EUROPE TIMELINE: 1986:
Nestlé begins replacing CFC and HCFC plants with ammonia systems in production sites.
Gustav Lorentzen develops the modern transcritical cycle for CO 2 .
Greenpeace introduces Greenfreeze isobutane home fridge.
Sergio Girotto installs first subcritical CO 2 cascade system at a supermarket in Conegliano, Italy
Daimler installs first MAC CO 2 system
Sergio Girotto installs first transcritical CO 2 multicompressor system at a Bingo supermarket in Cornuda, Italy
Nestlé opens first large NH 3 / CO 2 cascade system to use compressed CO 2 , in Hayes, U.K.
Carrier installs its first CO 2 transcritical system, at a Migros supermarket in Switzerland.
Advansor, founded in 2007 (and sold to Hillphoenix in 2011), has been another market leader, with its website now reporting 4,815 CO 2 installations. On its website, SCN Frigo says it has 2,303 CO 2 installations. Other OEMs with more than 1,000 CO 2 installations include enEX, TEKO and Epta.
RETAIL LEADERS Some of Europe’s biggest retailers – including the Schwarz Group (which operates the Lidl and Kaufland brands), Sainsbury’s, Carrefour S.A., METRO AG and Ahold Delhaize – are turning to CO 2 and hydrocarbon systems to comply with the F-Gas Regulation and to benefit from the efficiency savings these systems offer. According to shecco, publisher of Accelerate Magazine, there were about 16,000 supermarkets in Europe using transcritical CO 2 systems as of last October, or 14% of the total number or outlets (about 115,000). The biggest Eurpean retailers are also helping to bring natural refrigerant technology to other parts of the world. Germany- based ME TRO AG, an international wholesale and food retail company, has committed to reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions across the company by 50% by 2030 (vs. 2011 levels). The company’s F-Gas Exit Program is helping the company achieve this target. In place since 2013, the program aims to phase out f-gases in all METRO stores worldwide by 2030, replacing them with natural re f r i g e r a n t sys te ms w h e re i t is technically and economically feasible to do so. (See “An irreversible stand on natural refrigerants,” Accelerate Europe, winter 2015.) METRO has a reputation for bringing natural refrigerant technology to different parts of the world. The company has opened three CO 2 transcritical stores in Russia and three in China. In April
Accelerate Magazine // June 2019
2019, it opened its first CO 2 transcritical store in Croatia (in Dubrovnik). In total, the cash and carry giant operates 95 CO 2 transcritical and 108 CO 2 subcritical stores worldwide. Carrefour, another Europe-headquartered multinational, is phasing out HFCs and replacing them with CO 2 for commercial refrigeration. In smaller stores; it is also investing in hydrocarbons. As of September 2017, Carrefour operated about 418 stores using natural refrigerants, about 90% of which used CO 2 (170 with transcritical CO 2). Factors ultimately influencing the decision to go with CO 2 vs. hydrocarbons include store size, equipment cost, and legislation in each country. (See “Crossing the CO2 equator: Carrefour leads the march south,” Accelerate Europe, summer 2016.) Amsterdam-headquartered retail group Ahold Delhaize is aiming to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 40%-70% compared to 2010 levels. By the end of 2017, 13% of the group’s sites were already using natural refrigerantbased installations worldwide. In Europe the figure was 33%, with the Netherlands’ Albert Heijn, which has 346 transcritical CO 2 stores, showing an impressive commitment. (See “All the fun of the playground,” Accelerate Europe, spring 2017.) Other major European natural refrigerant retailers include German retailer ALDI Sud, which was running 1,496 transcritical stores by the end of 2017, including 1,324 in Germany. The Swiss retailer Migros operates 302 transcritical and 149 subcritical CO 2 stores and about 20 using an R290 water-loop system (in total, 66% of all stores), while U.K. retailer Sainsbury has 244 supermarkets and 30 convenience stores using transcritical CO 2 . Several European chains, including Colruy t and Lidl, have rolled out large numbers of stores that use only R290-supported display cases. By the end of the 2019 calendar year, Colruyt will have 92 supermarkets using R290 compact chillers, and another 30 using