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ISSUE #1 DECEMBER 2013

VIDEO ON DEMAND SITE COMPARISON MAGAZINE FEATURING:

THE MARKET SITUATION The latest web design trends for Video On Demand websites

INTERACTION How Video On Demand websites interact with their users

NAVIGATION & STRUCTURE Testing the usability of Video On Demand sites

PLUS MUCH MORE!


Contents Introduction Market Situation Navigation data and Segmentation The Objectives of Website Design Online Value Proposition Customer Orientation Dynamic Design and Personalisation Aesthetics Page Design Navigation and Structure Interaction Conclusion


From the editors

Charlie Griffiths Shaun Keeble Beth Lewis Cameron Hurrion


Introduction

BBC iPlayer

iPlayer was launched in 2008 and was the first of the four terrestrial companies to create an online catch up service. It is the market leader in the catch up video on demand industry. The brand developed the slogan ‘making the unmissable, unmissable’ for the iPlayer as they wanted to highlight the quality content available to the viewer. Smartphone apps were launched in 2011 for Android and IOS systems, which allowed customers with a mobile

internet connection to watch catch up TV where ever they wanted. This was a big step for catch up VOD as before this the services could only be accessed via desktop or laptop. The most popular television show on iPlayer in 2011 was the Top Gear: India Special with 1.94 billion views, in 2012 the Summer Olympics opening ceremony with 2.32 billion views and in 2013 Doctor Who: The day of the doctor with 1.84 billion views.

BBC iPlayer’s Homepage


Introduction

ITV Player

ITV Player was launched in 2008 and features content from ITV, ITV2, ITV3, ITV4 and CITV. The website has a 30 day catch up period instead of seven days, however it does require viewers to register with the website first. ITV Player is available on a number of platforms including smart TV catch up services. BT Vision, Freesat, Sky, Virgin Media and Youview all offer ITV Player as part of their catch up services.

Like the BBC, ITV launched it’s own smartphone app in 2011. The app was launched on Android, IOS and Windows operating systems. Some of the content on the website aren’t available to watch outside of the UK due to copyright and legal issues. ITV’s mission is “to create a recognisable and consistent brand for video on demand content across the web and TV”.

ITV Player’s Homepage


Introduction

4OD

40D was fully launched for Windows, Mac and Linux desktops in 2009. It is the home of content from all of the brands channels including Channel 4, E4, More 4 and 4 seven.4OD offer a catch up service that has a thirty day expiry period. As well as being a catch up service, 4OD offers archive boxsets of older content that has aired on the Channel 4 platforms in the past. A number of subscription based VOD services including Blinkbox, LoveFilm and

Netflix have acquired the rights to some of Channel 4’s content, which allows them to show them on their platforms without advertisements. 40D is available on a number of smart TV platforms including Freesat, Sky, Virgin Media and Youtube. The service is also available to watch on game consoles such as Playstation and Xbox.

4OD’S Homepage


Introduction

Demand 5

Demand 5 went live in 2008 and offers content from Channel 5, 5 USA and 5 Star. The website was formerly known as ‘Five Download’ until it was rebranded as Demand 5.

Demand 5 created it’s first app in 2011 but it was specifically for Big Brother content. However the app was soon developed to allow viewers to catch up on content from all Channel 5 platforms. The app is only available on IOS and Windows operating systems however.

Demand 5 is available on more then one web platform. Not only does it offer catch up content on it’s website but also it is the The catch up service is available on a only terrestrial catch up service to offer it’s number of smart TV platforms including content on Facebook. Fans of the Demand BT Vision, Sky, Freesat, Virgin Media and 5 Facebook page can watch content Youview. without even leaving the social networking site. Demand 5’s Homepage


Market Situation

Over the past three years the video on demand industry has seen rapid growth. Over 25 million people now use the services and with the rise of mobile and tablet internet use, video on demand has the potential to grow further.

BBC currently is the market leader. In March 2012, iPlayer had 7.4 million customers, just under a third of the total customer population. Results from a 2,000 people survey, found that 61% of the respondents used iPlayer the most. The second most popular choice of VOD service was ITV player but seemed like a lot less popular choice with only 36%. 4OD wasn’t too far behind ITV as 31% of respondents said that was their most popular VOD service. The least popular choice was Demand 5 as only 14% of respondents voted in favour of them.

Throughout 2013, The industry failed to attract more customers to it’s services than the previous year. Reasons for the lack of growth include: consumers not wanting to pay for ‘catch up’ VOD services and the length of adverts before and during the program that they are watching. Issues in the market Positive – VOD has made it’s services usable on portal devices, game consoles and smart TV’s. - Governments 2015 plan to provide superfast broadband Negative – Consumers are unwilling to pay for catch up services - Lack of high definition content online


Market Situation

Availability In 2012, 55% of Internet users that were between the ages of 16-64 owned a smartphone. This number is only going to increase in the upcoming years. VOD were quick to create mobile friendly websites and apps, making viewing experiences enjoyable. This also means that viewers aren’t restricted to watching content on their laptop, location isn’t an issue. If the customer is in a good signal area and has an internet connection then they should be able to enjoy the experience as much as they would on a laptop. Catch up VOD is available on smart TV’s and games consoles as well, meaning viewers can watch the service on their television, which could be better as the screen would be larger. Superfast broadband The government has set itself a target of providing superfast broadband availability to 90% of homes in the UK by 2015.

This would benefit the VOD industry as it might help them gain more customers. A faster internet connection would mean quicker loading times and less buffering during the program. Which inevitably will result in a better viewing experience for the customer. However, claims have been made and it’s unsure whether the government will meet it’s target by 2015, the project is likely to be completed by 2016.

Paying for catch up VOD In 2011, ITV Player trialed ‘micropayments’ for its services to work out what customers were willing to pay for. The benefit for customers would be ad-free programs and the ability to watch content that is thirty days old.


Market Situation

The cost could be anywhere between £0.99 and £4.99, which could be considered expensive. consumers have reacted by arguing that they already pay their television license so therefore the added terrestrial services should be included in that price. However for the industry to evolve, it needs to make a profit. Therefore the decision needs to be made whether they will provide the services at a cost or if they add more adverts to their content. High definition content In an age where 41% of the UK own a high definition TV, catch up VOD services have been slow at providing HD capabilities themselves. Currently only BBC iPlayer offer HD content and even that is limited. VOD should consider HD content as it would make viewing catch up services on larger screens more enjoyable and easier to see. However HD content takes longer to load therefore the industry might want to wait until 90% of homes have a superfast broadband connection.

Opinion of the experts Rich Trenholm reported that BBC have unveiled future plans to add new features to iPlayer and how they’re going to impact the VOD industry. He reports that the BBC want to turn the catch up TV industry into an internet TV industry. New features will include: changing the seven day catch up limit to a thirty day catch up limit and special online only TV channels. These TV channels will include Radio 1 TV and channels dedicated to events such as Glastonbury. Other new features include a BBC store. Similar to iTunes, it will allow users to purchase archive content and boxsets of shows that air on the BBC. A partnership with Youtube and Spotify is also being considered so listeners of BBC radio will be able to create playlists of the songs they hear and store them on these platforms.

Rich Trenholm Crave Editor at CNET UK


Navigation and Structure Secondary research: “Free catch-up services are the most popular form of VoD�. A study based on 2000 Internet users aged 16+ took place to see the percentage usage of different video on demand platforms. Overall, TV on demand services are most popular amongst younger consumers, with 31% of those aged 16-24 viewing content, compared to only 9% of those aged 55-64. Some 15% of VoD watchers access free catch-up once a day or more, compared to 3% of TV viewers, indicating how popular free content is. BBC iPlayer The footfall for BBC iPlayer in 2011 was around 120 million requests per month making it the most popular video on demand site. Nearly 40% of these users are under the age of 35 and around 60% of visits to the site are male. It is also interesting to see the busiest time for the site is around 10pm just after the peak of Internet usage for any other site.

Users on average go four pages deep into the website before leaving. The majority of users are based in the UK and the most popular location to access the website is at school. ITV Player The number of users of ITV Player has increased from 6 million in 2007 to 11.7 million in 2011; this is an increase of 95%. There is a slight difference between gender when it comes to watching ITV player with 34% male and 39% female. Users on average visit two pages on the site and again the most popular location to access ITV Player is at school. 28% of visits come from search engine results and people in the UK are the most likely to use the website. 4OD Around half of 16-24 year olds in the UK have registered them selves to 4OD. Mobiles and tablets represent 15% of the most common platform viewers use to watch 4OD.


Navigation and Structure Females as apposed to males, are more likely to visit the website. They are also more likely to access the website at home rather than at work. 34.1% of visits come from search engine result pages and visitors on average visit two pages. The most popular country to access the website from is the UK. Demand 5 This is the least popular of all four video on demand sites that have been researched with only 14% of 2000 aged 16+ internet users surveyed. 14% were male and 13% were female. The UK is the most popular country to access the website, and the most popular location to access it is at school. Viewers are most likely to visit three pages in total before they leave the website. 34.6% of visits come from search engine results. Primary research A survey was carried out to gather information on the demographic of

those who most commonly visit video on demand sites as well as which is the most popular. 32 respondents completed this questionnaire and results have been crossed with similar data from a Mintel report of video on demand.


Navigation and Structure

Results and analysis

Looking at the results of the primary and secondary data, it can be deduced that there is a clear segmentation in the market of video on demand. Video on demand is most popular in with the 18-34 year olds; yet there is no substantial difference between which genders use the sites more. It is interesting to pull out from the graph below that 18-34 year olds are much

more likely to watch VOD demand services then they are actual TV. This could help the websites as they could use this data to create online only content that would appeal to this target audience. BBC iPlayer is the most commonly used video on demand site with 43% of users using it rather than others. From the primary research conducted it is pointed out that catch up VOD services are only used weekly, which due to some content only being available for seven days, might impact the amount shows being viewed.


Objectives of website design ‘Unless a web site meets the needs of the intended users it will not meet the needs of the organisation providing the web site’ Design Objectives

those who most commonly visit video on demand sites as well as which is the most popular. 32 respondents completed this questionnaire and results have been crossed with similar data from a Mintel report of video on demand.

The other 2 main objectives of website design are customer acquisition; gaining new customers, and customer extension; selling multiple products or services to the same customer.

All 4 of the Video-on-Demand web sites have useful information regarding the programme listings and video content. The websites as a whole all offer a way to save the user time and money by providing a free Video-on-demand service available across multiple digital platforms allowing users to access the content anywhere. All of the comparable websites have means of contact through their web pages, with ITV Player in particular offering the opportunity to link your viewing habits with their social media accounts such as Twitter and Facebook.

Web Site Goals

Key Variables for Web Design Objectives

In order to achieve these objectives a website must follow the 5Ss; SELL, SERVE, SPEAK, SAVE, SIZZLE, in other words help the user: -Buy something they need -Find information -Save time and money -Talk to the organisation -Enjoy a better web experience

-High Quality Content- The right information, in the right place at the right time. -Ease of Use- Navigational structure must be easy to follow. You should never get lost on a ‘good’ website -Quick to Download- Visitors will not wait -Updated Frequently- New, useful and relevant information

A web site is often the first point of call for an organisations’ target market, and so therefore it’s ultimate objective is to fulfil the needs of the user. By doing this, the website will reduce it’s ‘bounce rate’ (the amount of visitors to a site that leave after visiting a single page) and encourage the user to return. This follows the objective of customer retention.


Objectives of website design BBC iPlayer is Updated Frequently by having a torrent of video content updated every day as soon as it has appeared on the TV. In the eyes of the consumer, this allows the web site to become a reliable and trusted source of ‘fresh’ and up to date content. They also have the option to download content to view offline for 30 days; the removal of old content after the 30 days increases the credibility of the website, whilst also encouraging the user to return to download more.

Video-on-demand sites must be Quick to Download in order to retain and entice visitors, all of the websites are quick to download video content, however ITV Player requires you to have an account with them before you can begin streaming. Although a good way of generating data capture, this may frustrate visitors who want to watch content immediately.

High Quality of Content is clearly displayed on the 4OD web site, clear descriptions of videos available along with parental guidance warnings enable the user to make an informed decision.

Demand 5 website is easy to use, it has a very good navigational structure in order to allow the user to find what they are looking for quickly and effectively. The web site is also clearly signposted to help the user.


Online value proposition Good content and fast download capabilities will not secure an organisations chances of being well received by consumers. The web gives the consumer unlimited choice of sites that they can visit, all offering the same thing, so it is vital that an organisation’s website stands out. It needs an Online Value Proposition (OVP). An OVP must be communicated across the whole site in order for the user to know why you are different from your competitors.

BBC iPlayer’s OVP is the opportunity to watch their content offline, through the form of downloads. They also have a large range of content available to the user from across all of the BBC’s platforms. The content is customised to a degree through suggesting content for each particular user. There is also the emphasis that the user can view the content any time, anywhere with the emphasis on mobile and tablet devices.

The OVP is different for ever site and must be strategically planned and developed for different target audiences. A good OVP is developed using an online formulation of the marketing mix; The 6C’s: 1.Content – In-depth information to support the purchasing process 2.Customisation – The personalisation of content; personal recommendations etc 3.Community – User generated content e.g. Social networking 4.Convenience – The ability to use the organisations products or services anytime 5.Choice – A wide choice of products 6.Cost Reduction – The web is viewed as the cheaper alternative so users expect cheaper prices

The OVP for 4OD is the controversial content that they provide for the viewing of its’ users. This is instantly seen by the titles of the videos on the homepage. Because of this the web site actively promotes the use of parental controls which can restrict the content for younger users. All videos with explicit content also come with warning ‘labels’ to ensure that


Online value proposition viewers are aware of the nature of the content. This in-turn improves the credibility of the web site in the eye of the consumer, thus far encouraging them to return. The web site also has personalised features such as ‘playlists’ and ‘favourites’ so the user can have their preferred viewing material for future viewing.

ITV Player’s OVP is the delivery of content from across ITV’s platform in two forms, either paid or unpaid. Before a video can be viewed on this website the user must sign in, thus far they must have a personal account. This created an emphasis on a tailored personalised service which the user will receive

whilst using the web site, in the form of recommendations, playlists and rentals. The rental part of the website offers the user the chance to rent particular restricted content for example; preview videos, films or content which has expired. There is also a vast quantity of ‘free’ content so users have a choice.

The Demand 5 website OVP is the integration with social media. Links down the side of each video allow users to communicate with their followers on social media, thus far allowing the user to promote the web site by showing they’re peers what they are watching. Demand 5 also promotes children’s content at the same time as adult content where the other comparable web sites had a more adult focus.


Customer Orientation Usability Website usability is the process of creating a website that users can find what they are looking for in a quick and efficient way. To test the four video on demand websites, a usability test was conducted where the user had to search for the TV show that was on at 7pm on Saturday 14 th December 2013 on each website. BBC The user found the end result in the fastest time on the BBC website. At the bottom of the homepage there is a large interactive table that allows the user to navigate back to as far as three days earlier. There are images and text describing the TV show and next to them there is the time that it was aired. If the user wanted to go back further than three days earlier, they would have to click on a link and leave the homepage. ITV Similar to the BBC website, ITV’s catch up schedule is located at the bottom of the homepage too.

The table scrolls horizontally however as apposed to vertically. The user can also see what was on seven days earlier without leaving the homepage. Again, there are images and text describing the TV show and above it there the time it was aired. 4OD The catch up schedule is located in the middle of the homepage and lets users see what has been on in the past four days. However the homepage only shows what was on after 8pm. To find out what was on earlier the user must click a link and leave the homepage. Once the user has been redirected, they must scroll down the page and find the time that they were looking for. Demand 5 The user struggled the most to find the catch up schedule on Demand 5’s website. In order to access it, the user must click on a tab at the top of the page and be redirected. They can then scroll back seven days and find out what was on at a certain time. Demand 5 should consider putting the schedule on the homepage.


Customer Orientation


Customer Orientation


Customer Orientation BBC use a user-friendly URL to help the usability of the website

BBC have a search bar above the fold of the website to help the user search for keywords.

BBC use images and plain text to help describe their catch up content.

BBC use common words such as ‘about’ to help redirect users to the correct webpage.


Customer Orientation ITV use a user-friendly URL to help the usability of the website

ITV have a search bar above the fold of the website to help the user search for keywords.

ITV use images and plain text to help describe their catch up content.

ITV use common words to help redirect users to the correct webpage.


Customer Orientation 40D use a user-friendly URL to help the usability of the website

4OD have a search bar above the fold of the website to help the user search for keywords. 4OD use images and plain text to help describe their catch up content.

4OD use common words to help redirect users to the correct webpage.


Customer Orientation Demand 5 use a user-friendly URL to help the usability of the website

Demand 5 have a search bar above the fold of the website to help the user search for keywords.

Demand 5 use images and plain text to help describe their catch up content.

Demand 5 use common words to help redirect users to the correct webpage.


Customer Orientation


Customer Orientation http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/ Title: BBC iPlayer – iPlayer TV Home Description: BBC iPlayer TV – Watch live BBC TV or catch up on the last 7 days of BBC programmes. BBC HD programmes are now available to watch. Keywords: N/A https://www.itv.com/itvplayer/ Title: ITV Player homepage I itvplayer Description: Watch your favourite TV programmes live online, on Apple, Android and digital with the official CITV and ITV Player. The X Factor, Im a Celebrity, Breathless, Poirot, Coronation Street, Emmerdale, Exclusive Premieres and more… Keywords: N/A http://www.channel4.com/programmes/4od Title: Channel 4 – 4oD Description: 4 on Demand – With thousands of hours of video to choose from you can watch what you want, when you want on 4oD Keywords: N/A http://www.channel5.com/demand5 Title: Demand 5 I Channel 5 Description: Watch full episodes of your favourite Channel 5 programmes when it suits you, on Demand 5. Keywords: N/A


Customer Orientation


Customer Orientation An on-page SEO analysis found although there are no meta keywords in each websites code, the pages do have frequent keywords that appear. 4OD’s keywords however, lack relevance.

Unlike 4OD, BBC iPlayer’s on page keywords are relevant and appear more frequently. This would help it’s search ranking when ‘BBC’ and ‘iplayer’ are searched for.


Customer Orientation Like 4OD, Demand 5 also has frequent keywords that appear, which wouldn’t help the website rank high. However ‘demand’ is a keyword that appears and would be beneficial for the website if ‘demand 5’ was searched for.

ITV Player has the most effective keyword optimisation, their top two keywords are both relevant and frequent. The keywords also appear in relevant pieces of code including the title tag, URL and Meta Description.


Customer Orientation Analysis and comparison All four websites have been optimised for search engines however there are still improvements that could be made to help achieve satisfactory usability. Each of the four websites use user friendly URL’s, they keep them as sort as possible and relevant. If a user goes further into the website they can easily redirect back to the previous page by deleting the last part of the URL. VOD websites primarily use images and videos instead of text. However in each of the websites, the text that is used to describe the TV show is brief and typed in plain English, making it readable for a larger target audience. Each of the websites have a good index at the bottom of each page. The links there use common phrases seen on websites so the user shouldn’t have an issue with redirecting to the correct page that they were looking for. All four websites have placed a search bar in an appropriate place. Each of them have placed it in the top right hand corner. Having the search bar above the fold of the website also means the user is more likely to notice it and find the result they were looking for faster.

Although there are frequent keywords in the content, none of the websites use keyword meta tags. ITV’s meta description lists a selection of TV shows viewers could watch, making the description too long. These should be put in the keyword tags instead to help increase the ranking of the website if a particular TV show is searched for. ITV shouldn’t be the only website to do that though, each website should use the TV shows they offer as keywords. TV shows are likely to be seasonal though so each website must make sure they update their keyword tags frequently. The loading speed of a page is critical and helps lower bounce rates. The only website with a fast loading speed is ITV. Both 4OD and Demand 5’s loading speed is described as ‘slow’. One way both of these websites could increase their loading time is by compressing their image sizes. Smaller images makes it faster for the browser to load the rest of the website.


Dynamic Design

Websites have been developed to be as personalised and as responsive as possible. This has been done to create a unique visiting experience for each user. The two main dynamic environment variables found on websites are: 1.Customer Preferences 2.Collaborative Filtering Customer Preferences collect data through platforms such as questionnaires and sign up forms. Usually these data capturers are mandatory when a user is creating an account or registration with a website. All four VOD websites offer sign up forms. On the ITV website, there is an enticement to sign up as it would give the user access to thirty days of catch up TV instead of just seven. After the user has signed up and started viewing content, the algorithm on the website starts collecting data on what the user is watching and what the user is sharing. The website stores this data so that when the user next logs into their account, the website can recommend other shows for them to watch based on previous decisions. All of the websites provide these services.


Aesthetics

Aesthetics are made up on a website of colours, style and graphics. Aesthetics are one of the first things users base their decision on whether or not they’ll leave the website. Therefore it is critical for websites to get it correct, in order to avoid high bounce rates. Some websites add too many graphics or text on a conflicting background making it difficult to read or even navigate around the website, which forces the user to leave.

iPlayer has it’s logo placed in the header of the page, it is the same size as the link text but in bold, making it stand out from the tabs. The website has a consistent colour scheme of: pink, black and white. The headings are clear and all graphics are links to the show it is advertising. This is good as it could become confusing if there were a mixture of links and images. Due to the website being owned by the BBC, there are no adverts, making it easy to read the website without being distracted by static or moving adverts. ITV Player has a consistent colour scheme throughout it’s website of black, blue and white. Headings and links are in bold making them easy to see by the ‘scanning

eye’. The logo is placed in and the same size as the BBC logo making the branding easily recognisable. The header which acts as a carrousel can be a little distracting as it’s continuously revolving. All graphics are again links to the TV show that they’re advertising. 4OD has a simple layout that is easily readable. The colour scheme of blue, white and black is consistent throughout the website and headings are bold and concise. Again like ITV, the website features a revolving carrousel, which gets distracting when trying to read content around it. 4OD also has external adverts placed on the website. They are responsive adverts meaning that they are based on the users browsing history. However they’re again carrousel adverts so they are continuously moving. Demand 5 has a good sized logo in the header of the website however it is overshadowed by a very large advertisement that has been placed above it. The colour scheme of purple, black and white is consistent. Demand 5 also has a carrousel feature in the top half of its website however it’s manually moved meaning it’s up to the user to click it if they require more information. Images act as rollovers so when the user moves their cursor over it, a prompt appears asking whether or not they would like to watch the full episode.


Page Design

Consistent page design is critical to help the user navigate the website efficiently. The home page of the website also needs to act as a shop window to try and entice users to go deeper into the website and hopefully complete the call to action that the site has been set up for.

Link to sign in to the website

The homepage needs to include: the company logo and branding, information of products, links to other pages on the site, a good site navigation structure, key messages, headings and menus. Logo appears on every page and acts as a link back to the homepage

Static main feature on the homepage


Prominent search bar that appears on every page, above the fold.

Three column grid layout

Submenus to access specific content


Page Design

Submenus to access specific content

Logo appears on every page and acts as a link back to the homepage

Carrousel main feature on the homepage


Prominent search bar that appears on every page, above the fold.

Link to sign in to the website

Interactive headings


Page Design

Submenus to access specific content

Logo appears on every page and acts as a link back to the homepage

Carrousel main feature on the homepage


Link to sign in to the website

Prominent search bar that appears on every page, above the fold.

1 advert seen


Page Design

Submenus to access specific content Brand key message appears on the homepage

Logo appears on every page and acts as a link back to the homepage

Static main feature on the homepage


Prominent search bar that appears on every page, above the fold.

Another brand logo appears, helps reinforce brand on the website

1 advert seen


Navigation and Structure Navigation ‘Web site navigation is the science and skill which you apply to a web site that helps visitors move from one page to the next.’ There are said to be three ‘rules for a navigation template’. The first of which is to ‘keep it simple’. The less buttons, and options on the website makes it easier for the user to know what they are doing, rather than being swamped in content. The second is to be consistent. It is essential that the website keeps the same page layouts throughout the the site as the user moves and explores around it. Signposts are another. They help users by informing them where they are in the website.

first time (and doesn’t necessarily know what they’re looking for) this could be confusing and off putting. Although, this is a problem with most On Demand services due to the amount of content available and needed on the sites.

Structure It is highly important that a website has the correct structure. Web structure is how content is put together, and how all the pages within it relate to one another. It is imperative that a the user can achieve ‘flow control’ whilst using a website. The web structure consists of three main parts: layout templates, URL patterns and linkage structure.

4OD Contains a simple page layout, which enable the visitor to navigate themselves around the website easily. This increases the chance of the visitor controlling flow and having a good experience with the website.

BBC iPlayer The BBC’s iPlayer website is structured for easy use with its page layout and interaction abilities. However, there are many ‘buttons’ and options available to the visitor. To someone visiting the site for the

ITV Player ITV Player appears to be the easiest to use of the On Demand services. The horizontal website navigation bar with TV programs changing automatically is both eye catching and helpful to the user. The available options are spread out, and the page layout is consistent throughout. The page is also not ‘crammed’ with advertisements.

Demand 5 Has many of the same qualities as ITV Player. However, there is far less content. Demand 5 has a consistency through out the website, but has the least to offer.


Navigation Site structure navigation

Reference navigation

Site structure navigation

Functional navigation (privacy policy)

Dynamic navigation (search form)


Navigation Site structure navigation

Reference navigation

Site structure navigation

Functional navigation (privacy policy)

Dynamic navigation (search form)


Navigation Site structure navigation

Direct navigation

Reference navigation Site structure navigation

Functional navigation (privacy policy)

Dynamic navigation (search form)


Navigation Site structure navigation

Reference navigation

Dynamic navigation (search form)

Direct navigation (advert)

Functional navigation (privacy policy)


Interaction

A good ‘website experience’ is largely down to how interactive a website is. Websites give their visitors two-way communications and high levels of involvement and control over their web experience. It is important for a website to be interactive with it’s users. A positive web experience can lead to loyalty towards the site, resulting in an increased amount of ‘hits’. It can also be an effective way to catch customer research and information. There are many forms of web interaction: - Mouse event, which can be as simple as a click of the mouse. - Mouse rollover (placing the mouse over text and receiving feedback from the website). - Dragging and dropping - drop-down boxes There are 4 key stages to using interaction to move a customer through the buying process: Learning Deciding Buying - After-sales support Learning helps the customer (or visitor) understand the website, the features of it, and the benefits. Interaction increases the learning process. There are many ways interaction can help the visitor decide what they want.

In relation to video-on-demand services, On-site search engines are the most relevant. These can efficiently guide the visitor directly to what they want to see. Interaction in the ‘buying process’ can be extremely beneficial to a sales website, as it can assist to break down the reluctance to purchase online. (not directly relevant to BBC iPlayer, ITV Player, 4OD, or Demand 5). After-sale support consist of FAQs, interactive support tools and customer feedback.

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