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Análise de Discurso Crítica da publicidade

towards the abusive and erroneous message of the competitor which is classified as intentional. Arnaldo Saraiva, Marc Angenot and Jacques Durand’s studies are useful to understand the context and the characteristics related with advertising polemics or parodies. The aims of Marc Angenot’s study were the typological characterisation of the “discours panfletaire” which was conceived as a reactive production against a past discourse considered not only erroneous, but intentional, unfair and dangerous. According to Jacques Durand’s thoughts about the rhetoric of image, it is emphasised the so called ‘opposition figures’. There are rhetorical modalities through which the brand makes an explicit comparison with the competitor. Finally, with Arnaldo Saraiva’s studies, it is possible to understand some polemic discursive characteristics. As I wrote above, when the error is classified as unintentional, the reactive advertising message has the only aim of replacing a commercial truth and a discursive order/normality. The brand only tries to demonstrate the error of the competitor. In spite of both having something in common – for example functional, economical, or aesthetic axioms – one of the brands tries to prove that it is better. The error is classified as unintentional because the brand which protests considers that the other competitors only produced some advertising statements incorrectly. The error is possible, but it must be corrected. The common commercial axioms (a kind of consensual ‘advertising ideology category’) are important: it is in the name of them that the advertising enlightenment is possible. The advertising polemic is a ‘correction exercise’ through which the brands restore an advertising order/normality (which is a discursive one, although it always has a commercial nature). Among some opposition figures – the ones related with the advertising comparative tests – Jacques Durand demonstrates how this correction can be made20 . In the comparative tests, which I highlight as being just an example of polemic advertising, there is a ‘mise-en-scène’ related to the signification of an identity and an opposition. This dichotomy is essential because it is linked with the process of restoring the so called advertising order/normality. On an iconographic basis, the identity is expressed by the placement of the antagonistic products in parallel. They can both be identified or else, the 20

Durand, Jacques -“Rhétorique et image publicitaire”, p. 80- 83.

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