SOVINA CHOW 539019
Wyndham Gateway Desing Project
Case for innovation
A.1 Architecture as a Discourse
A.2 Computational Architecture
A.3 Parametric Modelling
A.4 Algorithmic Exploration
A.6 Learning outcome
Design Approach B.1 Design Focus
B.2 Case Study 01
B.3 Technique Exploration
B.4 Case study 02
B.5 Technique Proposal
B.6 Algorithmic Exploration
B.7 Learning Objectives & Outcomes
Project Proposal C.1 Design Concept
C.2 Algorithmic Exploration
C.3 Tectonic Element
C.4 Finial Model
C.5 Algorithmic Exploration
C.6 Learning Outsomce & Objectives
My name is Sovina Chow, I am 21 years old and currently in my 3rd year architecture study. I was raised in Honk Kong and moved to Melbourne during High School with my family. My interests outside of architecture include cooking, baking and DIY hand crafts.
I completed Virtual Environments subject in semester one 2012, which introduced me to Rhino 3D modelling. Through the subject I was able to create a complex geometry that rationalise the natural process of dropper effect. The digital model were later manipulated and physically fabricated using panelling plugin.  The process of learning Rhino was challenging yet rewarding, in terms of develop a better understanding and skills in using digital technology in Architecture. Another subject that I relied heavily on computer software was in ADS: Water. Plans, elevations and sections  were drawn in AutoCAD and later render in Photoshop. A 3D model was developed in Rhino to produce 3D redarning model, however as you can see in  the result are not great.
CASE OF INNOVATION Architecture as a discouse
Much of what we know of institutions, the distribution of power, social relations, cultural values, and everyday life is mediated by the built environment. Thus, to make architecture is to construct knowledge, to build vision. To make architecture is to map the world in some way, to intervene, to signify: it is a political act. Architecture, then, as discourse, discipline, and form, operates at the intersection of power, relations of production, culture, and representation and is instrumental to the construction of our identities and our differences, to shaping how we know the world. 1 Dutton Thomas A
Architectural as an discourse Case for innovation
The public seems to interpret architecture as purely artistic in assembly structure from. It is not completely wrong as aesthetic appearance is a major part of architecture, but definition cannot completely describe what architecture truly is and is able to be. Architecture plays a large role in our everyday lives; we see it, use it, live within it and define the built environment that we live in. Dutton claimed in “Reconstructing Architecture: Critical Discourses and Social Practices” (1996) that our social, cultural, political and economic values are mediated by the built environment. Thus architecture should also influence and contribute to these factors as it helps to shape “how we know the world”2. Being something which is so integral to our everyday life, it places architecture in the perfect position to generate discussion, challenge convention and the current social norms. As Williams explains in “Architecture and Visual Culture”, we need to see architecture beyond a purely aesthetic driven art. Rather it needs to be analyzed as a discourse
that generates new and innovative ideas within a broad perspective and range of disciplines- “something in which all can participate”3. (William, p108) Nothing should be seen as irrelevant when it comes to architecture as ideas and concept are being utilized and incorporated throughout multiple disciplines. Through discussions between broader perspectives, the position of architecture as a communicator and explorer between disciplines, generates ideas from a much broadened perspective. Architecture should not be limited to just built buildings, but also un-built projects such as; sketches, drawings, books, magazines, videos, web pages or any form of medium. Schumacher argued that it is only through a rapid dissemination of materials that could generate “unprecedented” 4ideas and to spread discourse surrounding architecture much further. Therefore, it is important that we see architecture as a discourse that can impact and contribute to the social, culture and philosophical realm in the broadened community.
kogod Courtyard smithsonian instituion Case study 01 Architect:
Foster + Partners
Washingto DC, USA
“This courtyard is a gift to the entire nation, as well as the nation's capital. It will enable the Smithsonian to expand its services to all visitors by creating a uniquely beautiful location for exciting events, special programs and quiet contemplation.” 5 Cristián Samper
kogod Courtyard smithsonian instituion Case study 01 The newly renovated– Kogod Courtyard of the Smithsonian Institution by Foster + Partners was successfully transformed from an unusable space into one of the largest event spaces in Washington. A range of social events such as concerts and public performances can now be hosted within the courtyard. The redesign not only allowed the institution to expand its services, but at the same time maintain the overall harmonies of the functional programs of the institution. The design was described as “a gift to the entire nation”6 which highlights how architecture can become a national icon that people can be proud of and relate to, that represents their identities. The design shows respect to the building’s historical past by having the new canopy appear to be floating above building, where support columns are free from the historical façade. On the other hand, the modern materials architectural styles used reflect the current 21st century architecture discourse. It also provided a brand new experience for users in the space. Even though new changes were made, people could still relate to its current state but at the same time value its historic culture aspects of the institution. Contemporary ideas such as green architecture embrace the new design. The structure was designed to do “the most with the least”7. The final geometry was designed
to have the minimal material used and a fully glazed roof to allow the maximum daylight into the courtyard. This highlights the possibility that architecture can contribute to environmental efficiency. In order to create such a complex geometry and make it buildable, computer programs and codes were developed specifically for this project by the Foster’s Specialist Modeling Group. With these computer fabricating algorithms, architects were able to explore more design options and were constantly modified throughout the design process. It was also used to generate the geometry and additional information needed to analyses structural and acoustic performances, to visualize the space and to create fabrication data for physical models8. This demonstrated how parametric design enables different disciplines to be brought together, so that architects can develop more design response and have much more control to the entire project. The new renovation is able to respect the Institution’s historical background, social and cultural values through respecting the architectural discourse of the past, while at the same time the courtyard provides the historical building a greater relevance to the current age, furthering current discourse by technological advancements and conventional ideas.
drift design miami Case study 02 Architect:
drift design miami Case study 02
Drift designed by Snarkitecture is a canopy of air-filled tubes that marks the entrance and waiting space to Design Miami collectors fair at Miami Beach, USA. It was assembled from 500 tubes bundled together to create a topographical landscape in suspension like an ascending mountain above and an excavated cavern below. These tubes are than lifted vertically to fill the entrance courtyard, to create areas of circulation and rest for the visitors entering and exiting the structure.
such as re-using materials and using them in a different manner to allow new design ideas and concepts to be created. Although the design itself is developed from a very simple form, by repeating it at scale/ quality by using computer algorithms and software, new forms can be created. Rather than limiting themselves to the traditional ways of using material, Snarkitecture used what was provided in unexpected ways to achieve this unexpected but yet extraordinary design.
The material that made up these tubes is white vinyl, which is the same material used for the tent that housed Design Miami. As what Daniel Arsham from Snarkitecture described it, “We really haven’t added any material- the vinyl is the material that is used for the tent anyway, all we’ve done is transform the way that it’s presented.”9 By doing so, Snarkitecture embraces contemporary architecture discourse
This unexpected moment created by the design as visitors entering and exiting the fair reflects the fair’s main intention to showcase the latest innovative designs from around the world, to broaden awareness of modern and contemporary design. A courtyard seating installation under the canopy allows visitors to freely engage with one another, to “create exciting collaboration within designers” 10.
Computational Architecture A statement of our time
“Having abandoned the discourse of style, the architecture of modern times is characterized by its capacity to take advantage of the specific achievements of that same modernity: the innovations offered it by present- day science and tech nology” Ignasi de Sola Morales
Mies Van Der Rohe once pointed out that -architecture should be a true statement of its time11; this can be shown as he always uses the latest available materials and technology in his design. As we are living in the twenty first century, a digital age, technology plays an essential part in terms of shaping our society and culture.12 Industries such as product design, automotive, aerospace and shipbuilding are already designing, developing, analysing, testing and manufacturing their products using the latest digitally-driven technologies. Thus, digital architectural should be a reflection of human civilization. Prior to the invention of CAD, the only way architects recorded their ideas and design was by pen and paper. It was time consuming and costly as everything was limited to human hands and brains. Hence limited
exploration could be done in the design space. Furthermore “design errors may go unnoticed until the building is under construction”13, by that time it is too late or too expensive to correct these errors. However, by using computational design and digital technology in architecture, designers have greater flexibility and control in terms of problem analysis, solution synthesis, evaluation and communication. Through the use of computational means in architecture, we no longer need to redraw our plans and elevations nor rebuild our model when making mistakes. Our pen and paper has turned into mouse and keyboard, which perform in a much faster and accurate way. More time and opportunity to explore deeply into the design space is allowed.
 v, Preston Scott Cohen
 Mobius House, UN studio
Computational Architecture Non-geometries
 non- geometries : Mobius
 Section of Torus House, Preston Scott Cohen
 Plans of Mobius House, UN studio
 non- geometries : Torus
 non- geometries : Klein bottle
With the use of digital technology, architecture is able to explore into more form and geometries. With the aid of 3D modeling tools such as Rhino and graphical algorithm editor Grasshopper, architects can represent and interrupt complex geometries that are “not designed in conventional ways”14 and cannot be visualised without the aid of digital technology. Architects are no longer “making forms” that best fit a set of constraints but shifting to “finding forms” that can fulfil these requirements. Puzzle making rather than problem solving.15 This notion can be illustrated by the Mobius House (UN studio) and Torus House, whereas the spatial topologies are based on computer generated non – geometries (the Mobius and the Torus as they are named). The final outcomes of these two houses are purely driven by these base geometries. This can only be made possible with the flexibility, control and immediate visual feedback that we have over the mathematical calculated digital model. Once again this enable architects to explore more deeply and widely into the design space to find the best suitable design solution.
Computational Architecture The Orange Cube - Jakob + Macfarlane
As a result of greater efficiency and fast information exchange, digital technology enables architect to have more time to look beyond the boundaries of the discipline. The façade design and spatial orientation of Jakob +Macfarlane’s The Orange Cube had been carefully optimised using digital tools to reconcile light penetration, thermal performance, energy consumption, visual and physical comfort. All these effects can only be achieved by exploring multiple design iterations using computational tools.
to how it is constructed. Due to this degree of information that is able to be contained in one single model, architectures can recognise and solve any problems that arise at a much earlier stage. At the same time they can integrate the construction limited into the early design development process. Ultimately architects will play a key role in the construction process of the industry and “perhaps even regain the absolute powers of the medieval master builders.”17
Computational architecture has also changed the role of architects within the building industry. Branko argued that the ultimate goal of digital architecture is to create models that contains “all the information necessary for designing and producing a building.”16 (For example BIM model). In another words, architects will have control of every part of the building process. From its conceptual design
Computational Architecture Restaurant Georges- Jakob +Macfariane 
Another example from Jakob +Macfarlane –Restaurant Georges can demonstrate how architects are perhaps not the master builder but become the coordinator of the project through the use of digital technology. Due to the help of visual digital models, only four or three are required to work on the project and they participates in every single step of the projects.18 With the use of NURBS- based software, an Aluminum semi-monocoque structure19 (the skin of the structure that had considerable impact on the design of structure and cladding particular) were able to be developed. This allows all components to be digitally modeled within the software, and later digitally cut and fabricated. Hence, from modeling and conceptualization, to fabrication and constructing the soft and fluid aluminum skin, the use of digital models, “real physical models”20 are not needed until the design project was finished.
Computational Architecture 3D priting
On the other hand, the 3D printing technology can be seen as the ultimate example of architects being the master builder concept. This technology allows transformation of digital information directly into a real physical structure, completely including the construction information into the design (such as the D-shape- world largest 3D printed structure). Though this technology is still in its early stage of development, only a relativity small scaled object could be printed and it would be very expensive. Architecture should be a true statement of its time, it is only through a computational approach that the Wyndham new Gateway can achieve a new and inspiring design that would further the discourse the city and architecture. finished.
Parametric Modelling New direction for digital architecture
With the technological advancement of the twenty first century, architectural discourse is driven into a digital era, where use of digital technology would be seen in nearly every design project. Designers not only use digital technology to represent the design outcome, but shift it to incorporate it into the design process itself. One of the solutions of this exploration ultimately comes to the use of parametric modeling and algorithmic design, such as the Grasshopper plugin in Rhino. Before we go further into the benefits of parametric modeling, it is essential that we understand why we use parametric modeling, but not CAD or other 3D modeling and rendering software. Both CAD and 3D software enables the job to be done at a much faster rate, work is able to reproduced, eliminated and duplicated by just simply clicking on the mouse and typing commands on the keyboard. However, the fast drafting nature of this software will result in the designer automatically “copy and past[ing]”21 information from one environment to another without considering its context and relation to that new environment. As a result, designs produced in such
a way will not only be out of context but also lacking in creativity and innovation. Furthermore, CAD and 3D software are limited in terms of making changes to the design, as they are purely a digital visualising tool that “dimly describes a set of geometric and attribute objects”22 , each line and point acts as an independent element that does not relate to each other, thus making it unable to update itself when changes are made. Hence a new type of digital design method needs to be used and parametric modeling can be one of these methods. Designing within constraint is actually one of the fundamental ideas in architecture. Constraint, can also be known as Parameters.These can be the length of a column, the number of panels to be used or mathematical inputs, all are factors that will drive the final outcome of the design. With the use of parametric design, direct and explicit relationships between the designs and constrains of the design are allowed. In other words the design solution is the outcome of producing geometric models based on parameters set out by the design in the initial stage of the design process.
Parametric Modelling ICD/ITKE Research Pavillion 2011
Parametric modeling is able to form relationships and provide direct, almost automatic responses of any changes that are made in the design process. It simplies the effort and time required for decision-making.23 More complex geometries are now achieved and visualised due to the ability to rationally analyse, compare and algorithmically calculate large amounts of information and data within the use of parametric modeling. It is by this nature of efficiency, precision and dynamism that parametric modeling allows a greater range of possibilities within the design space. ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2011(images on the left) is a great example in terms of utilising the advantages of parametric modeling. The pavilion was inspired by the skeleton of sea urchins notching into one another. A parametric definition was written to try to mimic such ideas. Different sized panels with finger joints were used to create a number of polygons which interlock at various angles to achieve its final outcome. By using
parametric modeling means that the overall form can still be changed after finger joints are created.24 This would allow the designer more freedom in terms of achieving a final design outcome. Furthermore, parametrical design can lower production costs and a more efficient construction method which are the main drive of why parametric design should be used in the building industry. Materials used, prefabricated elements and structure stability can be tested and accurately manipulated within the digital environmental to allow more control over a more efficient design.
Parametric Modelling New direction for digital architecture
Parametric modeling may be at the forefront of current architectural discourse, however it still has its limitations. It is usually very easiy for computers to communicate with humans, as it is designed for such a purpose. However on the other hand, it is sometimes extremely difficult for us humans to communicate with the computer, as we lack the ability to use the computer language- coding. Thus, one cannot master the use of parametric modeling until they can master the coding language of the software, which sometimes can be very problematic for certain people. Also, working with parameters means that you have to define all possible constrains in the early stages of the algorithm as it is sometimes very hard to do so in later stage of the algorithm.25 This might sometimes result in over setting constrains of the design, thus limits the possibility of design outcomes. As there are numerous ways to achieve the same act with in the modeling software, it is
very hard for one to understand and modify anothers algorithm, hence limiting the sharing and working within a large group of people. Also since a large amount of details go into these modeling engines one can easily overlook or be unable to recognise changes that had been made within the model. Still, parametric modeling is a relativity young method and our understanding and knowledge of it is potentially limited. By its flexible and dynamic nature, exploration of form finding and analytical power, low production cost and the degree of efficiency that parametric design provides, I believed it is an appropriate design tool for the Wyndham Gateway Project.
water cube Beijing national aquatice centre Case study 03 Architect:
water cube Beijing national aquatice centre Case study 03
Beijing National Aquatics Centre, best known as the Water Cube seized the world’s attention during the 2008 Olympics games with its dramatic parametric design. In order to achieve this unique design based on the pattern of organic cells and the structural formation of soap bubbles, it is only possible for PTW Architect together with Engineering firm Arup Group Limit to use a variety of parametric modeling software. Hesselgren, director of research at Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates described the design process of Water Cube “is not about designing a building” but rather “designing the system that designs a building.”26 Parametric software was specially written for the project in order to explore the possible design outcomes, also to enable architects and engineers to visualise this complex as a three dimensional soap bubble like structure. This also enabled automatic and accurate drawings and analyses of its massive complex steel skeleton, which is beyond the capacity of any traditional design methods. The use of parametric modeling in this project allowed architects and engineers to investigate into many more design outcome alternatives. Rather than self-organizing structural solutions, they used “genetic algorithms that iteratively apply relatively simple rules”27. It is through the careful manipulation of the 3000-
4000 parameters, such as seat positioning, view and distance from the field, that was set out initially in the design phase, enabled architects to quickly compare and make any changes to the design. This would normally take months to do using traditional methods, but now it can be simply done in a few hours, at the same time allowing more control for the architects and engineers during the design process of the project. Without the aid of parametric designing, the soap bubble- like structure would not be possible as it would not only be too costly and time consuming to build but would also exceed the captivity of the current conventional construction. The design of the water cube contributes towards the culture and sprit of the nation. To position themselves in the universe, Chinese people chose the square as the prime geometry for their cities, places and houses.28 By using the latest technology and materials (ETFE cladding structure system) the water cube was positioned in the forefront of architectural discourse related to innovative structure system and materials used. At the same time it responded to the Green Olympic concept.
endesa pavilion Case study 04 Architect:
endesa pavilion Case study 04 Endesa pavilion is a self- sufficient solar prototype that evokes the architectural discourse surrounding the concept of “forms follow energy.” 29 The entire design is purely driven by environmental factors – photovoltaic gaining, solar protection, insulation, ventilation lighting and a lot more. It is by the use of parametric logic and modeling that mathematical adjustment can be made to every point of the building in order to adapt to the exact exterior and interior conditions to maximize the performance of the building. As the geometries of the building are purely driven by environmental factors, simply changing the values of these factors can produce any types of building to adapt to any location around the world. With the combination of parametric modeling and digital fabrication of this project, customizable sizes and shapes of any prefabricated materials is allowed. By this term, the design no longer has to be driven by the optimization routers of the market, but rather every piece of material in the building is driven by the sun’s path.
Algorithmic exploration Grasshopper exploration
On the left shows individual exploration of algorithmic within grasshopper. These exercises allow me to understand more about the parametric logic and its algorithmic sequence in Grasshopper. Since it is an algorithm-based modelling software, everything within are scientific and mathematical driven. Hence allowing very precises and accurate result to be produces, at the same time changes can be traces and solved in a very fast manner. Immediate visual feedbacks are produce during the process of creation. Influences and changs can be made during the process, allow more control towards the result to be produces.
COnslusion Design approach
“The Western Gateway should propose new, inspiring and brave ideas to generated new discourse.” Western Gateway design project
My design intent for this new Wyndham Gateway is to create a Land Icon that is visually and aesthetically interesting, at the same time it should consider the broader discourse it embodies. The Gateway should be site specific and contextually responsive to its surrounding, both in the social and natural environment. Parametric modeling should be used in this project as it demonstrates it is both a form finding and performance based tool as it was demonstrated from precedents such as Water Cube, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2011 and Endesa Pavilion. Architects now have the ability to creat and utilise more complex and innovative geometries as what Rafael Moneo describes “lost to us because of the difficulties of their representation”1, to further contribute to new, inspiring, and brave ideas that broaden the architectural and social discourse around Wyndham.
Learning outocmes Reflection
Before entering the course, I have always seen architectural computational tools as just purely a matter of convenience and efficiency as it replaced the traditional hand based drafting method. After four weeks of research and experimenting parametric modeling, I have come to understand that using parametric tools are way beyond just documenting and presenting already formed forms in our mind. Forms can be purely driven by pre-set parameters factors that represent an idea. For example The Endesa pavilion, which in its form was completely driven by environmental parameters â€“ the idea of form following energy. Parametric tools help you to not only represent but also finding the best form, in other words the best outcome for your ideas, to broaden the possibility of architectural discourse.
Learning how to use Grasshopper was very challenging to me, as I am so used to the CAD environment where you directly draw out what is in your mind. Grasshopper is certainly a very powerful design tool that I need to be familiar with and Iâ€™m certain I will utilize it in my future design projects. However I think that it is essential that we do not over-rely on it and be controlled by it in terms of generating outcomes. In other words do not produce forms that do not have anything to support it with, is the idea behind your design that determines its successfulness not how well you can use computational tools.
References 1 Dutton, Thomas a. and Lian hurst Mann, eds (1996). Reconstructing Architecture: Critical Discourses and Social Practices (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press), p. 1 2 ibid. v 3 Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp.108 4 Patrik Schumacher, ‘Introduction : Architecture as Autopoietic System’, in The Autopoiesis of Architecture (Chichester: J. Wiley, 2011), pp. 3 5 Smithsonian Instutuiion, Foster+Partners, 30/6/2013, < http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/smithsonian-institution/> 6 Smithsonian Instutuiion, Foster+Partners, 25/6/2013, < http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/smithsonian-institution/> 7 ibid. v9 Snarkitecture, Drift, 25/6/2013, < http://www.snarkitecture.com/projects/drift/> 10 Design Miami, 25/6/2013, < http://miami2012.designmiami.com/about> 11 Mies van der Rohe Dies at 83; Leader of modern Architecture, The New York Times, 19/8/1969, <http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0327.html> 12 Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp. 3 13 Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25 14 Kalay, Architecture’s New Media, pp9-10 15 Kalay, Architecture’s New Media, pp 16 Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp. 11 17 Kalay, Architecture’s New Media, pp8 18 Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (Google eBook), pp.267 <http://books.google.com.au/books?id=cJMz6Us9woUC&dq=resta urant+georges+jakob+%2B+macfarlane+digital&source=gbs_navlinks_s> 19 Branko, “Architecture in the Digital Age” pp. 40 20 ibid. 21 Woodbury, Robert F. and Andrew L. Burrow (2006). ‘Whither design space?’, Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, 20 , 2, pp. 77 22 Idid 23 Daniel Davis, Introduction to parametric modelling lecture, 28/4/2013 24 ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, Dezeen, 1/7/2013<http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/> 25 Daniel Davis, Introduction to parametric modelling lecture, 28/4/2013 26 Engineering the water cube, ArchitecturalAU, 28/4/2013, <http://architectureau.com/articles/practice-23/> 27 Ethel Baraona Pohl, Water cube-the book (Scribd.), < http://www.scribd.com/doc/62878950/Water-Cube-the-Book> 28 Ibid. 29 Rodrigo Rubio Architect, Endesa Pavilion, 4/7/2013, <www.iaac.net>
Image [1-4] Foster +Partners, 30/6/2013, <http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/smithsonian-institution/> [5-10] Snarkitecture, Drift, 30/6/2013, < http://www.snarkitecture.com/projects/drift/> [11, 16]Preston Scott Cohen inc., Torus House, 3/7/2013 < http://www.pscohen.com/torus_house.html> [12,17] UN studio, Mobius House, 3/7/2013 <http://www.unstudio.com/en/projects/mobius-house> [13-15] Paul Bourke, The torus & Supertorid, 3/7/2013 < http://paulbourke.net/geometry/torus/> [18-21] Roland Halbe, The Orange Cube / Jakob + Macfarlane Architects. 3/7/2013 http://www.archdaily.com/111341/the-orange-cube-jakob-macfarlane-architects/ [22-24] Sergeymk-flickr/cc lincense, Georges Restaurant: Pompidou Paris, 3/7/2013 <http://architecturerevived.blogspot.com.au/2009/02/georges-restaurant-pompidouparis.html>  D-shape, 3/7/2013, <http://www.d-shape.com/>  Roland Halbe, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, 4/7/2013<http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/ [29-32] Dezeen, Water Cube by PTW Architects, 4/7/2013, < http://www.dezeen.com/2008/02/06/watercube-by-chris-bosse/> [33-35] Rodrigo Rubio Architect, Endesa Pavilion, 4/7/2013, <www.iaac.net>
DESIGN APPROACH Exploration Ideas
Gateway Site Port Phillip Bay
SITE ANAYSIS Design focus
Before starting work on our argument of the Gateway Project, our group decided it was important to be familiar with the site and its surrounding conditions in order to generate a concept that can be well integrated into the site context. The site of the future Wyndham City Gateway is located at the interchange between Princes Freeway and the Princes Highway (Geelong Road). Princes Freeway is a major traffic connection from Geelong and Melbourne CBD 1, Wyndham city sits next to it The site is divided into three parts (according to image 1), most of the site is relativity flat, apart from a 4 metre high mound located in the middle of site B. Due to the lack of vegetation, land rhythm and depth along the Princes Highway, when travelling at high speed across the site makes the journey very uninteresting. With no significant landmarks or site features and the monotonous landscape bordering the freeway, a lack of visual reference points hinders a driver’s ability to easily determine where they are or where they are headed towards (Melbourne or Geelong).
Wyndham city council, “Western Gateway Design Project” competition document, p.4  Google maps 2013  Western Interchange – site of the Gateway installation,Wyndham city council, “Western Gateway Design Project” competition document, p.7
EYE CATCHING ABSTRACT
DISCOURSE ICONIC PUT IT ON THE MAP
CONVERSATION NO TUNNEL ASPIRATIONAL
Design Brief Design focus
After studying the site, as a group we found that it is very important to be able create an eye catching, dynamic and iconic landmark for the Wyndham city. To change the current unexcitinglandscape and create an unforgettable experience for users would put Wyndham onto the map, where people would be more inclined stop by. The design should not only be visually appealing, but also at the same time is capable of impactingon one’s emotions and thinking. The design itself should not just be a gatewaythat people pass through, but at the same time be a piece of Architecture that viewers can associate with Wyndham. It should encourage and provide a starting point for people to discuss and propose “new, inspiring and brave ideas”2.
Wyndham city council, “Western Gateway Design Project” competition document, p.5
 Looping system- between City(A) and Country (B) , where Wyndham sitting outside of this system
 Disrupting the system by inserting the rountine in the middle
Wyndham become part of the system B
Futher disrupting the system, to trun the looping system into a “One way” concept. 49
Design concept Design focus
By looking more deeply at the site and its context, it is not hard to see that the existing traffic program of the site consists of a contentious looping system in between City (A) and Country (B). This is one of the major traffic routine in Victoria as it is the main and direct routine betweenthe two largest cities in the State. It seems natural to assume that routines be bi-directional. Instead of this conventional programming, what if if we broke out of this routine? The idea came to our group to disrupt the looping system. This could be achieved by physically inserting or sectioning the landscape, positioning Wyndham in the middle of this routine, essentially placing Wyndham onto the map. After that, another question arosewhat would happen if we tried to further disrupt this looping system, instead of having it as a two way system, what happen it we turned it into a â€œOne wayâ€? system.
distinct divide layers
functions reveals insight
2d PlAne logic
sectioning Design Approach
After many discussions and hours ofresearch (and arguments!!), our group decided that Sectioning was the most suitable design directions as it could work really well as a theoretical and practical design tool. By studying and looking through precedents, discussing about the meaning and the possibility that could emerge from sectioning, our group had broken down the â€œsectioningâ€? concept into three main directions: - Structure - Program - Discourse
 James Beard, Sandwich Sections, 7/5/2013, <http://scanwiches.com/>
great court at bristish museum Architect:
Foster + Partners
London , UK
By using a triangular waffle panels system, Foster + Partners is able to create a highly curve and span glass roof on top of the Great Court at British Museum without using any column support within the court itself.
sectioning: Structure Design Approach
- Structurally efficient - Economic - Manageable - Organisation - Visual expression
One of the very first reasons we used sectioning for our design approach is because it is structurally efficient. It allows a pragmatic means of thinking about how geometries and form can be fabricated and built. Also it can easily describe complex forms by breaking them down into panels or sections, whilst simultaneously minimising heavy loss the dynamism and movement of its base geometry. Due to the fact that these units (panels and sections) can be easily fabricated and self structurally supported, there is more flexibility in terms of the use of materials. This technique can be combined and incorporated into other techniques such as patterning and folding. The negative space that is generated between panels and sections allows more flexibility in our design approach and generates a different visual expression from it.
 Foster + Partners, Great Court at British Museum, 7/5/2013 < http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/great-court-at-the-british-museum/>
Wall House Architect:
Designed 1970s, built in 2001
sectioning: program Design Approach
- Division of functional programs - Organisation of Space - Compartmentalisation - Haha (Landscape) - Threshold - Modules and Units
We can also see sectioning as a division of functional programs, as it can organise and control functions and programs. Each module and unit (panels/ sections) provides a separate functional compartment that can be separate or grouped together. By this nature, the functions and the programs of a certain area can be easily manipulated and controlled. One of the examples that we look at is the Wall house by John Hedjuk. Where he used wall, planes and sections to separate and combine different functional areas of the house, he created different thresholds for either the view or the function of the space. The same concept can be adapted in the Gateway project, as the highway has a specific function, which is traffic. By creating the â€œGatewayâ€? we can manipulate and control the existing functions of the people who are using this space, either physically or emotionally.
 Wall house, 7/5/2013, < http://www.magazindomov.ru/2012/02/07/wall-house-2/>
Political architecture (machines) Fictional/ Paper Archiecture
sectioning: Discouse Design Approach
- Architecture as a Social informant - Commentary on the norms and conventions of society - Tangible Architecture > Digital Media - Empowering Architecture - â€œArchitecture of changeâ€? - Architecture as a SECTION of society
After thinking very deeply into what sectioning represents in architecture, it is not a surprise that we eventually come to the conclusion that architecture is both literally and metaphorically a section of society. We see them, we use them, and we live in them. Architectural forms built our urban fabric and environment; it is part of our daily routine, represents our culture and the norms we hold onto. From Le Corbusier to Leebus Woods, from tangible architecture to paper architecture to parametric modelling, architects use architecture as a media to challenge the current societal norms and represent new ideas and directions. Archictecture also contributes to the publicdiscourse of what our society should look like and make an impact. Through this gateway project, our group feel that this is the perfect opportunity to provide commentary on the norms and conventions of the current society, and hopefully by doing so can enable new ideas to be generated. By this means, the gateway itself becomes the social informant.
 Lebbeus Woods â€“ Uncensored Architecture, 7/5/2013, < http://74fdc.wordpress.com/2012/02/18/lebbeus-woods-uncensored-architecture/>
Banq restaurant Case study 01 Architect:
Nader Tehrani - Office dA
“There are two or three areas that we’ve focusing [...] Material investigation, another area is to interrogate the building industry from certain perceptive essentially undermining their means and methods, and trying to establish new ways of building things, either for cost saving, or for different kinds of inventive possibilities [...]”
2009 AD interview1
[7-10] John Horner, Archdaily, Banq Restaurant, 7/5/2013, < http://www.archdaily.com/42581/banq-office-da/>
Banq restaurant Case study 01 The Banq Restaurant by office dA serves as an excellent example of parametric sectioning. The idea of the design is very simple and easily fabricated, yet by the unique form of each wooden panel and combined with the lighting effect; a vibrant and dynamic ceiling can be created in this relatively rectangular room. The system of sectioning wooden panels enables the ceiling to be highly fluid and moveable, structurally sound and also to be easily fabricate. At the same time, equipment and services are well hidden behind the panels, which creates the uniform feeling of the entire design. Compared to the traditional methods of create moulds to produce large monolithic surfaces, the panel sectioning approach not only produces a similar effect, but is also requires less time and money.
 Office dA, 2008, Banq Restaurant, Boston - 3B model showing interior timber panels and its supporting system
FIELDS ATTRACTORS & POINT CHANGE TO PRODUCE VARIATION IN
DIVIDE SURFACE INTO X,Y PLANE
MAKE SURFACE INTO A BREP
DIVIDE SURFACE INTO CONTOURS
EXTRUDE CONTOURS TO PRODUCE VERTICAL PLANE
Case study 01
The definition utilizes a black & white image as a sampler. According to the degrees of darkness, it is sampled for values from 0 to 1 which define the amplification of the contours in a localised region in the z axis. Also by extruding these panels in the x or y axis, thickness can be applied to the panel. This sample method allows the incorporation of different values and inputs which can correspond to data such as the sun path, lighting or shading factor of the site. However from the matrix, we can tell the overall shape of the panels are controlled by the image, and the surface that is created is relatively smooth and can only be extruded in one direction, which does not quite fulfill the â€œone wayâ€? effect of our concept
Case study 01
The second definition that we developed to replicate the Banq restaurant is quite straightforward. Firstly, a base geometry/surface is first referenced and created in Rhino. It is than divided into a grid of points based on the geometry of the surface, where lines are interpolated and extruded to produce the lot and contours. In order to be able to have more control variation of the output, we added a number of controls that allows the vectors, points and lines to move around more freely . This included the direction (vector) in which the contours extruded towards, the number of grid divisions, point attractors and scales. Even though we added in various parts to the definition and we had more freedom in terms of generating panels, we still found it hard to have large variation in terms of the overall geometry. The direction and shape of these panels are still highly restricted by the original form of the base surface. At this point, the definitions did not fulfil the â€œone wayâ€? effect that we would have liked to achieve.
Technique exploration Prototypes
Waffle grid 01 Prototype 0 01 This is one of the very first prototypes that we produced to try and replicatea similar effect that was achieved in the Banq Restaurant. A nice and neat waffle systemwas created by dividing a reference surface from Rhino to create a rectangular grid from the surface and by extruding lines from the grid. We were able to form ribs in both x and y direction. By doing so, this parametric definition allowed us to easily manipulate the number of ribs, how wide they were (vertical extruding) and how they could be connected together. Even though we could make all these minor changes to the shapes, the end results were limited to its reference surface and not much of a change could be achieved overall by this definition. Nevertheless, we fabricated the model using 1mm box card and the end result worked extremely well, the model is self-supported and rigid. Everything was well connected and fitted together perfectly. This model demonstrated the structural integrity and rigidity of using sectioning as a design tool, however at the same time flexibility is limited.
REFERENCE GEOMETRY FROM RHINO
DIVIDE SURFACE INTO A GRID
EXTURDE THE GRID LINES
Waffle grid 02 Prototype 02
The second prototype that we made, used the same definition as the first one.It differed from the first prototype by; being on the whole twice its size, havig panes twice as wide, only havinghalf the number of ribs, and the base surface has a greater curvature. The end result was very disappointing. The ribs didn’t connect with each other, panels were unrolled in the wrong direction andthe materials (1mm box card like the first protopye) was not rigid enough to support itself. Moreover, even when we changed the base surface, there was still a lack of variety, frankly speaking, the model is very boring and lacks excitement. Also, all the panels could only be extruded in one direction, and the waffle is very rigid itself, which was unable to achieve that sense of “one way” from our concept.
Connection fail at joins, as material not rigid enough to hold up sturcture
At this point the whole group started to question whether we should still approach our argument using the paneling sectioning idea.
REFERENCE GEOMETRY FROM RHINO
DIVIDE SURFACE INTO A GRID
EXTURDE THE GRID LINES
Wall house/ Ronchamp Cathedral Case study 02
This lead to questions about what else could be drawn out from sectioning, rather than just sliding a base surface into panels. Then we came across precedents, the Wall house and the Romchamp Cathedral’s windows, that provided us with different ways of approaching and using sectioning as a design tool.
 Le Corbusier, Ronchamp Cathedral (1954)
One of the biggest advantages of using sectioning is that it can structurally support a wide range of complex geometries and forms. By looking at the Romchamp Cathedral’s windows, it prompted us to see sections as individual units that can either be separate or grouped together. In both of the precedents, we can see the use of small units and building element such as screens, walls and planes that work together, that as a whole create larger and more complex geometry. Both of these precedents, particularly the Wall house, demonstrate how different sectioning techniques (walls, panels, different shape, size and material) can be used to organize and group building’s functional program, to create threshold and spatial hierarchy of a building or structure. The threshold produced by this separation highlights the physical and emotional change between two or more sectioning programs. This helps to reinforce our one way concept, where our gateway serves as the “disruption” of the conventional program along the freeway, and to create a new experience for users as they go past it.
 John Hejduk Wall house (1963) [11,13] Cara Hyde-Basso, AD Classics: Ronchamp / Le Corbusier, 7/5/2013 < http://www.archdaily.com/84988/ad-classics-ronchamp-le-corbusier/> [12,14] Liao Yusheng, AD Classics: Wall House 2 / John Hejduk, 7/5/2013 < http://www.archdaily.com/205541/ad-classics-wall-house-2-john-hejduk/>
 Le Corbusier, Romchamp Cathedral â€˜s windows
 John Hejduk , Wall House funtional organisation
Honeycomb 01 Prototype 03
Due to the lack of design flexibilities provided for the first two prototypes and the deeper development into two new precedentsto enhance our design concept, we decided to move on and explore some other sectioning techniques. We moved away from using contours and planer extrusions and tried to see sectioning as small individual â€œunitsâ€? which can be grouped together to create different patterns, grids and geometries. This prototype is produced by using a pair of hexagonal grids, which was scaled and moved, than lofted together to produces surfaces in between the two sets of grids, which could then be unrolled and fabricated. By setting different values to the grid, scale and moving parameters, we easily produced very unique and interesting patterns that we hypothesised could be self structurally supported. However, during the fabrication process many issues were encountered due to the lack of pre-planning and lack of labeling system. The model was made out of plywood, but during our design process we did not take into account the thickness of the materials and the fact that the laser cutter could only cut out 90 degree edges. As a result the connection between each panels are very messy, some are unrigged. Moreover with no label system implemented made the fabrication process very difficult and slow.
MOVE & SCALE
HEXAGON GRID WITH ATTRACTOR
MOVE GRID UP AND SCALED IT SMALLER
CREATE SURFACES BETWEEN TWO GRIDS
UNROLL SURFACES IN RHINO
Honeycomb 02 Prototype 04
By referring back to our one way gateway concept, we developed a few honeycomb definitions that would help us express the idea of a funnel (which gives a sense of direction). For this prototype we created a uniform surface with a hexagon grid in Grasshopper. The grid was than moved up and point attractor was used to establish a single vector which vertices could be extruded to and from the surface in between that could be fabricated.By doing so we were able to mimic the funnel shape of the Romchamp windows. This provided a sense of direction towards the smaller openings. We had learned from the previous fabricating issues and this time we chose to use box card to fabricate the model, and the end result was quite successful. However, due to the angular nature of the surface, there were some minor connection issues which arose when we made the model. Overall we were happy with the model.
GRID HEX GRID
MOVE UP AND SCALED
CONNECTION OF TWO GRIDS
SURFACE MADE OUT OF THE CONNECTUINS
Honeycomb 03 Prototype 05
For this honeycomb prototype, we tried to maintain some of the contouring aspect of sectioning and hoped that this will bring some more variety into our design. This time we scaled the hexagon grid in reference to their center point and extruded upwards. After that we added in additional steps to contour these funnel shapes horizontally and to create individual sections up the funnels. A more interesting visual effect was created when one viewed the model, as more depth was created in the positive and negative spaces. However one of the down sides of this definition is that only a uniform hexagon grid can be used, where the size of each hexagon units cannot be alternated. This time we had fabricated the model using 2mm thick plywood. More rigid materials provided more structural stability to the model, but at the same time, the form of each panels were limited as plywood cannot be bent or folded. The end model looked quite beautiful and sculpture-like, but again there was a lack of dynamism and movement in the shape itself that our group was not fully satisfied with.
SELECTING THE CENTER OF THE HEX
MOVING THE GRID UP AND SCALIING IT SMALLER
COUNTOURING THE MODEL TO CREATE THE SECTIONS
Honeycomb/ WAFFLE 01 Prototype 06
In order to produce a more dynamic form, we had to return back to the waffle idea. This would allow more curvature and movement in the geometry. We also tried to incorporate this into the honeycomb system that we had developed earlier. For this fourth honeycomb/ waffle prototype, we focusing on making hexagon units in a variety of sizes. One of the ways to do this is by applying a hexagon grid onto a curved surface, which the grid wouuld self-adapt to that form by varying the size and orientation of its hexagon units. From that point onward, we incorporated this new definition into the second honeycomb definition, whichallowed the creation of this wavy honeycomb wall. We used ivory card to fabricate this model as there are many folds within each strips of the model. The end product are surprisingly rigid and with this sponge-like quality, the model is able to flex, bend and stretch which produces very interesting effects and varieties. Feedback recieved from our presentation asked for more surprising and unique models as sectioning in architecture was very ordinary and overused.
REFERENCE A CURVE SURFACE IN RHINO
APPLY HEXAGON GRID ONTO THE SURFACE
CREATING A SURFACE FROM THE GRID
JAPANESE PAVILION Design Precedent Architect:
World Expo, Shangha, China
The unexpected sponge-like qualities of prototype honeycomb 4 gave us an idea. Why not make the structure move?! So we went on Google and searched for architecture that could move. Eventually we came across this precedent- the Japanese Pavilion in 2010 Shanghai World expo. According to Rose (one of the group members that had actually been to the world expo), the structure itself breathes!!!
cells are placed in a checkerboard pattern on the roof. Air is brought in between the two ETFE films to form a pillow, and amorphous silicon PV films are put inside of the ETFE film. The ETFE film pillows are then placed onto the steel frame.”2 Depending on how much air is brought into these pillows, they will expand and contract, to create this “breathing” effect of the building. Within the two ETFE sits the PV cells which generates 10-15% of the power used within the pavilion.
“This Japan Pavilion presented a 100m x 50m x 24m dome with a roof made of steel-framed ETFE film: architecture with an organic image. Putting the emphasis on “eco,” one of the main features of the structure is its use of photovoltaic membrane; ETFE film panels with photovoltaic (PV)
Studying the Japan pavilion prompted us to generate this idea of inflatable pillows in between the negative space of the honeycomb structure. By inflating, the pillows would push against the honeycomb frame. The inflation and deflation of the pillows creates this ‘breathing’ effect.
Frabica Architecture “Building innovation at Shanghai expo”, May 2011. Accessed 12 May 2013. <http://fabricarchitecturemag.com/ articles/0511_f2_shanghai_expo.html>
 Zhenyu Li, Spotlight on Japan Pavilion at World Expo 2010, 12/5/2013, < http://digitaljournal.com/article/298798#ixzz2XtNSRJ00>  Xinhua Wang Song, Japan Pavilion is a Solar Energy Generating ‘Purple Silkworm Island’, 12/5/2013, 81 < http://inhabitat.com/japan-pavilion-is-a-solar-energy-generating-purple-silkworm-island/>
design concept Refining Approach
The breathing effect reminds us of the stress ball and the action of people asking you to “take a deep breath” when you are stressed. With these notions in mind, once again we ventured to redefine our concept. As mentioned earlier in the journal that through the project, our group wanted to make an impact on one’s emotions when passing through the gateway. We aimed to filter out one’s feelings when they driving past this structure, and the idea of filtering stress fitted in perfectly to our concept. With the Melbourne CBD as the centre of business and culture, the ongoing traffic, people, noise, hustle of everyday life in the city no doubt creates stress in a lot of people. After a long day of hard work, we would like to help these people to relax and to release the stress they as they are driving home. The motion of the breathing pillow would be the perfect way to express this idea. The amount of airpushed into the pillows depend on the number of cars passing by to create different levels of compression/ tension with the structure.
Honeycomb/ WAFFLE 02 Prototype 07
For this, we used the same definition as in honeycomb/waffle 1, but with a larger scale and more rows and columns of hexagons on the surface. We also left out gaps between the honeycomb structures to insert the inflatable pillows (balloons represent the pillows). In order to withstand the compression stress exerted from the pillow onto the structure, we also made a plywood frame to hold the honeycomb structure in place. The idea of this prototype is that the inflatable pillows will respond to the traffic flow at particular times of the day by inflating or deflating. By doing so, the honeycomb/ waffle wall will respond to the motions of deforming
REFERENCE SURFACE FROM RHINO
TURNING THE SURFACE INTO A MESH
and reforming. When users are crossing, the structure will act as a filter to remove the stress and congestion from the city. Simply gluing the plywood frame together didnâ€™t create a structure strong enough to withstand the force acted onto it by the inflated balloons. At the same time we still needed to consider what material could be used in the real structure. More investigation and prototypes were needed for further discussion and experimentation in terms of; materials used, the final geometry of the structure and the reformation of the idea behind these concepts
CREATING A GRID FORM THE MESH
MOVING THE GRID POINTS
EXTRUDING THE GRID
one hundred and eight Design Precedent Designer:
Nils Volker 2011
One Hundred and Eight by Nils Volker is an “interactive wall mounted installation” that was made from garbage bags that could be selectively inflated and deflated through control of a microcontroller and two cooling fans. The plastic bag inflates and deflates to create an “impression of lively and moving creatures” 3that “wafts slowly around like a shoal”4. The sequence of inflation and deflation follows the movements of the observer. When the observer stands in front of the installation, the bags react dynamically to the observer’s physical movements. When no one is around, the garbage bags deflate and start wobbling around again.
In regards to our concept of stress and how the gateway inflates and deflates according to the site traffic patterns, this precedent demonstrates how objects can react and respond to different physical data inputs. This is directly related to our “stress” concept. At the same time this precedent shows us the complexity and devices that would be required to achieve such an interactive design. With our Wyndham gateway, the scale that we need to produce and technologically backup such concept would be very hard to achieve. At this point our group realized that this might not be the best design solution or the correct direction to be heading towards since we had limited time and technical background.
One hundred and eight, Nils Volker, 12/5/2013, < http://www.nilsvoelker.com/content/onehundredandeight/> [17-20] Nils Volker, 12/5/2013, < http://www.nilsvoelker.com/content/onehundredandeight/>
Urban A&O Case study 02 Workshop: Location:
Washington University (School of Archiecture) Wahington
The Urban A&O outdoor sculpture produced by the Washington University School of Architecture focused on the exploration of sectioning, division, making, material used and assembly of a parametric design.
Our group found this precedent particularly useful as it demonstrated its interesting geometry and how it illustrated the compositional possibilities of using sectioning as a design approach. The well incorporated use of two different materials, in this case plywood and plastic, helped the project fully utilize the lighting contrast between the two materials, and create both highlight and shadowing on the sculpture itself. The sculpture shows the flexibility and adaptability of sectioning when it comes to complex geometries. The sculpture also shows an interesting aspect in terms of the scale to view of these panels, the degree of detail shown when viewing in different scaling levels.
[21-23] evolo, 12/5/2013, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/parametric-explorations-for-an-outdoor-sculpture/>
The blob Reverse Engineering By performing reverse engineering on the Urban A&O outdoor sculpture, we were able to explore the technological principles of the design system though the analysis of its structure, functions and fabrication.
Reference base curves from Rhino, Maplipulating,distorting curves and shifting along vector direction to produce geometrical variations.
MOVE/ SCALE Lofting between the cruves to generate a curve and dynamic base geometry.
Evaluating the solid differential by cutting sphere and ellipsoids form the base geometry.
SUBSTRACT Concave surface was produced after applying solid different.
CONTOUR Brepping & dividing surface into contours that can later be frabicated. 95
The blob Reverse Engineering
In our attempt to reverse engineer this mode, we first created a set of curves in Rhino, distances, scaled, then lofted together to form a base geometry. Then the distortions on the surface of the geometry were controlled by a series of vectors at each curve. Following this, spheres and ellipses were subtracted from the surface to form the final surface of the mode. Finally the model was contoured into sectioning panels to give this rib-like cylinder shape. The final geometry was no longer restricted to the shape of the small base units (such as the hexagon unit of some of the honeycomb prototype) and the structural aspects of it (sectioning or contouring), itself serves as a structure system), it is highly dependent on the base geometry and the shapes that use to subtracted from it. As a result we could produce a wider range of shapes and forms. By having control sliders (parameters) on nearly every step of the definitions allowed us to
have a higher degree of control over the final outcome and at the same time provide us with more design flexibility towards the design as we could easily manipulate and experiment with different effects. However, one of the down sides of doing this was that the loading process of the definition was very long. There were times when it took us nearly half an hour to change the value of one solitary slider. This suggested us that we would have to more carefully consider and balance the number of sliders that should be included in the definition. This exercise was very useful as it clearly demonstrated to our group the advantages and disadvantages of using sectioning as a design approach. Also we personally experienced some of the downsides of using paramedic design, which we needed to overcome by using other technology. Overall this was a very useful and fulfilling experiment, and we are quite happy with the final outcome.
The blob Reverse Engineering
Material As mentioned before, what made the factors of the Urban A&O sculpture so interesting was due to the composition of different materials used. We decided to mimic its effect by using clear Perspex and plywood.
Fabrication It was quite a challenging process to fabricate the Blob as it had hundreds of very similar panels and added to this, two different materials were used. So far this is the most complicated prototype that we tried to make. In order to create a highlight and shadow effect similar to Urban A&O, alternating layers of contour curves were scale down and fabricated using clear Perspex. By doing so, we hoped to achieve a positive and negative effect in the model, and the end result looked quite beautiful. Although the overall result of the Blob looks very good, it wasnâ€™t a perfect replication of our digital model. The form was slightly lop-sided due to the fact that we estimated the position of each panel by referring to adjoining panels. This might work fairly well when constructing a small scale model, but in order to achieve a more complex model, a labeling and reference system needed to be made.
The blob Reverse Engineering
Lighting Another reason for using clear Perspex was the ability to conduct lighting experiments with the model. Inserting LED lights inside the model produced very interesting visuals effects and provided the model with so much more depth and variety. We had tried different colours of LED lights in order to investigate the mood that each colour creates. The lighting effect requires further investigation as it could contribute to the night condition of our final model.
The blob Reverse Engineering
The blob Reverse Engineering
Technique Proposal Sectioning What we wanted to achieve in the Gateway project was to not only create an iconic landmark for Wyndham City, but to also general a new discourse in both architectural and social aspects. Using Sectioning as a design approach for the Wyndham gateway project should be strongly considered. Sectioning not only provides an efficient and practical structural system to the design, but also implies that Wyndham symbolizes a threshold between the city and the country. Wyndham would become a new “section” of the community. Moreover, our “One Way” and “Disrupt” concept could encourage people to break out of their daily routine, to be innovative and to foster openness. By using the proposed technique of sectioning, we will further develop the concept of the ‘One way’ gate and the disruption of the convention routine on site. We hope to generate a piece of architecture that responds to the natural conditions of the site. It would serve as a visual and emotional intrusion toward users and would also create a one directional design. From the experiences and ideas gathered from the various exploration and prototypes that we had developed over the past few weeks, we are now confident in furthering development of our design ideas toward the Gateway project.
Algorithmic exploration Grasshopper exploration
The Starling plug-in allowed us to produce some very crazy, unique and complex geometry that was based on individual units. It also allowed us to easily smooth and decompose some of the forms that were created. Due to the complexity of the resulting geometry, most of the results cannot allow for physical fabrication (unless we 3D print the geometry), as the panels are twitted and intersect with each other. This is definitely something that I found very interesting and found it worthy for deeper research at a later time.
Learing objective & Outcomes Alogorithmic Exploration
The pass four weeks were certainly very hard for all of us as we have to develop a design concept, grasshopper technique, prototype etc….in such a short period of time. This really wouldn’t happen without my other two awesome term members. I’ve really enjoy the time that we spend together discussing (mostly arguing!) about the concepts, ideas, view toward the project and overall architecture discourse. There are many interesting ideas that had been brought up. I found that my knowledge and skills on grasshopper had improve significantly over the past four weeks, yet still a lot to be improved. No doubt by using Grasshopper to general prototype allows us to manipulated our model in a fast and easy manner back and forward, having inadequate understand and technical skill with the software, the outcome are limited. There are times where we find ourselves can produce outcome way faster by just using Rhino instead of using Grasshopper. I am not trying to dispute the advantages and practicality of parametric modeling, but pointing out that Grasshopper cannot be perform to its full performance if ones lack the skills and understanding of the tool.
Feedback from presentation general comment on the lack of varieties and we are not brave enough to created abstract outcomes. This might be due to the fact that the sectioning technique had already been done to death, but more on how we still have not got our mind around to think parametrically. Even though our design intent is quite solid at this point of time, the prototype does not reflect our concept towards the gateway. Much more exploration needs to be done in terms looking for more possibilities from the technique and how can we uncorrupted them into our concept. And hopefully we can be able to continue to work as a great team to push through our limits until the end.
Wyndham Gateway Desing Project
Refining design direction
Feedback from the guest panel and tutors was that the final outcomes of our prototypes were rather ordinary and that there was nothing innovative. Out of all the prototypes that we had made, they seemed to be most interested in our Blob exploration as it had the best visual outcome. Although the blob doesn’t really fit in to our original design intent (the filter and the funnel), no doubt the outcome of this model is quite visually appealing. The alternating layers of solid and clear materials create especially unique visual and lighting effects. However this technique does provide more design possibility as the shape of the outcome is not limited by the “base units” (such as the honeycombs with hexagonal base units). We decided to go ahead with this technique and tried to use it to fulfill our one way gate design intent.
ONE WAY GATEWAY Design Concept
With the one way concept in our mind, there were still quite a lot of confusion and different interpretations toward the final design outcome. After a deep and long discussion, our group finally agreed on the following points:
 The design symbolizes Wyndham
 To achieve this One way effect, one
 The design needs to be “One way”
 The one way design does not necessarily have to alter the traffic system on site, in another word to become a “physical” one way highway.
as a new section, that disrupt (cuts) into the conventional routine between the city and the country. This not only includes Wyndham into this wider community, but at the same serves as a threshold.
to encourage people to break away from their daily routine and from convention (the ongoing routine between the city and the country), to change, to try something new, to be innovative and to create new discourse.
In this case, the Gateway – Wyndham city serves as the cutting and the starting point of these changes.
of our groups interpretations is linked with the stress idea we developed early on, that people wanted to get away from the stressful city life. .
 But rather, the design has to be directional, which visually and emotionally imparts on the user’s feelings that they are being directed.  The design has to represent the different stress levels of the city side and the country side, hence one design but with two different feelings.
SITE A SITE C
Location of “One Way” design
ORIENTATION AND LOCATION Design Concept
We intended to design something that had two very different feelings or in other words, two distinctive views. At the same time the design “One way” should have had a sense of progress from one end to the other. The position and orientation of the design is critical in this case in order to achieve an outcome that could fulfill these design requirements. Rather than placing the design parallel to the freeway on either side, we decided to place the “One way” design across site A (as illustrated below), so that both sides of the traffic simultaneously engage with the structure. The position of the design would be located on the mount (the highest point of site A as illustrated on the left), which would act as a physical barrier so two distinct and dramatic views could be achieve on both sides of the freeway.
Wikipedia, HAHA, 13/26/2013, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ha-ha>
 Wikipedia, HAHA,13/26/2013, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ha-ha>
HAHA - with ditch dig into the groud, to provide a horzontial uninterrupted view.
Reverse HAHA- With artificial mount extend out from the groud, to create a contunous landscape up to the sky.
HAHA is a landscape garden design strategy that keeps grazing livestock out of the garden but at the same time still maintains an uninterrupted view from within. This is done by digging a ditch on a sloped side, and a vertical that is faced with a masonry retaining wall.1 As we were trying to create two unique and distinctive views toward the design from both sides of the freeway, a similar idea to the HAHA effect was applied. Rather than digging the ditch into the ground, we created an artificial extension into the landscape (look at diagram on the left). Our idea was to extend the landscape from the mount (see below on the diagram) on the country side, which could then create a physical visual barrier to the city side of the freeway that cantilever out from the landscape. By doing so, a continuous that directed up to the sky will be created on side, which would give people an open feeling (decrease stress), while on the other side of the road will foster a feeling of being enclosed and encourage a nervousness feeling (increase stress).
 San Andreas Fault in California
 Javier H Anaranjade, San Andreas Fault in California ,13/6/2013, < http://earthsciencebtags.blogspot.com.au/2012/12/plate-tectonics-by-blake-harris-121612.html> [3,4] Expat Monkey, Peaking the Pinnacles: A Sorta Really Difficult Climb, 13/6/2013, < http://www.expatmonkey.com/>  International Business Times, Philippine earthquake 6.8v
sTRESS: EARTHQUAKE Design Concept
ed rock shards, Guhung Mulu National Park, Malaysian
 Philippine earthquake 6.8
As we were trying to find out ways to represent the differences in stressfulness between city life and country life, it came naturally to our group to look at the concept of earthquakes- as it is one way with which the earth releases energy from the buildup stress in the earth crust caused by tectonic movements.
 Earth movement will cause earth crust to crack and converge.  In Convergent earthquakes, when the boundaries of the tectonic plates collide with other, one side is pushed under the other, creating irregular patterns. They have very distinctive views in different direction.
We think that the concept of the earthquake/ earth movement fit nicely with our design intent. The following are points that we had drawn out from the concept that could be used in our design to represent the de-stress process of our â€œOne Wayâ€? gate.
 Different layers of earth crust were revealed due to the cracking and converging movements (eg, rock shards extrude from the ground).  This sudden change causes disruption to the landscape, both visually and physically.
sHARDS AND CRACKS Algorithmic Exploration
INCREASE IN B VALUE
DECREASE IN C VALUES
RICHTER SCALE" EQUATION
SETS OF POINT CREATED BY THE EQUATION
ROMOVE POINTS FROM SETS (USE LESS POINTS)
JOINTING POINTS TOGETHER, TO CREATE LINNEARL LINES
We established our intent to disrupt and de-stress this conventional routine on site. We all agreed that by mimicking the land deformation caused by earthquakes (which is also a de-stress process of the earth itself) we could deliver this design intent fairly well. So we began to look at ways that could parametrically define this land deformation process, i.e. parametrically defining shards and cracks. We had looked through various ways to represent this notion of an increase in frequency over time. At the end it was the â€œRichter scaleâ€? which came in handy as it is the mathematical equation that describes the magnitude of earthquakes. It helped us to define points in grasshopper.
[ y = asin (becx) ] P.S. It is not quite the exact equation of the scale as it was way beyond our mathematical abilities to figure it out as architecture students. However our beloved science friend Angelica Liu helped us to develop a simpler version which would still generate a similar effect. We had quite a bit of trouble in developing the definition that generated the final curves based on this equation. Though once we succeed, the definition (refer to flow chart below) provided very high flexibility in terms of producing interesting shard-like geometries. However as illustrated in the matrix, not all the results can be used, as some of the lines double jointed each other. In the end, the results used higher C value inputs and lower B values inputs can be used.
NES BEING MOVE AND SCALE
JOINTING LINES TOGETHER TO CREATE A SET OF CURVE
REFERENCE CURVES FROM SHAR DEFINITIONS
sHARDS1.0 &2.0 Algorithmic Exploration
We had made two prototypes utilising the same techniques of the “Blob”, by using the shards/ cracks definitions as the base curves, scale, lofted and moved to form the base surface. Soiled of various geometries were than subtracted from this surface. We decided to make two physical prototypes to test out the result and used different combinations of materials. One was made with Perspex and plywood, whilst another was made with white acrylic and box card. This exploration was very useful as it could help us to work out the different effects created by different combinations of materials. It also provided us with changes to test the materials thickness and how to achieve a more accurate connection between each panel. These were very useful experiences for us to fabricate out final model later on.
MOVE SCALE REFERENCE SURFACE FROM RHINO
SHIF TURNING THE SURFACE INTO A MESH
LOFT CREATING A GRID FORM THE MESH
MOVING THE GRID POINTS
EXTRUDING THE GRID
SHARDS DISTIBUTION ON SITE Parametric Design
From site contour
PULL OUT CRUVES FROM THE CONTOUR
In order to create mimic the earthquake effect, visually and physically disrupting the landscape, a section of the site contour landscape were selected, to use as the base surface.
Curves perpendicular to freeway were then pulled out from the surface, as this will be the orientation of the structure.
LOCATION OF POINTS DRIVE BY SINE EQUATION
Distributing point on curves, locations are driver by the Richter scale equation. Lower density will be on the country side where higher density on the city side to represent the different stress level.
REFERENCE GEOMETRY PLUGIN CREATED GEOMETRY
Plug in geometries created form the shards/ crack definitions, than parametrically manipulating their orientations, scales and positions.
SHARDS DEFINITION PRODUCES 2D FROM OF SHARDS
TURN 2D FORM INTO 3D FORM
BASE GEOMETRY REFERENCE BASE BEOMETRY PRODUCE BY BLOB/SHARD DEFINITION
CURVE EXTRACT FROM A SECION OF SITE CONTOUR
GRAPH SLIDER LIMITED BY A SET RANGE
EVALUATE CURVE EVALUATE POINTS ON CURVE SPECIFIED BY THE GRAPH MAPPER
AMPLIFIES VECTORS AN
Landscape definition Parametric Design
The following definition enabled us to create various outcomes that were nearly completely driven by parameters. The design was very flexible and adaptable to the site. Although our concept was to disrupt the site programming, at the same time we still wanted the structure to respond to the conditions of the site, that the shards were not randomly dumped onto the site. To achieve this idea, a 3D site model was created, where we could extract a section of the site and translate them into a set of curves that were perpendicular to the freeway (refer to C.2.3). Shards were than plugged into these base curves, based on the Richter scale equation (increasing density from one side to the other). Then it was scaled, shifted and rotated via manipulated domain and amplification values.
PECIFIED RANGE OF INPUT VALUES WHICH SCALE GEOMETRIES
ORIENT DIRECTION ORIENTS REFERENCED GEOMETETINES ALONG A SPECIFIED SET OF POINTS
CULL PATTERN ALTERS DISTRIBUTION VIA TRUE AND FLASE VALUSE
The outcome was very successful as it was a large variety result with different configurations and geometries. The definition could be easily manipulated by just changing some of the parameter inputs (i.e. different section of site contour, different shards geometry or distribution of shards etc.). This provided a much higher control to the overall outcome. One of the challenges was to figure out which was the most visually appealing outcome and the most possible outcome for fabrication, as a lot of the results were too dense and complicated to be physically fabricated. A solution that we come up with was to use the Cull Pattern from Grasshopper to alter the distribution of the shards. More workable results were generated from this method.
definition Matrix Parametric Design
Recall back to our earthquake concept, where different layers of the earth crust would be revealed during the land deformation. In order to replicate this feature, a variety of different geometric shards were subtracted and added into the model to create different regions of different combinations of materials. This would add another layer of visual disruption to the model and create a more dynamic and expressive effect. Now the model was ready for sectioning into panels.
OBJECTS NEW GEOMETRIES -OBJECT CREATED BY SHARDS AND BLOD DEFINITION
SOLID DIFFERENCE/ INTERSECTION FINDING THE INTERSECTIOING REGION BETWEEN THE LANDSCAPE AND THE OBJECT AND OBJECT
COUNTOUR MODEL BEING SECTION ACCORDING TO REFERENCE CURVE DIRECTION
FINAL DIGITAL MODEL Parametric Design
FINAL DIGITAL MODEL Parametric Design
DIGITAL MODEL - TOWARDS THE COUNTRY
DIGITAL MODEL - TOWARDS THE CITY
DIGITAL MODEL - CITY SIDE
OBJECTS SECTION ORIENTATION- TOP VIEW
CONSTRUCTION Tectonic Element
360 Timber pann
360 TIMBER PANNELS
The construction system of our proposed design would be mainly composed of light weight steel framing and timber panel cladding. The main structural system will be the steel frame and trusses, which are bolted to concrete footings. Timber panels will be cladded onto these frames and trusses as illustrated on the top right diagram. Gaps (which we used clear Perspex to show on our 1:100 model) will be left out in between panels to allow the lighting system to run within (light shines out at night time).
concrete bored footing s to hold steel
Pre-fabricated materials and systems are recommended due to the remoteness of the site and the limited access to the site. structural truss system for shards
steel framing system inside
timber panels support by steel truss system
LANDSCAPE/ SHARDS Plywood 1
A range of combinations of materials were a major part of our final model. The Blob and the Shards prototype proved to be visually successful as the materials complemented one another. We would like to create a similar or an even better result from this experiment. MDF, Plywood, fine grain Plywood, clear Perspex and white Acrylic were used, to allow us to create a more dynamic and visually result.
tECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION Fabrication
Provided with experiences of making prototypes such as the Blob and the Shards, we learnt that precision the most important factor in producing the best outcome. Here we were dealing with more than 1000 panel piecesand a range of sectioning angles, a few millimeters off in one panel could result in a few centimetres off in the whole model as parts of the model would not be able to join together. Hence it is essential that we maintained a very high accuracy in terms of the positioning of panels related to one another. We started from unrolling panels from the digital model and then to physically connect each panel together. A reference system was established so that we would know exactly how each panel fitted together. Each panel was pulled out from the digital model and layed out a base on reference points. Adjacent pieces (in dotted lines) would be placed over it, serving as a guide in which pieces could be laid over one another.
Altogether, 3 sets of construction documents were used in order to fabricate and construct our final model.  Set of sheets where each panels are labeled on their correspond material. This was used to search for the right pieces after laser cutting.  Technical construction document illustrating the assembly sequence and positions of ground and landscape.  Another technical construction document illustrating the assembly sequence and position of objects.
A total of five different materials were used in this model and more than 1000 pieces were laser cut. A special naming system was developed to allow us to more easily and quickly search for the right pieces. For example - P21-MD3.2 means: pieces can be found in number 3 MDF sheet and it is located on layer 21 of the model, and Altogether, 3 sets of construction documents were used in order to fabricated and construct our final model.
MODEL CONSTRUCTION Fabrication
Despite the fact that we had various technical construction documents and labeling systems, the fabrication process of the final model was challenging due to the large amount of pieces involved (over 1000 pieces with 5 different materials.) Pieces were first laid down on A0 1:1 technical sheets than glued together one by one. We soon realized that even though this system provided a much higher control in terms of the position and orientation of the each piece. Absolute precision could not be achieved because it involved us manually connecting them together. Mistakes and errors were found throughout the fabrication process. Several sheets of MDF and plywood needed to be re-cut as one of us had glued the panels in the opposite
direction. No doubt the technical construction document had helped us minimise the errors that we would made, any manual processes would still have a high chance for errors to occur. After spending more than 15 hour on laser cutting and 3 days 24/7 in the 757 design workshop putting the pieces together, our final model was completed and it looked amazing (in our opinion). The final model is 1000mm long, 400 wide and 300mm at its highest point, weighing over 15 kilograms.
MODEL CONSTRUCTION Fabrication
MODEL CONSTRUCTION FABRICATION
PHYSICAL MODEL FINAL DESING OUTCOME
PHYSICAL MODEL FINIAL DESING OUTCOME
PHYSICAL MODEL FINIAL DESING OUTCOME
PHYSICAL MODEL FINIAL DESING OUTCOME
PHYSICAL MODEL FINIAL DESING OUTCOME
PHYSICAL MODEL FINIAL DESING OUTCOME
PHYSICAL MODEL FINIAL DESING OUTCOME
PHYSICAL MODEL FINIAL DESING OUTCOME
LEARING OUTCOME & OBJECTTIVE REFLECTION
After a total of 12 weeks work, our final design of the Wyndham gateway project is relativity successful. The final design fulfill the requirement of developing an iconic/ land mare structure that people can associated and contributed into the discourse around the city and architecture. Although flaws can be found in fabrication and construction process of the model, considering the complexity and more than 1000 pieces of materials that needed to be connected, the physical model is a great success. During our final presentation, critics were made about the ability of the structure to disrupt a challenged conventional routines and norms. They point out the high chances of the static structure will eventually become a part of the routine over a period of time, and people no longer see it as an disruption to the landscape, but become part of the landscape.
To defense our concept, I would like to point out that the structure is located in a very rural and relativity flat landscape, with nearly no vegetation and land rhythm along the freeway. Hence with such a large and complex structure, it will be very clear and standout even from a far distance. Thus it will still make a fairly strong visually impact when people drive past it even over a peirod of time, it will still be very disruptive compare to the overall landscape. One of the reasons why we want to disrupt program was to make Wyndham become a section of this conventional routines. Hence by if one sees the structure as a part of the routine mean that we had it had fulfill its function, to further promoted Wyndham and place Wyndham onto the map. Certainly we agree that our final design outcome does not fulfill all the design intends we had originally set out with our one way concept. It had been evoke and re-define many times over the past 12 weeks. Much of this was due to our lack of knowledge and skill in parametric modeling, full design and control cannot be delivered. Also in order to maintain a balance of the conflicts between buildable designs or sophisticated and radical ideas, a lot of the original concepts were lost due to the fact that the design needs to be able to be physically built also in a very tight time frame.
Conclusion Over the course of the semester, I have begun with not understanding the concept of paramedic modeling and with no Grasshopper experiences. I see computational architectural as a too, whitch allow much faster and accuratly to document and communicate concepts and ideas. At first our group were not able to think parametricaly in terms of producing phototype; we see Grasshopper as another tool that helps us represents forms that were generated in our minds. It is not until the end of Part B that we are able to loosen ourselves and let the parameters to help us to find more radical and abstract outcomes. No doubt Grasshopper is an excellent design tool when it comes to produce complex geometries, forms and topologies. It also allows wide ranges of factors to be incorporated into the design outcomes (such as environmental data inputs or mathematic interpretation etc.) However there are still many flaw within the software, this might be one of the main reason why it is still not highly used in architectural paretics.
complexilty of the geometries that it is able to created, which they are the critical factors to whether a physical model could be made. Also by using parametric modelling, we have very precise control over the entire models; changes can be made in a very small scale that could not be seen from the human eyes on the computer screens. As a result some of the connection between panels did not quite fit together as we did not notices the changes that we had made in the definitions. Also the used of batteries layout on Grasshopper makes it hard to keep track of what we are doing. There are many times that we have to spend quite a far bits of times to look through the entire definition, just in order to change a value in one of the slider. Hence, without further development into the tools, parametric modelling still cannot become part of mainstream architecture. At the moment, they still remain as tools that helps generated complex forms and ideas.
When it comes down to fabrication, small details are overlooked by the