IRT201: Assignment Professor Dowling and Professor Nakamura Group 6: Shana Anderson, Angela Cho, Martha del Junco and Nisha Sewell
“One fourth of the world’s population relies on bamboo for many objects used in everyday life” Environmental Building News 2006
TABLE OF CONTENTS ORIGIN Bamboo as a Grass 4 CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE & TRADITIONAL USES China 5 Architecture 5 Weaponry 6 Papermaking 6 Charcoal 6 Food 6 Japan 7 North America 8 RAW STATE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BAMBOO Advantages and Disadvantages 9 Growth 9 Location 9 When and how it is Harvested 9 HARVESTING BAMBOO Age of Bamboo When Harvested 10 Tracking Bamboo Crops 10 Environmental Implications During 10
PROCESSING BAMBOO Drying 11 Cleaning 11 Oil Removal 11 Water Submerging 11 Dry-Heat Method 11 Wet-Chemical Method 11 MANUFACTURING BAMBOO PANELS 12 TYPES OF PROCESSED BAMBOO 13 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF MANUFACTURING
BAMBOO FLOORING Growing Popularity 15 Bamboo Flooring Top Suppliers 15 Typical Unit Size/Supply Cost 15 Manufacturing Concerns 16 Installation Concerns 16 Life Cycle Costing 16 Maintenance 17 Testing Flooring Products 18 Janka Hardness Test 18
Testing for formaldehyde 18 Negative Aspects of Bamboo Flooring 18 FURNITURE 19 PROTOTYPE FURNITURE 20 FIXTURES ART
ARCHITECTURE 24 MODELS Joinery Models in Natural Bamboo Processed and Natural State with Resin 27 Joinery Models Manufactured Bamboo 28 Material Explorations in Product State 29
WORKS CITED 30 â€ƒ
ORIGIN Bambooâ€™s history dates back more than 5,000 years (Build Direct Learning Center, 2012). The material is native to tropical and subtropical countries including South America, sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Northern Australia, seen in the diagram below (Traditional and Innovative Joints in Bamboo Construction, 2012, p.1).
BAMBOO AS A GRASS Bamboo is a type of woody large grass that belongs to the Poaceae family and generally falls into two types; runner and clumper (Traditional and Innovative Joints in Bamboo Construction, 2012, p.7). There are 650 subfamilies and 10,000 species that fall into the Poaceae category (Bamboo, 2006, p.13). Bamboo is grouped as a subfamily of Poaceae called the Bambusoideae (Bamboo, 2006, p.13) Runner bamboo is mostly found in China, Japan, and Korea. It grows in shallow soil and spreads far away from its parent plant so it has a reputation for being an invasive species (Traditional and Innovative Joints in Bamboo Construction, 2012, p.7). Clumper bamboo is found mostly in America and Asia
and the shoots grow from one regenerating root (Traditional and Innovative Joints in Bamboo Construction, 2012, p.1). Within the Bambusoideae family, moso bamboo is the most commonly grown and used bamboo in Asia and is also the most frequently used bamboo in North America (Environmental Building News, 2013). Bambooâ€™s applications in North America are similar to that of wood products (eg. flooring, millwork and veneer). Because of this bamboo is commonly thought of as a wood, but in reality it is actually a grass (Bamboo, 2006, 20). Unlike trees, it is a self-regenerating plant that does not need to be replanted after it is harvested (Environmental Building News, 2013).
FAR LEFT: Diagram of Types TOP: Map of Regions where Bamboo Grows LEFT: Runner BOTTOM RIGHT: Clumper
CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE & TRADITIONAL USES CHINA
Bamboo is widely associated with China because it grows so profusely in the region and is utilized in many facets of local culture (Asian Bamboo, 2013). There are over 400 species that come from this region alone (Build Direct Learning Center, 2012). In Chinese culture, bamboo is considered one of the “noble” plants that represent the four seasons, along with plum blossoms, orchids and chrysanthemums (Asian Bamboo, 2013). It is also referenced in many ancient painting and poems representing man’s vitality and longevity (China International Travel Service, 2011).
ARCHITECTURE Bamboo has played an important role
in historical and traditional building construction in Asia. It is a strong material that is easy to work with and it grows in abundance in the region (Traditional and Innovative Joints in Bamboo Construction, 2012, p.7). The downside to the material is that it attracts bacteria and insects. If it is not properly dried or treated, the material cannot stand for
more than 10-15 years (Traditional and Innovative Joints in Bamboo Construction, 2012, p.1). For these reasons, bamboo in traditional construction is associated with shortterm housing in poorer regions. (Traditional and Innovative Joints in Bamboo Construction, 2012, p.7).
LEFT AND RIGHT: Traditional Chinese Bamboo Housing
CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE & TRADITIONAL CHINA WEAPONRY - During the Shang Dynasty (1766BCE-
1766BCE), bamboo was used to make bow and arrows (Bambooki, 2011). Later on, with the discovery of gunpowder, the Chinese military used bamboo as a cannon mechanism that was launched in battle (Build Direct Learning Center, 2012). PAPER-MAKING had become a large trade during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE- 220AD). High-quality paper was produced with this inexpensive and abundant material. Other materials were later infused with it in order to make it a lighter weight (Build Direct Learning Center, 2012). CHARCOAL - During the Ming Dynasty, bamboo charcoal was introduced and proved to have less harmful emissions than traditional coal (Bambooki, 2011). FOOD -Bamboo shoots are edible and are a healthy source of proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, fiber and are low in fat and sugar (Food Navigator in Asia, 2011). CLOCKWISE STARTING TOP LEFT: hand-made bamboo bow and arrow, bamboo paper scroll, bamboo charcoal, edible bamboo shoot
CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE & TRADITIONAL USES JAPAN
Bamboo is a symbol of purity, flexibility and resilience in Japanese culture. The way shoots sprout out of the earth signifies its strength (Bamboo in Japan, 2001, 23). For these reasons, it plays an important part in traditional rituals and festivals (Bamboo in Japan, 2001, 18). Bamboo poles are used in funerals to repel evil spirits and also believed to frighten ghosts away if thrown into a fire (Bamboo in Japan, 2001, 18). Any object that was traditionally embellished usually had bamboo represented on it at one point or another. It can be depicted as: a grove; whole culm; cross section; new shoot; leaf; snow-capped leaf; or combined with pine and plum, or tortoise, tiger, or sparrow. Red bamboo in particular is considered a symbol of good luck and fortune (Bamboo in Japan, 2001, 23).
LEFT: Japanese art depicting bamboo as a season RIGHT: Bamboo cutting ceremony
CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE & TRADITIONAL USES NORTH AMERICA Bamboo in North America is commonly known as river cane (Show Me Oz, 2012). Indigenous people of the region had been using it as a source of food for thousands of years (Show Me Oz, 2012). Not only did they discover that the shoots were high in calcium and protein, but they recognized that the areas in which they grew contained rich soil for planting other crops. The cane was also known to sustain different species of birds and animals that the native people hunted as food (Show Me Oz, 2012). Another use for the River cane was to make tools and weapons for hunting. Baskets were made of split cane, which were tightly hand-woven so that its contents would stay dry in bad weather conditions (Show Me Oz, 2012). As early European settlers started to arrive, overgrazing and farming caused river cane to slowly decimate which why it is scarce in the region today (Show Me Oz, 2012). LEFT: Native Americans RIGHT: River Cane Traditional Basketery
RAW STATE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BAMBOO
(Chalet and Bamboo. 2011)
Today, bamboo is grown and harvested primarily in China and Vietnam on bamboo plantations (Environmental Building News).
• Grows Quickly Strong • Small Diameter • Sturdy • Thin Wall • Durable • Hollowness
WHEN AND HOW IT IS HARVESTED
• Ease of Cracking
GROWTH Bamboo culms, or stems grow very quickly, some species up to 150 feet in six weeks and others up to 4 feet in one day (Environmental Building News, 2013s). The shoot will reach its full height after one year of growth (Environmental Building News, 2013). When Moso bamboo is planted, it’s culms emerge from the ground at their full dimension of 8” and spend the next three to six years hardening their arteries before being harvested (Environmental Building News, 2013). To reach full hardness, the sugar and water existing in the plant lignify into hard cellulose. Their capillaries thicken but their overall dimension stays the same (Environmental Building News, 2013).
Top: Electron microscope photos of moso bamboo: showing how the fibers gain density as the bamboo ages. Left: One-year-old bamboo fibers Right: 12 yr.old bamboo fibers Bottom: Bamboo being cut just above the node. Notice, the years are marked on various shoots.
When and How Bamboo is Harvested: Bamboo can be harvested once it has reached its ideal hardness, five to six years after it is planted. (Environmental Building News, 2013) Harvesting usually occurs in the late fall, November and December because the sugar levels in the bamboo is low (Bamboo in Japan, 2001). The bamboo is cut by a hatchet-like tool or a power saw, just above the node to prevent a hollow from forming (Bamboo in Japan, 2001). If a hollow does form the plant is more susceptible to infestation and rotting (Bamboo in Japan, 2001). Ideally, the harvested bamboo is shipped to the drying and storage facility as soon as possible, again, to avoid infestation and rotting (Bamboo in Japan, 2001).
HARVESTING BAMBOO AGE OF BAMBOO WHEN HARVESTED
Bamboo plants can be picked at different times in their life cycle, and can be used for different applications. For example, when bamboo is very young it is malleable so it can be used for woven, intricate designs like exterior partitions and screens (Asian Elements, 2002, 77). When it is more mature it is stronger and can be used vernacularly in Asia for scaffolding and architectural structures and in North America for flooring, cabinetry, millwork and other applications (Asian Elements, 2002,70).
TRACKING BAMBOO CROPS
Despite the abundance of Bamboo plants grown on one farm, farmers track their culms very carefully (Environmental Building News, 2013). After the first year of growth the manufacturer will actually purchase the culm from the farmer and mark the culm with their name and date and wait for it to grow to it’s full potential (Environmental Building News, 2013). This is how it works at Mill Valley Scaffolding in Hong Kong, China. In Asia they Bamboo Associated in Larkspur California. still use bamboo scaffolding while building
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS DURING HARVESTING
Bamboo has a reputation for being a sustainable plant for a number of reasons, primarily for its contribution to the environment (EcoDezignz, 2005-2006). Similarly to trees, bamboo is famous for its ability to sequester carbon (Environmental Building News, 2013). Bamboo removes carbon-dioxide form the air and produces oxygen, but bamboo actually produces 35% more oxygen than trees do contributing positively to global warming (EcoDesignz, 2005-2006). Bamboo shoots stabilize the earth’s roots by preventing erosion because bamboo roots don’t need to be replanted the way trees do every 20-30 years (Environmental Building News, 2013). The bamboo regenerates from the same root over and over again (EcoDesignz, 2005-2006). Finally, bamboo provides habitat and nutrition to many
regional birds and animals including pandas (EcoDesignz, 2005-2006). Unfortunately, the manufacturing process required to produce successful bamboo products dissuade from the plants positive qualities. There is a lot of waste produced when manufacturing the grass from a plant to a product because the plant is round and hollow (David Lowey, 2013). To get straight and flat wood, a lot of the grass is discarded (David Lowey, 2013). Because of the change in humidity when bringing the flooring over seas there is an enormous amount of glue used and if it’s not tested properly, it can emit VOCs (Environmental Building News, 2013). When the flooring is recycled at the end of its life cycle this glue can contribute negatively to green house gasses (Environmental Building News, 2013)
PROCESSING BAMBOO OIL REMOVAL Once it is clean, the oil must be removed from it. It is important to
remove the oil from the bamboo because it will deter insect infestation and harden the plant at the same time (Bamboo in Japan, 2001). There are three ways to remove the oils, either immersion in water, dry heating or chemical baths (Bamboo in Japan, 2001). WATER SUBMERGING the bamboo in water is the earliest technique known and requires only access to a body of water, or a man-made pool (Bamboo in Japan, 2001). When the bamboo is submerged for months at a time it will release all itâ€™s natural oils (Bamboo in Japan, 2001).
TOP AND BOTTOM: Drying Processes
DRYING Before the bamboo is taken to be cleaned and processed it is stored for as long as one year to dry (Bamboo in Japan, 2001).
CLEANING Next, it is cleaned by soaking it in water (Bamboo in Japan, 2001). For
everyday crafts, is inspected carefully for dirt and washed by hand (Bamboo in Japan, 2001). Some types of bamboo require different cleaning techniques including fine sand and rice straw for fine bamboo (Bamboo in Japan, 2001).
DRY-HEAT METHOD For this method, a reliable heat source and a skilled craftsperson are needed to char the bamboo (Bamboo in Japan, 2001). The workers keep the poles moving constantly so that they donâ€™t burn (Bamboo in Japan, 2001). Naturally, oils seep out like wax and is wiped off by the craftsperson immediately (Bamboo in Japan, 2001). Often, because the bamboo is so hot, it becomes pliable and craftspeople take this opportunity to bend the bamboo (Bamboo in Japan, 2001). WET-CHEMICAL METHOD In this case, bamboo chutes are submerged in boiling solution of caustic soda or sodium carbonate for roughly ten minutes and wiped down (Bamboo in Japan, 2001). This is repeated until the bamboo is clear of all unwanted substances. At the end the bamboo is lighter and easier to split (Bamboo in Japan, 2001).
MANUFACTURING BAMBOO PANELS Compared to timber, bamboo has unique characteristics, which make it more difficult to process. When timber is processed, it is generally cut down into two-inch by four-inch planks in standard ways to show the grain differently (Godsey, 159. 2013). This is possible because timber is solid and has a larger diameter than bamboo when mature. Since bamboo is hollow and has a relatively small diameter, it must be cut into small strips and then be glued back together to make plywood. This is a fairly extensive process, which requires fuel to power machinery as well as chemicals for adhesives. Most manufacturing of bamboo occurs in Asia due to cheaper labour costs (FAO, 1995). EXAMPLE OF BAMBOO PANELING PROCESS AT CHALET AND BAMBOO: (Chalet and Bamboo, 2011) The external knots are removed and the pole is split or sawn into slats. The interior knots are then removed and the slats are then planed. Planning is the process where the outer green skin is removed. Slats are then treated to resist fungi and insects. The slats can be colored in an autoclave oven at high temperature (this process is called carbonization). The slats are then dried. Slats are again planed, calibrated and sorted according to their colors in order to homogenize the tint of the future floorboards. The bamboo slats are glued at high pressure and high temperature, with an adhesive. The bamboo can be pressed either horizontally or vertically for a different structural and visual effect. Next it is sanded down and cut to the required dimensions for floorboards, panels or accessories.
TOP: Bamboo Manufacturing Plant
TYPES OF PROCESSED BAMBOO
SOLID PANEL: multiple layers of bam-
boo, vary in size, thickness, configuration and style
TYPES OF GRAIN PATTERNS
1-PLY PANEL: bamboo is pressed and double sided on a base (e.g. MDF or chipboard)
VENEER: slices of sheets from laminated bamboo block
TAMBOUR: flexible bamboo product
placed on a carrier, used for wall coverings, ceilings, cabinets etc.
SOLID BEAM: several layers of bamboo strips
(MOSO International, 2013)
Bamboo panels and veneers can be applied in interiors as wall and ceiling paneling, cabinetry, counter tops, work surfaces and flooring.
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF MANUFACTURING The manufacturing process for bamboo products requires machinery, heating, adhesives, and finishing materials (Morris, 2013). It also requires fuel and money to transport the material from itâ€™s place of production, like Asia, to its place of distribution, in other parts of the world like North America (Morris, 2013). All of these factors contribute to the high carbon footprint of bamboo (Morris, 2013). Unfortunately, due to the low cost of labour overseas, there are very few bamboo products manufactured in North America today (Rob Kingsley, 2013). This means that the product is almost always imported from other countries, thus counteracting its original sustainable qualities due to transportation (Morris, 2013). Due to recent advancements in adhesive materials, some of the negative environmental impact of manufactured bamboo has diminished (Morris, 2013). There are however big discrepancies in how much formaldehyde and other harmful chemicals are used in adhesives and finishes (Morris, 2013)
The saturation of mediocre product in the bamboo flooring market is a result of its rapidly growing popularity over the last decade. When EBN (Environmental Building News) first wrote about bamboo flooring in 1997 there were eight companies supplying the North American market (Environmental Building News 1997). When they re-examined the productâ€™s availablity in 2005 there were 200 companies selling bamboo flooring, the number had jumped 25 times in a 15 years (Environmental Building News 1997). Bamboo flooring sales totaled 45 million feet in 2005 (Environmental Building News 2013). The increased popularity of bamboo products can be attributed to its green and sustainable marketing spin. Because of its regenerative qualities bamboo in its natural state is a renewable and sustainable material (Environmental Building News, 2013). Many manufacturers and retailers have misappropriated the green and sustainable aspects of bamboo-based products in order to increase sales (Environmental Building News, 2013). This is especially true for fabric, which will be discussed later (CBC 2010).
BAMBOO FLOORING TOP SUPPLIERS
Nadurra Bamboo (Canada): flooring, veneers, substrate applied as surfaces including cutting boards, cabinets
Teragren (U.S.A.): flooring, panels, veneers, work surfaces including cutting boards
MOSO Bamboo (Netherlands)- flooring, veneers, panels and decking
TYPICAL UNIT SIZE/SUPPLY COST At Nadurra Bamboo, one of the largest bamboo suppliers in Toronto, bamboo flooring and sheets cost between $3.00-$9.00 a square foot (Rob Kingsley, 2013).
All images three images from Teragren
BAMBOO FLOORING MANUFACTURING CONCERNS If manufacturing plants in Asia are cutting corners and the bamboo is not dried properly there will be too much moisture in the bamboo for it to successfully be manufactured into flooring (Rob Kingsley, 2013). The result is over expansion, splitting or cracking after the floor is installed. (Rob Kingsley, 2013) If flooring is manufactured from bamboo culms that are less then 3 years old, it means the shoot has not had enough time to mature (Environmental Building News 2013). This results in a product that dents very easily, as seen in the microscopic image of bamboo fibers above Environmental Building News 2013).
Installation Detail Teragren Tongue & Groove Flooring
LIFE CYCLE COSTING
The moisture level on bamboo is a very important characteristic that is managed during the drying process (Rob Kingsley, 2013). Ideally, the moisture content is between 7-8% and if itâ€™s not tested properly it can arrive to Canada with a 12% moisture level (Rob Kingsley, 2013). If the bamboo is not dried properly it will corrupt the end product and cause splitting and cracking after itâ€™s installed. (Rob Kingsley, 2013) Another reason the moisture content is so significant is because the bamboo is traveling from a very humid climate to a drier climate in Canada and wood is very sensitive to the moisture level content in the air (Rob Kingsley, 2013). The wood will expand and contract in reaction to this, so it must be regulated to avoid extreme expansion and contraction (Rob Kingsley, 2013). Other problems occur when the product has not had enough time to acclimatize to the installation environment (Teragren 2013). It is recommended that the box is on site for 48 hours before being installed (Teragren 2013).
Seperating Bamboo Floor Planks
MAINTENANCE Bamboo flooring is relatively easy to maintain (Rob Kingsley, 2013). Sweeping or vacuuming it regularly helps remove small particle debris, which can scratch the surface (Lewitin, 2013). Bamboo flooring can also be cleaned occasionally with a damp mop, a non-wax, or non-alkaline hardwood or bamboo floor cleanser (Lewitin, 2013). At Nadurra Bamboo, one particular cleanser is sold that is made by the same company who produces the stains used to finish all products including flooring and sheets of bamboo (Rob Kingsley, 2013). This material is slightly more resistant to water damage, stains, and warping than hardwood materials, although it is still a concern. It is recommended by Nadurra Bamboo that the humidity level stays between 35-50% on site to mediate the expansion and contraction of the product (Rob Kingsley, 2013). To do this it is recommended that a quality HVAC system with a humidifier and dehumidifier is installed (Rob Kingsley, 2013) Bamboo flooring can last 10 years in commercial spaces. and 15 years in residential.
TESTING FLOORING PRODUCTS Janka Hardness Test this test measures the amount
Testing for formaldehyde is the minimum chemical test that should be performed on bamboo wood when it arrives in Canada (Rob Kingsley, 2013). In worst cases, product can still have up to 180 other chemicals, that it is not tested for (Ian Jackson, 2013). At Nadurra Bamboo in Toronto they send all their wood to one plant to be tested for formaldehyde in Mississauga and another at Caledonia Rd. in Toronto to be tested for it’s moisture content (Rob Kingsley, 2013).
ant (Rob Kingsley, 2013). All of this testing is done in Canada, and not in Asia because some testing plants in Asia are corrupt and lie about VOC levels so they can sell their product more quickly (Rob Kingsley, 2013).
There is also testing done to find out if the finished product will emit VOC’s (Rob Kingsley, 2013). Ideally, the product should have minimal to zero VOC content (Rob Kingsley, 2013). In some cases clients will request a ‘0-VOC’ product, in which case this testing is obviously required and very import-
Bamboo flooring has an industry reputation for cracking and denting (Environmental Building News, 2013). This is a culmination of many issues; less reputable distributors, lower grade bamboo, improper manufacturing and installation (Environmental Building News, 2013).
NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF BAMBOO FLOORING
Courtesy of Austin Holloaway
of resistant flooring can handle before denting and wear will occur (Wallender, 2010). Strand Woven Bamboo flooring measures 2000-3200 (pounds-force) which demonstrates that it is very durable (Wallender, 2010).
ARTEK STUDIO WITH HENRIK TJAERBY
TOP: BRAVE SPACE BAMBOO STAGGER BOOKSHELVES $3975 BOTTOM LEFT:BRAVE TETRA BOOK SHELVE $3975 (MODULAR) BOTTOM RIGHT: ARTEK STUDIO WITH HENRIK TJAERBY
BRAVE SPACE DESIGN END TABLE $495
PENNYFIELDS CHAIR DESIGNED BY ALEX WHITLEY
BAMBOO CELL 2 (TABLE) BY FANSON MENG
FOLDING CHAIR, MADE TO ORDER MONSTRANS STUDIO
LEFT & BOTTOM: BAMBOO CELL (STOOL)BY FANSON MENG
BAMBOO CHAIR BY REMY & VEENHUIZEN
FLORAL LAMPSHADE, DAVID TRUBRIDGE. FLAT PACKED, MODULAR LIGHTING
HAIKU FAN BY BIG ASS FANS PRICES START AT $1500
LEFT TOP: ANN CRUMPACKER, WRITINGS DESCHUTES BOTTOM: ANN CRUMPACKER, LUMINARY. RIGHT BOTH: COMPOUND, SOHEAP PICH, RATTAN, BAMBOO AND WIRE, MASS MOCA 2012
MASON LANE FARM BY DE LEON & PRIMER
BLOOMING BAMBOO HOME BY H&P ARCHITECTS
BLOOMING BAMBOO HOME BY H&P ARCHITECTS
MOSO, CEILING APPLICATION.
JOINERY MODELS IN NATURAL BAMBOO
MATERIAL EXPLORATIONS - PROCESSED AND NATURAL STATE WITH RESIN
JOINERY MODELS WITH MANUFACTURED BAMBOO
MATERIAL EXPLORATIONS IN PRODUCT STATE- VENEERS FINISHED WITH DIFFERENT STAINS LEFT TO RIGHT- Mineral Oil, Beeswax, Floor Wax, Jel Stain
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tions” http://www.buildinggreen.com/auth/article.cfm/2008/9/16/Bamboo-Flooring/ Eco Designz. 2006. Environmentally Friendly Bamboo Products. Last modified in 2006. http://www.ecodesignz.com/whybamboo.html Ecotextiles 2009 “Bamboo and the FTC” Patty St.Clair and Leigh Anne St. Clair. Last Modified August 19 th http://oecotextiles.wordpress.com/2009/08/19/348/.
Bess, Nancy Moore. 2001. Bamboo in Japan. USA: Kodansha.
30 Teragren Blog. http://teragren.com/blog/2011/01/24/questions-to-ask-before-you-buy-bambooplywood-panels-2/ Lewitin, J. “Care and Maintenance of Bamboo Floors.” Accessed September 28th 2013. http://flooring.about.com/od/floor-maintenance/a/Care-And-Maintenance-OfBamboo-Floors.htm
Edwards, Jane. 2002. Asian Elements. London: Coran Octopus. Brezet, Van der Lugt, Van der vegte, Vogtlander. 2010. “Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration; the Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products.” World Bamboo Congress. http://www.bambooteam.com/pablo/WBC%202012%20van%20der%20Lugt%20 et%20al.%20compressed.pdf Build Direct Learning Center. 2012. Bamboo Flooring History. Accessed September 29. http://learn.builddirect.com/flooring/bamboo-flooring/bamboo-flooring-history/. CBC 2010 “Bamboo textiles no more ‘natural’ than rayon” Last updated February 10th, 2010. http://www.cbc.ca/news/bamboo-textiles-no-more-natural-than-rayon-1.938759. Accessed October 1st, 2013. Chalet and Bamboo. 2011. “Manufacturing”. Accessed September 28th 2013. http://www.chalet-bamboo.com/manufacturing.html China International Travel Service. 2011. Four Noble Plants in Chinese Culture. Last modified in 2011. http://www.cits.net/china-guide/china-traditions/noble-plant. html David Lowey. Ryerson School of Interior Design. September 11, 2013. EBN Environmental Building News 1997 “Bamboo Flooring Understanding the Op-
Environmental Building News. 2013. Bamboo in Construction: Is the Grass Always Greener? Last modified in 2013. http://www.buildinggreen.com/auth/article. cfm/2006/3/1/Bamboo-in-Construction-Is-the-Grass-Always-Greener/. FAO Corporate Document repository. “Beyond timber: social, economic and cultural dimensions of non-wood forest products in Asia and the Pacific.” Accessed September 20th 2013. http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5336e/x5336e0i.htm
Morris, M, 2012. “Rapidly Renewable”. Eco Building Pulse. Accessed September 28th 2013. http://www.ecobuildingpulse.com/flooring/rapidly-renewable.aspx MOSO International. 2013. “MOSO Panels and Vener.” Accessed September 20th 2013. http://www.moso-bamboo.com/panels-veneer/veneer Oprins, Jan, and Harry van Trier. 2006. Bamboo. Switzerland: Birkhäuser.
Food Navigator in Asia. 2013. Bamboo may be a ‘new health food’ says review. Last modified on May 2, 2011. http://www.foodnavigator-asia.com/Nutrition/Bamboomay-be-a-new-health-food-says-review
Tony, Phone call to Pro Flooring. October 8, 2013.
Godsey, L. 2013. Interior Design Materials and Specifications. New York: Bloomsbury.
Show Me Oz. 2012. America’s Native Bamboo: History and Ecology. https://showmeoz.wordpress.com/2012/01/10/americas-native-bamboo-history-and-ecology/.
Rob Kingsley. Informational interview at Nadurra Bamboo Flooring. October 2, 2013.
Ian Jackson, Interview at IDDEX, September 25th, 2013. Inhabitat 2010 “Bamboozled by Bamboo Rayon? We Aren’t So Sure” Last Modified September 30 th. http://inhabitat.com/bamboozled-by-bamboo-rayon-we-arentso-sure/bamboo3/ Knight, Anne. 2011. “Questions to Ask Before you Buy Bamboo Plywood Panels.”
Widyowijatnoko, Andry. 2012. “Traditional and Innovative Joints in Bamboo Construction.” Accessed September 29, 2013. http://jubilee101.com/subscription/ pdf/Bamboo-Construction/Traditional-and-Innovative-Joints-in-Bamboo-Construction---57pages.pdf.
Ryerson School of Interior Design IRT 201/13