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has been called by the name darkness. And the shadow comes from a product that has existed since the beginning. It is, moreover, clear that it (viz., the product) existed before chaos came into being, and that the latter is posterior to the first product. Let us therefore concern ourselves with the facts of the matter; and further­ more, with the first product, from which chaos was projected. And in this way the truth will be clearly demonstrated. After the natural structure of the im­ mortal beings had completely developed out of the infinite, a likeness then ema­ nated from Pistis (Faith); it is called So­ phia (Wisdom). It exercised volition and became a product resembling the prime­ val light. And immediately her will man­ ifested itself as a likeness of heaven, having an unimaginable magnitude; it was between the immortal beings and those things that came into being after them, like . . . : she (Sophia) functioned as a veil dividing mankind from the things above. Now the eternal realm (aeon) of truth has no shadow outside it, for the limitless light is everywhere within it. But its ex­ terior is shadow, which has been called by the name darkness. From it there ap­ peared a force, presiding over the dark­ ness. And the forces that came into being subsequent to them called the shadow “the limitless chaos.” From it, every [kind] of divinity sprouted up . . . together with the entire place, [so that] also, [shadow] is posterior to the first product. It was �in� the abyss that [it] (shadow) appeared, deriving from the aforemen­ tioned Pistis. Then shadow perceived that there was something mightier than it, and felt envy; and when it had become pregnant of its own accord, suddenly it engendered jeal­ ousy. Since that day, the principle of jeal­ ousy amongst all the eternal realms and

their worlds has been apparent. Now as for that jealousy, it was found to be an abortion without any spirit in it. Like a shadow it came into existence in a vast watery substance. Then the bile that had come into being out of the shadow was thrown into a part of chaos. Since that day, a watery substance has been appar­ ent. And what sank within it flowed away, being visible in chaos: as with a woman giving birth to a child—all her superflu­ ities flow out; just so, matter came into being out of shadow and was projected apart. And it (viz., matter) did not depart from chaos; rather, matter was in chaos, being in a part of it. And when these things had come to pass, then Pistis came and appeared over the matter of chaos, which had been ex­ pelled like an aborted fetus—since there was no spirit in it. For all of it (viz., chaos) was limitless darkness and bot­ tomless water. Now when Pistis saw what had resulted from her defect, she became disturbed. And the disturbance appeared, as a fearful product; it rushed [to] her in the chaos. She turned to it and [blew] into its face in the abyss, which is below all the heavens. And when Pistis Sophia desired to cause the thing that had no spirit to be formed into a likeness and to rule over matter and over all her forces, there ap­ peared for the first time a ruler, out of the waters, lionlike in appearance, androgy­ nous, having great authority within him and ignorant of whence he had come into being. Now when Pistis Sophia saw him moving about in the depth of the waters she said to him, “Child, pass through to here,” whose equivalent is “yalda bao¯th.” Since that day there appeared the prin­ ciple of verbal expression, which reached the gods and the angels and mankind. And what came into being as a result of verbal expression, the gods and the an­ gels and mankind finished. Now as for

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