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Tech of the 19th and 20th Century In 1981, IBM launched the IBM P E R S O NA L C O M P U T E R and later in 1984, Apple Computers introduced the Macintosh Computer. Unlike IBM’s PCs, Apple’s introduced a Graphical User Interface and a cursor controlled by a “mouse” applied commands with a click. Adobe alongside Apple developed a set of applications that allowed desktop publishing to be capable by anyone with a computer. Adobe also developed technology for digital fonts. This consisted of a file for screen display and a file called Postscript that

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was used by output. Apple competed with this by releasing a TrueType file, a file that contains both screen and output information. To eliminate the compatibility problem and error when work is shifted to a computer that has the opposite of the file type originally used, OpenType was created by Adobe and Microsoft. OpenType was innovative in that it was cross platform compatible and could hold up to 64,000 characters. Mac User magazine describes it as “the formate designed for the 21st Century.”

Typography from the 19th to the 20th Century

In 1885, Tolbert Lanston patented his M O N OT Y P E machine that casts type as well as assembling it into lines, but as individual letters rather than slugs. The machine requires two operators for the two units of function. The keyboard unit records text as holes on paper tape. The caster unit passes compressed air through the holes in the tape to position the

During its life of about 8 years, the K E L M S C OT T P R E S S became one of the most famous private presses of the Arts and Craft movement. The machine produced with a full staff of twelve more than 18,000 copies of fifty three different works, comprising 69 volumes, and even inspired other private presses to follow in it’s footpath. Many presses

matrix case, a metal frame containing the grid of all the characters of a single size. The air pushes the type into the body mold to be injected with molten metal. Both Linotype and Monotype machines were in general use throughout most of the 20th century eventually being replaced by the photosetting machines.

emerged throughout the world. The Doves Press run by Emery Walker and Thomas Cobden-Sanderson in Hammersmith, Lodon, Merrymount Press in Boston, USA run by Daniel Berkeley Updike, and Cranach Press run by Henery Graf Kessler in Weimar, Germany are just a few of the larger names.

-Apple Macintosh personal computer

Tech of the 19th and 20th Century

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