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AUTO RICKSHAW

DESIGN PROJECT Shantanu Maheshwari Product Design (2016-2020) Guide- Pritam Mandavkar

Woxsen School of Arts and Design


Copyright

2018 - 2019

Student document publication, meant for private circulation only. All rights reserved. Bachelor in Design, Product Design, 2016-2020 Woxsen School of Arts and Design, Hyderabad, India. No part of this document will be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronically or mechanically, including photocopying, xerography and videography recording without written permission from the publisher, Shantanu Maheshwari and Woxsen School of Arts and Design. All illustrations and photographs in this document are Copyright 2018 - 2019 by respective people/ organizations. Edited and designed by Name : Shantanu Maheshwari E-mail : shantanu1998@gmail.com shantanu.maheshwari@design.woxsen.edu.in shantanu1620108@gmail.com Processed at Woxsen School of Arts and Design Mumbai Hwy, Kothur Patti Digwal, Hyderabad, Telangana 502345 design.woxsen.edu.in

Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I


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CONTENTS

Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I

INTRODUCTION

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BRIEF GENERATION

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RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS -SECONDARY RESEARCH -PRIMARY RESEARCH

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DESIGN DIRECRTION -PARAMETERS -FINAL BRIEF -ERGONOMICS -CENTRE OF GRAVITY -IDEATIONS

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DESIGN DEVELOPMENT -RIG TEST

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LOOK BOOK

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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29 30 32 36 40

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INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT Auto Rickshaw has been one of the most important means of public transport in India. It is known to be the most efficient and cheap transportation for short distances in India. In terms of design, there has been very minimal changes throughout the years in India. Technology wise, there has been lots of improvements. Auto Rickshaws now run on CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) due to Government regulations and are Environmental friendly compared to other fuel run vehicles. Electric Rickshaws have also entered the market, more efficient and profitable to the drivers. The brief for the project was ‘ To Redesign an Auto Rickshaw ’ with no preconceived solutions in the beginning. As it processed forward, some opportunities were generated. The design had some restrictions as the context was India and the vehicle chosen was Auto Rickshaw, a Utility vehicle. The journey of the project was great with learning happening at every stage. The aim was to come up with a better design of Auto Rickshaw that fits in today’s Indian context.

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Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I

Painting credit- Milind Mulick


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BRIEF GENERATION

Given the theme 5 senses, TOUCH was the most prominent sense chosen. With touch comes Experience, user interaction with the product. The first thing that comes to the mind when it is said ‘Experiencing the Product’ is a Utility Product. It is a NEED for the people. It has to be experienced to know how it is used or how it works. Interested more in Transportation Design, the topic chosen was Auto Rickshaw, as it is one of the most important means of transport in India. Looking at the current scenario of the market and the world, the brief was generated.

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Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I

TO REDESIGN AN AUTO RICKSHAW


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RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS SECONDARY RESEARCH Area of Research The area chosen for the research was India. As it is not possible to cover all the cities of India, three places were picked to understand the Auto Rickshaw world at the given time. The two cities are different from each other making them explicit for study and diverse in all terms such as language, lifestyle, food habits, sociographics, demographics, culture and problems faced by people. The two cities were-

NASHIK HYDERABAD

Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I

Painting credit- Lindee Katdare


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EXISTING MARKET Bajaj RE Auto Rickshaw The Bajaj RE is a remarkably reliable three-wheeler from the famous producer company BAJAJ. Fit to the behavior of high-class features, this auto rickshaw guarantees high resale cost also. The features and designing of this three-wheeler are truly eye-catching and give extra leg space for the auto driver.

3,25,024

Sales : 2017-18

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Secondary Research

Cost- 2 Lakhs


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Piaggio Ape City Piaggio Ape City is an entirely common threewheeler vehicle for passengers in India from the leading company Piaggio. This auto rickshaw starts with industry’s first a three-regulator engine. It is also available in the four fuel options i.e. PLG, Diesel, Petrol, and CNG. The latest version that is started is diesel model. This three-wheeler is a powerful opponent for the renowned Bajaj RE auto rickshaw.

Secondary Research

Cost- 1.26 Lakhs

1,37,690

Sales : 2017-18

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Mahindra Alfa Passenger Mahindra Alfa Passenger is a three-wheeler auto rickshaw from one of the well-known brand of India. It has come with 8 Horsepower diesel engine and single cylinder which make it one of the excellent vehicles to be used on a daily basis for a taxi purpose. It has excellent mileage and performance and one of the best-selling auto rickshaw in its category.

Secondary Research

Cost- 1.50 Lakhs

48,023

Sales : 2017-18

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TVS King The TVS King three-wheeler is one of the excellent vehicles from the great company TVS. You can find this vehicle in the petrol and the CNG versions. It essentially certifies super power, style, and comfort along with the great mileage over the road due to its powerful engine. Owing to the longer warranty and lesser maintenance costs, the TVS King has become one of the highest quality products at present.

Secondary Research

Cost- 1.35 Lakhs

14,564

Sales : 2017-18

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ATUL The Atul Company is presently involved in the manufacture of Diesel Three Wheelers like 6-seater Auto Rickshaws, Pick-Up Vans and Chassis of Passenger Vehicles. These vehicles are marketed under the brand name of “KHUSHBU�, which is well organized and very popular.

Secondary Research

Cost- 1.50 Lakhs

35,612

Sales : 2017-18

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E- Rickshaws E-rickshaws are one great replacement for the existing auto rickshaws running on petrol, diesel and LPG. The e-rickshaws are battery operated three wheelers making them more eco- friendly and cost efficient for drivers.

Secondary Research

These rickshaws speeds are low and even they do not require permit. Here are some pointers, some positive as well as negative, of e-rickshaws. - Not preferred due to low speed - Larger turning radius - 4+1 Seating - Handling a bit difficult (Long vehicle) - Cheap - Long - Very bad leg space for drivers Cost- 1.15 Lakhs

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COLOURS & THEIR SIGNIFICANCE

Basic Taxi Colours for Petrol/Diesel Run Vehicles

CNG Powered Vehicles (Eco-Friendly)

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Telangana StateTelugu Desam Party (TDP)

Women Drivers (Jaipur)

Secondary Research

Transport department of India has allotted specific colours for various jobs. Yellow colour for school, colleges. Green for transport vehicle using CNG. Black and green/yellow for petrol/ diesel. Apart from this, in Telangana, the yellow colour is more dominant in auto rickshaws due to more visibility of the colour and the political party Telangana Desam Party (TDP). In Jaipur, the auto rickshaws with lady driver are pink in colour.


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PRIMARY RESEARCH Generally, Primary research is undertaken when the researcher has gained some insights by reviewing the secondary research data (Existing Market) or by analysing the previously collected data. So, after a considerable journey from generating a brief, it was the time to go for a field research, a study of relation and behaviour of people in the chosen context to find the loopholes in order to redesign the Auto Rickshaw.

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Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I

Painting credit- Milind Mulick


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VILLAGE vs CITY

Village

City

Primary Research

A small comparison between the auto rickshaws of village and city as both have different culture and mentality. There were a lot of differences found between the three wheeler of city and a village. It was seen that the village people hardly follow any of the rules made by the Transport Department of India.

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POSTURES OF THE BACKSEATERS

Primary Research

The Backseaters take these postures unknowingly. They adjust themselvs in the best possible way they can.

google.com

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AUTO DRIVER HEALTH ISSUES The auto rickshaw driver faces a lot of health issues due to an incorrect posture and continuous sitting. The image explains the pain in the body parts with its amount of intensity. Maximum of the drivers has a lower-back problem. Driving auto rickshaw continuously for 10-12 hours or sometimes more than that, is the reason for the problem to arise. It’s also the improper seat in the auto rickshaw which may lead to such problems.

Primary Research

The Bajaj RE auto rickshaw kind of solved this problem by increasing the leg space for the driver in the vehicle.

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WHY THAT TILT? Mostly it is seen that some of the auto rickshaw drivers sit in a tilted posture on the seat. Some reasons found for this were-

Primary Research

- Change of posture due to back pain - Showing off (mostly by youngsters) - Get use to that position as always, someone sits beside. - Feel easy to communicate while driving.

quora.com

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A GREAT ADVERTISEMENT BODY Auto rickshaw is the only type of public transport that runs throughout the city, even in the colonies and the inside areas of the city. Taking advantage of this, big brands and stores put their advertisements on them. The owner of the auto rickshaw doesn’t get paid for putting the advertisements. The brand provides them the cloth that is put on the auto rickshaw and that’s how they even do their marketing.

Primary Research

One of the worst parts of having these advertisements and posters on the auto rickshaw is that it covers the rear window of the vehicle. Just because the brand is paying for the cloth, the driver let them put up the posters covering the rear window.

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THE MONSOON TIMES When its monsoon time, the auto rickshaw drivers put nylon curtains in order to not let the water enter inside .It costs them around Rs 400 per year as they use it only for that year and buy a new one next monsoon.

Primary Research

This is a kind of JUGAAD used in the vehicle. They usually hang these nylon curtains on the metal frame inside.

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THE BACK WINDOW The Back Window of the auto rickshaw is rarely used by the drivers. Either the window is covered with advertisement posters, or there are speakers kept on the back of the seat , or the backrest of the seat is big enough or people keep their luggage behind the seating covering the back window.

Primary Research

The drivers, as seen, did not actually care about the rear window. The design done is not considered at all and is being neglected.

indiamart.com

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THE BONNET The bonnet of the vehicle mainly has two problems. One is that the locking system is damaged, not in a condition to use. The solution for this, what the drivers do, is they tie the bonnet with a nylon rope.

Primary Research

Second and the most important issue is that the Engine heats up very badly and so, to cool it, the drivers try to keep the bonnet open as seen in the images.

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MAJOR COMPETITORS Auto rickshaw has very few competitors in the market. One of these is the TATA Magic. It might not be found in the overall city, but it runs in some areas of Hyderabad. The car driver carries around 9-10 passengers in one trip. This vehicle is much more safe than auto rickshaw and carries more passengers in one go. This vehicle costs around Rs 3.75 lakhs.

Primary Research

The only negative point this vehicle has been that it is restricted to some areas and are not allowed all over the city.

peautobodyparts.com

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Ola and Uber Ola and Uber have shaken the market for auto rickshaws. Travelling in comfort with a reasonable cost for it made the middle class population shift from auto rickshaws to cabs. The city today has a maximum of taxis and cabs, then comes the private vehicles and in the last its auto rickshaws. Due to increase in the amount of vehicles, the roads always become busy and a lot of traffic has increased throughout the city making more of pollution and time to travel.

Primary Research

They even now have introduced Ola and Uber auto rickshaw services with very reasonable cost of travel.

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POPULATION GROWTH As seen in the given table, the population of India has been increasing each year by around 1.5 Cr.

Primary Research

With an increase in the population, there would definitely be an increase in the automobiles as it has become a basic need for people to travel which indirectly increases air and noise pollution and travel time.

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Auto Rickshaw

OBSERVATIONS AND POINTERS

SMALL in size

NO RESPECT for the Design PREFERRED by both rich and poor

CABS more in demand

Small TURNING RADIUS

Primary Research

FRUSTRATED auto rickshaw drivers

Worst in SAFETY

RULES not followed by the auto rickshaw drivers

Most CONVENIENT public transport NOISE pollution

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CLIENTS There are two clients , for the chosen product, which has to be considered while proceeding further in the process.

Primary Research

One is the Auto Rickshaw Driver and the other is the Passenger sitting at the back.

designrepublic.in

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DESIGN DIRECT ION

As electricity is one of the best and cheapest source for running the vehicle. It’s also ecofriendly.

SAME MAT ERIALS

INCREASED SEAT ING

The materials used for manufacturing the current auto rickshaw are best in its price and structure.

More people will travel at the same time with less number of vehicles.

THREE WHEELS Increasing the number of wheels will increase the cost of the overall vehicle.

SAFETY

PACKAGE RESTRICT ION The package of the vehicle is restricted as increasing the size would be against government norms and would take more space on road.

Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I

It’s one of the major points to be considered. People go against the rules of auto rickshaw (more seating) making the vehicle less safe.

DESIGN RESPECT Making people respect the design of the vehicle is one great task in India.

COST OF VEHICLE It is one of the most important points to be considered. If the cost increases, the drivers won’t buy it.

PARAMET ERS

ECO-FRIENDLY


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FINAL BRIEF After considering the parameters and taking insights from the primary research data, the final brief was structured. It has been tried to the best to consider all the parameters for designing the three-wheeler.

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Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I

TO REDESIGN AN AUTO RICKSHAW WITH INCREASE IN SEATING WHILE THE PACKAGE AND COST ARE RESTRICTED.


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ERGONOMICS SEAT AND SEATING COMFORT The seat height, width and back angles are based on the human anthropometry data collected from the research. It’s important to provide sufficient space for physical and psychological comfort. -Cushion‘s length from the seat back to the waterfall line is 440-550mm is recommended (Grandjean, 1980). -The breadth of the cushion is recommended 48omm (Grandjean, 1980) for clothing and leg splay. -The measurement is based on 95th percentile of female hip breadth and additional space for comfort since female hips are greater than male hip breadth. -Seat back height is recommended 509mm (Grandjean. 1980) by considering the small female, sitting shoulder height. -Seat back breadth may be divided into lower and upper regions. The lower must accommodate a tapered shape from 432mm at the hip to 367mm at the chest (Grandjeans, 1980). 480mm is recommended for seat back breadth (Grandjean, 1980).

-Horizontal adjustments accommodate differences in leg length that are associated with seat height and preferred knee angle. Grandjean (1980) recommended a minimum of 150mm horizontal adjustment. -The joint angles in automobile are typically between 95 and 120 degrees for the hip, and 95 and 135 degrees for the knee (Rebiffe, 1969).

Geometric Features of Seat Design:

Seat design can be divided into accommodation and comfort. Accommodation refers to seat size and adjustments for horizontal distance from controls, height and back angle. Comfort, however, refers to stiffness, contour, climate and vehicle features that promote user comfort.

Posture of the Body:

The seat should reduce postural stress and optimize muscular effort. Postural stress occurs due to adopting one posture for a long period of time, so comfortable support for many postures is essential and this can be accommodated by manipulation of anthropometric data and the linkage system.

Vibration and Ride Comfort:

Vibration, shock and impacts are major factors for judgments of comfort ability according to most users. Thus, the seat design also must consider the vehicle suspension system and the vibration transmitted to the seated user.

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VISUAL FIELD AND VISUAL OBSTRUCTION Limits of Visual Field: Driver can turn both eyes and head to gain a wider field of view, and moreover can make use of peripheral vision to see objects or movements even without turning eyes. In the horizontal plane, the binocular field of view extends some 120 degrees, as in the figure given below. Vision is sharp only over a fairly small area directly ahead. So, eyes need to be turned to focus on objects outside the foveal area. According to SAE J985 eyes generally only turn by about 30 degrees before the head is turned, which can comfortably give a further 45 degrees view to either side.

Ergonomics

In the vertical plane eye movement is comfortable within 15 degrees above or below the horizontal, although the eye can see up to 45 degrees upward or 65 degrees downward if necessary. On the other hand, head can easily incline 30 degrees upward or downward. Thus, by movement of head and eye, the driver can have extended direct field view. The driver has to concentrate on direct view, that is on the road.

So glancing away from the road for a short period is possible. Mirror and other instruments should be close to the driver, so that the driver does not require a much head and eye turn to have a look.

Driver’s Eye Location: Variation of eye positions inside the vehicle for any driving population is considerable due to variation of seat locations and variable anthropometry of the drivers. In order to address this problem, the SAE J94l ‘Eyellipse’ concept was developed as a drafting tool to define the range of eye positions within the driving population. It is based on the position of eyes of drivers in space. The distribution of eye position inZ space closely approximated an ellipsoid. During automobile design, care should be taken to provide maximum view all around either through direct vision or with the help of devices like mirror or camera. It is also important to ensure minimum visual obstruction either by vehicle components or by driver’s own body parts. This is particularly important for allowing unobstructed view of the displays on the dashboard.

Internal and External View from Driver Seat: The vision is a crucial factor in the driving task as most of the information received by the driver come through the visual sense. The clear view of the road (front and rear) enables the driver a safe driving. Poor visibility conditions are stressful for the drivers and results in a significantly increased risk of accident.

Visual Needs: The view ahead through the windshield has to be sufficient and clear for the driver. It enables the driver to stop in an emergency and necessary conditions. Similarly, rear and side views are important for maintaining speed, taking turns, exerting break or during parking. On the road driver need much longer view to anticipate and prepare for avoiding actions. Views close to the vehicle are equally important when turning left or right and maintain proper distance to avoid accidents.

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CENTRE OF GRAVITY Centre of gravity plays a very vital role in designing vehicles, especially a three- wheeler. These three wheels are arranged in a triangular pattern as shown. The red circle denotes the centre of gravity of a triangular shape. But, a vehicle is a product that is in motion. This motion affects the centre of gravity. The Newtons Laws of Motions also have to be considered. Acceleration and braking are some important aspects in a vehicle.

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Tire Size

Deceleration

Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I

Weight Transfer

Braking

Wheel

Width

Ground Clearance

Here are some terms and points which had been looked upon for coming up with a solution. All these terms and points are related to the Centre of Gravity in automobiles.

Cornering Force

Rolling Centre Height

Load Carrying Capacity

Centre of Gravity Po int

Centre of Gravity

n

Acceleratio


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Considering all the pointers and terms, some things became very clear and straight forward. If the centre of gravity height increases, the vehicle would become less stable and balanced. The C.G height should

be as low as possible.

The 60% weight of the overall vehicle should be backwards and 40% in the front.

This is because of the three wheeler is a moving product and so the laws of motion play a vital role in it. If more people sit in the front seat, the handling would be difficult.

Centre of Gravity

Even the size of the wheels plays a vital role in the balance of the vehicle. If the wheels are bigger, the overall height of the vehicle increases, resulting in an increase of C.G height. It even affects the turning radius of the vehicle. Considering this, the wheels and the dimensions of the three wheeler have to be the same as of the existing ones. Analysing the Ergonomics and the Centre of Gravity, a statement and a kind of solution was found.

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Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I

IN ORDER TO HAVE THE VEHICLE BALANCED, THE PASSENGER SEATING ARRANGEMENT SHOULD BE PROPER AND CENTRE ORIENTED.


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IDEATIONS

Entrance Centre of Gravity Leg Space

Entrance Centre of Gravity Leg Space

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Ideations

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Entrance Centre of Gravity Leg Space

Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I

Entrance Centre of Gravity Leg Space


Ideations

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Entrance Centre of Gravity Leg Space

Entrance Centre of Gravity Leg Space

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Ideations

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Entrance Centre of Gravity Leg Space

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Entrance Centre of Gravity Leg Space


SKETCHBOOK

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The seating is the main solution of the complete process. As seen from the above ideations, the selected seating arrangement has been sketched below for better understanding.

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Vacancy Indicating LED

The tennis green colour was chosen as it is visible in the night, better than the other colours. The headlights are kept rectangle in shape for easy manufacturing.

EXTERIORS Considering the overall cost and coming up with a new look to the vehicle was one difficult task. An auto rickshaw being a utility vehicle, the price of it had to be kept in mind. Materials used in different parts of the vehicle had also been looked upon.

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DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

After getting the seating arrangement and the exteriors selected, a 3D model was made with measurements and proportions. The model helped in understanding how the overall auto rickshaw looks like.

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Design Development

Once the 3D model was made with all correct dimensions, a RIG Test was conducted in order to check if the package is proper or not. This is done to check the Height and Hip ratio of the clients with the vehicle.

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Design Development

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As seen in the tests, the package designed is successful.

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1725 mm

160 mm 1920 mm

1370 mm

2700 mm

440 mm

390 mm

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440 mm

780 mm

1240 mm

420 mm

VEHICLE DIMENSIONS 5+1 SEATING ELECTRIC AUTO RICKSHAW


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LOOKBOOK

The mudguards are made out of carbon fibre in order to keep the repairing cost low. Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I


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The cloth put on to cover the auto rickshaw is of light grey colour to keep the temperature low inside. Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I


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BIBLIOGRAPHY Page 3. Painting Courtesy- Milind Mulick. https://in.pinterest.com/ https://i.pinimg.com/564x/43/d5/ b0/43d5b0198916bab0822e7670c5bfa191.jpg Image Courtesy- https://www.google.co.in/ Page 6. https://pbs.twimg.com/media/C78Yl_1X0AYYhwW.jpg Page 7. Image Courtesy- https://www.motorbeam.com/chennaiautorickshaws-to-be-equipped-with-smart-features/ Page 8. Image Courtesy- https://www.google.co.in/ http://4.imimg.com/data4/RP/QD/MY-173915/piaggio-lpgpassenger-auto-rickshaw-500x500.jpg Page 9. Image Courtesy- https://www.google.co.in/ http://5.imimg.com/data5/GM/XD/MY-38714562/ mahindra-alfa-dx-diesel-auto-rickshaw-500x500.jpg Page 10. Image Courtesy- http://www.ramkaytvs.com/product/auto Page 11. Image Courtesy- https://commercialvehicleinfo.com/top-6auto-rickshaw-companies-in-india-with-price-list-featuresimages/ https://commercialvehicleinfo.com/wp-content/ uploads/2018/01/Atul-Auto-Rickshaw.jpg Page 12. Image Courtesy- https://commercialvehicleinfo.com/ hero-raahii-electric-rickshaw-price-specifications-featuresimages/ https://commercialvehicleinfo.com/wp-content/ uploads/2018/01/HERO-Raahii-%E2%80%93-ElectricRickshaw-4.jpg Page 15. Painting Courtesy- Milind Mulick https://in.pinterest.com/ https://i.pinimg. com/564x/79/8f/92/798f928cffb3d68aade9f8b3ce3a72c3. jpg

Page 17. Image Courtesy- https://www.google.co.in/ Page 18. Image Courtesy- www.pinterest.es/ pin/538813542904181431/ Page 19. Image Courtesy- https://www.quora.com/Why-do-mostauto-rickshaw-drivers-sit-on-the-edge-of-their-seats

Documents Human Factors & Ergonomics in Automobile Enineering Velmurugan Sivaraman, Asst. General Manager at Ashok Leyland

Page 22. Image Courtesy- https://www.indiamart.com/proddetail/ auto-rickshaw-hoods-branding-13302960933.html Page 24. Image Courtesy- https://www.google.co.in/ https://4.imimg.com/data4/PP/PP/GLADMIN-/wp-contentuploads-2015-09-magic-500x500.jpg Page 25. Image Courtesy- https://www.google.co.in/ Page 26. www.worldometers.info Page 27. Image Courtesy- thenounproject.com Page 28. Image Courtesy- https://in.pinterest.com/ https://i.pinimg.com/564x/e1/92/ec/e192ec29e0fd23ff83def9b0fe5ec75e.jpg Page 29. Image Courtesy- thenounproject.com Page 32, www.slideshare.net 34. Page 33. Image Courtesy- cz210jidousha.blogspot.com Page 35. Image Courtesy- dsource.in

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Name : Shantanu Maheshwari Date of Birth : October 24, 1998 E-mail : shantanu1998@gmail.com shantanu1620108@gmail.com Contact Number : +91 7972671889 +91 9545433447 Address : B-206, Manohar Nagar, Near Govind Nagar, Rajmata Jijau Marg, Nashik- 422009

Shantanu Maheshwari Design Project I


Profile for Shantanu Maheshwari

Auto Rickshaw Redesigned- Design Project  

Product Design and Transportation Design

Auto Rickshaw Redesigned- Design Project  

Product Design and Transportation Design

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