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NATIONALIST REVOLUTIONS SWEEP THE WEST Review that relates to this unit 1. Which European country took over many areas in central and South America during the Age of Exploration?________________________ 2. The ideas of challenging government, using reason and demanding that the government protect natural rights come from which time period in history?_______________________________________ 3. Name two revolutions that we have learned about which were inspired by Enlightenment ideas.______________________________ ________________________________________________________ 4. What does the term social inequality mean?___________________ ________________________________________________________ Overview:

*Enlightenment ideas that inspired the American and French Revolution soon spread to other areas of the world. Latin American countries that were under the control of the Spanish demanded freedom. Leaders like Toussaint L’Ouverture, Simon Bolivar, Jose De San Martin and Miguel Hidalgo all fought to gain independence for countries in Latin America. People fought to gain freedoms and end social inequalities. Unfortunately, many economic inequalities would still remain in Latin America even after independence. *Although Prince Clemens von Metternich tried to shape a conservative Europe with an international balance of power, many revolutions erupted within European countries between 1815 and 1848. Greece gained independence from the Ottoman Empire while many other rebellions were crushed. The unsuccessful revolutions of 1848, left Europe mainly conservative in 1849. *Nationalism was one of the most powerful ideas of the 1800s. Nationalistic ideas caused some countries to unite and others to break up. Otto Von Bismarck united Germany and Giuseppe Garibaldi united Italy by using Nationalism. On the other hand, the Austrian and Ottoman Empires were broken apart with nationalism. Nationalistic ideas also brought about major changes in art and culture.

5. Who were three people who led fights for independence in Latin

America?___________________________________________________ 6. Which country gained independence from the Ottoman Empire?________________________ 7. What did Otto Von Bismarck do?_____________________________ 8. What did Giuseppe Garibaldi do?_____________________________ 9. What did Nationalism do to the Austrian and Ottoman Empires?___________________________________________________ 1


Led to unification of Italy (Garibaldi) and Germany (Bismarck) *Giuseppe Garibaldi united Italy *Otto Von Bismarck united Germany with "Blood and Iron: *Militarism and common culture united the people

Led to a desire for Independence and self-rule *Indian National Congress wanted democracy self-rule for India (Gandhi was also a nationalist leader) *Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin fought for independence in Latin America because of Nationalism

Led to breakup of Austria Hungary and Ottoman Empire *Nationalism among different ethnic groups causedconflict

NATIONALISM

Led people to take great pride in their country during and after conflict *French had increased Nationalism after French Rev and Empire of Napoleon

Caused tension in the Balkans between ethnic groups *Ethnic tensions in Balkan Peninsula created a"Powder Keg" that led to WWI

Caused the Jewish people to seek a homeland of Israel Movement to establish Jewish homeland called ZIONISM

1. According to the diagram above, what are six effects of Nationalism?

1._________________________________________________ 2._________________________________________________ 3._________________________________________________ 4._________________________________________________ 5._________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________

2. Which two countries were united with nationalism? ____________________________________________________________________

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LATIN AMERICA MAP ANALYSIS

1. Based on the map above, what major change took place in South America between 1790 and 1828?

2. List 5 countries that gained independence between 1790 and 1828?

3. Name two events that most likely inspired countries in Latin America to fight for independence. _______________________________________________________________________________

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Nationalism Vocabulary Part 1 Term

Definition

Picture or explain in your own words

Personal Association *ways to remember *examples

Peninsulares

Creoles

Mestizos Mulattos

People who were born in Spain. They were at the top of Spanish-American society and were the only people who could hold high level political office Spaniards born in Latin America who were below the Peninsulares in rank. People of mixed European and Indian ancestry who were below the peninsulares and creoles. People of mixed European and African ancestry who were below the peninsulares and creoles.

Nationalism

Belief that people’s greatest loyalty should not be to a king or empire but to a nation of people who share common culture and history

Nation-State

When a nation had its own independent government. The Nation state represents that nation to the rest of the world.

The Balkans

The region that includes all or part of present-day Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, and former Yugoslavia

Ex.) France, England and Spain

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LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE Use pgs.681-686 to complete this page

1. Which two groups in the chart above controlled all the land, wealth and power in the Spanish colonies?__________________________________________ Country that gained Independence

People who fought for independence

Why they wanted independence

HAITI (1804) (pg. 682)

VENEZUELA (1821) (pg. 683) GRAN COLOMBIA (1824) (Future countries of Colombia, Panama and Equador) (pg. 683)

MEXICO (1821) (Pg. 685)

BRAZIL (1822) (Pg. 686)

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Nationalism Leads to Revolution Clash of Philosophies: Three Political styles 1.___________________: wealthy property owners and nobility. Wanted to protect Monarchs 2. __________________:Wanted more power for parliament but only educated would vote. 3. __________________: favored drastic change.

Nations Practice Nationalism Most of those who believed in Nationalism were ______________and _____________

Greeks rebel against Ottoman Turks in 1821 Britain, France and Russia helped _________________ gain independence in 1830

1830s Uprisings Crushed Liberals and Nationalists openly revolted against __________________ governments Belgian nationalists declared independence from the _____________ , Polish nationalists revolted against ______________ but failed.

Many Revolutions in 1848 There were successful revolutions in some European countries but most _____________.

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EUROPE FACES REVOLUTION Chapter 24 Section 2 Use pgs. 687-691 to complete this handout 1. Which region includes all or part of present-day Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey and the former Yugoslavia?_______________________________________ Revolutions, 1848 2. Based on the map to the left, which empire had several revolutions in 1848?

• Middle class business leaders and merchants • Wanted more power given to elected parliaments • Felt only the educated and landowners should vote _____3. Which philosophy is described above? A. Conservative B. Liberal C. Radical 4. Which heading best completes the outline below? I._______________________________ A. Greeks gain independence from the Ottoman Empire B. Louis Kossuth calls for self-government in Budapest, Hungary C. Radicals in France demand democratic government

Nationalism-the belief that people should be loyal to their nation-was not widespread until the 1800s. The rise of modern nationalism is tied to the spread of democratic ideas and the growth of an educated middle class. People wanted to decide how they were governed, instead of having monarchs impose government on them. 5. According to the passage above, what caused the rise of nationalism in the 1800s? ______________________________________________________________________________

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Nationalism Vocabulary Part 2 Term

Russification

Kaiser

Romanticism

Realism

Impressionism

Definition

Picture or explain in your own words

Personal Association *ways to remember *examples

Policy of forcing Russian culture on all the ethnic groups in the Empire. Romanov’s forced Russian culture on Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians, Georgians, Armenians, Turks. Emperor of Russia

Major art movement at the end of the 18th century. Focused on nature and the thoughts and feelings of individuals. Artists used emotions and glorified heroes Artists tried to show how difficult life was after industrialization. Showed workers suffering.

Ludwig Von Beethoven

Art that involved use of light and pure, shimmering colors.

Monet

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Disunity and Unity Use pgs. 692-696 to fill in the charts below

Nationalism Brings Disunity Culturally distinct ethnic groups resist being part of an empire

Austrian Empire

1. Austrian Empire once included Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, __________, Slovaks, Croats, ________, Serbs, and ___________. 2. In 1866 Prussia defeated Austria in the Austria-Prussian War and took German territories 3. Emperor then split Austria in half making Austria-___________ 4. After WWI the empire broke into several separate ____________-____________

Russian Empire

1. Russia included Ukrainians, Poles, ____________, Latvians, Estonians, ________, ________, Romanians, ____________, Armenians, and Turks. 2. Romanov dynasty used policy of ________________ that forced Russian culture on all ethnic groups. 3. Ethnic groups wanted to break away and Russia Empire fell apart in 1917.

Ottoman Empire

1. Ottoman Empire once included Greeks, Slavs, Arabs, ____________ and ______________. 2. Ottoman Turks became angry when all were given equal citizenship and they massacred or deported _______________ 3. Ottoman Empire broke apart after WWI.

Nationalism Brings Unity 1. ______________________ was named as prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia in 1852. Italy 2. Cavour gained control of northern Italy 3. ______________ ___________________ was a bold and visionary soldier who led an army of Italian nationalists in uniting southern Italy 4. In 1866, Venetia became part of Italy, and the last part of Italy was united in 1870.

Germany

1. Prussia had a mainly German population which unified Prussia 2. In 1848 rioters forced a __________________ _________________ paving the way for unification 3. In 1862, ___________ _______ _______________ was named as prime minister 4. Bismarck used ___________________which means “politics of reality� 5. Prussians won a devastating victory against the Austrians in the __________ __________ war to unite eastern and western Prussia

6. Franco-Prussian war against France was the final stage of unification. Germans called their empire the ____________reich

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KEY PEOPLE TO KNOW Use the textbook pages given to complete the chart Important person Accomplishments Toussaint L Ouverture (pg 682)

Country He is Associated With

Simon Bolivar (pg 683)

THE LIBERATOR!! Jose De San Martin (pg 683)

Miguel Hidalgo (pg.685)

Prince Metternich (pg. 687)

Louis-Napoleon (pg. 690)

Alexander II (pg. 691)

Giuseppe Garibaldi (pg. 694)

Otto Von Bismarck (pg. 695)

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NATIONALISM Chapter 24 Section 3 Use pgs. 692-697 to complete this handout

1. What was Russification?_________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

2a. According to the cartoon above, what did nationalism cause in Germany?__________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ 2b. According to the cartoon above, what did nationalism cause in Austria-Hungary?___________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. What was similar about the way that nationalism impacted Austria-Hungary, the Russian Empire, and the Ottoman Empire?_____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Which heading would best complete the diagram below? I._________________________ A. Prussia and Austria take Schleswig and Holstein from Denmark B. Prussians humiliate Austrians in Seven Weeks War C. Prussians force French to surrender in the Franco-Prussian war “It is not by means of speeches and majority resolutions that the great issues of the day will be decided-that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849-but by blood and iron� 5. According to the quote above, how should the great issues of the day be decided? ___________________________________________________________________

6. Who most likely said the quote above?___________________________________

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BISMARCK UNITES GERMANY BLOOD AND IRON!

(pg. 695-696)1. What are two ways that Bismarck used Blood and iron successfully in uniting Germany?

Otto Von Bismarck 2. What percentage of our countries foreign policy today should be based on “Blood and iron” and extreme militarism?_____________Why? _____________________________________________________

--------------------------------------------------CAVOUR AND GARIBALDI UNITE ITALY

(pg 694)

3. Explain how Camilio de Cavour helped to achieve a united Italy

____________________________________________________________ 4. Explain how Giuseppe Garibaldi helped to achieve a united Italy? ________________________________ Giueseppe Garibaldi

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ART APPRECIATION Use pg. 702 to answer the following questions

ROMANTICISM 1. What were four favorite subjects of romantic artists? 1. 2. 3. 4. 2. What are two things that you notice about the Romantic painting on pg 702? 3. How does the painting make you feel?

REALISM 4. What did realist artists portray? 5. What are two things that you notice about the Realism painting on pg. 703?

6. How does the painting make you feel?

IMPRESSIONISM 7. Describe the Impressionism painting at the bottom of pg. 703? 8. How does the painting make you feel?

9. If you were a political revolutionary of the 1800s, which of these artistic styles would you use for your propaganda posters? Why?

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____1. Which social class controlled most of the political, economic, and social power in colonial Latin America? (1) peninsulares (3) creoles (2) mestizos (4) native people ____2. A study of the revolutions in Latin America in the 19th century would show that (1) religion was a major cause of the conflicts (2) Spanish-born peninsulares led most of the Latin American uprisings (3) nationalism had little influence on the outcome (4) events in North America and Europe influenced Latin Americans “Right Leg in the boot at last”

The Stone Breakers by Gustave Courbet ____5. Which artistic movement is illustrated in the painting above? 1. Romanticism 2. Realism 3. Impressionism 4. None of the above _____6. Simón Bolívar, José de San Martin, and Toussaint l’Ouverture are best known as (1) scientists who supported the heliocentric theory (2) leaders of Latin American independence movements (3) early Spanish explorers of the New World (4) communist leaders of the 19th century

______3. Who is most likely shown in the cartoon above? (1) Otto Von Bismarck (2) Giuseppe Garibaldi (3) Toussaint L’ Overture (4) Louis Napoleon

_____7. The unification of Germany (1870–71) and the breakup of Austria-Hungary both illustrate the influence of (1) imperialism (3) westernization (2) industrialization (4) nationalism ____8. One similarity in the unification of Italy, and the breakup of the Ottoman Empire was that each was influenced by (1) humanism (3) nationalism (2) polytheism (4) imperialism ____9. The Enlightenment and the American Revolution were both major influences on 19th-century uprisings in (1) Latin America (3) Vietnam (2) the Middle East (4) Japan

_____4. Based on the chart above, which group had the least social statues in Latin America? 1. Peninsulares 2. Creoles 3. Mestizos 4. Natives

______10. Which heading best completes the partial outline below? I. _________________________________ A. Unification of Italy B. Formation of the Indian National

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Congress C. Founding of the Muslim League D. Breakup of Austria-Hungary

(1) Tensions of the Cold War (2) Effects of Nationalism (3) Causes of World War II (4) Results of Economic Revolutions

______16. The best example of the success of nationalism in Europe is the 1. 2. 3. 4.

development of socialism in France Industrial Revolution in Great Britain establishment of the Common Market unification of Germany

______11. In a number of European countries in the 1800s, which situation occurred as a result of the French Revolution? (1) increase in religious conflict (2) rise of nationalistic movements (3) decentralization of governmental power (4) economic depression “A country is not merely a geographic territory. A country is also the idea given birth by the geographic territory. A country is a sense of love that unites, as one, all the sons and daughters of that geographic territory…” --World History: A Story of Progress _____12. This quotation supports the idea of 1. 2. 3. 4.

totalitarian rule absolute monarchy mercantilism nationalism

------------------------------------------------------------------------ “It is not by means of speeches and majority resolutions that the great issues of the day will be decided—that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849—but by blood and iron” _____13. Who said the quotation above? 1. 2. 3. 4.

Jose de San Martin Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck Robespierre

_____14. According to the quote above, what will decide the great issues of the day? 1. 2. 3. 4.

Speeches majority resolutions Blood and iron democratic government

_____15. Nationalism is most likely to develop in an area that has 1. 2. 3. 4.

land suited to agriculture adequate industry to supply consumer demands a moderate climate with rivers for irrigation common customs, language, and history

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KEY PEOPLE TO KNOW Use the textbook pages given to complete the chart Important person Accomplishments Toussaint L Ouverture (pg 682)

Country He is Associated With

Simon Bolivar (pg 683)

Jose De San Martin (pg 683)

Miguel Hidalgo (pg.685)

Prince Metternich (pg. 687)

Louis-Napoleon (pg. 690) Alexander III (pg. 691) Giuseppe Garibaldi (pg. 694)

Otto Von Bismarck (pg. 695)

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Nationalism Packet