Sem 2 2013, 538668 Shannon Tee
ABOUT ME About me
am currently an architecture student undertaking the Bachelor of Environments. Although I havenâ€™t had much experience with the wider practice of the architecture world, outside of university, I am still interested and yet to explore the different realms of architecture as I further my studies in the future. As a student of design throughout high school, I was able to develop my skills in Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator and Indesign quite early on. However it wasnâ€™t until the earlier years of University that I was able to expand my knowledge on programs such as Auto CAD and Sketch up. More recently, I have been able to explore what are more advanced programs to me such as Rhinoceros and Grasshopper. Although Grasshopper is a program that I am the least familiar with in comparison Rhinoceros, I am egger to learn and enhance my skills in 3D modeling. Past Experience Photoshop- 5 Illustrator- 5 Indesign- 5 Auto CAD- 4 Rhinoceros- 3 Grasshopper- 2 Virtual environments
ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE Architecture can be interoperated in many different ways, as architects are manipulators of conception. They are able to conceptualize the ideas into a building design whilst utilizing materials to achieve the spacial aim. The difference between a home and a house may be an interesting way of looking at architecture. For some, a house is seen as a form of construction elements, whilst others have a more emotional view, influencing a more subjective approach of a house being a â€˜homeâ€™. However, through both these lenses, we are able to see that materials that convey into formal structure, and immaterial aspects of architecture such as the weather, air, light and sound that influence how we feel in a space, are interconnected and considered inseparable. The relationship between the form of a building and its functional journey, has most definitely transformed through history. The history of architecture is interwoven with that of design, whereby it began mainly in a romantic and artistic form during the Italian Renaissance period. Juxtaposed to modernistic architecture, we are able to see a more formal and functional view in architecture with historical influences. Discourse is the conversion of ideas and thoughts into communication. An architect must be persuasive. Whilst visually stimulating designs along with commitment to innovation serve state of the art projects to engage with topical discussions within architecture, it is through different mediums that we are able to portray ideas to others. Drawings, journals, books and built models are all critical ways of analyzing architecture and further enhance the evolving world of architectural practice. A similar engagement to innovation in the Gateways project will result in a design that satisfies the brief for a unique and interesting design, while also putting forward a great opportunity in appealing to the community of Wyndham and the wider public.
SHELLSTAR Pavillion A temporary pavilion located in Wan Chai, Hong Kong, Shellstar plays with spatial qualities whilst using minimal structure material. Fundamental formal issues of circulation and spatial connectedness have definitely been explored during this project. The journey of the visitor was purposely thought about in that the design drew visitors to go inside to the centre of the pavilion but also subsequently drawn back out into the larger festival site. Parametric modeling and fabrication form emerged from digital processes using Grasshopper and Kangaroo, a physics engine. The spatial vortex is celebrated with surface optimization, composed with nearly 1500 individual cells made from Translucent Coroplast, Nylon Cable Ties, Steel Foundations, PVC and also steel reinforcement arches. The natural curvature of the pavilion influences each cell to bend slightly in order to take the form. Shellstar encourages its audience to look at architecture through a different lens, with its visual and emotive elements playing the main point of interest. Computerization has proved that two dimensional ideas can be translated into three dimensional virtual spaces.
â€œFascinating as issues of surface differential geometry are, the more fundamental formal issues play out at the scale of the global surface â€“ that is, how surfaces enclose and partition spaces, how one circulates among them, and resolution of spatial connectedness and separation.â€? Shelden, D., Witt, A.
ARCHITECTS: Andrew Kudeless & Matsys, 2012 Wan Chai, Hong Kong
ARCHITECT: Zaha Hadid Architects, 2009-2012 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
KING ABDULLAH Petroleum Research Center
This research centre located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has explored organic form through strong protective outer shells which conceal softer, permeable sheltered courtyards within. Spatial strategies have once again driven an adaptive approach to the centre that emerges from the desert landscape. Each material element in the building serves a purpose to the structure, from a glaring exterior to its filtered interior. Covered courtyards allow natural daylight into specific areas, breaking up the cellular structure of crystalline forms from the outside in, underground tunnels within the building explore darker spaces. This Architectural piece is not only a fine example of grand visual expression, but it also endeavors qualities beyond just a functional structure. The research centre acknowledges environmental objects as well, a vital part of architecture as we grow into the future. Although it has formal language in connections between the interior spaces, it is the irregular shapes of these spaces that make computerized design an innovative form of design.
he traditional methods in architecture and design very much involve the pen and paper. Nowadays computational architecture has taken architectural practice to explore a diverse range of computing techniques in the design process. This recent concept allows new designers to employ sophisticated designs that can be further celebrated through discussion in emerging architectural communities, as well as the wider public. When we are engaged in a design process, the current situation is often different from our desired outcome, and we are able to change that with the assistance of computational designing. Although computers alone have no emotional engagement to our design process, computing along with our own human creativity is what creates effect design outcomes. Aiding the realization of available opportunities to engage with designs that are beyond the realms of two dimensional exploration, the computer lets us become more intelligent and playful in complex ideas that are translated into final designs. There are two types of Computational architecture, and it is portrayed in two major forms including computerization and computation. Computerization is the digitization of existing entities, which have already be developed in the mind of the designed. With this the virtual world poses as a drawing board or piece of paper for the designer to execute precision and control in the design.
Computation however, is although within the same digital realm, it involves parameters as well as equations. The architect or designer is able to manipulate the tools of a computer to test and develop a design that they might know yet know the final outcome to be. Programs such as Auto CAD, Rhino, Grasshopper, Revit and Kangaroo, all serve a purpose in assisting the designer to perform and deliver precision in measurements in not only sections, plans, and elevations, but also three dimensional modeling. With these programs the future of architecture is shy of limitations as fluent technology skills will also reveal creativity and new rains of thinking during the design process. Nowadays we are able to acknowledge a change in the way a design is approached, furthermore influencing more complex buildings around the world that are complex in form, structure and visual qualities. This will not only effect architects around the world, but also the construction process in management and analysis.
CD/ITKE RES Archi Menges Stuttgart Univ
This project considers skeleton through its mo Computer based desig control not only manufa processes. Thin plywoo main building material geometric computation demonstrated the trans pavilion. Whilst form and structu it was the complex sch made it possible to rep definable component p points on the model.
SEARCH PAVILION s versity, Germany, 2011
biological principals of the sea urchinâ€™s orphology into architectural elements. gn and simulation methods are used to acturing methods but also constructional od (6.5mm thick) is recognized as the of the structure, and it is through various nal processes that this material was able to sformation of a complex morphology in the
ure were closely interrelated in the design, heme of optimized date exchange which peatedly read intricate geometry into a program to analyze and modify specific
Programs made glued and bolted joints easy to test and experiment, and as a result also included structural calculations. Furthermore, the assembling of the prefabricated models, whereby each plywood panel joined together to form a cell, was made an easy process for the students and faculty members. The research pavilion proposed modular construction of freeform surfaces through investigation of geometric characteristics. The final pavilion had a large interior space that included a porous inner layer within a big opening, whilst also showcasing a smaller space enveloped between the two layers that exhibits the multilayered shell.
ONEYCOMB MORPHOLOGIES Andrew Kudless London, UK 2004 Based on a honeycomb structural system, this piece was made adaptable to diverse performance requirements in that the modulation of each geometric and material parameter was interchangeable within the limits of possible production technologies. This Honeycomb Morphology project was based on the aim to create an integrated and generative design strategy using a biomimetic approach to exploring architectural fabrication and design. Computational design lead to further research in the development of a material system with high degree of connect-ability between the design and its performance. More specifically industrially produced materials were experimented in definition for use in architectural applications. The installation was a large scaled prototype constructed for a project review, also enabling a more integral relationship between computer tools and how they could be translated into an open framework for a designer and construction methods.
here are various different views in Parametric design, and understanding its ‘style’ described by Patrik Schumaucher is also complex through a extensive range of responses. Allowing architects and designers to model with new levels of technological skills, they are now able to communicate geometries in precise accuracy and visual detailed. BEcause the computer is a larger realm for storing information, complex pools of values can be fed through and translated into complex shapes and form. The limitation however, is understanding these mathematical compilations of geometry parameters to a degree where we are able to use them as an advantage to create innovative unseen objects. Modeling software can often be complicated ot understand and develop highly intellectual skills in, and this is especially complex when there are multiple different functions to achieve various outcomes. Working in larger companies may very well mean that designers need to be constantly overlapping information and communicating on the same parameter together. Grasshopper is a program that allows the user to undergo a specific function in various different orders but in the end achieve similar results. Often making it complicated to explain how you came about a particular shape or form to another designer. Because blob like morphological structures are so irregular, it is impossible to repeat the exact same steps and create the exact some model in terms of aesthtic expression. Although parametric modeling is used profoundly in architectural designs, it would be unorthodox to say that the entire process is the soul solution that every architectural establishment should follow in the future. It is however, a new style in architecture whereby innovative process can be enhanced further in our constantly moving modern day society. “Initially, a parametric definition was simply a mathematical formula that required values to be substituted for a few parameters in order to generate variations from within a family of entities. Today it is used to imply that the entity once generated can easily be changed” Yessios 2003, 263
ERCEDES BENZ MUSEUM UN Studios Stuttgart, Germany, 2001-2006
To celebrate the vehicles inside of the museum, UN Studios created a large column-less space through the use of parametric modeling and computer aided design. With sophisticated geometry and different levels that ascend incrementally around a central atrium. The formation of space has been made possible through the exploration of parametric modeling. Experimentation and enhanced development as accommodated for a monumental building to function and connection spatially. In turn, the journey and emotional qualities of the visitor is very much amplified as the move throughout the building. Because the building is multi leveled, parametric modeling made complex interconnections between trajectories, easy to interoperate and understand between designers of the large company.
ERPENTINE GALLERY Alvaro Siza Hyde Park, London, 2005
This pavilion houses a cafe by day, and a venue for talks and events by night. It is a grid like structure made from planks of timber whilst in-between are panes of polycarbonate that fill int he square of the grid. Bolts are then used to secure each joint. Although it may sounds quite simple to assemble, the complex geometry created through parametric modeling most definitely makes it harder than just a “flat-pack”. Much like most of his work, Alvaro Siza’s pavilion is very much aware of its surroundings. By creating a grid with large gaps, he is allowing alot of natural sunlight to come through, thus the relationship of the gallery and the trees around it serves a visual spectacle for visitors. The positioning of the trees around, play a role in how the pavilion was positioned, and the entrance of the shelter was also thoroughly thought about. Siza was able to manipulate materials in a way that hard timber could create a curved surface and complete an ellipse. In order for each panel to be defined and connected to each other, successful parametric modeling played a role in the process in that it was a critical tool to the project.
he continuously changing usage of technology in our modern society, is a platform into innovative design that is made possible by programs such as Rhino and Grasshopper. Creating a project has been made possible in a complex manner that allows for intricate detail and precise organization. Whilst exploring both Rhino and Grasshopper, it was apparent that the potentials of communicating detailed designs through computing skills was very much substantial. It is important to understand and develop various nodes in the form of equations and connections in order to be able to construct or change a model in a successful way. An example of this is shown on the right, whereby simple lines were created to create nodes that joined into a shape through grasshopper and furthermore, morphing into an irregular curvature form.
LEARNING OUTCOME My understanding and knowledge behind digital work and what it meant to an architect or designer was very basic. However as the semester progressed, my perception on programs such as Rhino and Grasshopper has definitely changed, in that I am now integrating an appreciation of endless possibilities that computing may provide in my design work. The skills I have developed through tutorials, readings as well as lectures, has helped me realize the Digital realm at a whole new level, that I am able to now interoperate as nothing short of expansive. Going into the second part of the project, I am eager to explore alot more digitally generated examples during my design process, which is something I have avoided doing in past projects. In saying this however, I am aware that the limitations to a computer is that it doesnâ€™t have human emotion behind it. Furthermore, I will be using my creative intuition, thoughts and ideas, to guide and control my design on the computer.
Architecture as a Discourse: Architecture as a discourse: Hill, Jonathan (2006). ‘Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture’, Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 1, pp. 51-55 Shell Star http://matsysdesign.com/tag/digital-fabrication/ http://matsysdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/ShellStar-7792.jpg Quote:
Shelden, D., Witt, A. (2011) Continuity and Rupture, AD V81 (4) pp. 36 King Abdullah Petroleum research centre http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/king-abdullah-petroleum-studiesand-research-centre/ http://www.archello.com/en/project/king-abdullah-petroleum-studie-andresearch-centre Computational Architecture: Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25; ICD/ITKE research pavilion: http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5123 Honeycomb Morphologies: http://matsysdesign.com/2009/06/18/honeycomb-morphologies/ Parametric Modeling http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-critics/patrik-schumacher-onparametricism-let-the-style-wars-begin/5217211.article Adam Nathaniel Mayer_ Style and the Pretense of ‘Parametric’ Architecture.pdf (via Google Cache) http://www.nzarchitecture.com/blog/index.php/2010/09/25/patrikschumacher-parametricism/ Mercedes Benz museum http://www.unstudio.com/projects/mercedes-benz-museum http://www.archdaily.com/72802/mercedes-benz-museum-un-studiophotos-by-michael-schnell/foto_07/ http://www.arcspace.com/features/unstudio/mercedes-benz-museum/ http://www.unstudio.com/projects/mercedes-benz-museum Serpentine Gallery http://alvarosizavieira.com/2005-serpentine-gallery
fter forming a group with another student, our group focus moved to the possible design techniques we could use for the Wyndham city gateway design. We are approaching the proposal with the intension of creating a design that is able to attract people to Wyndham city through giving them a memorable experience. Our proposal will involve looking at timber properties and how it behaves or reacts to certain elements, such as moisture and pressure. From different experimentation techniques we will hopefully become more familiar with timber properties and use it to our advantage to create a design that evokes curiosity and interest from the public. Looking at responsive surface structures, will be especially interesting because we are able to physically see how timber reacts to various elements. Steffen Reichertâ€™s responsive surface structure looks at how wood may bend and change in shape at a controlled rate depending on how much moisture is involved. However because wood is such a natural element, it can easily shrink and expand unevenly, in which is a variable that is uncontrollable. How we are able to design can be derived from precedents, each movement in architecture is in someway relatable to previous eras. However how we are able to further manipulate their methods into something innovative, is how the world is able to intrinsically appreciate the physical design. As architects, we build according to our knowledge and understand of how the built world works. And it is the ideas and concepts that are constantly changing through time, responsive surface structures, that is how we are able to determine it being ironically timeless.
OUSSOIR CLOUD SCIArc Gallery Los Angeles, 2008
Structural Concept The Voussoir Cloud explores the succinct design of two complementary elements, whereby the structural paradigm of compression is coupled with an ultra light material system. Working as an entire system of vaults, the structure is experiential from within the and from above. A lot of its compressive structure is made possible through the vaults and walls working to hold each other up, whilst each â€˜dishedâ€™ shape petal is dependent upon its adjacent void. Material Strategy Formed by thin folding wood, the three dimensional petals are laminated along curved seams. The entire structure relies on the internal surface tension of the wood and folded geometry of the flanges to hold it shape. At the same time, the ultra- light material system of the flanges, are likely to bulge outwards along the arched edge. In terms of material strategy this is a great opportunity for structural porosity within the constraints of sheet materials. Furthermore, the concave petals which are positioned tightly together act as compressive elements pressing upon each other for strength, and as a result leading to vaulted forms in the overall design. Geometric and Computational Strategy A computational script was developed on Rhino to complete this structure. The amount of petal dishes was therefore also dependent on size of the dishes, together form a unique geometry that was then calibrated to fit the overall form. Rhino managed the petal edge plan curvature as a function of tangent offset, and the more the offset the greater the curvature. As a result, the design was influenced mainly by the offset of the petals. With less offset on Rhino, this translated into flatter petals towards the base and edges where they gain density. This is juxtaposed with greater offset, and more curvature at the top of the structure creating the dimpled effect on the interior.
CASE STUDY 1- Material Systems
ATRIX ONE VOUSSOIR CLOUD
QUA TOWER Studio Gang Architects Chicago, USA
Gang sculpted the balconies of each level into a larger visual order inspired by the layered topography of limestone outcroppings along the Great lakes. She has used computational design to portray poetic form to mundane materials such as concrete. The impact of the building within the city of Chicago becomes even more pronounced due to the size and impact it has within the city scape. Programmatic qualities in the design have been made possible through high level computer programs. Each level has been carefully thought about in that, it is slightly different to the following level. The form of the building has been manipulated through 3D modeling on the computer, it that the curvature of the design has been easily represented through fluidity and movement on the facade. Sharp corners have been defined as non existent, whilst thin layers placed closely together have made an entire voluptuous stack that is the Aqua Tower. The overall form and experiential quality of the facade would not have been possible without computer programming, and thus there are alot of design ideas and tactics within this building that is inspirational to our project. The form mainly, is incredibly interesting as it pulls in and out so seamlessly
CASE STUDY 2- Reverse Engineering
ATRIX TWO Reverse Engineering
TECH A VARI. 01
ESEARCH ARGUMENT Wood in weather & realtive humidty
Through looking at our material wood in tessellated designs and patterning, we have become alot more aware of how we can manipulate the material to work to our advantage. Our main design idea is Climate responsive architecture. Without the use of hybrid robotic technology or electronic sensing, in contrast to this superimposition of high-tech equipment we are eager to explore wood within natural elements suggesting a fundamentally unique and no-tech strategy. As a biological system, the responsive capacity in wood is very much ingrained in the material itself, nature will play with nature basically. Our project will entail a design strategy similar to physical programming a responsive material system however it will not require extraneous mechanical or electronic controls. In a natural environment vulnerable to a wide range of weather conditions such as rain and sunlight, wood is likely to move and change through time on its own. With rain, the wood will become a lot more malleable and therefore bendable, however with sunlight, the drying of wood will make the structure freeze in different shapes. The aim is to create a structure that will entail a large variety of opportunities in the changing of its form in its environment. This could prove to be very interesting for drivers passing the site when driving along the freeway, as every time they drive past the structure may look different than it did previously. A Skin that will respond to relative humidity could therefore translate to changes within a range from 30-90%, from bright sunny days to rainy weather in the colder climate of Melbourne. If we were to create a structure that could somehow open and close, we could then illustrate direct feedback in our design through light and visual permeability. Constant adjustments due to the changing weather could result in degree of openness and porosity within the structure, modulating light transmission and spatial experience. The dynamics of the environment will influence constant fluctuations in subtle and silent movement that cars wouldnâ€™t be able to see unless they stopped and acknowledge the structure. However if the car was to pass back along the freeway at a different time or day, they would hopefully be able to see a change in the shape, influencing different reactions each time. It is a passive response to humidity changes, that makes this idea interesting and fundamentally, a unique opportunity to portray a structure in this gateway project for Wyndham city. It will not consume any energy as the structure is independent from metabolic function. The responsive capacity is intrinsic to the materialâ€™s hygroscopic behavior in its environment. Wood has an ability to take in moisture from its atmosphere as it has natural composite and that is how we will be manipulating our material into moving on its own.
his project explores the ideas behind a structure with a responsive surface. A structure that may change its porosity in response to changes within humidty and moisture in its enviornment. The project is manipulative with its use of material, as wood has moisture absorbing properties that related to the according surface expansion. The pine cone is used as a worthy example that works on the principle of surface changes influenced by differential expansions. Once it has fallen off the tree, the dry cone anticipates for a suitably moist condition. And once this has happened the desiccated material of the cone opens and the seeds are released. This natural process is especially interesting because of the behavioral response of the cone. Whilst the system can even work without physical contact to the tree itself, the repetitive opening and closing of the exterior can happen numerous times, making it such a complex and unique system.
o demonstrate the bending of wood in relative humidity, we decided to use different thicknesses of bulsar wood for our prototype. Starting off with 1.5mm bulsar wood I was able form pentagonal shaped pods through five separate triangles coming together. We felt that demonstrating a single pod within the en entire surface of paneling was particularly important in communicating ideas that we are aiming to convey in this project. In order to portray the amount of humidity present, I used the technique of dipping the tip of the pod in warm water and watching it slowly open up. I realized that the deeper i placed the pod in water, therefore relayed into how much water was being absorbed. This meant that the more water there was, the easier it was for the wood to bend, as it became more malleable. Leaving it overnight to dry made each pod really freeze into the positions i wanted. A challenge i did come across was that the 1.5mm bulsar wood was a lot harder to work with than the thinner 1mm sheets. I was able to accomplish a lot more bending out of the thinner sheets, with the last pod even curler under into a scroll like shape. It was harder for the 1.5mm sheet pods to keep in shape, as during the drying process they would close up a bit. Due to this dilemma, I decided to use small pegs to help freeze the shape of each pod. In reality, natural elements such as wind would play a huge factor in the bending of these pods,and thus would influence them to develop in a specific direction.
ith the next set of prototypes I was able to use the same techniques in the previous prototypes, however this time I was only making 3 sided pods, decreasing surface area. The next step was to somehow connect each pod into a standing formal structure. To demonstrate possible outcomes, I decided upon using columns to present the design idea. Assembling each level of the columns was made easy through Quick grip adhesive glue. Although we would have liked to utilize the fabrication lab during this stage of the design process, it was interesting hand crafting the prototypes because It really taught us the different types of methods we could use in terms of structural design. Once again, I used water to demonstrate relative humidity and temperature of the environment, however this time I also used a steamer to enhance specific spots on the column. For the first column the pods on the top half are opened, whilst the bottom ones are still closed. I did this in order to convey rain for example reaching the top of the structure first, and thus wetting and opening up the higher pods. The bottom ones are kept closed in this prototype because the rain has not reached the bottom pods yet. For the second column, the pods on one side are closed whilst on the other they are open. This is to illustrate how rain can sometimes come in a specific direction, hitting only one side of the structure whilst the other side of it is kept dry and therefore closed. These prototypes demonstrate how a series of integrated pods could influence how a structure may change and look due to environmental elements such as the weather. Both Rain and sunlight will play a large role in our material responsive structure.
ROTOTYPE ONE Demonstrating direction of rain coming straight from the top
ROTOTYPE TWO Demonstrating direction of rain coming from the East side of the Structures
IGHT PLAY Demonstrating lighting opportunities with prototypes Through the use of the prototypes we were essentially able to convey interesting filtered light penetrations. Visualized during the night time, as cars are passing, they will be able to experience the pattern and illusion of space in quite a dramatic sense. As the structure itself will always be opening and closing in relation to its environment, this will also relay into different light qualities and projections. The surface could potentially be lit within the interior of the structure, celebrating the patterns through light penetrations at night when change in form is less visible on the structures. If we were potentially able to exclude selected panels on the surface of our structure, this could in turn change the amount of light penetrating through, effectively enhancing the structural capability of the design. The expanding and shrinking of our material could very much be documented through light play.
hroughout the last few weeks, we have been able to really experiment and explore with our main material timber. Learning about its qualities and how it is able to bend into shapes has suggested possibles qualities in movement for our final piece. We have also been able to incorporate the idea of movement into constantly changing structures that are controlled by natural elements such as sunlight and rain. Moreover, this is what has become our main argument to the proposal. Presenting a project that will interest the public it that they will never enter or leave the city of Wyndham in the same way as the structures will be ever changing, and different every time a driver passes through. After our feedback presentations, we have definitely become more aware off not making the structure too controlled. As our proposal involves a structure that changes through time and weather, we cannot physically know exactly how the structure will change. However we are able to predict certain outcomes. Through experimentation with steam and water we have been able to acknowledge some of these possibilities. Nevertheless, the next stage in improving our design will be to use computational design to our advantage. How will Rhino and Grasshopper really enhance our design? The actual form of the structures will most definitely be what we need to resolve through technology. Finding a way to represent our experiential ideas of movement with wood will prove to be challenging when putting it into a formal language. Making more models involving other materials such as thin sheets of metal, could help with creating a more irregular base form, whilst placing the wood on top as the main design. Part B has definitely proved most challenging so far, however it has also helped us understand and interoperate our material system and computational design in our own way.
Steffeb Reichert http://steffenreichert.com/04_surface.html http://www.grasshopper3d.com/forum/topics/smoothing-meshes-over-anirregular-planar-surface Research on wood http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5132 CASE STUDY 1: Voussoir- Cloud http://www.iwamotoscott.com/VOUSSOIR-CLOUD CASE STUDY 2: Aqua Tower http://skylinearchitecture.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/skyline-architectureblog_-aqua-tower-balcony.jpg http://www.office-suites.com/commercialnews/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/ aqua1.jpg
Published on Sep 24, 2013