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Ty p o g r a p h y f r o m t h e 1 9 th a n d 2 0 th C e n t u r y

History has remembered the kings and warriors, because they destroyed; art has remembered the people, because they created. -William Morris

Creators of the 19th and 20th Century W I L L I A M M O R R I S founded the Kelmscott Press in London in 1891 to have the ability to produce books through traditional methods of both technology and style of the fifteenth century. He was responding to the lackluster design of current mass-production of contemporary book-production methods, as well as, lithography that was created just years earlier. Based on fifteenth century models, he designed three readable blackletter typefaces for use in the Kelmscott Press. “Golden” type was his first in 1890 and was a


Roman inspired by the type of early Venetian engraver Nicolaus Jenson. It’s name is directly from The Golden Legend, a popular 13th Century text that used it. His type “Troy” in 1892 followed by “Chaucer” were two very similar blackletter type for the machine. Golden was used for body text while Troy and Chaucer were sized smaller for contents and glossary. Not only did he create type, but also the floriated borders and initials for the books. These forms were based on designs found in incunabulas.

Typography from the 19th to the 20th Century

In the 1880‘s chromolithography became a method for making multi-color prints, stemming from the process of lithography. Alois Senefelder, a german man, was given credit for his documenting of his plans to print in color one day in the book Vollstaendiges Lehrbuch der Steindruckerey. Countries all over were looking for new ways to print

In 1890 the Linotype machine by OT T M A R M E R G E N T H A L A R was demonstrated in New York. By depressing keys on a keyboard the machine assembles a line of matrices from a magazine above the keyboard. This casts together the letters into one piece of metal called a “slug� by the injection of molten metal. After its use, the metal is delivered to a galley to

in color. Though disputed on being the first, GODEFROY ENGLEMANN of France was awarded the patent for the new process in July 1837.

which it is redistributed back to the magazine by the machine. It was a machine that allowed the operator to be the machinist, typesetter, justifier, typefounder, and type-distributor. Mergenthaler saw little use in seperating these functions to multiple machines, thus inspiring him to his creation.

-Godefroy Engelmann

Creators of the 19th and 20th Century


In 1827 DA R I U S W E L L S invented the lateral router for cutting out large wooden type. With the combination of William Leavenworth’s pantograph in 1834, decretive wooden type was possible.These two techniques, broadside and wooden type, flourished in America and Europe due to there speed of production and the quickly growing demand for print and knowledge. Wooden type also increased the size at which type can be. H E R B E R T B AY E R S was an Austrian and American graphic designer as well as having numerous fine art backgrounds. He was a painter, photographer, sculptor, art director, environmental and interior designer, and architect. The ‘Universal’ alphabet was one of Bayer’s many typographic experiments. The attempt was to reduce the alphabet to a single case; that case being lower. Bayers states “We write everything in lowercase, as this saves us time, why two alphabets for only one word? Why write in capital letters when one does no speak in capital letters?”


Typography from the 19th to the 20th Century

-Fredric W. Goudy

Inspired by Morris and the Kelmscott Press, F R E D R I C W. G O U DY is possibly the best-known American type designer; seeing as most of his types were named after him. During his lifetime he designed 110 typefaces, a number of which have been digitalized. Old Style, Goudy Text, Monotype Goudy Modern, and ITC Goudy Sans being a few that made it to the computer. B RU C E RO D G E R S was another individual inspired by Morris who established himself as a designer of fine books, with a reputation for painstaking attention to every detail. Although he worked originally with cutting type based on Nicholas Jensons type, Centaur is what he is best known for.

Creators of the 19th and 20th Century


Tech of the 19th and 20th Century In 1981, IBM launched the IBM P E R S O NA L C O M P U T E R and later in 1984, Apple Computers introduced the Macintosh Computer. Unlike IBM’s PCs, Apple’s introduced a Graphical User Interface and a cursor controlled by a “mouse” applied commands with a click. Adobe alongside Apple developed a set of applications that allowed desktop publishing to be capable by anyone with a computer. Adobe also developed technology for digital fonts. This consisted of a file for screen display and a file called Postscript that


was used by output. Apple competed with this by releasing a TrueType file, a file that contains both screen and output information. To eliminate the compatibility problem and error when work is shifted to a computer that has the opposite of the file type originally used, OpenType was created by Adobe and Microsoft. OpenType was innovative in that it was cross platform compatible and could hold up to 64,000 characters. Mac User magazine describes it as “the formate designed for the 21st Century.”

Typography from the 19th to the 20th Century

In 1885, Tolbert Lanston patented his M O N OT Y P E machine that casts type as well as assembling it into lines, but as individual letters rather than slugs. The machine requires two operators for the two units of function. The keyboard unit records text as holes on paper tape. The caster unit passes compressed air through the holes in the tape to position the

During its life of about 8 years, the K E L M S C OT T P R E S S became one of the most famous private presses of the Arts and Craft movement. The machine produced with a full staff of twelve more than 18,000 copies of fifty three different works, comprising 69 volumes, and even inspired other private presses to follow in it’s footpath. Many presses

matrix case, a metal frame containing the grid of all the characters of a single size. The air pushes the type into the body mold to be injected with molten metal. Both Linotype and Monotype machines were in general use throughout most of the 20th century eventually being replaced by the photosetting machines.

emerged throughout the world. The Doves Press run by Emery Walker and Thomas Cobden-Sanderson in Hammersmith, Lodon, Merrymount Press in Boston, USA run by Daniel Berkeley Updike, and Cranach Press run by Henery Graf Kessler in Weimar, Germany are just a few of the larger names.

-Apple Macintosh personal computer

Tech of the 19th and 20th Century


In the 19th century more change had come forth than the last 350 years in the print field. This was due to the simple fact that more printed materials were needed for entertainment and education. Techniques in reproduction, typefounding, and typesetting were all improved. The need for cheaper and faster typesetting was a must. Improved rates of casting and improved setting methods had to be implemented and discovered. Between 1820 and 1883 over 200 experimental machines were patented to do just that, mostly in America. The first typecasting machine to produce a finished product was in France by Foucher Freres in 1883. Mechanical metal typesetting died off as photographically generated typesetting systems were being developed and implemented. Instead of metal matrices the machine used film negatives. This electromechanical machine used valves, relays, and other electronic devices, and master film matrix was in the form of a revolving disc. Light was projected onto light sensitive photographic paper to produce lines of type. In the late 1960’s a third generation of photosetting machines were released improving speed by using cathode ray tubes to expose bromide paper. Finally a forth generation machine appeared in 1976, the Mono Lasercomp. This machine used lasers to expose design onto photographic paper allowing for greater precision and detail. Developments were fast and later knocked out entirely by digital printers and computers.


Typography from the 19th to the 20th Century

Phototypesetting or “cold type� systems first appeared in the early 1960s and rapidly displaced continuous casting machines like the Linotype.

E M I G R E is a digital type foundry founded in Berkeley, California Rudy VanderLans and Zuzana Licko. Coinciding with the advent of the Macintosh computer, Emigre really took advantage of the digital medium, similar to how many before took advantage of the technology at the time. There goal was not to imitate letterpress technequies like many have done in the past but to create on the computer for the computer. Bitmap design and dot matrix printing were two methods they focused on at first and then later vector-based design. In the 1880‘s C H RO M O L I T H O G R A P H Y became a method for making multi-color prints, stemming from the process of lithography. Alois Senefelder, a german man, was given credit for his documenting of his plans to print in color one day in the book Vollstaendiges Lehrbuch der Steindruckerey. Countries all over were looking for new ways to print in color. Though disputed on being the first, Godefroy Englemann of France was awarded the patent for the new process in July 1837.

Tech of the 19th and 20th Century


Fonts of the 19th and 20th Century Morris Fuller Benton was a master of the technology that was presented to him in the early 20th century. His father being the creator of the pantographic engraving machine, which was capable not only of scaling a single font design pattern to a variety of sizes, but could also condense, extend, and slant the design, allowed


him to work closely with that technology. In his life he completed 221 typefaces, some being revivals and interpretations of historical typefaces and some being entirely new. He is well know for his F R A N K L I N G OT H I C , a realist sans-serif that is closely related to Helvetica. Many of his typefaces are still in high use across the design fields.

Typography from the 19th to the 20th Century

Jobbing printers in the cities during the early 19th century and on were demanding a new typeface, the “display” typeface. With the increase of sophisticated commercial activities, advertisements needed to catch the attention of the consumer. Serif fonts weren’t cutting it. The first display typeface was the “fat face” and was created by the man, Robert Thorne.

Just before Thrones death he was in the process of cutting a slab-serif display which he had coined the name “Egyptian” due to the commonalities of the square black serifs and the relics of ancient Egyptian architecture. Vincent Fliggins was a British punchcutter and typefounder who worked under the man, Joseph Jackson, until Jackson passed away. Unable to

He increased the thickness of stems to an enormous degree while maintaining the thin strokes and the thin, unbracketed serifs seen in such fonts as Bodoni. This became popular with advertisers but horrified typographic commentators, yet it still spread all over the world.

purchase his masters typefoundery, he decided to go off on his own to purchase a typefoundry in 1792. Unlike Throne, he finish his own and the first slab-serif to be used in 1815 called A N T I QU E . All the sizes were titling, meaning no lower case is available. This was Britain’s first real contribution to the art of type design. Over the years, numerous variations of Antique with narrow vertical forms or stretched out forms that were wider than high were cut.

-Franklin Gothic

Fonts of the 19th and 20th Century


The designers wanted a break from the past but it wasn’t until 1927 that a typeface was created that really expressed this, F U T U R A . It was the creation of Paul Renner, a german teacher, graphic designer, type designer, and author. Futura became the most popular and first geometric sans-serif typeface. Paul Renner believes the idea of purity behind it granted its success because in reality the font isn’t purely geometric and instead has many subtle features. The sans-serif was only a display font in the 19th century, so what happened in the 20th was that and it becoming a text-size for use in books as well. M E TA was one of the earliest sans-serifs designed as a digital type. It was released in 1991 by the type designer Erik Spickermann and is considered to be a neohumanist sans-serif that is both friendly and space-efficient. It is a narrow form, with a slight kink in the vertical stem of the lowercase and diagonal terminal. This more narrow than Helvetica typeface, became the Helvetica of the late 20th century since helvetica became overused.


Typography from the 19th to the 20th Century

M -Meta

Adrian Frutiger designed the earliest version of U N I V E R S in 1937 for the use on the Lumitype/Photonphotosetting machine. Univers is essentially a neo-grotesque with a humanist touch. Alongside the font he felt that it should have a system of numbers to name the weights and qualities of the font instead of relative words like “light” and “bold” that could change depending on the language. This became a milestone in design because it unified the system across borders. Universe still met resistance in Switzerland since the popular fonts at the time were Akzidenz Grotesk and Neue Hass Grotesk. After seeing a sign that Eric Gill had painted for a shop, Morison suggested that he make a geometric sans-serif to compete with others in and outside of Germany. This became G I L L S A N S , a typeface modeled on classic proportions. Gill Sans, however, wasn’t a geometric san-serif and is instead classified as a humanist sans-serif. In 1928, the first version was available as titling and a lowercase version wasn’t available until 1933.

Fonts of the 19th and 20th Century


WO R K C I T E D “Alois Senefelder (German Lithographer).” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. “A Brief History of Type-Part 5.” I Love Typography RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. “Broadsides.” Broadsides. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. Dodd, Robin. From Gutenberg to Opentype: An Illustrated History of Type from the Earliest Letterforms to the Latest Digital Fonts. Vancouver: Hartley & Marks, 2006. Print. “The Kelmscott Press William Morris.” The Kelmscott Press William Morris. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. “Marc Leacock.” Marc Leacock. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. “Morris Fuller Benton.” Linotype Font Feature. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. “Ottmar Mergenthaler.” Invent. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2013.

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D E S I G N E R : Shane Sullivan P R O J E C T : Typographers Timeline Book C O U R S E : Typography II FA C U L T Y : Francheska Guerrero T Y P E FA C E S : ITC Garamond Meta Clarendon

Giambattista Bodoni French Fold Book