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Ecology  Planet  PBL  

Collins-­‐‑  5th  period  

Life  on  Xenon?  

Matt  L.  

Mark  J.  

April  30,  2012  

Shannon  W.   Ronny  V.   Jennifer  H.    

A New Habitable Planet DOES Exist!

  Facts  about  Xenon:  

v 290  day  orbit  around  its  sun.   v Average  temperature  is  72  degrees  F/22   degrees  C.   v Xenon’s  star  is  smaller,  but  it  is  less  dense   and  bright,  Xenon  is  also  closer  to  their   sun  than  Earth.  

Climate    

  Xenon  gathers  a  total  of   about  80  inches  of  rain  per   year  because  Xenon  has  about   half  the  percentage  of  water   than  Earth,  but  is  four  times  as   big  as  Earth.  Earth  receives  39   inches  of  rain  per  year.  Xenon   has  a  slightly  higher  average   temperature  than  the  Earth  of   72  degrees  compared  to  71.6   degrees.  

 

Temperature 80 60 40 20 0

Precipitation 10 5

Temperature

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

0

 

 

Precipitation

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12


Lorem  Ipsum  Dolor  

What  is  it  made  of?  

Atmosphere   Composition  

Spring  2016  

Physical   Composition   Xenon

Carbon  Dioxide Water

Soil

Earth

Sand

Xenon

Oxygen

Rocky Water

Nitrogen 0

20

40

60

80

This  is  a  ratio  graph  showing  the   physical  contents  of  Xenon.  

This  graph  compares  the  contents  of  the  atmosphere   of  Earth,  and  Xenon  side  by  side.  

  Celebration  Section  

Some  holidays  just  can’t  be  forgotten.  Here  are  some  holidays   we  plan  on  celebrating:   Culture  WILL  be  changed  forever.  All  over  Xenon  you  will  find  different   patterns  of  culture.  The  hemisphere  closest  to  the  sun  will  have  different  patterns   of  clothing  (less,  more  breathable  clothing),  because  the  weather  will  be  way  more   intense.  Most  holidays  will  still  be  around,  like  religious  holiday.  (Christmas,  Hanukah,  Kwanza   etc.)  Thanksgiving  won’t  exist  because  it  is  celebrated  about  America’s  history.  Cinco  de  Mayo  will  not   be  celebrated  either  because  it  is  in  celebration  of  Mexico’s  independence.  Music  would  stay  the  same   because  travelers  would  bring  their  iPods,  etc.  Birthdays  would  be  celebrated  more  often  because  the   year  on  Xenon  is  only  290  days.    

 

2    


Since  Xenon  has  a  much  lower  composition  of  nitrogen  than  Earth,  there  is  not  as   Lorem  Ipsum  Dolor   Spring  2016   many  plants  and  animals,  bacteria  and  harder  to  decompose  dead  organisms.  Five   biomes  still  exist  on  Xenon:   Marine:  Xenon  has  45%  less  water  than  Earth,  so  the  aquatic  biome  is  less  diverse.  There  are  different   aquatic  zones  on  Xenon  including,  Ponds/Lakes,  Wetlands,  and  Oceans.  Average  Temp:  39  F       Savanna:  Lots  of  tall,  yellowish  grasses  with  little  trees  due  to  not  much  rainfall;  dry  and  moderate   temperature  during  the  day  (only  day,  not  during  the  night).    Average  Temp:  70  F                                 Grassland:  Green  grass  but  not  a  lot  of  trees  with  mild  and  slightly  rainy  during  the  day  and  cool  and   humid  during  the  night.  The  grasses  die  back  to  their  roots  annually  and  the  soil  and  the  sod  protect   the  roots  and  the  new  buds  from  the  cold  of  winter  or  dry  conditions.  A  few  trees  may  be  found  in   this  biome  along  the  streams,  but  not  many  due  to  the  lack  of  rainfall  and  nitrogen.  Average  Temp:  -­‐‑ 2-­‐‑26  C                                                 Tundra:  Snow  and  ice  on  tips  of  mountains,  not  much  life;  cool/cold,  or  freezing  all  the  time.  This  part   of  Xenon  is  always  dark  because  it  never  catches  much  sun,  since  Xenon  is  on  an  80-­‐‑degree  axis.   Vegetation  in  the  tundra  has  adapted  to  the  cold  and  the  short  growing  season.  Mosses,  sedges,  and   lichens  are  common,  while  few  trees  grow  in  the  tundra.  The  trees  that  do  manage  to  grow  stay  close   to  the  ground  so  they  are  insulated  by  snow  during  the  cold  winters.  Average  Temp:  -­‐‑30  F                       Desert:  Lots  of and  hot  and  dry  all  the  time  and  almost  always  daylight,  because  of  Xenon’s  axis.   Since  desert  conditions  are  so  severe,  the  plants  that  live  there  need  to  have  adaptations  to   compensate  for  the  lack  of  water.  Some  plants,  such  as  cacti,  store  water  in  their  stems  and  use  it  very   slowly,  while  others  like  bushes  conserve  water  by  growing  few  leaves  or  by  having  large  root   systems  to  gather  water  or  few  leaves. Some  desert  plant  species  have  a  short  life  cycle  of  a  few   weeks  that  lasts  only  during  periods  of  rain.  Average  Temp:  84-­‐‑98  

3    


Lorem  Ipsum  Dolor  

How  to  reduce  our   footprint!   Think  about  what  you  use,  consume,   and  discard  in  an  average  lifetime.   Calculate  this  for  every  American  and   then  for  every  person  on  Earth.   Humans  have  left  their  mark  on  83   percent  of  Earth’s  surface.  What  can   we  do  to  reduce  our  environmental   impact?  On  Xenon,  no  fossil  fuel   burning  cars  or  factories  are  created,   or  allowed.  The  amount  of  livestock   an  individual  can  own  will  be   regulated  because  the  methane   produced  by  animals  is  a  serious   green  house  gas,  which  has  effected   global  warming  on  Earth.   To  regulate  the   destruction  of  trees,   recycling  will  be  highly   rewarded.  Forests  are   “part  of  the  government”   which  are  not  allowed  to   be  destroyed.    

Spring  2016  

  On  Xenon  chemical   fertilizers  are  illegal.  The   high  rate  of  application  of   nitrogen-­‐‑rich  fertilizers  has   effects  on  the  heat  storage  of   cropland  and  the  run-­‐‑off  of   excess  fertilizers  creates   ‘dead-­‐‑zones’  in  our  oceans.  In   addition  to  these  effects,  high   nitrate  levels  in  groundwater   due  to  over-­‐‑fertilization  are   cause  for  concern  for  human   health.     Since  Xenon  has  less   water  than  Earth,  rising  sea   levels  will  not  be  as  big  of  a   problem,  especially  since   Xenon  is  tilted  at  such  an   angle,  the  side  of  Xenon  that   is  not  facing  the  sun  is  almost   guaranteed  not  to  melt.        

4    

Possible     Problem?  

A  possible   problem   that  Xenon   could  face   is  that  the  planet  is  getting   off  the  gravitational  orbit.   The  sun  (Kepler  22)  is   smaller,  so  it  has  less   gravitational  pull,  and   Xenon  is  much,  much   bigger  so  it  requires  a   heavier  gravitational  pull.   The  size  could  cause  even   bigger  problems  for   humans.  It  is  estimated   that  Xenon  is  the  size  of   Neptune,  causing  humans   to  weigh  much  more  than   the  do  here  on  Earth.  We   would  have  to  prepare   ourselves  for  the  weight   change  before  we  leave  to   Xenon.  


Lorem  Ipsum  Dolor  

Spring  2016  

Considering  that  Xenon  is  4  times  as  big   and  has  the  same  day  time  as  the  Earth  and   travels  around  its  star  faster  than  the  Earth,   the  natural  events  will  occur  more  often  than  on  Earth.  The  wind   speeds  will  be  greater  and  air  pressure  will  change  drastically  much   faster  than  on  Earth.  The  main  current  systems,  in  the  oceans,  on  Xenon   should  change  rapidly  and  create  large  scale  natural  disasters,  but  not   as  large  as  the  “Red  Storm”  on  Jupiter,  but  enough  to  easily  wipe  out   most  cities  on  Earth.  

Biogeochemical  Cycles  (Water,   Nitrogen,  and  Carbon):     Nitrogen  Cycle:  Nitrogen  cycle  will  not  be  as   efficient  because  there  will  not  as  much   nitrogen  in  the  air,  but  there  might  be  an   abundance  of  it  in  the  ground  that  has  not   reached  to  the  surface  from  any  decaying  or   decomposing  plants  or  life  on  Xenon.       Water  Cycle:  The  water  cycle  will  proceed   without  any  problems  with  about  the  same   amount  of  water  vapor  in  the  atmosphere  as   the  earth,  but  has  more  water  in  liquid  form.   The  process  of  precipitation  will  occur  and   be  used  by  plants  and  drank  by  any  life  and   evaporate  from  the  oceans   or  bodies  of  water  and  life.  Then  it  will  condensate  into  water  vapor    and  then  repeat  like  it   does  on  Earth.   Carbon  Cycle:  Carbon  cycle  would  work  much  more  efficiently  than  it  does  on  Earth  because   there  is  a  lot  more  of  CO2  in  the  atmosphere  than  on  Earth  and  has  plenty  of  plant  that  will   decay  but  we  be  taken  in  by  plants  in  the  process  of  photosynthesis.  Also,  considering  that   there  is  a  lot  of  CO2  in  the  air,  there  must  be  life,  other  than  plants,  to  produce  all  that  CO2.   5    


Food  Chains  &  Trophic   Levels   Algae  grow  in   every  marine   habitat.    

Shrimp  (crustaceans)  eat  algae  

Great  white  sharks  eat  angelfish  

Angelfish  eat  shrimp  

 

Producer:  Grass  grows  

Primary  (herbivore):    

 in  the  Savanna  

Antelopes  eat  grass  

 

Carnivore:  Lion  eats  the  antelope   Springtails  decompose  dead  organic  matter    


Producers:  Grass  

Herbivores    

 

 

Springtail  decompose   dead  organic  matter  

Asiatic  Black  Bear  eats  small  birds.  

Quail  eats  grasshoppers  

 

               

 

Producer:  Cactus  

Wild  Bactrian  Camel  eats  cactus  


Algae:  Producers  

Salmon  eat  algae.  

Polar  bears  eat  salmon  

 


Grassland  Precipitation:  

Desert  Precipitation:  

Tundra  Precipitation  

Savanna  Precipitation  

 


Fungi   • Penicillium  Chrysogenum-­‐  We  chose  to  bring  Penicillin  because  it  is  an  antibiotic  

used  to  treat  infections  that  may  transfer  with  us  to  Xenon. • Mushrooms-­‐  We  are  bringing  mushrooms  because  they  are  used  for  human   consumption  and  the  yeast  is  also  used  in  other  products  like  bread  and  beer.   Also,  we  need  them  for  decomposing  dead  organisms. • Hyphae-­‐  We  chose  Hyphae  because  it  acts  to  decompose  other  plant  matter  and   improve  the  quality  of  the  soil  by  creating  channels  that  aid  water. • Mycorrhizal  Fungi-­‐  Mycorrhizal  is  used  for  the  uptake  of  nutrients  and  water  it   also  protects  against  pathogens  in  the  plant.

Bacteria • E.  Coli-­‐  E.  Coli  is  a  bacteria  that  lives  in  animals  stomachs  and  aids  in  animal  

digestion  that  helps  decompose  food  and  minerals  to  make  energy. • Streptomyces-­‐  is  commercially  used  for  some  antibiotics  and  it  also  forms   branching  colonies  in  soil. • Rhizobium-­‐  We  are  bringing  this  because  it  is  living  in  roots  and  produces  fixed   nitrogen • Lactobacillus  Acidophilus-­‐we  chose  to  bring  Lactobacillus  Acidophilus  because   protect  against  "bad"  bacteria  that  can  cause  disease

Animal              -­‐  Marine • Fish-­‐  we  chose  to  bring  fish  because  we  use  them  for  medicines  and  vitamins  such   as  fish  oil  and  food. • Crustaceans-­‐  we  chose  to  bring  crustaceans  because  they  are  a  major  link  in  the   food  web  between  the  photosynthetic  phytoplankton  and  larger  carnivores   such  as  fish  and  whales.  They  are  crucial  in  recycling  nutrients  trapped  in  the   bodies  of  dead  organisms. • Sharks-­‐  We  are  bringing  sharks  because  they  are  part  of  the  top  of  the  food  chain   in  the  ocean  so  they  keep  the  other  population  healthy. • Whales:  We  are  bringing  whales  because  they  are  also  helpful  to  regulate  the   food  chain  in  the  ocean  and  whale  poop  has  nutrients  that  help  stimulate  the   growth  of  phytoplankton,  which  pulls  carbon  from  the  air  providing  a  cleaner   breathing  environment  for  the  animals. • Shrimp:  We  are  bringing  shrimp  because  they  are  food  for  the  angelfish  and  for   us.    


-­‐Savanna Antelope-­‐  we  chose  to  bring  antelopes  because  they  are  food  for  the  Lions  and   control  the  overgrowing  of  plants. Lions-­‐  we  chose  to  bring  lions  because  they  eat  antelopes  so  they  don’t   overpopulate.                  -­‐Grassland  •   Insects-­‐  we  chose  to  bring  Insects  because  they  germinate  99%  of  all  plants   and  they  are  food  for  many  animals. •   Birds-­‐we  chose  to  bring  birds  because  they  maintain  our  ecosystem  by   controlling  rodents  and  insect  pests. • Rabbits-­‐  We  are  bringing  rabbits  because  they  provide  their  fur  and  skin  for   humans  and  they  are  food  for  the  wolves. • Wolves-­‐  We  are  bringing  wolves  because  they  are  food  for  the  bears  and  control   rabbit  population. • Bears-­‐  We  are  bringing  bears  because  they  feed  mostly  on  plants  and  fruits  and   when  they  roam  around  the  mountains,  they  help  spread  seeds  also,  they   help  clean  up  dead  animal  carcasses.                -­‐Tundra •   Polar  Bears-­‐  we  chose  to  bring  polar  bears  because  in  the  tundra  climate  they   help  us  gain  an  understanding  of  what  is  happening  throughout  the  Arctic  areas.     Desert • Camel-­‐  we  are  bringing  camels  because  we  use  them  for  food  and  we  can  use  the   milk  to  drink  as  well  as  transportation. Protista •                  Spirogyra-­‐  We  decided  to  bring  the  spirogyra  because  it  is  found  in  freshwater   and  it  produces  chlorophyll,  which  give  it  a  green  color. •                  Trichonympha-­‐  We  are  bringing  the  trichonympha  because  it  is  a  protest  that   lives  in  the  digestive  system  of  termites  and  produces  cellulose,  an  enzyme  that   helps  termites  digest  wood. •                  Algae-­‐  We  are  bringing  algae  because  it  is  photosynthetic  and  it  produces   oxygen  and  food  for  organisms  that  consume  algae. •                  Euglena-­‐  We  are  bringing  euglena  because  if  a  euglena  is  attracted  to  a   substance,  it  helps  to  break  it  down  as  a  saprophyte.              


Plants   •                  Coral-­‐  We  are  bringing  corals  because  they  are  a  hard  and  stony  substance   secreted  by  certain  marine  coelenterates  as  an  external  as  an  external  skeleton,   •   Trees-­‐  We  are  bringing  trees  because  they  are  helpful  in  making  oxygen  and   reducing  carbon  dioxide  in  the  air  and  they  are  also  a  resource  and  shelter  for  many   animals. •   Cactus-­‐  We  are  bringing  cactus  because  they  are  tougher  than  other  plants   and  they  are  able  to  survive  in  many  harsh  conditions  where  nothing  else  can  grow. •   Prairie  blazing  star-­‐  We  are  bringing  prairie  blazing  stars  because  they  can  be   used  for  prairie  restoration  and  landscaping  and  they  are  attractive  flowers  that   attract  bugs. •   Dark  red  leaves-­‐  We  are  bringing  dark  red  leaves  because  the  dark  leaves   allow  the  plant  to  absorb  more  sunlight  and  heat  in  the  cold  tundra  climate.  

 


1.http://www.theage.com.au/technology/technology-news/earthlike-planethas-a-balmy-cli mate-20111206-1oh1e.html "Redirect Notice." Google. Web. 04 May 2012. <http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.theage.com.au/technology/technol ogy-news/earthlike -planet-has-a-balmy-climate-20111206-1oh1e.html>. 2.http://www.ancientsuns.com/space-facts/space-news/kepler-22b.php "Redirect Notice." Google. Web. 04 May 2012. <http://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ancientsuns.com%2Fs pace-facts%2Fsp ace-news%2Fkepler-22b.php>. 3.http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/kepler/news/kepscicon-briefing.html "Redirect Notice." Google. Web. 04 May 2012. <http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/kepler/ne ws/kepscicon-brief ing.html>. 4.http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/space/8939138/Kepler-22b-the-newEarth-could-hav e-oceans-and-continents-scientists-claim.html "Redirect Notice." Google. Web. 04 May 2012. <http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/space/893 9138/Kepler-22b-t he-new-Earth-could-have-oceans-and-continents-scientists-claim.html>. 5.http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/columnist/vergano/story/2011-1218/kepler-habit able-planets/52031444/1 "Redirect Notice." Google. Web. 04 May 2012. <http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/column ist/vergano/story/ 2011-12-18/kepler-habitable-planets/52031444/1>. 6.http://planetsave.com/2009/06/07/global-warming-effects-and-causes-a-top10-list/ "Redirect Notice." Google. Web. 04 May   2012.


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