaching sites, generally without the issues that most people do not proper measures in place. This even stop to think about. is not suitable and proper management is needed when Asbestos Management
Picking up that jug in the wrong way could lead to pain and discomfort that might last a few days or much longer. Ergonomics incorporates what we do on a daily basis and what effects it might have on our bodies. There are some very obvious jobs where lifting is a regular part of the routine. Construction workers, shippers and receivers, nurses, and janitors all require some lifting. Virtually any job including office work such as the example above could require moving larger objects. Below are some basic steps when performing a lift that will reduce the risk of jury. Ÿ Stand close to the load, facing the way you intend to move. Ÿ Use a wide stance to gain balance. Ÿ Test weight of load before lifting. Ÿ Ask for help and/or get an
assist device if the item is too heavy. Ÿ Get a good grip and lift smoothly.
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Jan ‘ 2012
· Common goals of both Employees and Top Management. · Specifications of target behaviours derived from safety assessments · Observational data collection · Decisions about how best to proceed based on those data · Feedback to associates beBehaviour-based safety? ing observed Behaviour-based safety (BBS) · Continual Review of BBS Program. is the "application of science of behaviour change to real world problems". BBS "focuses on All of the BBS programs rewhat people do, analyzes why viewed included multilevel they do it, and then applies a teams. Some programs use research-supported interven- them in the assessment tion strategy to improve what phase, some in observation people do". BBS is based on a and some in review. Some had larger scientific field called Or- all three areas using multilevel ganization Behaviour Analysis. teams Ÿ Keep load close to the body. Ÿ Bend knees to reach low objects. Ÿ Avoid bending back while lifting. Ÿ Lift slowly Ÿ Never twist your body when lifting, always turn in the direction of the lift.
To be successful a BBS program must include all employees, from the Top to the floor associates. To achieve changes in behaviour, a change in policy, procedures and systems most assuredly will also need some change. Those changes cannot be done without buy-in and support from all involved in making those decisions. BBS is not based on assumptions, personal feeling, and common knowledge. To be successful, the BBS program used must be based on scientific knowledge.
BBS must also have attitude adjustment to be sustaining. It has been proven that "behaviour influences attitude and attitude influences behaviour". The goal should be small gains over and over again; continuous growth. BBS is not a quick fix. It is a commitment.
A good BBS program will con- How Behaviour-Based safety works? sist of:
1.Observation at site-The behaviour-based safety process depends on site observation. Site observation includes individual feedback, which is the most effective act in the BBS process. The observer meets the worker at site and introduces him and the job he is going to do. The observer monitors the worker and notices his safe behaviours. He also monitors the at-risk behaviours the worker is putting himself in. The observer starts his feedback by commending the safe behaviour the worker was doing during his work. Then he explains, one-by-one, the at-risk behaviours the worker was doing. Then the observer asks the worker why he was putting himself at risk. For example, if the worker is welding a piece of metal and the sparks are flying in the worker's direction. The observer would then ask the worker why he was not wearing protective clothing, like a flame-retardant apron. They both discuss the at-risk behaviour until the worker agrees to try the suggested recommendation made by the observer. The worker might be aware of his at-risk behaviour or maybe not. The worker may be doing the at-risk behaviour for a long time without hurting himself (negative consequences). The observer's job here is to high-
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Jan ‘ 2012
cording this interaction is important for a later detailed analysis so feedback can be provided to both workers and management, to help identify The above discussion and the most appropriate correcagreement is the individual tive actions. feedback which helps the worker to change his behav- 2. Data gathering and prereports-Observaiour. This feedback is consid- liminary ered as a form of reward since: tion checklists are gathered and entered in electronic dataŸ The worker got commenda- base. Reports are generated ble comments on his safe for BBS steering committee to behaviour. analyze and recommend pracŸ The worker understood his tical solutions. These reports at-risk behaviour without flag out trends of at-risk bebeing reprimanded at site or haviours and in which location reported to his superiors for they are taking place. Ideally, further penalties. feedback reports are generated and given to the workers themselves in the different locations on a weekly basis. light this behaviour, then explain the associated negative consequences with this behaviour.
At the end of the observation, the observer would fill in a checklist with the safe and at-risk behaviours he noticed along with the date, time and location of the observations. The worker's name or identification numbers are not noted in the checklist. Part of the checklist can be used to summarize the observation process and the discussion. The worker's comments and reasons for the at-risk behaviour are recorded along with the suggested safe behaviour. Re-
3. Report analysis and recommendation-The steering committee is made up of highlevel influential members and chaired by a Management Representative. The committee has periodical meetings to discuss and analyze BBS report findings. The committee then produces a set of recommendations to tackle workers' behaviours. Some of the recommendations would be as simple as providing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to workers in certain locations, or increase work force in another location. Some of the recommendations require site modification or costly machinery.
Such recommendations are sent to top management for necessary approvals. Implementing the recommendations would change the atrisk behaviours at the targeted location. Also the recommendations would eliminate hazards and risks caused by hardware or wrong design. Committee members devote time and effort to discuss and analyze these reports in periodical meetings. These meetings are counted as part of the management commitment to the behaviour process.
“We keep supervisors out of the behavior-based safety process so that when an employee sees a supervisor approaching him and asking about unsafe behavior, there's a very different flavor than that of a peer doing it as part of a behavior-based safety program, ... While the employee's approach as part of a behavior-based safety program might be 'I saw you do this,' the supervisor has the role of a coach, saying, 'I'm working with you until your behavior changes.'” - David Lawson
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SeptJan ‘ 2011 ‘ 2012
Regulatory Updates Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas Notification GSR 857(E) dated 1-12-2011 The Central Government in exercise of the powers conferred by sections 4, 5 14, 21, 22 and sub-section (1) of section 29 of the Petroleum Act, 1934 makes the following rules further to amend the Petroleum Rules, 2002.
(ii) Submit the tank fabrication and mounting drawings in quadruplicate for each type of tank vehicle, along with scrutiny fee of rupees one hundred to the Chief Controller, after satisfying himself after verification of design, may approve the design and forward a copy thereof to the applicant with his signature and official seal.
In clause (ix) of rule 2 the new words “ordnance Sub-rule (3) of rule 64 is substituted by followfactories under the ministry of defence, Indo ing: Tibetan Border Police and Coast Guard” are added. The net carrying capacity of a tank truck or a tank semi-trailer shall not exceed 40 kilolitres of In sub-rule (1) of rule 5 the words “iron & steel” petroleum except in case of air-craft refueller in are replaced by “steel and other suitable mate- which case it should not exceed 50 kilolitres and rial” the net carrying capacity of any tank trailer should not exceed 5 kilolitres of petroleum. Sub-rule 2 of rule 63 is substituted by following: After clause (iii) of sub-rule (1) of rule 70 the The tank shall be fabricated and mounted on the following proviso is inserted: vehicle chassis by a manufacturer approved by the Chief Controller and such a manufacturer Provided that where the exhaust of diesel engine shall,is based on design having electronic fuel man(i) apply to the Chief Controller for approval with particulars of facilities and competent persons available with him and a scrutiny fee of rupees five hundred and the chief controller on satisfying himself after verification of the particulars and competence of technical manpower, may approve the workshop for fabrication of tank truck and such approval shall be valid for three years from the date of issue of approval and renewable for further period of 3 years on payment of fee of rupees five hundred for each three year period.
agement with unit injectors and electronic control unit coupled with turbo charger and intercooler arrangements, no separate spark arrestor be provided. In clause (xi) of rule 70 for the word “cab” where it occurs the word “cabin” shall be substituted. In sub-rule (2) of rule 70 for the word “cab” the word “cabin” shall be substituted. In rule 71 for sub-clause a of clause (2) the following shall be substituted:
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Jan ‘ 2012
Regulatory Updates Compromise of conductors of adequate capacity to avoid overheating and shall be adequately insulated for maximum loads to be carried. In rule 71 in sub-clause b of clause (2) for the words “protective covering and” the word “protective covering” shall be substituted. In rule 71 in sub-clause c of clause (2) after the words “sealed” the word “and” shall be inserted. In rule 71 after sub-clause c, the following sub-clause shall be inserted: (d) shall be securely fastered and positioned in such a way that the conductors are adequately protected against mechanical stress. In rule 71 for clause (iii) the following clause shall be substituted:
the generator, battery, switches, fuses and circuit brackets shall be carried in the cabin of the vehicle or in the engine compartment and the battery shall be in an easily accessible position with a
heavy-duty switch for breaking the electrical circuits which shall be placed as close to the battery as possible. @ direct or indirect control devices shall be installed, one in the driver's cabin and the second on the outside of the vehicle and both the devices installed inside the cabin of the vehicle and out side, shall be readily accessible and distinctly marked and the control device located in the driver's cabin shall be within immediate reach of the driver, seated in the driver's seat and it shall be protected against inadvertent operation by either adding protective cover, or by using dual movement control device or by other suitable means' (b) it shall be possible to open the switch while the engine is running, without causing any dangerous excess voltage and the operation of the switch shall not constitute fire hazard in n explosive atmosphere which can be ensured by using a switch having a casing with degree of protection IP 65; © the cable connection on the battery master switch shall have degree of protection IP54, save if such connection is contained in a
housing which may be a battery box ; (d) the battery terminals shall be electrically insulated or covered by an insulating battery box cover which is properly vented;" In rule 71 for clause (iv) the following clause shall be substituted: generators and motors and witches thereof which are not installed within the engine compartment and which remains energized when the battery master switch is open shall be suitable for use in hazardous area and shall meet appropriate requirement of Indian standards for the relevant gas group: Provided that where such generator or motor or switches thereof are installed in an enclosed space, adequate provision shall be made for air circulation to prevent overheating and possible accumulation of inflammable vapours , In rule 71 after clause (iv) clause (v) is inserted: (v) bypass connections to the battery master switch for elec-
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Jan ‘ 2012 1
Regulatory Updates trical equipment which remain energized when the battery master switch is open shall be protected against overheating by suitable means, such as a fuse, a circuit breaker or safety barrier ( current limited ): Provided that the provisions of this rule except clause ( i ) and subclause (a) of clause (ii) shall not apply for transportation of Petroleum Class A, otherwise than in bulk exclusively used by helicopters and aeroplanes for aerial crop spraying purposes only.
is inserted: combinations of different protection apparatus of the type approved in writing by the Chief Controller.
In rule 106 in sub-rule (1) in proviso for the words “safe apparatus of a type” the word “safe apparatus, either individually or in combination with other similar devices forming an intrinsically safe circuit of the type” shall be substituted.
In rule 106 in sub-rule (4) after sub-clause (ii) the following shall be inserted: (1) Intrinsically safe apparatus shall conform to IS/IEC:60079-11 or equivalent standard recognised by the Chief Controller; (2) Intrinsically safe circuit shall conform to IS/IEC:60079-25 or equivalent standard recongnised by the Chief Controller (3) Flameproof apparatus shall conform to IS/IEC:60079-1 or equivalent standard recognised by the Chief Controller; (4) Pressure protected apparatus shall conform to IS/IEC:60079-2/60079-13 or equivalent standard recognised
In rule 106 in sub-rule (2) in clause (ii) for the words “industrial type apparatus housed” the word “industrial type apparatus, approved in writing by the Chief Controller, housed” shall be substituted. In rule 106 in sub-rule (2) after clause (ii) following clause (iii)
In rule 106 in sub-rule (3) for clause (i) the following clause shall be substituted: a nonsparking apparatus or protected contacts apparatus or restricted breathing enclosure apparatus or energy limited apparatus or simplified pressure protected apparatus of a type approved in writing by the Chief Controller;
by the Chief Controller ; (5) Non-sparking apparatus shall conform to IS/IEC:60079-15 or equivalent standard recognised by the Chief Controller. In rule 108 after sub-rule (3) the following sub-rules are inserted: (4) The cross sectional area of the earthing conductor shall be minimum 4 square millimetres. (5) The electrical integrity of the earthing system shall be measured only by devices approved by the Chief Controller. In rule 124 in sub-rule (1) for the words “ iron or steel” the word “steel or other suitable material” shall be substituted. In rule 124 in sub-rule (1) for the words “ codes or specification approved by the Indian Standard Institution” the word “relevant specification of Bureau of Indian Standards” shall be substituted. In rule 124 in sub-rule (1) proviso shall be omitted. In rule 142 after sub-rule (1) sub-rule (1A) shall be inserted “Every licence granted in Form XI under these rules may be
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Jan ‘ 2012
Regulatory Updates renewed for a maximum period of ten years counted as 365 days or multiple thereof from the date of grant of the licence where there has been no contravention of the Act or of the rules framed there under or of any conditions of the licence so renewed. ” shall be substituted.
cerned notified area or head of the establishment, as the case may be, is obtained.” shall be inserted.
Ministry of Environment and Forests (C. P. Division) has published the “Revised In rule 142 in sub-rule (2) for Guidelines for the Centrally the words “ three years” the Sponsored Scheme of Common Treatment Plants word “ten years” shall be sub- Effluent (CETPs)” stituted. In rule 142 in sub-rule (2) for the words “ three years” the word “ten years” shall be substituted. In rule 144 after sub-rule (5) following sub-rule (6) “Where the location of storage of petroleum is within the notified area of a Port or Airport under the control of the state, or establishment of Indian Space Research Organisation or Department of Atomic Energy, No Objection Certificate from the District Authority referred to in sub-rules (1) to (5) shall not be required : Provided that consent for establishment of petroleum storage from the competent authority of con-
Under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, every industry has to provide adequate treatment of its effluents before disposal, irrespective of whether it is in stream, land, sewerage system of sea. The small scale industrial units (SSI), which are presently defined as units whose plant and machinery are valued at less than Rs. 5 Crore occupy an important place in the India economy. The SSIs are a major contributor to the total industrial pollution load of the country. However, only a small fraction of the effluent discharge from these units is estimated to be treated as on date. SSIs, due to their limited size and scale of operations do not find it economically viable to install dedicated pollution
control equipment and therefore the concept of Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) is suitable for them. CETPs help in achieving end-of-pipe treatment of combined wastewater of the SSIs at lower unit cost and also facilitate better monitoring by the state Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) and Pollution Control Committees (PCCs).
Haryana Government Environment Department Notification The 3rd January, 2011 The Haryana Government after considering the adverse effects of plastic carry bags on the environment and local ecology, felt that plastic carry bags are littered about irresponsibly and have detrimental effect on the environment. It observed that the plastic carry bags also cause blockage of gutters, sewerage system and drains thereby resulting in serious environmental problems. After considering the above adverse effects the Governor of Haryana hereby issues following directions, namely:Prohibition/Restriction on manufacture, sale, distribution and use of virgin and recycled plas-
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Jan ‘ 2012
Regulatory Updates tic carry bags and recycled plastic containers as per the notification number 16/52/2007-3 dated 3-012012.
Ministry of Environment & Forests has published a notification number G.S.R 830(E) dated 24th November 2011 to amend the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1975. These rules will come in force on the date of their Publication. In the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1975 Rule 3 is omitted. The Factories Act, 1948 Section 2(n) “Occupier” of a factory means the person who has ultimate control over the affairs of the factory, and where the said affairs are entrusted to a managing agent, such agent shall be deemed to be the occupier of the factory. However the clause 10 of Form 2 says that the company can put any, (1) the proprietor in case of private firm (2) the director in case of public limited company. (3) the managing agent. (4) the Shareholders in case of private company.(5) the Chief Administrative Head in case of government factory or a factory run by a local authority or any statutory corporation or body.
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Jan ‘ 2012
Regulatory Updates Maharashtra Pollution Control Board Maharashtra Pollution Control Board has Plans to discourage the use of Plaster of Paris and chemical colours during the making of Ganesha Idols. MPCb has initiated a campaign to promote the use of ecofriendly Ganesha Idols made of degradable materials. MPCB is encouraging the use of Shadu (a special type of clay) brought from Gujarat. MPCB is also promoting the use of paper bags for collecting the nirmalya (the florals and other left overs after the festivities). MPCB is conducting training sessions for the making of eco-friendly idols in Navi Mumbai.
amount of fees shall be made in the same manner as payments of amounts due by one Government Department to another are ordinarily made. Sub-rule 1 of rule 119 is substituted by following: Annual return.- On or before the 10th of January of each year and annual return in Form 27. After Sub-rule 1 of rule 119 following sub-rule is inserted: Monthly return.- On or before the 10th of each month a monthly return in respect of the preceding month in Form 27A:
Provided that, factories having Industries, Energy and La- less than 10 employees and bour Department, Mantra- covered under section 85 shall file monthly return in respect laya, Mumbai of three months, at the end of It has published the notifica- the quarter tion No. No.FACfollowing 2009/C.R.105/Labour-10 on 3- After Rule 125 A 1-2012 known as the Mahar- rules are inserted: ashtra Factories (Amendment 125B. The occupier of every factory shall submit returns, Rules), 2012 application for registration, reSub-rule 1 of rule 12 is substi- newal of registration certificate, application for tuted by following: The occupier of every factory exemption, notices or any othshall pay the fees prescribed er application or documents under these rules electronical- electronically. ly: Provided that, in the case of 125C. (1) The occupier of evea Government factory, the ry factory shall pay the elecpayment of the appropriate tronic transaction charges for
availing e-services for submitting returns, applications for registration, renewal of registration certificate, application for exemption, notices or any other application or documents and for paying fees prescribed in these rules, electronically, as provided in sub-rule (2). (2) The electronic transaction charges for the purposes of sub-rule (1) shall be as follows:Documents
Returns Application for registration Application for renewal of registration certificate Application for exemption Any other application or documents
Charges (in rupees) Up to 50 More than Labour 50 Labour 20 80 50 100
Form 27 is substituted by new form for Annual Return. After Form 27 new Form 27A is inserted for Monthly Return. The final “Maharashtra Factories (Occupational Safety and Health Audit) Rules, 2011” notification is also published. It applies to Category I, Category II and Category III industries.
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Jan ‘ 2012
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