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DECLARATION By the candidate

This thesis titled “Markas centre of Islamic studies and cultural centre� in Calicut, Kerala ; has been carried out by the undersigned as a part of Bachelors Programme in the Department of Architecture , School of planning and architecture , New delhi - 110002, India , under the supervision of Prof. Tanuja Kanvinde and Prof. Rahul sen . The undersigned hereby declares that this is his original work and has not been copied in part or full from any source.Furthermore this work has not been submitted for any degree in this or any other university. Shaheed Iqubal 5th year, B.Arch A/2602/2013 Department of Architecture SPA, Delhi

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CERTIFICATE By thesis guides

This thesis was carried out during the months of January - May 2018, the tenth semester in the Department of Architecture of School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, by the candidate Shaheed Iqubal (A/2602/2013) under the supervision of Ar. Tanuja Kanvinde and Ar. Rahul Sen. The undersigned hereby certify that this work has been completed under their supervision with timely reviews and comments

Ar. Tanuja Kanvinde Thesis guide 5th year, B.Arch SPA, Delhi

Ar. Rahul Sen Thesis guide 5th year, B.Arch SPA, Delhi

CERTIFICATE By thesis co-ordinator

This thesis was carried out during the months of January-May 2018, the tenth semester in the Department of Architecture of School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi. Thereafter, based on the description by the candidate, the thesis was placed in front of the External Jury held on 24th and 25th May 2018. For this work the candidate was awarded the following marks : 1.Internal jury during the semester : _______ out of 300 marks 2.External jury evaluation in May 2018 : _______ out of 350 marks. On successful completion of the Bachelor of Architecture course by the candidate, the undersigned hereby accepts the thesis report on behalf of the department, so that it may be placed in the architecture library.

Prof. Jaya Kumar Thesis co-ordinator 5th year, B.Arch SPA, Delhi


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By Candidate

First and foremost , I would like to thank my guides , Ar. Tanuja Kanvinde and Ar. Rahul Senfor their expertise, encouragement and patience throught the thesis programme. I am extremely grateful to Prof . Jaya Kumar and prof. Aruna Ramani Grover , along with all the other faculty members , for their support and guidance. I want to thank architects Mr.Shahim Abdulrahman , Ms. Farhana Farhath and Ms.Aysha Binth Pasha for their valuable support and providing with necessary information for research I want to thank my friends Harsh Vardhan Joya, Kumar Rishav, Sandeep Raju , Aditya S Nath, Saifu and Asish for being supportive and helping me with this project I have my greatest gratitude towards my mother and grandmother, for loving me and providing me with emotional support throught the process


Chapter 1 DESIGN INVESTIGATION • Introduction • My Thesis • Thesis Proposition • Research Question • Chapter 2 RESEARCH AND CASE STUDIES 2.1 Core research • Mappila Muslims of Kerala • Islamic Architecture of Kerala • Madrassa • Islamic landscape • Traditional architecture of Kerala • Problems faced by muslims 2.1 Case studies • Dar Udh Dikr NIFL, UP, India • Bait Ul Rauf mosque, Bangladesh • Friendship centre, Banglaesh • India Islamic Cultural Centre, New Delhi, India • Mamra University, Faculty of Theology, Turkey

14 15 16 16 16 17 19 21 26 27 29 31 35 37 42 46 51 55

Chapter 3 SITE ANALYSIS • Location • Neighbourhood • Site and legal data • Site conditions, natural features • Connectivity and movement systems • Climatic data • Sensory experiance

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68

Chapter 4 PROGRAM ANALYSIS • Program analysis chart • Courses offered

69 70 71



Chapter 6 TECHNOLOGY • Rat trap bond exposed brick work • Brick jalis • Sloping roof


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SYNOPSIS Islam is one of the most misunderstood and marginalised religion in the world , and muslims in particular have been arrested and framed as terrorists all over the world.Muslims are always framed as the ‘Other’ in the modern world. This othering has been also a reality in India post independence. The muslim ghettos of Ahmedabad, Batla house in Delhi and Mumbra in Mumbai are other examples of this. On November 30, 2006, the 403-page report of the Sachar Committee, on the social, economic and educatio “ condition of Muslims in India, was tabled in Parliament. The Report highlighted a range of disabilities faced by the community, and made a slew of recommendations to address the situation. It placed Indian Muslims below Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in backwardness. But Kerala has an expection becaus of the high economic status gained by the migration to GCC countries for jobs and also by the political representation gained by Kerala muslims by Indian Union Muslim League and also by educational Institutions like MES ( Muslim Educational Society). My thesis is based on belief in educating people about islam, muslims, islamic art and philosophy in general and particular about the mappila muslim community of kerala, and in a way eradicating islamophobia . The institute also provides a learning space for students for islamic theology, philosophy and arts.

LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS Duffmuttu, pg 20, self Oppana, pg 20, self Kolkkali, pg 20, sef The front facade of Valiya Jumath mosque, pg 21 , self The sloping roof of valiya Jumath mosque, pg 21, self The qibla wall of the mosque, pg 21, self Western facade of the Mishkal mosque,pg 23, self Side elevation of Mishkal mosque, pg 23, self Mosque pond, pg 23, self Bait ul raul elevation, pg.42, Baitulrauf interior, page 43, Baitulrauf ablution tank, page 43, Friendship centre buddhist inspiration, pg.47, Rooftop garden, pg47, Landscaping, pg53,self Interior of entrance lobby, pg 53,self Library, pg 53, self 300 seater amphiteatre, pg.54, self Islamic motif arches, pg.54,self Mamra university dome, pg 55, Mamra university interior, pg 58, MES school, pg 63, self Unani college, pg 63, self Landmark village, pg 63, self Law college, pg.63 self Road towards the site, pg 66 , self Entry to the site, pg 66 self View of western ghats , pg 66, self

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LIST OF TABLES Case study inference table Swat analysis table Educational dept area table Admin area table Cultural area table Residential area table

LIST OF DRAWINGS AND ILLUSTRATIONS Areas of reasearch, pg 18 , self Ground floorplan of Mishkal mosque ,pg 24 , Mehrad Shokoohy, Muslim architecture of south India Sloping roof form of the Mishkal mosque , pg 25,Mehrad Shokoohy, Muslim architecture of south India Section showing the qibla wall, page 25, Mehrad Shokoohy, Muslim architecture of south India Uleg Beg madrassa 3d, pg 27, wikipedia Uleg Beg madrassa plan, pg 27, wikipedia The pillared hall,pg 28,Dr.Harimohan Pillai The doorway, pg 28, Dr.Harimohan Pillai Different types of fenestrations, pg 29, Dr.Harimohan Pillai Veranda, Pg 29, Dr.Harimohan Pillai, pg 30 Wooden trussDr.Harimohan Pillai, pg 30 Attic space,Dr.Harimohan Pillai, pg 30 Multi level roofs,Dr.Harimohan Pillai, pg 30 Aladin poster, pg31, wikipedia The dictator poster, pg 31, wikipedia Padmaavat poster, pg 33 wikipedia Framed, page 33,

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LIST OF MAPS Plan showing the context of Ponnani juma masjid, pg 23, Noble UD,Ponnani -A port town Countour map of the site. pg 55, self Google map of the site, pg 50, Google earth

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS mm - millimeter m - meters ; 1 m =1000mm km - kilometers; 1 km - 1000m sqm - square meters; 1sqm= 1m x 1m ft - foot sqft - square feet NIFL- National institute of faith leadership SWOT- Strength , Weakness , Opportunity, Threat UP- Uttar Pradesh IICC- India Islamic Cultural Centre

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INTRODUCTION “To the extent that Islam is known about today, it is known principally in the form given it by the mass media: not only radio, films and Tv but also textbooks, magazines and best-selling, high-quality novels. This corporate picture of Islam on the whole is a depressing and misleading one. What emerges is that Ayatollah Khomeini, Col. Muammar e-Qaddafi, Sheik Ahmad Zaki Yamani and Palestinian terrorists are the best-known figures in the foreground, while the background is populated by shadowy (though extremely frightening) notions about jihad, slavery, subordination of women and irrational violence combined with extreme licentiousness. If you were to ask an average literate Westerner to name an Arab or Islamic writer, or a musician, or an intellectual, you might get a name like Kahlil Gibran in response, but nothing else. In other words, whole swatches of Islamic history, culture and society simply do not exist except in the truncated, tightly packaged forms made current by the media. As Herbert Schiller has said, TV’s images tend to present reality in too immediate and fragmentary a form for either historical or human continuity to appear. Islam therefore is equivalent to an undifferentiated mob of scimitar-waving oil suppliers, or it is reduced to the utterances of one or another Islamic leader who at the moment happens to be a convenient foreign scapegoat.” -Edward Said Palestinian intellectual, Post colonial studies

Islam is one of the most misunderstood and marginalised religion in the world , and muslims in particular have been arrested and framed as terrorists all over the world.Muslims are always framed as the ‘Other’ in the modern world. This othering has been also a reality in India post independence. The muslim ghettos of Ahmedabad, Batla house in Delhi and Mumbra in Mumbai are other examples of this. On November 30, 2006, the 403-page report of the Sachar Committee, on the social, economic and educatio “ condition of Muslims in India, was tabled in Parliament. The Report highlighted a range of disabilities faced by the community, and made a slew of recommendations to address the situation. It placed Indian Muslims below Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in backwardness. But Kerala has an expection becaus of the high economic status gained by the migration to GCC countries for jobs and also by the political representation gained by Kerala muslims by Indian Union Muslim League and also by educational Institutions like MES ( Muslim Educational Society).

MY THESIS My thesis is based on belief in educating people about islam, muslims, islamic art and philosophy in general and particular about the mappila muslim community of kerala, and in a way eradicating islamophobia . The institute also provides a learning space for students for islamic theology, philosophy and arts. My thesis also aims to articulate a modern islamic architecture style articulated and learned from isalmic architecture and vernacular islamic architecture of kerala

THESIS PROPOSITION The Marqas Islamic college and cultural centre is a deep rooted academic and cultural institution in democratic India has been established to meet the mounting needs of Islamic propagation in India and to fill the emptiness in the field of meaningful Islamic higher studies and also to revive the culture life of muslims of Kerala and asserts its importance in shaping the cultural life of Kerala as a whole and put it forward to the so called “mainstream� culture.

RESEARCH QUESTION What is the impact and identity of an institute of islamic studies and cultural centre in curbing islampophobia and creating a represntation of muslim community in a larger public?

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MAPPILA MUSLIMS OF KERALA Mappila, also known as a Muslim Mappila, formerly spelt as Moplah and Jonaka Mappila, are the major ethnoreligious communities among Malayali Muslims. Muslims of Kerala, of which Mappilas make up a large majority, constitute 26.56% of the population of the state (2011). he Mappila community originated primarily as a result of the pre and post-Islamic Arab contacts with Kerala, which was fundamentally based upon commerce. As per tradition, Islam reached Malabar Coast, of which the state is a part of, as early as the 7th century AD. The uninterrupted association of the Mappilas with the merchants from the Middle East have created a profound impact on their life, customs and culture. This has resulted in the formation of an unique tradition - although within the large spectrum of Malayali culture - in literature, art, and music.


According to tradition, the first Indian mosque was built in 621 CE by the last ruler of the Chera dynasty, who converted to Islam during the lifetime of Prophet Muhamm ed (c. 571–632) in Kodungallur and facilitated the proliferation of Islam in Malabar.

KHILAFAT MOVEMENT AND INDIAN FREEDOM STRUGGLE After the death of Tipu in 1792,The Britishers regain power on Malabar became of Madras presidency.The British government make new tenant policy which favourable to Hindu higher caste. The partisan rule of British authorities brought the Mappila peasants of Malabar into a condition of destitution which led to a series of uprisings against the landlords and British in 1921; it took in the form of a communal war known as Mappila Rebellion that lasted for six months and cost the lives of about 10,000 people.Mohommed Haji was proclaimed the caliph of the Moplah Khilafat (Caliphate) and flags of “Islamic Caliphate” were flown. Eranad and Valluvanad were declared Khalifat kingdoms.The riot was controlled by the British military and many Mappilas lost their lives in the military action and many were taken as prisoners, mostly to Port Blair. For almost three months Mohammed haji ruled over the kingdom with the support of Moplas and lower caste hindus. This was for the first time the idea of poorna swaraj or complete independence happened durign the british raj.And moplahs give the creadit for this to their faith , unity and a casteless and classless society


DUFF MUTTU Duffmuttu is performed as social entertainment and to commemorate festivals, uroos (festivals connected with mosques) and weddings. A duffmuttu performance usually consists of six members who stand or sit facing each other singing songs and swaying their bodies to the tempo of the song which is set by the rhythmic beats of the duff.

OPPANA It is generally presented by females numbering about fifteen including musicians, as a part of wedding ceremonies a day before the wedding day. The bride, dressed in all finery, covered with gold ornaments, is the chief spectator; she sits on a peetam, around which the singing and dancing take place. While they sing, they clap their hands rhythmically and move around the bride using simple steps. Two or three girls begin the songs and the rest join the chorus.

KOLKALI It is a folk art performed in North Malabar region of Kerala State in south India. The dance performers move in a circle, striking small sticks and keeping rhythm with special steps. The circle expands and contracts as the dance progress. The accompanying music gradually rises in pitch and the dance reaches its climax.

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ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA The mosques of Kerala differ greatly from Muslim structures of any other region of India.The extensive use of timber in the construction of the upper storeys and the tiered form of their roofs represent a type of Indo-Islamic architecture, peculiar to the region.The principle of the wooden roof structure of these mosques is not, of course, unique to the buildings of the muslims, as it follows the traditional architecture of the region which was universally applied , for simple buildings as well as for large temple complexes.

Fig : 1 : The front facade of valiya jamath mosque in Ponnani, Malappuram,Kerala

Fig : 1 : The sloping roof form of the Valiya Jamath mosque.

PONNANI VALIYA JUMATH MOSQUE Most of the major institutions use to have pond near by it. Juma Masjid have three entries and some of the edges have commercial buildings. It have its office and staying facilities for the visitors and people who comes for conversion next to it. This place considered as second Mecca of Muslim community. This Mosque was built in 1518 CE. According to Logan’s description “ The Mosque is a Spacious four storied building, 90 feet in length and 60 feet in breadth, and stands close to the Jaram or Mausoleum, which contains his own and his successor’s remains.”. The Mosque building was constructed by Hindu artisans, similarity to the Temple architecture visible because of this reason.

Fig : 1 : The qibla wall of the mosque

Plan showing the context of ponnani juma masjid We can see that the mosque is existing in a semidense fabric. A mosque pond which is used for ablution and public need can be seen. The pond also acts as an public square . The mosque have three entry gates . There is a cemetry on the southern side of the mosque . and on the left side of the pond we can see a government school structure which was previously used as a madrassa

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Photograph from the side of the Mishkal mosque

Mishkal mosque is one of the medieval mosque located in Kuttichirara, near Thekkepuram beach in Calicut. This entirely wooden mosque is simply breathtaking to see especially from the other side of the tank. The big Kuttichira tank is attached to the mosque. The mosque is built in 4 floors, has 47 doors, 24 carved pillars and a big prayer hall that can accommodate 400 people. Cupolas and minarets seems to be absent because the mosque is built like a temple. The prayer hall is well ventilated and there is a wooden mimbar with beautiful motifs. The Mosque Pond which is used as a public square

Western facade of Mishkal mosque

Ground floor plan of Mishkal mosque

Detail showing the arrangement of columns and the roof structure

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The sloping roof form of the Mishkal mosque

Section showing the qibla wall


madrasah literally means “a place where learning and studying take place”. However, in English ,the term madrasah usually refers to the specifically Islamic institutions. A typical Islamic school usually offers two courses of study: A ‘hifz’ course teaching memorization of the Qur’an; and an ‘ālim’ course leading the candidate to become an accepted scholar in the community. A regular curriculum includes courses in Arabic, tafsir (Qur’anic interpretation), sharīah (Islamic law), hadiths (recorded sayings and deeds of Muhammad), mantiq (logic), and Muslim history. In Central Asia, in particular, there are many beautiful madrassas. The layouts clearly demonstrates how they are based on the fundamental four fold plan.They are usually two storeys high with four iwans, lofty semi circular vaults opening onto inner courtyards.The entrance gateway is generally flanked by a classroom on the left hand side and a mosque on the right hand side with a library upstairs.

Uleg Beg Madrassa, Samarkhand

• • • •

Uleg beg madrassa is located in the Registan square The building is rectangular in shape measuring 56 by 81 meters and encloses ( 30 meters a side ) with four axial iwans There are minarets at each of the four corners and a 34.7 m tall entrance portal on the facade that faces the Registan Two smaller entrances on the sides of the madrassa opens to the courtyard

Plan of Uleg Beg Madrassa

• • •

Originally Uleg beg madrassa was a two storyed building with four domed darskhonas (lecture rooms) at the corners. This madrassa was one of the best clergy universities of the entire Muslim Orient in the 15th century CE Around the courtyard , on two stories, are 50 rooms which could house 100 students and two lecture halls

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ISLAMIC LANDSCAPE Some of the features of this promised paradise as seen in theKoran and its commentaries, which have a bearing on ourdiscussion and have an effect on gardens, should now be mentioned briefly: 1. in paradise there flow streams and canals with golden banks and beds of pearls and rubies, toiled soil of which has a smell sweeter than musk. 2. There is perpetual shade which is tamed to move according to the will of man. 3. There is no extreme heat from the sun or bitter cold. 4. There are trees which are so green that they appear to be black. 5. Trees such as the thorn less lotus, tangled myrtle, palm and pomegranate have been mentioned. 6. There are high buildings unique in the world. 7. The dimensions of paradise may be likened to the width of the sky and the earth. 8. There is an extraordinary abundance of unforbidden and perenniaI fruit which may be freely eaten.

TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF KERALA Vernacular architecture is the source of essential knowledge of sustainability, energy efficient and climate responsive architectural design principles.Understanding them is not just a study of the traditions but new methods could emerge from the built environment that is to come. The direct response to the context and resources available , inherently becomes sustainable way of approach . The various elements that define the vernacular architecture of Kerala have been looked at with the help of sketches developed by Dr.Harimohan Pillai, an architect who also guides stu-



Dimensions: Width : 600 to 800 mm Height : 450 to 600 mm

Padipuras refer to a tiled roofed structure that forms a part of the compound wall and marks the threshold of entrance into the site. These markers are placed to help define axes, acting as a guide towards the built.The waiting space could become a public space at the boundary,with a framed view. The doorways into the built takes the idea of stepping in from the padipura, which also becomes a response to damp soil and insects, common issues with heavy rains and humid climate.

Poomukhom reers to a portico, with open sides and tiled roof, which continues as the verandah that surrounds the house.It is the first space that marks entry into the house. The columns are made of wood, rubble or cement . The spacing between them is raised to provide a sense of enclosure while also becoming a seating space.A backrest is also provided with timber brackets

The pillared hall

The seat offers multiple functions : • Formal seat • Informal inclined seat • Sleeping space in a semi open enclosure

The doorway

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The poomukham leads to the verandahs, which go around the house.They act as a buffer between the public and the private spaces.Developed as a response to the warm and humid climate , covered with overhangs, they protect the masonary from sun and rain, while reducing glare. The overhangs are deep enough to protect the verandahs as well.the space between the columns may be provided with temporary shading devices that further reduce the heat gain


The facade is dotted with many smaller openings, as a climatic response.They provide sufficient ventilation while reducing the heat gain. The doorways are usually flanked by windows on either side.Screens of wood are used for shutters, cutting of heat and radiations of the sun completely.Jaalis and arches could also be elements used for fenestrations.

Different types of fenestrations in a facade The plinth could additionally be used as space to keep things and as a seating.The plinth is raised as a response to the heavy rains. The windows open out onto the verandahs.They open in a manner that does not hinder the use of the verandah as a passage

Floor level windows are used to bring in light and ventilate the room .Fresh air comes in at the lower level of the rooms, which heat up , rise and escape through the roof .The greater pressure difference allows for better ventilation. There are windows that have a wooden panel on the inner side that acts as a shutter.The shutter is hinged at the bottom and can be latched at the open.It can be opened out to become a work table . The ‘ arms’ at the ends, hinged to the top of the panel can be opened out to become the legs of the table. The grills are wooden members that vary from plain long cuboidal pieces to intricately carved ones Verandahs


The roof is the most characteristic element of traditional architecture of kerala.The scale and proportions of it to that of the walls, makes it visually prominent.The materials used, wood and clay tiles, adds to the identity created. The design of the roof reflects the space covered . It could be split to enhance the volume and they provide additional height for better cooling.

Roofing is a process of parts in perfect geometric precision, treated as a fine art by master carpenters. The members of the roof are carefully articulated according to the shape of the roof.there maybe dormer windows provided for light and ventilation Generally a slope between 30 and 40 degrees is given Truss at the junction of the turning of the roof

The deep overhangs protect the built from the climate.Rainwater pipes were generally not provided.but sufficient from the edge of the eaves to the plinth.

The rafters are held in place by tie members hat pass through he rafters.the members fitted into one another and no nails were used.

The roof also acts as a major buffer.the volume of the space that holds the roofing system plays an importnt role in keeping the lower areas cool. The gaps formed between the tiles allow for the warm air to escape.

Multiple level roofs

The attic space

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On November 30, 2006, the 403-page report of the Sachar Committee, on the social, economic and educatio “ condition of Muslims in India, was tabled in Parliament. The Report highlighted a range of disabilities faced by the community, and made a slew of recommendations to address the situation. It placed Indian Muslims below Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in backwardness. Orientalism is the concept that there is something very special and different about the thought of those living in the East, which can be discovered through the methods of scholarship current in the West. It is a reflection of the relationship of imperial and intellectual domination of a West which feels it is superior to an ‘inferior’ East. This often results in an understanding of Islamic philosophy which sees the latter as essentially unoriginal, derivative and of only historical interest. While orientalists have produced interesting and important work, most fail to appreciate the independent status of the material which they analyse.

poster of Walt Disney animation movie Aladin

“Like those first three or four minutes of the disney movie Aladin are basically very prejudicial.They create a very, very false and very very prejudicial view of the islamic world” -Walter Denny, Professor of Islamic art, UMassAherst

Poster of 2012, Hollywood movie, The Dictator

“One of the most important ideas behind the orientalist art has been to show the islamic world in a position of either moral or cultural inferiority to that of the west” -Walter Denny, Professor of Islamic art, UMassAherst


“Looked at through this lens, it helps us see how, in India, an entire community, which comprises over 14 per cent of the total population, has come to be seen as the Other, as something exotic, backward, uncivilized, even dangerous.” Saeed Naqvi writer of ‘Being the other’

Naqvi notes that Muslims are unlikely to progress given the clerical leadership which strikes deals with the political class and keeps the community mired in religion in enclaves distant from modernity. The backwardness of the Muslims is not only due to the clerical control over the masses but the institutionalised discrimination being practised against Muslims as shown by the Sachar Committee.

Statistics from Sachar committee report showing the under representation of muslims in various fields

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REPRESENTATION Muslims are always misrepresented or under represented in art, literature, movies or by media. Muslims are usually shown as terrorists, misogynists or savages. For example in the bollywood movie Padmavat, Islamic elements are always shown in a dark tone , while the Rajput counterpart is shown in bright colours and in a puritanian image.The movie even goes into an extend where padmavati thinks that the only time they can attack the army of Khilji is when they are doing their Namaz, showing that the only time they will be acting normal is during their prayers. The negative representation of muslims or the images created by the media , knowingly or unknowingly have created more than harm to the muslim community

Poster of the Bollywood movie padmavat, showing sultan Alauddin Khilji (potrayed by Ranveer singh)

“What is reprehensible is his distortion of a beautiful Sufi love poem, redolent with evocative images of multi-culturalism and syncretism, into something divisive and insulting.� -Rakshanda Jalil Writer, Historian

Illustration showing the contempt of Muslims being framed in a particular image

ISLAMOPHOBIA All of the above mentioned problems culminate to Islamophobia which in turn makes the life and represntation of Muslims in india very problamatic. Media , art and literature create a narrative of muslims which doesnot represent the real life of muslims of India. They lead a normal life like the general public, of which includes many types of people belonging to different gender, ethinicity and believes . To frame muslims in a single box is actually an oversimplification, erasure and silencing of the life and culture of the muslims





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1.Dar Udh Dikr National Institute of Faith Leadership, Ravali, Uttar Pradesh Research method : Primary case study Reason : • Masterplanning of a centre of Islamic studies • Quality of islamic educational spaces

2.India Islamic Cultural Centre, New Delhi Research method : Primary case study Reason : • Designing of an Islamic cultural centre

3.Bait Ul Rauf mosque , Bangladesh Research method : Secondary case study Reason: • Designing of a modern mosque in a geographical and climatic context similar to Kerala • Spiritual architecture of a modern mosque • Questioning the image and identity of a mosque

4.Friendship centre, Bangladesh Research method : Secondary case study Reason : • Designing of a community space

5.Marmara university, Faculty of Theology, Turkey Research method : Secondary case study Reason : • Designing of a contemporary mosque inspired from the past • Islamic cultural centre complex design • Centre which includes classrooms for islamic studies

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DAR UDH DIKR NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FAITH LEADERSHIP, RAVALI, UTTAR PRADESH Envisaged as a tool to evolve and modernize Islam to make it relevant to today’s times, the National Institute of Faith Leadership is a campus that reconnects the nationalist and liberal Islamic virtues and evolves the understanding of this faith; celebrating traditional values that are relevant to contemporary times. The students of this institute are the faith leaders of the future. The building complex houses programmatic needs of this faith facility. Devoid of design as decoration, the spaces needed to evoke bare thought. Bold architectural impressions intended to push people towards brave expressions. Play of light in space and in time both brought in the required ethic and aesthetic to the institution.

GENERAL DETAILS Location : Ravali , Uttar Pradesh Architect : Archohm consultants Topography : this land is flat Climate : Extreme climate conditions with very hot summers and very cold winters AREA DETAILS Total built up area : 4959 sq.m



Fig.2. Fig.1.The breaking of the arch is synonymous with the opening of the mind from myths and traditions. The iconic entrance is celebrating just that; an arch in concrete removes the ‘key stone’ to liberate the form, allowing in light and space. Fig.2.The entire mass is covered with a concrete cantilevered plane; an expression in plan of the breaking of the shell (the mind), as this overhanging protective shade of concrete shields and veils the campus, but opens up to the open arch. This floating floor on top is punctuated with star triangles with white and yellow renderings (a representation of geometric graphical Muslim motifs) that draw in a drama of forms and shades all over the internal courtyard across the day as a dialogue with the harsh sun. Fig.3.The basic form of this object on site is mass with a hole. A courtyard that allows light in to the building as it celebrates the introverted magnificence of an Islamic institution. The arch anchors the courtyard controlling the free flowing stone wall as the landscape respects the traditional geometry. The courtyard is positioned at mid-level to two floors of the institute so as to maximize access to nature, to light and green.

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Site plan and site section of the whole proposed complex( of which only the educational part is built)



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BAIT UL RAUF MOSQUE , BANGLADESH The Bait ur Rouf Mosque is laudable for the process that it exemplifies – a small-scale participatory project for a community building, built within a modest budget, one that was raised through charitable contributions. Yet it is the architectural expression that is admirable – the quintessential mosque, elegant yet elemental, with spaces that are direct, simple and robust, allowing the congregation to gather in prayer as equals. This terracotta brick building is exquisitel scaled, holding the corner in what is a fragmented, chaotic urbanlandscape. From within the prayer hall is reflective space, with no views out, but all light is from above, that comes down and bathes the brick walls. The construction and craftsmanship of brick is exceptional. The building is a wonderfully contemporary expression of a timeless programme, taking every element of a mosque and finding its contemporary voice. The mosque is a perfect square that sits on a high plinth. It allows people to sit and talk and creates a separation between the sacred site and the busy stree GENERAL DETAILS Location : Dhaka , Bangladesh. Architect : Ar. Marina Tabassum Topography : this land is flat, with small ponds, trenches and culverts to drain or hold the large amounts of water in the clayey soil. Climate : hot and humid, with long monsoon season

AREA DETAILS Total built up area : 754 sq.m

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A gap in the brick wall denote the direction of the qibla, and then splays it so that, during worship, people don’t get distracted by the sight lines onto the street, but see instead the sunlight bouncing off the thickness of the wall.

The riwaq, or colonnade (left), and the ablution area (right) use the additional depth allocated by the cylinder off-centred on the south and east-facing sides.

The prayer hall, a column-free space supportd by eight concrete columns, is reflective space. With no views out, all light is from above, that comes down and bathes the brick walls.

Using the brick jali to allow for air to move through, and rise through the openings between the inner square “pavilion” and the cylinder, is an excellent solution to solve climatic issues

DESIGN 1.The design itself takes care of the physical constraints – the Mosque is a perfect square that sits on an irregular shaped site. The additional area of the site is used as a high plinth, which is quite ingenious for many reasons – it takes care of the flooding, allows people to sit and talk while they wait for prayers, but most importantly, it separates this sacred site from the hustle and bustle of the crowded street. 2. The second physical constraint is that the qibla wall is the west wall, which faces a busy street. Again, the design solution is very elegant: Tabassum allows a gap in the brick wall to denote the direction of the qibla, and then splays it so that, during worship, people don’t get distracted by the sight lines onto the street, so what you see instead is the sunlight bouncing off the wall beyond MATERIALS Load-bearing brick walls.The brick, used in the paving, the steps, the raised plinth, the load-bearing walls, and the jalis are locally made. Though they are modular, standardised brick, they are made by the informal sector and available within a few kilometres radius of the site.

FORM The geometry of the plan is very structured, coming from a heritage of the mosques of the Bengal Sultanate period, which had similarly formal brick buildings, and the modernist tradition of Louis Kahn, who of course has been very influential in contemporary Bangladesh. The outer square is 23 m x 23 m and 7.6 m high. This forms the main facades of the mosque, the two surfaces we see from the approach road. In the square is a cylinder, which, surprisingly, is not situated symmetrically within the square, but instead moves to one corner – to the northwest. By locating the cylinder off centre, the riwaq, or colonnade, can use the additional depth on the south-facing side, and the ablution area has similar depth on the east-facing side. Within the cylinder is another smaller square, “pavilion” – 16.75 m square, and 10.6 m high, 3.0 m higher than the outer square. This “pavilion”, which is rotated within the cylinder to orient itself with the qibla, is the prayer hall, a place for prayer that has a clarity of form, and separates itself from the rest of the structure by open-tosky light wells between the cylinder and the inner square.

The monsoon rain may pose a problem as the openings for the hot air to escape also allow in rain. However, it is important to keep cross-ventilation even when it is raining, and the rain seems to have good drainage in the spaces where it enters.

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The one element that dominates built form in Dhaka is the high plinth to prevent floodwater from entering the structure.

FRIENDSHIP CENTRE , BANGLADESH The Friendship Center near the district town of Gaibandha, Bangladesh, is for an NGO which works with some of the poorest in the country and who live mainly in riverine islands (chars) with very limited access and opportunities. Friendship uses the facility for its own training programs and will also rent out for meetings, training, conferences etc. as income generation.

GENERAL DETAILS Location : Gaibandha , Bangladesh. Architect : Ar. Kashaf Mehboob Chawdary Topography : this land is flat, with small ponds, trenches and culverts to drain or hold the large amounts of water in the clayey soil. Climate : hot and humid, with long monsoon season

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The inspiration for the building came from the Buddhist monasteries in the area, and the exposed brickwork, stark character and quadrilateral layout, are clearly the architectural influence

To prevent flooding, the Friendship Centre is built directly on the low land and the entire site is protected with an embankment which could be built and maintained for much less.

The green cover of the earthen rooftops act as insulators, and absorbs rainwater.

The access to the building from the earthen bundh is organised via two entrance stairs at opposite ends. The programme is then organised around a series of pavilions, courtyards and reflecting pools.

The ‘Ka’ Block contains the reception pavilion, offices, library, training/ conference rooms and pavilions, a prayer space and a small ‘cha-shop’

Cross-ventilation is taken advantage of right through the building – from the layout of the rooms and courtyards, to the detailing of the doors and windows, the building is kept cool with passive airflow

The ‘Kha’ Block, connected by three archways, is for more private functions and houses the dormitories, the dining pavilion and staff and family quarters

The Friendship Centre is in the flatlands of rural, northern Bangladesh, near the Brahma-Jamuna River. Since it is situated in a low land, the entrance is from above

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GENERAL DETAILS Location : Lodhi road, New Delhi Architect : Ar. Bhalla Interior designer : Arun Patwal Site gradient : Flat terrain Climate : Extreme climate conditions with very hot summers and very cold winters Site area : 1.75 acres (7120 sq.m)

AREA DETAILS Site area : 1.75 acres (7120 sq.m) Ground coverage : 30 % , 1814.5 sq.m Basement floor area : 1466.2 sq.m First floor area : 1762.9 sq.m Total built up area : 5151.6 sq.m




OPEN SPACES 1.The open area on the western side of the building is used as a site for organising parties 2.This site is kept along the banquet hall and the kitchen 3. There is a private courtyard adjacent to the residential zone CIRCULATION 1.Since separate entry for auditorium and conference hall is provided, overcrowding can be controlled SERVICES 1.Separate entry for services like fire exhausts,kitchen servicing etc 2.Coffee shop is ket in the first floor so that people coming out from the auditorium can access them

Landscaping in the backside of the building

Steps connecting the backyard to the reception

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM 1. For shorter spans RCC coloumns of size 500 mm x 500 mm is used, for spanning distance of about 4m 2. For larger spans 800 mm dia columns of RCC spanning 6m, andalso supports the central dome with a cylindrical base MATERIALS 1.Brick and concrete 2.Red sandstone clad exterior 3.Marble interior flooring with granite lining

Inside view of the dome from the entrance lobby


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A 300 seater of amphitheatre

Event happening near the OAT which opens towars the Lodhi garden

Conference room

Islamic motif arches with sandstone

Event happening in the courtyard of the residential block

Front facade showing the dome and the mosaic arabisque




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MARMARA UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF THEOLOGY, TURKEY Marmara University Faculty of Theology Mosque was designed as an interpretation of classical Ottoman architecture tradition by using today’s language. The project is based on the fractal rotational movement which is seen in the universe from micro-scale to macro-scale, reveals seeking of a new perspective in terms of abstraction, stylization and interpretation of tradition in mosque architecture. The Project has a 30.000 sqm built area consisting of an urban square, a mosque, which can accommodate 4500 worshippers, and a cultural centre under the mosque and square. GENERAL DETAILS Location : Istanbul, Turkey. Architect : Ar. Muharrem Hilmi Şenalp Climate :High humid, sub tropical mediterranian climate

AREA DETAILS Total built up area : 30000 sq.m


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The detail of the qibla wall and the jalis throgh which the light is filtering in and creating patterns

The lobby space leading to the classrooms

The mosuw space showing the qibla wall and the dome structure





• The institution • Used as a commu• Space to interact imparts a modern nity space when with the community islamic image prayers are not made • International image • Even if not a cultural • International image due to Agha Khan centre, have spaces due to the Agha award winning like library to know Khan award winning about the community

• Place where different cultural events happen • Not just catering to muslim community but to everyone • Placed in the prime location of the city

• Place to learn and understand about the community • Imposing islamic image by the huge dome and minaret


Educational institution

Mosque and community Community centre, Vospace when no prayers cational training centre. are happening Includes residential facility

Cultural centre. A place for meeting, cultural events .Rooms ,Restaurent, Banquet hall

Centre for learning Islamic Theology. Mosque,cultural centre, community space


Only the educational part is constructed now, While the unbuilt design have a heirarchy of different spaces

This project only consists of a mosque which also acts a community space for learning, marriages, events etc

The project is divided into public parts like meeting rooms and auditorium which have separate exits and have a residential area , and a banquet hall in the lower ground floor

Different functions are stacked in different levels with the mosque stacked in top

All the public activities including traing are provided near the entrance, the privacy increases as we move gradually to residential areas

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Location of Calicut District in the map of Kerala

Location of Kerala in the map of India

Country : India State : Kerala District : Calicut Village : Kaithapoyil


Location of The n the map of Calicut District

The site

Markaz Islamic college and cultural centre project site is located besides Calicut-Wayanad National Highway at Kaithapoyil, just 40 Kms from Calicut city. The great Wayanad hills which is a part of western Ghatts is just a few kilometers away from project site and it is generating amazing sight for the city dwellers. It is easily accessible by road, rail and air. . Its scenic view is breathtaking and it throws tremendous opportunities as it is in close proximity to Wayanad, one of the finest tourist destination in the country.

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Unani college MES school

Landmark village apartments

Law college


Site Area : 11 Acres Permissible ground coverage : 35 % Permissible FAR: 3

Height Restriction Width of road = 10 M Yard width towards the street = 10M Road width X 1.5 + Yard width towads the street X 1.5 = Height of the building 10 X1.5 + 10 X 1.5 = 30M Height restriction = 30 M

Set backs Front : 6M Side : 2M Rear : 4.5 M

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• •

Because of the gradual slope towards South Eastern side of the site , water during heavy rains will drain towards that side

The site is having a gradual slope towards South Eastern side of the site. The slope is gradual and is about 1:60

The highest point in the site is on the North Western side, which is almost 15m from the lowest point of the site

Trees are densely populated in the eastern side of the site .

CONNECTIVITY AND MOVEMENT SYSTEMS The road leading to the site from highway

Connectivity from Calicut city • 40 KM From Calicut city • ! hour ride from the city • 40 km from popular hill station, Wayanad Connectivity from airport • 55 KM from the nearest Calicut International Airport, Karipur Connectivity from Railway station • No train runs near to the site • The nearest railway station , kozhikode railway station is 45 Km from the site Road Connectivity • The thiruvambady Adivaram main road runs just 180 m near to the site • Most buses connecting from nearby villages , towns and Calicut city stopes near the Bus stop near the site

Entry to the site

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City has a highly humid tropical climate with high temperatures from March to May (max.35 degree centigrade). A brief spell of pre-monsoon showers hit the city sometime during April. The primary source of rain is the south west monsoon that sets in the first week of June and continues until November. The city receives significant rains from the north east monsoon which sets in the second half of October till November. The average annual rainfall is 3266 mm. The weather is milder from December until March. Winters are seldom cold. The temperature during summer is 22.5째c to 35째c and that during winter is 22째c to 30째c.


View of western ghats from the site

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COURSES OFFERED Bachelor’s Degree in Islamic Studies (Usooluddin) – UD

Bachelor’s Degree in Islamic Jurisprudence (Shariah)

After successful completion of the preparatory course, students are eligible to enroll for the Undergraduate Programme in Islamic Studies. The syllabus seeks to get the students a basic grasp in the Holy Quran, Hadith, Aqeedha, Usoolul Fiqh, Islamic History, Islamic D’awa, Contemporary Ideologies, Comparative Study of Religions, Fundamentals and functions of Arabic, Urdu and English languages.

After successful completion of the preparatory course, students are eligible to enroll for the Undergraduate Programme in Islamic Studies (Islamic Studies). The syllabus consists of the holy Quran, Hadith, Fiqh, Islamic Economics and Finance, Contemporary Jurisprudential Issues and Fiqh of Minorities. In addition, Islamic Ideology, Islamic History, Ullomul Quran and Ullomul Hadith, Fundamentals and functions of Arabic, Urdu and English languages are also taught.

Duration: 4 Year No of class rooms : 8 Students per class per year :60

Duration: 4 Year No of class rooms : 8 Students per class per year :60

Postgraduate Diploma in Arabic & English The Faculty of Languages and Translation (FOLT) introduces a unique one year post graduate diploma in Arabic and English (PGDAE) with a view to improving proficiency in Arabic and English languages. It is expected that the students undergoing the course significantly enhance their overall knowledge and skills in both languages with an ability to produce language with greater felicity, confidence and accuracy. The entire module is designed in a learner-centered fashion. There is little scope for lecture-type teaching. A great deal of emphasis has been laid on pair/ group work, role playing, problem solving exercises, project/assignments and activities. Duration: 1 year No of class rooms : 1 Students per class per year : 30

Master’s Degree in Comparative Religion (DAWA) The Faculty of Comparative Religion caters to one of the major requirements of Islamic renaissance in India. Among the significant materials included are methods of propagation, culture of propagators, features of those who are being propagated, history of dawa from the era of the prophet to the modern age, prominent propagators of the past decades and comparative study of different religions and modern ideologies. During the course, students get trained in skills of oration, essay- writing, journalism and field work. Duration: 2 Year No of class rooms : 2 Students per class per year :30

FACULTY OF QUR’AN Master’s Degree in Quranic Studies Faculty of Quran, the first of its kind in India offering higher studies in Quran. It aims at producing a pool of outstanding scholars with deep understanding of the Holy Quran, an excellent grasp of its sciences and who are well equipped with the religious and modern education. The syllabus of the Master’s Degree consists of subjective study of Quran with special focus on important topics prevailing in the intellectual fields in the modern era as deep study of some Quranic chapters to enable the students to develop an analytical approach to follow its style so as to have a comprehensive understanding of the Quran. Duration: 2Year No of class rooms : 2 Students per class per year :30

Master’s Degree in Prophetic Tradition (Hadith) The Faculty of Hadith intends to preserve the prophetic Sunnah in its real form by producing excellent Hadith scholars having deep knowledge in modern science and its applications. The trained team should effectively handle the suspicions and allegations raised by the deniers of the Sunnah. The syllabus of the Master’s Degree consists of study of the sources of Sunnah, studies of the annotations to the modern jurisprudence of Sunnah, evidence andcritique texts, studies in the biography of the Prophet and their sources, research methods, extensive study in Hadith etc. Duration: 2 Year No of class rooms : 2 Students per class per year :30

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no of occupants

total area(sq.m)

Primary user group





1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

admin block entrance lobby vca office,tech officer, waiting, office ca office dean of studies + attached toilet dean of student welfare dean of examination visitor lounge record room staff toilet

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 2 3 4 5

accounts and budget section cabin for finance officer cabin for assistant finance officer cabin for assistant accountant general office for three staff staff toilet

1 1 1 1 1

25 15 15 30 15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

admission and examination section cabin for controller of examination admission room record room central evaluation room store room store room staff toilet

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

25 60 15 100 15 15 8

1 2 3 4 5

other offices campus maintanence department archives + store electrical department publication department sports officer

1 1 1 1 1

50 50 35 30 15

200 30-50 115 25 30 30 30 16 15 8 TOTAL


cabin + 2 people seating For 100 people ( general seating @ .81 sq m + 3 computer) To store student's records 30 people's seating For keeping exam papers for keeping unused papers TOTAL

15 3

200 115 25 30 30 30 16 15 8 470

Public Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff public staff staff

Public Public private private private private public private private

pedestrian lobby lobby lobby lobby lobby lobby lobby lobby

Natural Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial artifitial

25 15 15 30 15 100

Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff

private private private private private

lobby lobby lobby lobby lobby

Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial artifitial

25 60 15 100 15 15 8 240

Staff staff/students Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff

private private private private private private private

lobby lobby lobby lobby lobby lobby lobby

Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial artifitial Natural/artifitial artifitial artifitial artifitial

50 50 35 30 15

Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff

private private private private private

lobby lobby lobby lobby lobby

Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial





activity CULTURAL mosque 1 prayer hall( men and women) 2 abluction space 3 imam's office



1 1 1

no of occupants

1500 100 15

special courses 1 mappila art class rooms x 4

2 3 6 7

mess canteen auditorium gallery

1 1 1 1

500 300 900 1600

Primary user group




public public private

Abluction hall Pedestrian/vehicular Pedestrian

Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial


1500 200 15 1715

public/students/staff public/students/staff imam


160 160


semi public



500 300 900 1600 3300

students students/visitors students/visitors students/visitors

semi public public public public

pedestrian/vehicular/lobby Natural/artifitial pedestrian/vehicular Natural/artifitial pedestrian artifitial pedestrian artifitial




0.85 2 15

total area

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1 hostel 2 staff residence 3 principal's residence


1 1 1

no of occupants

5000 700 80

TOTAL AREA (SQ.M) 990 2555 5175 5780

Total Circulation( 30 %)

14500 4350

Gross area


Primary user group

5000 students 1000 staff/faculty 80 principal GRAND TOTAL

TYPE Administrative Educational Cultural Residential

total area


admin 7%

residential 40%

cultural 17%

academic 36%




private private private

pedestrian/vehicular pedestrian/vehicular pedestrian/vehicular

Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial Natural/artifitial

other offices 18% exhibition 31%

mosque 33% admin 48% admission and examination 24%

canteen 6% mess 10%

faculty rooms 12%

art class 3%

accounts and budget 10%

auditorium 17%

principal's room 1%

faculty cabins 17%

library 39%

seminar halls 3%

men's rooms 52% women's room 35%

computer class 5%

class rooms 36%

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Different jali patterns


Jali patterns in Laurie Baker buildingd

Rat trap bond is a brick masonry method of wall construction, in which bricks are placed in vertical position instead of conventional horizontal position and thus creating a cavity within the wall. Architect Laurie Baker introduced it in Kerala in the 1970s and used it extensively for its lower construction cost, reduced material requirement and better thermal efficiency than conventional masonry wall, without compromising strength of


For the mosque building brick jalis can be used to reduce the installation of windows and therefore reducing the cost of the construction of the building. Brick jalis inspired from the Kufic calligraphy script can be used in the Qibla wall.

The name ‘ALLAH’ written in square Kufic script

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Manglore tile roof with steel truss

In the climatic condition of Kerala a minimum of 30 degree of slope should be given for the roof for the runoff of water Due to the less availibility and restriction of wood, The Truss for the roof csn be made by steel itself, whose joints are welded together The mosque building have maximum of 30 m height and 30 m span. which will be spanned with steel truss and covered by manglore tiles Section through my mosque design

Detail of manglore tile sloping roof


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Serene location in the foothills of western ghats

Quarter of the site area is used by trees, so the area to built gets less

To play with different levels

Gradual sloping site towards south east

Countours are directly only one side of the site

Make use of view of western ghats

Eastern boundary bordered by thich tree plantation

No active urban edges to respond to

Make use of the Existing Tree plantation

Well connected by public bus

To use the hierarchy created by different levels for zoning


Highly sensitive site because of gradual contours and tree plantations


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JURY COMMENTS AND DISCUSSIONS The jury appreciated the proposal and intention of the program.They appreciated the small scale and humbleness of the scheme and design with respect to the given proposal and they were happy about the zoning and quality of the spaces. Discussion happened about the slope and the placing of the buildings according to slope and qibla .The design development of the mosque and its features are appreciated They questioned the placement of the gutter with the sloping roof and the one side slope of the mosque complex roof. The jury was happy about the program and the overall design.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Said, Edward (1978) . Orientalism- Western concepts of the orient. Sachar.Rajinder (2006 ) [Online] Available at : reports/sachar-committee-report spaces_book_singles k12education

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Profile for Shahid Iqbal Mafeeda

Final thesis report  

Final thesis report