Magic Of

Math

Donald in MathMagic Land

Sydnei Miller

April 30, 2009

B3

Mrs. P. Harris

The Magic of Math Donald in MathMagic Land Table of Contents Chapter 1

Pictures

Pages 3-11

Chapter 2

Examples

Pages 12-20

Chapter 3

Definitions Pages 21-29

Chapter 4

Research

Pages 30-36

2

Pictures 1.

Starfish

2.

Tic – Tac – Toe

3.

Pawn

4.

Star Jasmine

5.

Music Scale

6.

Wax Flower

7.

Petunia

8.

Infinity 3

Starfish

4

Tic – Tac - Toe

5

Pawn

6

Star Jasmine

7

Music Scale

8

Wax Flower

9

Petunia

10

Infinity

11

Examples 1.

Pentagon

2.

Rectangle

3.

Pattern

4.

Circle

5.

Ratio

6.

Fraction

7.

Square Root

8.

Shapes 12

Pentagon

13

Rectangle

14

Pattern

15

Circle

16

Ratio 4:2

4 to 2 4/2

17

Fraction 2/9

40/6

1

1 2

18

Square Root

9 =3

19

Shapes

20

Definitions 1.

Pi

2.

Mathematician

3.

Proportions

4.

Golden Rectangle

5.

Spiral

6.

Pentagram

7.

Diamond/Rhombus

8.

Golden Section 21

Pi Pi or Ď€ is a mathematical constant whose value is the ratio of any circle's circumference to its diameter. This is the same value as the ratio of a circle's area to the square of its radius. It is approximately equal to 3.14159.

22

Mathematician A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and/or research is the field of mathematics.

23

Proportions A proportion is an equation with a ratio on each side. It is a statement that two ratios are equal.

24

Golden Rectangle A golden rectangle is a rectangle whose side lengths are in the golden ratio. Approximately 1:1.618

25

Spiral A spiral is a curve which emanates from central point, getting progressively farther away as it revolves around the point.

26

Pentagram A pentagram is the shape of a five-pointed star drawn with five straight strokes.

27

Rhombus A rhombus is a parallelogram with sides of equal length. Its opposite angles are equal and they bisect each other at right angles. The shape of a rhombus is sometimes known as a diamond, although a rhombus with angles of 90째 would be a square. 28

Golden Section The golden section is a line segment sectioned in two according to the golden ratio. The total length a + b is to the longer segment a as a is to the shorter segment b

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Research 1.

The Parthenon

2.

Notre Dame de Paris

3.

Lewis Carroll

4.

Galileo Galilei

5.

Pythagoras

6.

Chess

30

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The (Ancient Greek: Παρθενών) is a temple of the Greek goddess Athena, built in the 5th century BC on the Athenian Acropolis. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered to be the culmination of the development of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered one of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of ancient Greece and of Athenian democracy, and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. The Greek Ministry of Culture is currently carrying out a program of restoration and reconstruction.[1] The Parthenon replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, that was destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon was used as a treasury, and for a time served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire. In the 6th century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. After the Ottoman conquest, it was converted into a mosque in the early 1460s, and it had a minaret built in it. On 26 September 1687 an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment. The resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. In 1806, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures, with Ottoman permission. These sculptures, now known as the Elgin or Parthenon Marbles, were sold in 1816 to the British Museum in London, where they are now displayed. The Greek government is committed to the return of the sculptures to Greece, so far with no success.[citation needed] Notre Dame de Paris ('Our Lady of Paris' in French) is a Gothic cathedral on the eastern half of the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France, with its main entrance to the west. It is the cathedral of the Catholic archdiocese of Paris: that is, it is the church that contains the "cathedra", or official chair, of the Archbishop of Paris. Notre Dame de Paris is widely considered one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture in the world. It was restored and saved from destruction by Viollet-le-Duc, one of France's most famous architects. The name Notre Dame means "Our Lady" in French. Notre Dame de Paris was one of the first Gothic cathedrals, and its construction spanned the Gothic period. Its sculptures and stained glass show the heavy influence of naturalism, unlike that of earlier Romanesque architecture. Notre Dame de Paris was among the first buildings in the world to use the flying buttress [arched exterior supports]. The building was not originally designed to include the flying buttresses around the choir and nave. After the construction began and the thinner walls (popularized in the Gothic style) grew ever higher, stress fractures began to occur as the walls pushed outward. In response, the cathedral's architects built supports around the outside walls, and later additions continued as such. The cathedral suffered desecration during the radical phase of the French Revolution in the 1790s, when much of its religious imagery was damaged or destroyed. During the 19th century, an extensive restoration project was completed, returning the cathedral to its previous state. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: /ˈdɒdsən/) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (/ˈkærəl/), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon and photographer.

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His most famous writings are Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass as well as the poems "The Hunting of the Snark" and "Jabberwocky", all considered to be within the genre of literary nonsense. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564[2] – 8 January 1642)[1][3] was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy",[4] the "father of modern physics",[5] the "father of science",[5] and "the Father of Modern Science."[6] Stephen Hawking says, "Galileo, perhaps more than any other single person, was responsible for the birth of modern science."[7] The motion of uniformly accelerated objects, taught in nearly all high school and introductory college physics courses, was studied by Galileo as the subject of kinematics. His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, named the Galilean moons in his honour, and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, improving compass design Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: Ὁ Πυθαγόρας ὁ Σάµιος, O Pūthagoras o Samios, "Pythagoras the Samian", or simply Ὁ Πυθαγόρας; born between 580 and 572 BC, died between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian Greek mathematician and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. He is often revered as a great mathematician, mystic and scientist; however some have questioned the scope of his contributions to mathematics and natural philosophy. Herodotus referred to him as "the most able philosopher among the Greeks". His name led him to be associated with Pythian Apollo; Aristippus explained his name by saying, "He spoke (agor) the truth no less than did the Pythian (Pyth-)," and Iamblichus tells the story that the Pythia prophesied that his pregnant mother would give birth to a man supremely beautiful, wise, and beneficial to humankind.[1] He is best known for the Pythagorean theorem, which bears his name. Known as "the father of numbers", Pythagoras made influential contributions to philosophy and religious teaching in the late 6th century BC Chess is a recreational and competitive game played between two players. The current form of the game emerged in Southern Europe during the second half of the 15th century after evolving from similar, much older games of Indian and Persian origin. Today, chess is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments. The game is played on a square chequered chessboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight-byeight grid. At the start, each player (one controlling the white pieces, the other controlling the black pieces) controls sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent's king, whereby the king is under immediate attack (in "check") and there is no way to remove it from attack on the next move.

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