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INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Review that relates to this unit 1. What happened when the Neolithic Revolution created a surplus of food? _____________________________________________________________ 2. Describe the Geography of England?______________________________ 3. Why might the geography of England lead to an increase in trade in England? ________________________________________________________________ Overview:

In 1750, a movement away from rural life began in England during the Agrarian Revolution. The Agrarian revolution increased food production with inventions like the seed drill and use of large fields called enclosures. Increased food production led to an increase in population. A larger population meant a larger workforce and more demand for goods. The Industrial Revolution began first in England for various reasons. Britain had an abundance of coal and iron and England is an island nation with many natural harbors and rivers for trade. A wealthy middle class also invested in mines, factories and railroads in England. The industrialization of England spread throughout Europe. Along with urbanization, the Industrial Revolution caused significant economic and social changes in Europe. An upper middle class and lower middle class emerged and the lower classes struggled in factories. At the same time, people debated the role of government in business. Economist Adam Smith argued for Laissez-Faire Capitalism where the government should have little or no interference in business. Socialists, on the other hand, claimed that businesses should belong to all the people and the government should directly regulate businesses. Karl Marx argued for an extreme form of socialism called communism in his book The Communist Manifesto. Marx argued that history was a class struggle between wealthy capitalists and the proletariat (working class). He felt that the proletariat would rise up in a violent revolution and create a classless society where wealth was distributed equally. The competing ideas of Laissez-Faire capitalism, socialism and communism would continue long after the Industrial Revolution 4. What was one effect of the Agrarian Revolution?__________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. What are three reasons why the Industrial Revolution began in England?_______ _________________________________________________________________ 6. Who argued for Laissez-Faire capitalism?_________________________________ 7. What was Laissez-Faire capitalism?_____________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 8. What did Karl Marx argue in his Communist Manifesto?_____________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 9. What did Marx call working class people?_________________________________ 10. What was the main difference between Laissez-Faire capitalism and socialism? _____________________________________________________________________


CAUSES OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AGRARIAN REVOLUTION *Major changes in farming methods *Dutch protect farmland from sea *Fertilizer is used to improve soil *Jethro Tull inventedseed drill in England *Enclosurereplaced small strip farms with larger fields





FAVORABLE GEOGRAPHY *Britain had plenty of coal and iron needed for industrialization *Britain had many natural harbors for trade *Rivers were used for transportation and power




*People ate better and lived longer *More healthy workers were available

MONEY FOR INVESTMENT *The middle class had more money to invest in mines, railroads and factories


MORE *Water wheels power new machines GOODS *Coal was used to power steam engines PRODUCED








Picture or explain in your own words

Personal Association *ways to remember *examples

Industrial Revolution

The greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the middle 1700s.


Large fields that increased farm output

Crop Rotation

Adjusting crops planted from year to year to make the best use of the soil

Planting wheat one year and turnips the next to keep soil nutrients

Factors of Production

Materials needed to produce goods and services 1. Land 2. Labor 3. Capital (wealth) City building and the movement of people to cities

Britain had all factors of production

Middle Class

Social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople and wealthy farmers

Some made more money than landholding aristocrats


A business owned by stockholders who share in the profits but are not personally responsible for the debts



INVENTIONS SPUR INDUSTRIALIZATION Use pgs 717-722 in your textbook to fill in the chart and answer the questions below Inventor Invention/Accomplishment Impact Robert Bakewell (pg 718) John Kay (pg 719) James Hargreaves (pg 720) Richard Arkwright (pg 720) Samuel Crompton (pg 720) James Watt (pg 721) Robert Fulton (pg 721) Richard Trevithick (pg 721) George Stephenson (pg 722) 1. What personality traits do you think that most of the men above had in common?____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Using the last paragraph on pg. 722, what are four effects that the railroad had on life in Britain? 1. 2. 3. 4.


INDUSTRIALIZATON Chapter 25 Sections 2 and 3 (pgs 723-733) 1. Which class was made up of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople, and wealthy farmers? _________________________________________________________________________________ Population Density: Great Britain , 1801

Population Density: Great Britain, 1851

Source: World Civilizations: Sources, Images and Interpretations, McGraw-Hill (Adapted)

2. Based on the maps above, what major change took place between 1801, and 1851 in great Britain ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What, most likely caused the changes seen on the maps above? ________________________________________________________________________________

4. * Worked from 6AM to 8PM, 6 days a week * Mill supervisors beat them to keep them awake * Injured regularly by dangerous machinery *Fluff filled their lungs and made them cough What is being described by the bulleted statement above?_____________________________________

5. Which heading best completes the outline below? I.__________________________ A. Widened gap between industrialized and non-industrialized nations B. Raw materials taken from less developed land C. Imperialism D. Development of a middle class


. . . I have frequently visited many of the Cotton Factories in this neighbourhood, with friends who came from a distance; on coming out, it has always been a general reflection, that the children were very great sufferers, and seemed sickly and unhealthy; being obliged to work suchlong hours under such unfavourable circumstances. As I dedicate an hour or two every morning to giving advice to the poor, I have a great many opportunities of witnessing the bad effects of such confinement on the health of children; frequently the parents say their children were stout and healthy, until they were sent out, and confined so close and long in the Factory; but now theyhad become delicate and sickly. . . . Source: Robert Agnew, M.D., “Observations on the State of the Children in Cotton Mills,” Manchester, March 23, 1818

6. According to Robert Agnew, how did the Industrial Revolution impact children working in factories? ___________________________________________________________________________________

Country girls were naturally independent, and the feeling that at this new work the few hours they had of everyday leisure were entirely their own was a satisfaction to them. They preferred it to going out as “hired help”. It was like a young man’s pleasure in entering upon business for himself. Girls had never tried that experiment before, and they liked it. Lucy Larcom, A New England Girlhood 7. According to Lucy Larcom, why did mill work benefit young women? ___________________________________________________________________________________

8. Overall, do you think that factory work benefited or hurt young people? Why or why not? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________


HARDSHIPS OF FACTORY WORKERS In the box below, create a visual representation showing the life of a factory worker faced during the Industrial Revolution. Use pgs 724-728 in your textbook to gather information. Please include: At least 7 problems that workers in cities faced Pictures The number of hours people worked

1. Based on the picture above, why might workers be angry with those in the middle and upper classes? _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Do you think workers were better off during the Industrial Revolution than they were before the Industrial Revolution? __________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Based on the timeline across the top of pgs. 724-725, what problems did child laborers face?





Picture or explain in your own words

Personal Association *ways to remember *examples

Laissez Faire

Economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without government interference


Economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested for profit.


Ideas of Jeremy Bentham that the government should try to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Individuals should also be free to pursue advantages without government interference Economic system where the government plans the economy to prevent an unequal distribution of wealth

Wanted freedoms for people, but the government to intervene in some cases


Extreme form of complete socialism where no private property exists. All goods and services are shared equally.

Karl Marx and F. Engels wrote Communist Manifesto


Labor associations that tried to reform (change) working conditions


Working class people who Marx felt would rise up in revolution against the wealthy business owners




Laissez-Faire! The government should not interfere in business.

INVISIBLE HAND ADAM SMITH WROTE THE BOOKS The Wealth of Nations and The Theory of Moral Sentiments KEY IDEAS • Government should not interfere in business • Businesses are privately owned and meant for profit • Three Natural Laws of Economics 1. The law of self-interest-People work for their own good 2. The law of competition-Competition forces people to make a better product 3. The law of supply and demand • His ideas led to free-market capitalism that is used today • He believed that an invisible hand would guide the market economy ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ADAM SMITH QUOTE ANALYSIS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our necessities but of their advantages.

1. According to Adam Smith, why do the butcher, brewer, and the baker provide dinner? ____________________________________________________________________________ Every individual necessarily labours to render the annual revenue of the society as great as he can. He generally neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it...He intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention.

2. According to Adam Smith, should the individual try to promote the public interest?

3. Do you agree with the ideas of Adam Smith?__________________________________________

4. Do you think that business people acting in their own self-interest, have helped the economy in the United States?_____ Why or Why not? ________________________________________________________________________________________________


SOCIALISM AND MARXIST SOCIALISM SOCIALISM Charles Fournier and Saint-Simon developed a new economic system called Socialism End unequal distribution of wealth KEY IDEAS *Felt that workers were being abused *Factors of production should be owned by the state and operate for the welfare of all *Government should plan the economy and make business decisions *The government should control factories, mines and railroads --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MARXIST SOCIALISM (COMMUNISM) Karl Marx and Freiderich Engels developed an extreme form of Socialism called Communism

KEY IDEAS *History is a class struggle between rich and poor *History is a battle between the “Haves” and “Have Nots” *The proletariat (working class) will rise up in a violent revolution against the wealthy business owners * A classless society will be created with no private ownership


“Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite!” ---Karl Marx

1. Based on the quote above, who did Marx want to unite?______________________________ 2. Why should the ruling classes tremble?____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ “The more the division of labor and the application of machinery extend,

the more does competition extend among the workers, the more do their wages shrink together” –Karl Marx 3. How does Marx think the workers are impacted by the Industrial Revolution?___________________________________________


CAPITALISM VS SOCIALISM Use pg 737 in your textbook to complete the chart below



_______________________ and __________________ own property and the means of production Progress results when individuals follow their own _________-_______________

The community or the ________________ should own property and the means of production. Progress results when a community of producers cooperate for the __________ _____ __________. Socialists believe that capitalist employers take advantage of workers. The community or state must act to ______________ workers.

Businesses follow their own self-interest by__________________ for the consumer’s money. Each business tries to produce goods and services that are better and less expensive than those of competitors. Consumers compete to buy the __________ goods at the ___________ ______________. This competition shapes the market by affecting what businesses are able to sell. Government should _________ interfere in the economy because competition creates efficiency in business.

Capitalism creates ______________ distribution of wealth and material goods. A better system is to distribute goods according to each persons needs. An ________________ _________________ ____ ________________ and material goods is unfair. A better system is to distribute goods according to each person’s needs. 1. Which economic system would Adam Smith agree with? 2. Which economic system would Karl Marx agree with? 3. What role do consumers play in Capitalism? 4. What are two reasons why Socialists feel that Capitalism is unfair to workers? 1. 2. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ADAM SMITH AND KARL MARX CONVERSATION In the space provided below, write a conversation between Capitalist Adam Smith and Extreme socialist, Karl Marx. Adam Smith:_Hello Karl, I must tell you that I disagree with your views on the economy____ Karl Marx:_I completely disagree with your capitalistic theories__

Adam Smith:________________________________________________________________________ Karl Marx:__________________________________________________________________________ Adam Smith:_________________________________________________________________________ Karl Marx:___________________________________________________________________________ Adam Smith:__________________________________________________________________________ Karl Marx:____________________________________________________________________________ Adam Smith :__________________________________________________________________________ Karl Marx:____________________________________________________________________________


REFORMING THE INDUSTRIAL WORLD Chapter 25 Section 4 Pgs. 734-740 1. Which “let do” of “hands off” economic policy involves a free market system where the government does NOT interfere with business decisions?_______________________________ 2. Who believed that the government should not interfere with business? ____________________ 3. Who were the people that Marx believed would rise up against the wealthy business owners in a Revolution?______________________________________________________________________ 4. What is the difference between Capitalism and Socialism?______________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ *The capitalist system will destroy itself *The rich get richer and the poor get poorer under capitalism *The proletariat (working class) will revolt against business owners in a violent revolution *Private property should cease to resist 5. Which thinker would agree with the ideas above?_________________________________________

“Freemen and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guildmaster and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted….fight that each time ended either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.” (Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 1848) 6. Based on the statements above, what do Marx and Engels think is a major problem in history?

7. Put the following events in the correct chronological order (Neolithic Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Crusades, Rise of Marxist Socialism) Occurred 1st:_____________________________ Occurred 2nd: ______________________________ Occurred 3rd:_______________________________ Occurred 4th:_______________________________


WAS THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE? Use pgs 717-742 to complete the chart below. (Specific pages that will be helpful are: pg. 723726, 727, 733 and 742)

















Overall, which 3 effects of the Industrial Revolution do you think were most important to later generations? 1.




Effects of Industrial Revolution

LAISSEZ-FAIRE ECONOMICS In his book, WEALTH OF NATIONS, Adam Smith promoted this idea that business should operate with little or no government interference

1. According to Smith, how much should government interfere in business?

RISE OF BIG BUSINESS Businesses sold STOCK (shares of a company) to investors. Stockholders allowed businesses to form large corporations

NEW CLASS STRUCTURE 1. Upper class of wealthy business owners 2. Upper middle class of business people and professionals 3. Lower middle class of office workers, shop owners, and teachers 4. Factory workers and peasant farmers (faced harsh living conditions

URBANIZATION People moved to cities where factories were located.

2. Who allowed businesses to form corporations?

3. Who made up the Upper middle class?

4. Why was Urbanization negative for some?

Condition were very bad in crowded buildings. There were no sewage or sanitation systems so garbage rotted in the streets. Diseases spread quickly.

POOR WORKING CONDITIONS Men, women and children worked 12 to 16 hour days doing boring jobs. Many machines were dangerous.

IMPROVED TRANSPORTATION *Roads and canals were built and improved *The steam locomotive was invented and railroads grew *Steam engines powered ships at sea

RISING STANDARD OF LIVING Wealthier people moved to suburbs just outside the cities. Poor people remained in crowded city slums, but conditions in cities improved with reforms. People ate healthier and lived longer thanks to advances in medicine

5.How long did people work?

6. What are two ways transportation was improved?

7.Overall, how did the Industrial Revolution help people’s standard of living?


____1.Which written work criticized the capitalist system during the Industrial Revolution? (1) Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (2) “White Man’s Burden” by Rudyard Kipling (3) The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith (4) The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin

_____7.The Commercial Revolution helped lead to the Industrial Revolution because during the Commercial Revolution (1) the barter system was instituted (2) new forms of business were developed (3) socialism was introduced to Europe (4) subsistence agriculture was promoted

____2.Adam Smith would most likely agree with which statement? (1) Revolution is the only solution to economic problems. (2) Five-year plans are necessary in order to industrialize. (3) All nations would benefit from an agricultural economy. (4) Government should follow a laissez-faire policy.

____8.A long-term result of the Industrial Revolution in Europe was (1) an increase in the number of small farms (2) a decline in international trade (3) a general rise in the standard of living (4) a strengthening of the economic power of the nobility

____3.In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels expressed the idea that (1) religion should be the most important factor in society (2) power should be determined by a person’s wealth (3) profits from work should belong to the workers (4) supply and demand should control prices ____4.A major reason the Industrial Revolution began in England was that England possessed (1) a smooth coastline (2) abundant coal and iron resources (3) many waterfalls (4) numerous mountain ranges ____5.Which headline would most likely have appeared in a pamphlet during the Industrial Revolution? (1) “Michelangelo Completes Sistine Chapel” (2) “Karl Marx Attacks Capitalism” (3) “Martin Luther Speaks Out Against Sale of Indulgences” (4) “John Locke Calls for the People to Choose the King”

_____6. Where did Karl Marx predict a revolution of the proletariat would occur first? (1) industrial Europe (2) independent Latin America (3) colonial Africa (4) agricultural Russia

____9. Which event had the greatest influence on the development of laissez-faire capitalism? (1) fall of the Roman Empire (2) invention of the printing press (3) Industrial Revolution (4) Green Revolution Base your answer to question 23 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies. . . . The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connections everywhere. . . . — Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels _____10.Which historical event do Marx and Engels believe created the situation described in this passage? (1) Cold War (2) World War I (3) Russian Revolution (4) Industrial Revolution ____11. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels encouraged workers to improve their lives by (1) electing union representatives (2) participating in local government (3) overthrowing the capitalist system (4) demanding pensions and disability insurance


“. . . A place more destitute of all interesting objects than Manchester, it is not easy to conceive. In size and population it is the second city in the kingdom, containing above fourscore thousand [80,000] inhabitants. Imagine this multitude crowded together in narrow streets, the houses all built of brick and blackened with smoke; frequent buildings among them as large as convents, without their antiquity, without their beauty, without their holiness; where you hear from within, as you pass along, the everlasting din of machinery; and where when the bell rings it is to call wretches to their work instead of their prayers, . . . ”

— Robert J. Southey, Letters from England, 1807 ____12. The conditions described in this passage occurred during the (1) Age of Discovery (2) Renaissance (3) Industrial Revolution (4) Green Revolution Statement A: We worked in a place that was noisy and dangerous. We did the same work over and over again. Many workers, often children, lost fingers, limbs, and even their lives. Statement B: Government should not interfere in business. To do so would disrupt the balance of supply and demand. Statement C: Government has a duty to interfere in order to best provide its people with a happy and safe life.

____13.All of these statements describe events or viewpoints that relate to the (1) Protestant Reformation (2) Commercial Revolution (3) Industrial Revolution (4) Berlin Conference Developments in European History A Protestant Reformation B Feudal Period C Industrial Revolution D Neolithic Revolution ____14.Which set of events is listed in the correct chronological order? (1) C −>AÆ B Æ D (2) DÆ CÆ BÆ A


“It was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and ashes had allowed it; but as matters stood it was a town of unnatural red and black like the painted face of a savage. It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, out of which interminable serpents of smoke trailed themselves for ever and ever, and never got uncoiled. It had a black canal in it, and a river that ran purple with ill smelling dye. . . .”

— Charles Dickens, Hard Times ____15.Which problem is the subject of this passage? (1) economic inequality (2) urban pollution (3) lack of child labor laws (4) poor transportation systems

“. . . They [the Communists] openly declare that their ends can be attained [achieved] only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!” — Friederich Engels and Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto, 1848 ____16.These views, expressed by Engels and Marx, were developed in reaction to the (1) unification of Germany (2) Commercial Revolution (3) Congress of Vienna (4) Industrial Revolution “I don’t know how old I am. . . . I began to work when I was about 9. I first worked for a man who used to hit me with a belt. . . . I used to sleep in the pits that had no more coal in them; I used to eat whatever I could get; I ate for a long time the candles that I found in the pits. . . .”

— E. Royston Pike adapted from Hard Times, Human Documents of the Industrial Revolution ____17. What was one thing that happened in response to the conditions described in this passage? (1) Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto (2) Garibaldi organized the Red Shirts (3) Charles Darwin developed The Origin of the Species (4) Atatürk joined the Young Turks


____18. Which statement is supported by the ideas of Karl Marx? (1) Private ownership of businesses helps workers. (2) Industrialization benefits the wealthy and exploits the poor. (3) Countries should benefit from the wealth of their colonies. (4) Industrial capitalism allows workers and employers to work together for a common purpose. • Europeans sought new markets for their goods. • Many Europeans migrated to the cities in search of jobs. • European middle class gained political power.

____19.What was the major cause of these changes in Europe? 1 Industrial Revolution 3 Congress of Vienna 2 rise of feudalism 4 French Revolution ____20.What did Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels believe would be the result when communism finally emerged as the dominant political and economic system? 1 Only two classes would exist in society. 2 All the evils of industrial society would disappear. 3 The Soviet Union would become the world’s only superpower. 4 Citizens would own their individual homes and farms. ____21.Which revolution inspired Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels to express their ideas in The Communist Manifesto? 1 Industrial 3 Glorious 2 Scientific 4 Neolithic ____22.The influence of geographic factors in England was most evident in the development of (1) the Anglican Church under Henry VIII (2) English literature under Elizabeth I (3) the English industrial system (4) the English constitutional monarchy

____23. According to Karl Marx, history is the record of the 1. 2. 3. 4.

granting of more political liberties to all people struggle between classes in society wars and conflicts between national leaders increasing prosperity brought about by industrialization

____24. A main idea of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles’ Communist Manifesto is that the proletariat 1. 2. 3. 4.

would need foreign help to achieve its revolutionary ends had to cooperate with the capitalists to gain economic rewards should allow the capitalists to control the means of production must unite to overthrow the capitalist class

____25. “Revolution will occur more and more frequently in the industrialized nations as the proletariat struggles to overcome the abuses of the capitalist system.” This quotation reflects the ideas of 1. 2. 3. 4.

Charles Darwin Karl Marx Niccolo Machiavelli John Locke

____26. Before a nation can begin to industrialize, that nation must first develop 1. 2. 3. 4.

a democratic government a rigid class structure a strong religious foundation an adequate food supply

___27. A major result of the Industrial Revolution was the 1. concentration of workers in urban areas 2. increased desire of the wealthy class to share its power 3. formation of powerful craft guilds 4. control of agricultural production by governments Questions taken from NYS Global Regents Exams




Industrial Revolution Packet