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2011 Design and Tech

Design Brief

Shane Barker

Client profile Who my client is- my client is Darren Barker, he is a farmer in the Mallee. Darren would like me to make him a stock crate that will fit on the back of his spaced cab hilux ute. Darren cannot do all the heavy lifting he used to be able to so the crate needs to be easily taken off the ute and put back on. Where he lives- Darren lives in Nullawil in the Mallee, where temperatures range from 1 degree up to 50 degrees. Also there are winds that get to 100km and in late year’s drought and also flooding so the crate would have to be very weather resistant. My clients surroundings- since my client works on a farm he would have to store the stock crate out at the farm, where he would store it the surroundings are very flood prone so when I asked him about this he told me that he has set four drums up for the crate to sit on out of the way of flood or risk of getting hit by other machinery.

Outline of situation Why my clients need the product- my client needs a stock crate so that he can shift sheep and chemicals from one place to another without having to hook one the trailer or do many trips. The stock crate trailer he has now is a very large heavy trailer that is handy but not always practical for smaller jobs. What my client will use that product for- being a farmer my client will use to stock crate for many things, he has told me that he will mainly use it for moving livestock (mainly sheep) from one place to another. The crate would come in handy here because he owns a stock crate trailer but it is very heavy and hard to move around small areas so the crate would be extremely handy for moving only a few sheep. Also after spraying his paddocks Darren always has lots of chemical drums lying around so he would use the crate to load up the back of the ute and take the drums to the tip.

Client interviews Function- what is the product going to be used for? The stock crate will be used for holding sheep and dogs in the back of the ute transporting them from one place to another. It must be stable enough to hold sheep in and sit in the back of the ute without falling out, but also be able to remove easily off the ute.

Materials- what materials do you want me to use? 25 by 50 mm rhs galvanized steel with 50mm steel mesh for the outsides of the crate.

Shape and size- how high do you want the crate to be? Do you want bars along the top of it? Are there any other products that you have seen that you would like this be like? The client has requested that the crate be 1.5 metres high so that it is not too high that it is dangerous but high enough that the sheep or chemical drums won’t fall out of it. The client has also told me he does not want bars along the top of the crate and he would like it to look similar to the other stock crate he has that is for the other ute he owns. It also must fit in between the trays on the back of his hilux ute

. Hilux ute that the stock crate will be used on Safety-how will you be taking it on and off? How can we design so it can come off and go on easily? How will you unload to sheep? The crate will be taken off by pushing it onto four drums and pushing it back on the ute to use it. The sheep will be unloaded by opening the slide door and chasing them onto a ramp and the same for getting them on the ute.

Ergonomics-how will we make the door easy to open and close? The door will open and close by putting wheels on the bottom and top of the door so that it will be easy to slide open and slide close.

Time-when do you want this finished by? The crate needs to be finished before the end of the year and the client wants it done asap but no date had been given.

Cost-what are you willing to pay for this product? Cost is not an issue for my client as long as it is in reasonable price and not more than buying one that is already made.

Aesthetics and appearance- do you want the colour to match the tray or the ute? My client wants the crate to match the colour of the tray on the ute. So I will give it a dark silver spray.

Production-do you need it to sit on top of the sides of the tray or slide between them? My client wants the crate to slide between the sides of the tray so it will be easy to slide on and off and ute.

Product quality-to what extent of quality do you want this? My client does not want it to look extremely high quality just as long it is extremely stable and reliable.

Storage-where will you be storing this product? My client will be storing the crate on four chemical drums that are about the same height as the back of the ute. So that my client will be able to take off the crate and out it back on easily so I do not have to adjust the crate for it to be taken off a different way.

Finishes-do you want any finishes put on this product? My client wants me to give it a dark silver spray so that it matches the tray on the back of the ute. And also with the galvanized steel the layer of zinc will help with protecting it from rust damage.

Client interview 1 In my first interview with my client there was very little information I could get out of him, basically Darren told me make a stock crate for me that is strong and works. Also I got some information to add to my client questions that I had taken from the design and technology book. The main points I gathered were the finishes: my client wants the crate to be the same colour as the ute and be rust proof. Cost: Darren wants the cost of the crate to be less than what he would have to pay if he were to buy one from an industrial company. Function: when asked what my client will use the crate for he told me “whatever its needs to do” since this gave me no information for making the crate I had to ask over and over again what exactly will the crate be used for until he finally gave me the answer of, “I will be using the crate to transport sheep, farm equipment and chemical drums.

Client interview 2 Since the first interview I had with my client gave me very little information I needed to have another interview with him. This time I was a lot more successful in gathering information. My client answered all the questions I had in some enough detail that I was able to add in what I thought would be needed. My client gave me information as the topics I had, this was the information I gathered. Materials: Darren said that it had to be stable enough to hold unto 4 or 5 full grown rams bashing about but still be light enough to not weigh the ute down too much and to be able to slide on and off the back of the ute. Shape and size: all my client really told me was make it so sheep can’t jump out of it and so I can hold a lot of chemical drums in it. Production: I had given my client the option of sliding in the back of the ute between the side boards or to sit on top of them, he chose to slide in between so it would be easier to move on and off. Production quality: my client is not looking for the crate to look pretty or anything all he asked me to do was for it to be in good working quality and to last for as long as the ute does.

Client interview 3 In this interview I had already started building the crate what I was mainly trying to achieve was confirming that what I was doing was to my clients liking and checking that some of the questions I hadn’t received answers for were answered. To do this I showed my client a picture I had taken of the frame of the stock, as this was all I had done at the point. The questions my client asked me was is it the right height, length, width and is it all square? To all these questions I answered yes, these questions didn’t give me much information but they did ensure that the main thing my client is after is for it to be made to fit and be right, not worrying about looks or anything. So with the reassurance that looks didn’t matter too much and that I knew I had made it right size and shape I could finish it without any more client interviews.

Constraints The only real constraint that my client gave me were that the stock crate had to fit I the back of his hilux ute. Also the crate has to be able to hold full grown rams in it without them being able to jump out, and has to be able to hold farm things like chemical drums, pumps and dogs must be able to jump in it. Final the only other constraint my client gave me was make sure it is built to high quality e.g. has to be square and made from high quality materials.

Considerations The main thing I am considering is how I am going to make the sliding door, I have been asking around for ideas and some I am considering are is having rollers on a track for an easy way to open and close the gate, the problem is this involves my client having to clean out the tracks ever so often. Another option I considered was just having the frame in tracks without any rollers so my client wouldn’t have to clean it but this would be harder to keep open or closed.

Evaluation questions 1. How often will you be using this stock crate a year? The stock crate will be used quite often with sheep work mainly in the winter and after harvest but also Darren has said that he will be using a bit in harvest when moving equipment from paddock to paddock and he will also use it to shift chemicals when he is spraying paddocks. 2. What will you be transporting in the crate? E.g. stock, spray and other farming equipment. Darren has told me that he will be using the crate to shift sheep, including lambs, ewes and very large rams. Also he will use it from shifting chemical drums both full one from where he buys it to the farm and empty ones to the tip. 3. Where and what will you be storing the crate on? Darren will be storing the crate on four chemicals drums that are about the same height as the back of the ute. 4. Do you have any specific design for the crate? Darren would like to crate to be the same height as the tray on the ute and to be 1.5m high so that he can hold maximum sheep without any falling or jumping out. Also he would like a sliding gate for the sheep to get out of and so that when he is backing it up to the sheep ramp e can open it easily. 5. What colour do you want the crate? Darren has said that he would like the crate to be a dark silver to match the tray on the ute so that even though it is for working and looks don’t mater he would still like it to at least match the ute a bit. 6. Will the crate of design fit in the back of the ute? Yes because I will be checking the measurements over and over again and checking everything before I cut it. 7. Are the materials chosen strong enough to hold together? Because of the material tests I did, I know that the materials will be strong enough to hold together under the pressure of what the crate will be used for. 8. Will the crate be made within the requested cost? I was not given a limit for the cost but the client asked for it not to be more than what one would be to buy so with just buying the material and not charging for labour I will make it cheaper than what one is to buy. 9. Will the crate be light enough to push off the back of the ute? Yes because I am using galvanized steel which is very light plus the mesh which is also light steel so it will be quite easy to push of the back of the ute.

Research points  Weather – temp from 6 - 50 degrease with high winds, floods, hail and drought.

 Materials- materials that would withstand rust and bashing around by the sheep but also be light so it’s easy to take off the ute. Galvanized steel would be a perfect material for this stock crate.  How will it fit on the ute- the crate will fit into the back of the ute by pushing it on and in. I will achieve this by making the crate the width of the inside of the tray so it will be able to slide in and also hold itself in there.  Durability- with using galvanized I will get the durability of blue steel without the huge weight of it. With the zinc coating the steel gets by strength without more weight so it is a win, win situation.  Weight- the crate has to be light so that my client can take off and put the crate back on very easy without a lot of effort. Using galvanized steel will help me solve this problem. Because of its light weight and durability it will be perfect to use.

Work plan Activity Measuring and cutting 35 by 35 gal for outside frames Arranging metal to be welded for side frames Weld side frames Weld front frame Make up back frame with gate Cut mesh to length Arrange mesh onto the frames Weld mesh onto frame Spray entire crate










W 10

Material tests 1. Durability- since there will be large sheep and chemical drums bashing around in the crate I will need to test the possible steels I could use by bashing them around and see how they with stand it. For this test I welded two pieces of blue steel at 45 degrees, two pieces of gal at 45 degrees, two pieces of blue steel square cut and two pieces of gal square cut. Once done I will then do tests on the welds such as weight press.

Blue steel with 45⁰ cuts and welds Galvanized steel with 45⁰ cuts and welds 2. Rust- since the crate will spend a lot of time in or around water it has to be weather proofed. Research has told me that using galvanized steel will help prevent rust a lot because of its zinc coating. Also welding up all the joins so that there are no gapes will mean to water gets into the steel rusting it from the inside out. I will be using kill rust on the crate because of researching Wattyl’s kill rust product looks right for my needs. For more information see attached technical data sheet.

Materials 30mm by 30mm shs galvanized steel for its light weight and durability 50mm square mesh to keep the sheep in and for extra durability Rolling gate wheels

Galvanized steel


Design options

Option 1

Option 2

Client’s choice I gave my client two options I found on the internet that were similar to the designs he explained to me. He gave me feedback on both saying what he liked and disliked about each option. Option 1: my client like how the frame was welded up all around and how the door was a sliding door which suits what the crate would be used for. He disliked how there was a bar going over the top and how the door only opened a small amount of the possible space where he wants it to open half of the side. Option 2: my client liked how it looked to be very stable and the size of the mesh used looked to fit his needs. Like option 1 my client didn’t like the bars going over the top of it. Also he didn’t like the fact the corners here held together by hinges and how the door was a swinging door.

End choice The end design that both me and my client decided on was a mixture of the two design options I gave him with some extra parts added. The final design had the outer frame of option 1 where it was all welded together not held by hinges.

We also used an idea from option 2 for the frame by using the same sized mesh and the method used to weld it onto the frame. The sliding door from option 1 was used but half the door could open like in design 2. Finally unlike in both designs there wouldn’t be any bars put on top of the crate for maximum movement in the crate, and at the door end I would be lifting the bottom bar up 20 mm so the tray could be cleaned without taking off the crate.

Use Storage Durability Looks Usage Fit in ute Cost Materials

Very high High



Very low

Risk assessment Mig welder:

Hazards Heated materials and sparks created by welding can burn operators Flash created by mig welders is hazardous to workers eyes

Welded mettles can create toxic fumes

Precautions Workers must wear protective clothing while welding and leather gloves when handling material being welded Workers must always wear a protective welding helmet and never start welding without it in place. Never use a welding helmet with a cracked or broken filter plate or cover lens.

Workers should not weld metals considered hazardous or which have hazardous coatings. General ventilation may be adequate for welding of short duration and intermittent. Ventilation must remove fumes and dispersed them to outside atmosphere. Removal at the source (local exhaust extraction) is the most effective method.

Angle grinder: Hazards

Grinder’s main hazard is particles thrown off the wheel into eyes.


Workers should wear safety goggles or a facemask to avoid getting grit and dust in eyes while using a grinder. Work can slip, causing loss of control of Work should be secured with clamps or a grinder. vice before grinding. Loose clothing, hair and other items can Workers should secure loose items, clothing become caught in a grinder. and hair. Portable grinders can cause serious injuries if They can cut through clothing. Workers must the grinding wheel (or attachments) contacts take care not to get exposed skin near the skin. operating grinding wheel. Never use a grinder in an awkward position where it can contact the body (for example, do not use it between the legs while sitting on the floor).

Portable grinders pose a noise hazard that can increase depending on materials being ground. A worn or out of round disc produces more noise than a good disc.

A worn or out of round disc is unsafe.

The disc can shatter at high speed.

Too much pressure will cause the grinder to dig in and kick back. Portable grinders can create sparks.

Workers must wear ear protection while using a portable grinder. Maintain an arm’s length between grinder and ear. Dampen the material being ground or cut by clamping work as close as possible to the work area. If using the grinder in a grinding bay, line surfaces with acoustic absorption materials to reduce reflected sound. Mobile screens around the work area will reduce sound transmission. Discard worn discs. A sound, undamaged wheel will have a clear metallic tone or ring when tapped gently with a light non-metallic instrument. Use correct disc for the material. Do not use undue pressure when using the grinder. Keep grinding disc at a 15 to 30 degree angle to work so that it is working on its edge. Never bump grinder on to the job, or let the disc hit any other object while grinding. Teachers should check that flange and locking nut are correct for the type of disc being used. Hold the grinder against work with minimum pressure. Workers should wear skin protecting clothing and sturdy shoes. Ensure that no students are in the area where sparks will fall. Use mobile screens to contain sparks in one area. Grinders should not be used on containers that have held flammable materials or near substances that can be ignited with a sparks.

Cold saw: Particles can fly off and hit worker Clothing, hair and other loss items can get court in the blade. High noise level

Wear protective clothing and eye protection Wear non-loss clothing, tie hair back and conceal any loss items Workers must always wear hearing protection when using cold saw

Spray gun and air compressor: Paint fumes and paint particles are an inhalation hazard. Spray painting causes drops of paint to be dispersed across a wide area.

Paints and coating materials can emit toxic fumes.

Fumes from paints, solvents and coating materials are flammable.

Paint fumes and mist can enter eyes. Some paints, solvents and coating materials are a skin absorption hazard. Exposed skin can be coated by airborne paint particles.

Paint on hands can be ingested. Food can be contaminated by airborne paint particles.

Spray painting must be done in a properly constructed and ventilated spray booth. Paint should be sprayed away from workers and work placed beneath the ventilation system. Turntables can make this easier. Test spray guns by directing spray toward fan ventilation system and not booth walls. Keep exhaust system running for at least five minutes after spraying is completed. Clean equipment in spray booth with ventilation system running. Place clean-up materials in steel bins with close-fitting lids. Remove waste each day and dispose of in safe manner. Workers should use only non-toxic paints and coating materials. Avoid combining materials that may spontaneously ignite (bleaching compounds with organic finishing materials). Workers must wear respiratory devices in accordance with AS/NZS 1716:1994, Respiratory protective devices when using epoxy resin or polyurethane. Avoid lead-based paints. Clean equipment between uses. No naked flames or sources of ignition (electric heater, pilot lights, and static electricity) should be near spray paint or spray booths. Fire extinguishers should be close by and suitable for materials being used. Do not use synthetic fabrics as polishing cloths as they cause static electricity. Avoid using combinations of substances that may combust spontaneously together. Dangerous combinations are lacquers containing nitrocellulose with varnishes, oilbased stains, air-drying enamels and primers. All deposits of material should be removed and exhaust ducts cleaned before spraying with the second substance. Workers must wear safety glasses or goggles when spray painting. Workers must protect their skin from contact with paint and other substances by wearing overalls and head coverings. Barrier cream on hands and face will ensure spray can be easily cleaned off. Disposable or rubber gloves can be worn. Protective clothing should be stored away from spray area. Workers must wash faces and hands after working in spray the booth. Food and drink must not be stored near spray booth.

Serious injury or death can occur if compressed air is directed at the body, causing air bubbles to enter the blood-stream.

Airborne dust and particles can be an eye hazard. Whipping of air hoses can injure operators. Compressed air can propel material at high speeds.

Compressed air should only be used for the intended purposes. It should not be used to clean machinery or benches, personal cooling or to blow dust from hair or clothing. It must never be directed at any part of the operator’s or the body of anyone else. Workers must wear eye protection when using compressed air. Air hoses should have pistol-type nozzles and be securely held to prevent whipping. Warn workers not to misuse the supply of compressed air. Explain that only responsible workers will be allowed to use this equipment.

Modifications: 

My original design had the stock crate being 1500mm high but when I cut my material to that height I found that it looked way to big so I decided to cut the shs shorter to 1200mm which is the size that mesh comes in so it would save time cutting the mesh and also it would make the crate look a lot better than my original design. When it came to welding my mesh onto the frame I was originally going to weld it on the outside all the way around, but when it came time to put the mesh on the back I decided to weld it on the inside to add more strength so it would brake and damage the window on the ute. In my design I stated that I would spray the crate grey to match the colour of the ute, but with lack of time I couldn’t spray it. Since I used galvanized steel which is silver then it won’t matter if I don’t spray it because its colour is close to the colour of the ute.

Evaluation report Likes: The main things about the stock crate I like are how it look almost exactly like I designed it so is what my client expected so will be happy with it. Since the welds are clearly strong, because they are large and no holes in them, they will be able to hold both the frame together and hold the mesh to the frame even with sheep kicking around in it. Because of its stability and clear strength the stock crate will be able to do the jobs it was designed for. I am also very happy with the cost of the crate which was well under the cost of my client getting someone else to build it. Dislikes: In order to make the crate strong and stable I had to use heavy durable steal so the crate is very heavy and might be a bit a hassle to get on and off the ute. Also with the lack of time I was not able to spray the whole crate the same colour as the ute, so it doesn’t look as neat and nice as it could. When my client asked me to design the crate I wanted to have bars going over the top and a swinging door, but when I showed my client these deigns he chose to have a sliding door and no bars which to me doesn’t look as good as my designs. Recommendations for improvements: If I were to do this stock crate again the main thing I would have changed would be to manage my time a lot better. When designing the crate I made an estimated guess on how long it would take me to do each part. I forgot to take into account waiting for materials to come and time taken in doing modification, so I had to rush the end of it and couldn’t spray the whole crate. If I made this crate again I would have tried building it out of lighter steel or using smaller pieces when I could, so the crate wouldn’t weigh so much.

Function-does it meet the required needs that it was designed for? The crate was designed to be able to hold sheep and rams in the back of the ute that may be bashing around in it, with the materials I selected and the method of welding the frame together and mesh to the frame I am certain that it will hold together to do the required jobs. Materials-have the materials held up to the expected standards? And did I use the materials selected in the material tests? Because of the research and material tests I know that the materials I chose in my design brief will hold up to the expected standards set by my client. Shape and size-was it made to the correct size and shape in the planning? E.g. length, width and height. Since I followed my design and original measurements I know that the crate is the right size and I confirmed this by being able to slide it into the back of the ute. Safety-can the crate slide on and off the ute by one or two people? If the crate is stored on something that is the same height as the tray of the ute, then one or two people should easily be able to put it on and take it off. Ergonomics-was the door made easy to open and close? Does it stay open or closed? Since I used track and rollers for the roller door then as long as it is keep in a reasonable condition then it will be easy to open and close and should stay open and close.

Time-was the stock crate finished by the dead line set by the client? Since there was no exact deadline set I did have chances to make modification and mistakes but still had to be finished before the end of the year. I finished my stock crate before the end of November so my client is very happy with the finished date. Cost-will the crate cost less than one made at another company? The cheapest stock crate for a hilux ute I could find was a used one for $550 that may not be suit to my clients hilux ute. The total cost of my materials was between $400 and $450 which is well under the cost that my client would have to pay for someone else to do it. Aesthetics and appearance- does the crate match the looks of the ute? The stock crate is very similar to the ute in the way that it is silver and is similar bars on the ute tray. The main difference between the ute and crate in terms of looks are that the bars on the ute are bent pipe where the crate is square. Production-does the crate slide in the tray of the ute easily? As long as the crate is stored as the same height as the tray the crate will be easy to slide on and off the ute because the crate smooth and easy to slide along. Product quality-is the crate high enough quality to do the jobs needed? Because of the materials selected and the methods I used to put the materials together, I know that the crate is good quality to withstand and damage that the sheepo may cause when in it. Storage-can the crate be stored easily? My client has told me that he will be storing the crate on old chemical drums that will be the same height as the back of the ute so storage won’t be an issue for my client. Finishes-what finishes did I end up using? In my original design I stated that I would spray the whole crate will silver paint and zinc but with lack of time I have decided to only spray the welds with zinc to prevent rust.

Where and what will you be storing the crate on? I told my client that the crate ended up heavier than first estimated, so my client got four old chemical drums that he will put on top of pieces of wood to be the same height as the back of the ute. Will the crate of design fit in the back of the ute? since I followed my original design and measurements my crate fits perfectly in the back of the ute with some room to slide it in, but if client wants a tighter fit a can weld small plats to the side of the crate. Are the materials chosen strong enough to hold together? I am 100% certain that the materials I chose and used for the crate will withstand any damage caused by sheep and chemical drums bashing around in the crate. Because of the research and material tests I did I was able to gather information to tell me that I selected the right materials. Will the crate be made within the requested cost? I was not given an exact limit on the cost of my crate, but my client just asked that it be made cheaper than one he would have to pay someone for materials and labour. Will the crate be light enough to push off the back of the ute? the stock crate will be light enough to push off the tray but will takes some effort and maybe another person to help the user.

design brief for strock crate  

designed report for stock crate

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