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3 studio three

Publication Design Design Initiatives for the Firozabad Glass Cluster

Dhwani Shah

{studio three}

Dhwani Shah / S1001110 PGDPD’ 2010 / GD, SEM Four Project Title: Publication on the Glass Art ware of Firozabad Project Guide: Tarun Deep Girdher Project Duration: Ten weeks Project Sponsor: National Institute Of Design (Supported by the Department of Science and Technology)

{foreword} I got an opportunity to work on a publication on the Design Initiatives for the Firozabad Glass Cluster undertaken by Ms. Neelima Hasija, Head of Ceramic and Glass Department at NID along with her students as my third classroom project. This document is a short account of my experience of working on that project and shares in brief what influenced my decisions at every step of the way. A more detailed account of the process followed and explorations done can be viewed on the

{contents} {1} Introduction to the project / p. 04 {2} Process followed / p. 05 {3} Design specifications / p. 06 - p. 013 (Arriving upon a grid, developing visual language and layout, creating hierarchy in information, selecting typefaces, text setting & alignment, printing & binding details etc)

{4} Few sample pages / p. 14 - p. 17 {5} Overall experience & learning / p. 18- p. 19 (with reading list)

{6} A note of thanks / p. 20


{Introduction} The Department of Science and Technology had approached National Institute of Design (NID) for undertaking a project to initiate a developmental progression to Firozabad’s glass based industrial sector through design intervention and skill based training programs. Ms. Neelima Hasija, Co ordinator of the Ceramics and Glass Design and principal investigator of the project and her students have been working on it for the past two years. With this project, they aspired to achieve value addition through product development and by branding it further as ‘Designed in India’ rather than just ‘Made in India’. It involved doing research and also sourcing of other priority areas which need intervention, considering environment and societal needs as central to development. My task was to design a publication in English that effectively documents this design intervention initiative and its contribution to the glass art ware industry at Firozabad. The target audience were primarily the government officials involved in this project. The publication also aspires to serve as an academic case study and source of inspiration for designers and craftsmen alike. The scope of the project was: - Understanding the content, both text and images - Working on a few sample layouts (grids, typefaces, hierarchy and the works) - Making style sheets so that the final text can be added when it gets edited - Depending on the design, create possible diagrams and illustrations of processes, tools etc. - Cover design and final layout of the publication. - Preparing and submitting the print ready files.

I was also getting an opportunity I could not refuse. A sponsored trip Firozabad. So I gladly took up this project.


{Process followed} Visiting Firozabad, familiarizing myself with the project activities, doodling and taking pictures. Setting up a blog to keep record of work done for this project. Reading books on typography and publication design, checking out the layout and design of other books in the library as well as online for inspiration. Understanding the content- reading the text and going through photographs to be used, organizing and structuring it to build a narrative. According to the content, begin to plan the physical format of the publication: its dimensions and orientation, number of pages, paper selection, binding. Simultaneously, determine the visual language of the publication: type selection, colour pallette, grids, layout and composition. Come with possible design options, simultaneously working on the illustrations and images to be used and designing the cover. Consulting my guide Tarun and client Neelima for design inputs and corrections. Sharing the design with my friends for feedback. Freeze on one of the design options, execute the final artwork and print a dummy publication. While the dummy goes for proof reading, work on documenting the design process of the project.

{Arriving upon a grid & determining the active work area} Since the number of copies to be printed of this publication were limited, I had to work in sizes that would be available in digital print. I chose to work on a size that would fit comfortably in an A3 sheet along with bleeds etc.

2 2 cm cm

2.5 cm

3 cm

2.5 cm

4.5 cm

4.5 cm

The final dimensions of the bookClosed size- 20 cm Width x 25 cm Height Open size- 40 cm Width x 25 cm Height

3 cm


I had read that unequal margins are actually desirable than equal margins. With no pressure to fit a huge amount of text in a limited number of pages, I could keep the layout more airy. The final margins decided uponTop Margin- 4.5 cm / Bottom Margin- 3 cm Inside Margin- 2cm / Outside margin-2.5 cm Next, I had to decide how to divide the active page area. I wanted 2 blocks but how may columns should they be composed of? More the number of columns, more freedom it gives you for variation in image sizes enabling the page to look more dynamic. I finally chose 5 columns per page (odd number) because it provided me with two uneven sized blocks if clubbed together as 2+3 which gives me scope for variation in image sizes. The final columns decided upon- 5 columns per page, that is, 10 per spread with a gutter space of 0.75 mm. I also decided that while the size of images can vary from 2-5 columns or beyond, I will limit the body copy to combining only 2 columns at a time.


{ Developing a visual language & style for the book} Of a few layout options I explored, I decided to go ahead with the following layout style. Each new section begins with an illustration representative of the content along with the title and introductory text followed by the rest of the pages in that section. How the starting page of every section will look-


A horizontal bar extending from the illustration to the facing page that can be also be used for placing the title of the section TITLE / HEADING

Introductory text to the new section in the book.

How the following pages of every section after the starter page will lookPlacement of sub-


heading on the bar changes depending on position of photo (in cases of photo overlapping the bar) The bar repeating on the following pages under the section which can be used for placing the subtitles in the text.

The placement of text and images can be played around in the two columns for the different pages.

Use of White Space: I felt that while the section starter page had a lot of white space, the following pages should be more compact or the whole thing will look too loose and distracting. The greater the fit of all elements, the more unified the artwork will be.


Spacing between objects Spacing used between an object and a text box, an object and horizontal bar or between two objects throughout the publication- 0.5 cm or 5mm Repetition of a horizontal bar across the pageUnity is necessary to join the disparate elements in an artwork together to form an undivided or unbroken completeness that is greater than the sum of individual elements and repetition helps create unity by establishing a relationship between the different objects Keeping this in mind, I decided to use a horizontal bar that would be repeated on every page and would function as the entry point into the design that a reader looks for as something to fix on that they can recognize, understand and that will direct them to other information. The thickness of the bar is 1.2 cm (12 mm) The position of the orange bar would shift in the section starter pages depending on the illustration but the position of the orange bar was constant in the rest of the pages. Horizontal orange bar 1.2 cm (w) placed on every page

Color Scheme: As I went through the photographs that I had to use, I felt that orange was one color that was compatible with many of them. Orange is also the color of molten glass, that I saw at the furnaces at glass industries I visited in Firozabad. So I decided to choose orange as the main color for the publication. But just one color would make the book monotonous and I also needed one more color for my two color illustrations. After trying 2-3 combinations, I settled for blue. The target audience being government officials, a bright blue and orange would be overly youthful and energetic. I needed the publication to look slightly more serious and mature, so I used slightly dull shades of both the colors. CMYK percentages of both colours: Orange: C 10 / M 58 / Y 87 / K 1 Blue: C 87 / M 83 / Y 27 / K 13


Using Photographs & Illustrations While it was necessary to use actual photographs of the objects developed and created by the craftsmen and the students, I had the liberty to represent the work environment of Firozabad in the form of illustrations. I went through my stock of images and short listed some that had the potential to be converted into an illustration. To maintain the serious tone of the publication, I avoided my usual doodle style. Instead, taking inspiration from the style of the popular artist, Sameer Kulavoor, I decided to trace the short listed photographs using Adobe Photoshop. I made compositions to be used as section starters using elements like artisans at work, some of their tools and objects, juxtaposing them with some typographic element in Devanagari script(my trade mark style) I limited the fill to two colors and used patterns so it does not look too solid and flat.

Tarun suggested that I render other diagrams to be used in the publication using the same color. So I also created some icons and maps using orange and blue. He also suggested that I could make a few smaller illustrations that could be used to bring alive some other otherwise dull pages, like a namaste symbol on the acknowledgments page or some small glass toys that could be placed on the contents page, the preface page etc.

x Chosen viewing order of images followed for the accurate numbering of captions.


{Creating hierarchy in information} While visual variety could be brought in images by a mix of illustration and photographs and their varying sizes, what about the text? Will it just remain as solid running blocks of text? I had read that introducing breaks into the text helps maintain the interest of the reader and provides pauses which allows the reader to stop and reflect on the information they have received and anticipate what is to come. Levels of Hierarchy I set the first few lines of the text in every section in Mrs Eaves Italics in 16 pt (larger pt than body copy) This makes it look like an introductory text, a entry point into that section after the title. This was followed by the remaining text as body copy which was set in Mrs Eaves Roma at 11 pt. Then I identified some lines from within the body copy worth highlighting and set it in Mrs Eaves Italics at 14 pt with an orange bar at the bottom to distinguish itself from the main copy and attract more attention. The decision to not place the captions under each image but stack them separately was also deliberate to add to the typographic landscape of the page. section titles introductory text

body copy

sub headings highlighted text

body copy



{Selecting a serif and a san serif type family} I employed the most commonly practiced method of combination a serif and san serif typeface to achieve contrast. 1. Mrs Eaves Mrs Eaves is a transitional serif typeface designed by Zuzana Licko in 1996, and licensed by the type foundry- Emigre. It is a revival of the types of English printer and punchcutter John Baskerville, and is related to contemporary Baskerville typefaces. THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPED OVER A DOG THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPED OVER A DOG

the quick brown fox jumped over a dog the quick brown fox jumped over a dog

the quick brown fox jumped over a dog I have used it for the following- Mrs Eaves Smart Ligature Roman used for body copy set in 11 pt - Mrs Eaves Small Caps used for words set in uppercase in the body copy set in 11 pt - Mrs Eaves Italics used for introductory text in new sections starter page set in 16 pt - Mrs Eaves Italics used for pull out or highlighted text set in 14 pt - Mrs Eaves Smart Ligature Roman used for the title of the book placed on the right hand side bottom of every page set in 9.5 pt

Mrs Eaves is not a free font. But I had fallen in love with it, especially the italics & was eager to try it out. I took the liberty of using it since this project was an academic exercise & not a commercial job.


2. Panefresco Panefresco is a geometric sans-serif designed by Chank Diesel. It was created after the Titillium font family which was created in 2008-2009 by students of MA course of Visual design at Accademia di Belle Arti di Urbino, in Italy. It is available on Font Squirrel for free download. THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPED OVER A DOG

the quick brown fox jumped over a dog

I have used it for the following- Panefresco 999wt used for titles set in uppercase in the section starter pages set in 18 pt - Panefresco 999wt used for sub heads in lower case in the following pages set in 18 pt - Panefresco 999wt used for a chapter summary and labels for a few diagrams set in 9.5 pt

{Alignment of text} I felt that managing a rag in an un justified text was easier than achieving a good full justified text that did not have bad spacing issues. So I set the body copy using the ‘left aligned, ragged right’ setting. I also used hyphenation. As a beginner to typography, I had been under the impression that hyphenation is undesirable. But over a period of time I realized that it is not always the case. It just needs to be used judiciously. Another assumption I had made was that hyphenation is used only for justified text. What’s the point of breaking words when line lengths are already uneven in left aligned text? But as I went through a few books in the library, I noticed that it has been often used in left aligned text. It think it helps in controlling and achieving a good rag at times. Paragraph spacing used- Default spacing achieved between the two paragraphs on pressing enter.


{Production Details} Printing ProcessAs I mentioned earlier, since only a limited number of copies of this publication were required, the print process used was digital and not offset. Binding MethodThe publication was not large enough to be section sewn and bound. Also we did not want to invest too much money or labour in some fancy binding, The simple and basic process of Centre Stapling was convenient, suited our requirement well and was also cost effective and not too time consuming. Hence we decided to go ahead with centre staple method of binding. Paper usedAfter visiting a paper store and checking out a few paper samples, I liked two of them- Natural Buff and Art paper. While I personally favoured Natural Buff more, Neelima felt that art paper suited the requirement better. Even Bharat Bhai and Shirish Bhai from the print lab at NID also added that photographs print well on Art paper. So it became the final choice for printing the publication. Paper used for book cover: Art paper matt Paper used for inside pages: Art paper matt, 130 gsm


{Sample pages} The pages in the publication has 2 main variations in the way they look. The new section page that begins with an illustration representative of the content along with the title and introductory text followed by the rest of the pages in that section including the product catalogue. The following are a few samples from the publication, one from each type besides the front cover. {1} Front cover design of the publication. {2} A sample of the section / chapter starter spread. {3} A sample of the spread following the section starters (background / existing infrastructure / design intervention page). {4} A sample of the design intervention outcome, i.e. the product display spread.




19 18



Approach & Methodology Product development was based on intense research and the information generated from the essential sources brought in insights to support the envisaged outcome and hence to marginalize the risk involved towards the success in its execution.


-Field visits for research -Identifying




The Design seminar offered in the the clusters cluster helped in sensitizing the industry with design process established for and -Interaction with from within their environment and the government with great deal of understanding towards and NGO’s their work culture. Being an academic institute and grooming the potential design professionals for the sector, continuous involvement of the interested students and fresh graduates was encouraged. This helped the students and the involved graduates to ascertain in-depth understanding of the possibilities and limitations of the MSME cluster and also sensitized them towards its work culture. The resultant is; number of graduates working closely with the producers in the cluster and adding value to its design vocabulary. Timely interventions by PRC committee at regular intervals also helped in bringing clarity towards the approach and process being followed.

-Collaboration with glass industries for new production possibilities -Workshops and seminar with the craftsmen for adding value to their existing product range

Design intervention outcome





Glass Napkin Holders


Glass Stirrers

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A stall was arranged and facilitated for the flame work artists at the Dilli Haat to enable them to sell their products and also help them connect directly to the end user as well as understand market requirements 5 1

Participants of the design enhancement capability workshop


Mr. Rajesh giving a demonstration of his skills


Student-craftsmen interaction, learning from each other


Flame work artists along their stall at the Delhi Haat


Flame work artists with their wares at the Dilli haat



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Glass button accessories


Glass Tea Light (Candle holder)


Fish visiting card holder


Fish visiting card holder in use


A show piece of Lord Ganesha with agarbatti holder

Design Initiatives for Firozabad Glass Cluster



{Overall Experience and Learning} This project gave me an opportunity to apply my design skills set and understanding in a live time bound project. Designing for a client is not the same as designing for oneself. I have to abide by the content. I cannot manipulate it to suit my requirements, the style of execution cannot be chosen on a whim, I have to be willing to repeatedly accommodate the suggestions and changes given by the client based on the context of readership, supervise the production and most importantly deliver on time. I remained stuck for a while because I was trying to force fit my content to some inspiring layout styles I found online. It is not always possible to adopt to a certain style because the nature of the elements is dissimilar. Unless the grid is genuinely derived and meets the need of the content, it wont work, no matter how cool you find it. Let the grid guide you, not limit you.Practise will make you a better judge of when it is okay to step out of the grid. I had read that 窶連 grid is truly successful only if afterall the literal problems have been solved, the designer rises above the uniformity implied by its structure and use it to create a dynamic narrative that will sustain interest page after page. . Using a Flatplan really helps in planning and visualizing the entire book and getting an overview. Very similar looking pages can get monotonous and boring after a while whereas too many variations can distract and confuse the reader. You need to strike a balance between the two. You can surprise the reader once in a while. I was always more comfortable in handling text than photographs. I have often avoided them in my semester documents but I had no escape here because it was a image heavy book in the first place. Dealing with them helped me get over some inhibition.


You experience a high twice while working on a publication- First when you crack a suitable grid and visual language and later when you hold the final print in your hands. The in between process of laying out page after page can get a little dull after a while, but it is totally worth the joy you get on finishing it. I discovered the baseline grid and its functions during this project. But I found it very limiting as I was also new to In Design. I finally worked without it, a decision I regret. I will try and use it to my benefit in my next publication project. My outcome does not reflect all the sensitivity and care of a good book designer yet, but hopefully, after a few clumsy attempts, I will develop more patience and a better eye for detail required of a book designer. Reading List I referred to some books issued from the library and generously lent by my guide Tarun over a period of last few months. Reading them introduced me to the finer points in book design. Though it was not possible to understand and incorporate all that I read into my design immediately, just the knowledge that there is so much that I do not know raised me one level up. Here’s my reading list1. Grid Systems by Josef Muller-Brockamnn 2. Layout Essentials- 100 Design Principles for using grids by Beth Tondreau 3. Explorations in Typography / Mastering the fine art of Typesetting by Carolina De Barolo with Erik Spiekermann 4. Book Design by Andrew Haslam 5. Making Digital Type Look Good by Bob Gordon 6. The Elements of Typographic style by Robert Bringhurst 7. Turning Pages. Editorial Design for Print Media Edited by R. Klanten, S. Ehmann


{A note of thanks} I would like to acknowledge and extend my heartfelt gratitude to the following people for their valuable contribution to my project. Mr Tarun Deep Girdher, for giving me the opportunity to work on this project, guiding me throughout, explaining the concept of baseline grid, lending me wonderful books to read from his personal collection, putting up with my inconsistencies and most importantly, giving me the freedom to explore the project my way. Ms. Neelima Hasija for trusting that I could do justice to her writing, for giving me the opportunity to visit Firozabad and experience glass production activities, giving me enough time and freedom to work the way I wanted and being kind and patient with me. Ms. Swagatha and Jaswant Bhai for familiarizing me with some basic glass making processes during field visits at Firozabad. Twinkle Patel for showing me around Firozabad, taking care of me in the trip and helping me with the book content along with Rachita Patel. I owe them all for their time and support. Deelip Bhai for introducing me to Adobe In Design and Mahendra Bhai for helping me with doubts in using design softwares. Patel Bhai, Bharat Bhai and Shirish Bhai from the NID Print lab for their guidance in paper selection. My friends - Ramya Ramakrisha for pushing me to finish my work as always. Gargee Thakkur for her continuous feedback and design inputs whenever I got stuck, Pallavi Karambelkar for her suggestions and objective feedback, Abhisek Behera for sharing his gyaan on publication design, Sujata Shidhaye for sharing good books she found in the library on publication design, Lalith Vara Prasad for lending his music speakers that made me get through boring times while working on the project and Rahul Sharma for coming along and helping me with paper selection at Lalshah paper store. My parents for agreeing to let me visit Firozabad and my sister for always being there for me.

This document is set in the typeface ‘Sauna’ designed by a type foundry ‘Underware’ & printed on Sun Fine papers, Code: S171C, 160 Gsm

studio 3_publication design_process documentation