Shades - The Wedding Issue

Page 1




Appealing Subjects

Copyright For Family Historians

pg. 12

The Year Was . . .

Wedding Inspiration In The Magazines

pg. 6

I Collect Wedding Photographs

pg. 30

Maureen Taylor

Is On Hiatus This Issue

The Future of Memories

pg.. 36

Behind The Camera

pg. 42

Captured Moments

pg. 50

Now Comes The Bride

pg. 56


pg. 76

The Long & The Short Of It

pg. 92

Penelope Dreadful

pg. 88

Wedding In Miniature

Wedding Memories

Everybody Loves A Wedding

The Ancestor Network Method

100 Years Too Dreadfully Early

The Healing Brush

Is On Hiatus This Issue

Saving Face

Wedding Dress Preservation

On The Cover Card Mounted Photograph See Article pg. 104

pg. 100

Photographing The Wedding Wedding Costume Wedding Trivia

Tom Thumb Weddings

pg. 104

In Every Issue

From My Keyboard

pg. 4

The Exchange

pg. 5

Letter from the editor Your comments

The Last Picture Show

The graphic image on the back of a carte-de-visite or cabinet card

Download The Magazine

Back Cover

from my keyboard fOOTNOTEMAVEN

THE WEDDINGS OF OLD ISSUE Saturday, July 31, 2010, Chelsea Clinton was married. There has been a tremendous amount of speculation as to the cost of the wedding of the former first daughter. Here at Shades, we were curious as to just what it will cost to photograph her wedding. According to celebrity and wedding photographers Jerritt Clark and Denis Leon, the cost of one main photojournalist and assistant, plus two second photojournalists, brings the cost to $20,000. Prewedding events (such as the rehearsal dinner) cost an additional $5,000, and any after-event purchases, such as enlargements or duplicates, are an additional $5,000. Photo albums are $2,000 each. Because no recording devices will be allowed in the venue, the Clintons will likely have additional photos taken as memorabilia for guests. I say, if you’ve got it, spend it. Our ancestors purchased what they could afford, whether it was the wedding costume or the wedding photograph, as you will see in this issue. When I started this project I purchased four wedding photographs, thinking I didn’t have enough photographic material. Then I started pulling photographs from my collection and realized I had more to share than I could have imagined. I’ll also admit I have enjoyed this trip down the aisle more than any other Shades issue I’ve done. No wonder Maureen Taylor collects photographs of brides. Join Shades as we explore the Weddings Of Old Issue.




Penelope Dreadful is the alter ego of Denise Levenick. Denise authors the blog, The Family Curator and gives us something “Dreadful” every month.

Vicki is the author of Creative Moments. She also authors the blog BeNotForgot.

George is the author of The Healing Brush Column. He also authors the George Geder blog.




Denise is the author of The Future of Memories Column. She also writes the blog Family Matters and experiments with her iPad

Sheri writes The Year Was . . . Column. She also authors the blog The Educated Genealogist.

Caroline is the new In2Genealogy Columnist. She is also the author of the Family Stories blog.




Rebecca authors the Saving Face column. She also writes the blog A Sense of Face.

Craig authors the Appealing Subjects column. He also writes the blog Geneablogie.

Maven edits Shades Of The Departed The Magazine. She also writes the blog footnoteMaven and Shades of the Departed.



The May 2010 issue of Shades of the Departed Magazine is a keeper!

Gini Webb Another remarkable issue of "Shades" fM! So grateful to you and your contributors. Thank you!

I really enjoyed every article in this month's Shades magazine. What a work of scholarship, beauty and art. I encourage all of my readers to read this magazine at your leisure (meaning, spend some time reading it - don't hurry through).

Billie C. Barb I just discovered your "Shades" and love it!

Thank you, footnoteMaven and columnists. Excellent work!

Hugs and love, Billie Randy Seaver - Genea-Musings And thank you Gini, Billie, & Randy for your continued support! fM & the Shadettes

Where Did The Brides Of Old Get Their Wedding Inspiration? Why, you’re looking at the best way; a magazine. Often when fashion is discussed in the pages of Shades, reference will be made to several of the famous fashion magazines of the time. One of those magazines, the Delineator, even offered the bride the pattern for her gown. The history of these magazines and their bridal collections, done as fashion plates, make for some very interesting reading.


A fashion plate was a "full-page picture in a popular magazine showing the prevailing or latest style of dress." The image was printed from a plate. By the 1920s this had come to mean a "well-dressed person.”

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Image courtesy of LOC.

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GODEY’S LADYʼS BOOK Begun by Louis A. Godey in June, 1830, the Lady’s Book was not the Girst nor the only American magazine devoted to women (Graham's Magazine, Peterson's) , but it did become the most popular. Each issue contained poetry, articles, and engravings created by prominent writers and other artists of the time. One of those prominent writers was Edgar Allen Poe, who contributed anonymously. Magazines and newspapers of the day copied heavily from other publications of the time. Godey decided to preserve his articles for his publication only through copyright. There

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Image courtesy of LOC.

Magazine covers courtesy of the authors collection.

Godey’s sold for $2.00 per year in 1888, the equivalent of $47.15 today.

was a hue and cry, but Godey was defended by Poe and soon magazines had to ask for permission to reprint articles. Fashion plates, such as those pictured here, gave the bride to be wonderful inspiration for her wedding day. Most of the bridal fashions of the time originated in Paris. In addition to images and plates of fashions, and each month's description of the fashion plate, the Book contained articles on dressmaking and dressing. On the eve of the Civil War the magazine’s subscription rate was estimated to be 150,000. It was the editorial policy of the Lady's Book to virtually ignore the Civil War, describing the magazine as an "oasis" from the struggle. This policy apparently did the periodical no harm and it continued to Glourish throughout the decade. Sarah Josepha Hale (author of "Mary Had a Little Lamb") was the magazine’s editor from 1837 until 1877. Godey sold the magazine in 1877, he died in 1878. The magazine ceased

Images courtesy of the NYPL Digital Collection -

publication in 1898.

"Remember the Lady's Book is not a mere luxury; it is a necessity.” - Louis Godey Shades MAGAZINE | 9

Images courtesy of the authors collection.

THE DELINEATOR In 1872 Ebenezer Butterick, of the E. Butterick & Company pattern manufacturers, began publishing the Delineator fashion magazine. Until that time, Butterick's unique contribution to the world of fashion was to have invented the tissue paper dress pattern; before that, only the wealthy could afford to even consider fashion with regard to their own wardrobes. Patterns were given as premiums with annual subscriptions and discount coupons were printed in the magazine for certain patterns of the fashion plates contained in the magazine.

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In the United States, women had casts made of their bodies and sent to dressmakers, usually found abroad, and the dressmaker would then send out dolls wearing miniature versions of their new designs. In the late eighties the Delineator expanded to eighty pages and boasted a readership of 200,000. Wedding fashion plates, magazine covers and articles about brides were very popular. In October 1900, the Delineator published an article on White House Brides furnishing a picture of life and manners during the different administrations. This was precipitated by the fact that Miss Mabel McKinley, the President's niece, was to be married. Although she was not to be married in the White House, interest in former weddings in which the Chief Executive participated was sparked. The Delineator’s history abruptly ends in May 1937 when it was combined with the Hearst Periodical, Pictorial Review.

BRIDES MAGAZINE/SO YOU’RE GOING TO BE MARRIED Brides Magazine was the first bridal magazine to ever be published? The magazine, So You're Going to Be Married, commenced publication in Autumn of 1934. It was published four times a year.

Image courtesy of

In 1936, the magazine was renamed The Bride’s Magazine and "featured silver lamé wedding gowns, honeymoons in Havana, advice on dealing with housemaids, and a 'kitchen party' recipe for barbecued frankfurters." - Today there are a flood of bridal magazines on the market.

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Everyone loves wedding pictures (I think)! Since the beginning of the age of photography 175 years ago weddings have been one of the most frequent subjects of the photographic art. Every family album has wedding photographs. In natural disasters, many people try to save their wedding photographs before even the dog! Planning a wedding includes hiring a photographer. For well over a century, weddings have stocked the cupboards of many a professional photographer. Photographing weddings is a lot more complex than "everybody say 'Cheese!'" The best professional wedding photographers are considered practitioners of a high art. The wedding photographers of antiquity (say, before the mid‐1950's) had their jobs made easier by the fact that not every Tom, Dick, and Aunt Jane their own cameras portable enough to bring to a wedding and compete with the hired professional. Consider also that the time and expense of developing a photograph also meant that not every guest was going to shoot a wedding. EDNA MARY MICHEAU ON HER WEDDING DAY, 1939 12 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010

In any event, fortunately, for family historians and those of us who just like old photographs, old wedding photographs have been preserved. However as we wedding photographs, an old bugaboo raises its head: copyright law. May we publish old wedding pictures or make other use of them? Modern wedding photographers generally retain copyright in their photographs. Why and how can this be? Furthermore, many modern wedding photographers require a "models release" from the wedding couple, thus clearing the way for the photographer to fully exercise his or her retained rights under the copyright. Here's a sample clause from a wedding photography contract: COPYRIGHTS: The photographs or prints produced by PHOTOGRAPHER are protected by U.S. Copyright Law (all rights reserved) and may not be reproduced in any manner without PHOTOGRAPHER’s explicit written permission. a. Prints provided to THE CLIENT(S) are the property of THE CLIENT(S) for personal use and for the sole additional purposes of limited reproduction for distribution to relatives and friends. All other printed photographs must be ordered through PHOTOGRAPHER. b. THE CLIENT(S) must obtain written permission from, and compensate PHOTOGRAPHER prior to an event where THE CLIENT(S), THE CLIENT’S friends or relatives publish or sell the photographs for proGit. MODEL RELEASE: THE CLIENT(S) hereby assign(s) and grant(s) PHOTOGRAPHER and its legal representatives the irrevocable and unrestricted right to use and publish photographs of THE CLIENT(S) or in which THE CLIENT(S) may be included, for editorial, trade, advertising or any other purpose and in any manner and medium; to alter the same without restriction; and to copyright the same. THE CLIENT(S) hereby release(s) PHOTOGRAPHER and its legal representatives and assigns from all claims and liability relating to said photographs. It is agreed that PHOTOGRAPHER may display and use the photographs taken for advertising, display, photographic contests, public display such as in malls, photography books, photography instructional books, store fronts, window displays, studio display, television advertising, magazine advertising and any other purpose thought proper by PHOTOGRAPHER.

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(Technology‐saavy readers may be saying that this must be a pre‐Ditigal Age contract; that's true‐‐there are a lot them out there!) So are we saying that a couple does not own their own wedding photographs? Yes. In a sense . . . . in order to fully understand this issue we'll have to go back to Kopyright Kollege for a refresher course.

Copyright Law: the Basics Copyright law dates from early 18th century England. In 1710, the parliament adopted a a bill known as "An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by vesting the Copies of Printed Books in the Authors or purchasers of such Copies, during the Times therein mentioned". Also known as the Copyright Act 1710, and frequently referred to as the "Statute of Anne," this legislation introduced the fundamentals of copyright as we know them today. When the U.S. Constitution was being written some 80 years later, a constitutional convention adopted the essence of the statute of Anne by empowering Congress "To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries[.]" The Girst Congress, so empowered, immediately adopted the Copyright Act of 1790, which mirrored the statute of Anne, by granting a 14 year term of copyright, renewable for a second 14 year term.


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When photography came along in the late 1830s, no immediate thought was given to the issue of copyright. Later it was been believed by some that a photograph could not be the subject of copyright. Congress in 1865 extended copyright protection to photographs. But that was not the end of the matter.

Ladies and Gentlemen, Please Welcome, Once Again, Mr. Oscar Wilde! In the 1880's, famed lithographer Napoleon Sarony (1821‐1896) began making photographic portraits of the leading men and women of the American theatre. Without Sarony's permission, a company called Burrows‐Giles Lithography began selling copies of one of Sarony's 1882 portraits of Oscar Wilde. Never mind the fact that each copy, like the original, bore the legend, "Copyright, 1882, by N. Sarony." Sarony sued. Burrow‐Giles Lithography Co. v. Sarony, 111 U.S. 53 (1884). The alleged infringer argued that the 1865 act extending copyright protection to photographs was unconstitutional. The basis for this argument was that the Constitution gave Congress the power secure "for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive rights to their respective writings and inventions." Burrows‐Giles, the infringing company, asserted that a photograph was neither a "writing" nor an "invention," and so could not be protected by copyright or patent. Indeed, the defendant argued, a photograph could not possibly be a writing, it merely "being a reproduction, on paper, of the exact features of some natural object or of some person, . . . of which the [photographer] is [not] the author."

"Oscar Wilde, No. 18, by Napoleon Sarony. Where would copyright law be if Sarony hadn't dressed Wilde?"

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The United States Supreme Court reviewed the history of the copyright laws, noting that the Girst copyright act in 1790, referred only to maps, charts, and books. In 1802, Congress amended the act to include engravings, etchings and "historical prints or other prints." The Court astutely observed that "[t]he only reason why photographs were not included in [the copyright act of 1802] is, probably, that they did not exist . . . ." Probably. The Court eventually came to the conclusion that the Constitution is broad enough to cover an act authorizing copyright of photographs, "so far as they are representative of original intellectual conceptions of the author." Now this last phrase was very important to the Court's collective 19th century mind. The Court hinted that maybe not every photograph could be the subject of copyright: only those "in which there is novelty, invention, originality" perhaps might be properly copyrighted. Thus, the Court found it important that Sarony had posed Oscar Wilde in front of the camera, "selecting and arranging the costume, draperies and other various accessories in said photograph, arranging the subject so as to present graceful outlines, arranging and disposing the light and shade, suggesting and evoking the desired expression . . . ." These facts, said the Court, showed the photographer to be an "author," that is, "he to whom anything owes its origin;" and the photograph to be "an original work of art, the product of the [photographer's] intellectual invention," and therefore eligible for copyright protection. The manner in which the photographer handled Wilde, according to the court's description is certainly what a wedding photographer does. But still, in the 19th century way of thinking, there still might be some doubt that wedding photographs could be the subject of copyright.

A wedding is not "the product of a photographer's intellectual invention." Frankly, by that standard, not many things could be copyrighted in photographic form.

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The Essence of Copyright Protection: Basics

To be eligible for copyright protection, a work must be an "original work of authorship." Under current law, the copyright attaches as soon as the work has been Gixed in a tangible form. There presently virtually no formalities for a work to gain copyright. The copyright belongs to the author who created the work, with some exceptions. Some of the exceptions to the rule that the copyright belongs to the author have long existed in the law. For example, a work of the United States government, that is, something authored by ofGicers, employees, and agents of the government, is not eligible for copyright protection by anyone. Government works are in the public domain. [This applies to the federal government only; state government works may or may not be subject to copyright‐‐ check the relevant state law].

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An author cannot claim copyright in a "work for hire." A "work for hire" is one created by an employee in course of his or her employment. The employer and not the employee is considered the "author" for copyright purposes. A wedding photographer is not generally an employee of the couple, but instead usually is an independent contractor. Thus, the photographer is the author of the wedding pictures. Of course, the parties could agree by contract that the copyright would be held by the wedding couple and not by the photographer. Indeed, this happens sometimes. However, with the law on their side, photographers who surrender their copyrights to clients usually do so for a premium from the client. BUCHARD WEDDING, MATAMOROS, TEXAS

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Interestingly, the copyright law in Australia makes the client and not the photographer, the copyright owner if the work is for a private purpose, such as a wedding or a family portrait. Until 1989, the United Kingdom's law was that a copyright belonged to who commissioned a work and not the original creator. Now the UK rule is similar to that in the USA.

How Copyright Law Affects the Use of Wedding Photographs A copyright holder has exclusive rights to, among other things, reproduce a work; distribute it; display it; transmit it; and to prepare derivative works based on it. In the case of wedding photographs, all of these rights belong to the photographer, unless that parties agree otherwise. Even if the photographer physically delivered all the negatives (and, these days, digital media and copies) to the client, the client still would have none of the legal rights of the photographer under copyright law.

The client couldn't reproduce the

photographs for friends and relatives and couldn't distribute extant copies to them.

[An historical aside: Back in the day, there were publications in most cities and towns that were called "newspapers." They were "printed" by a primitive process involving something called a "press." These ancient publications carried news from the previous day or even a few days earlier if the news came from a distant location. Anyway, these "newspapers" way back had a section called the "society page," where photographs of wellto-do brides were published. The photographs often came directly from the photographer and bore a credit line. Photographers' contracts frequently provided permission for this form of publication. The paper otherwise would be violating the photographer's copyright.].


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If a photograph is in the public domain, then it may freely used by anyone for any purpose. A photograph enters the public domain when its copyright term expires, among other ways. Ascertaining whether an old wedding photograph is in the public domain can be a bit tricky. That's because many such photographs don't have dates or photographer's name on them. This fact is exacerbated by the convoluted path that copyright terms have taken. The original copyright act in 1790 provided a 14 year term which could be renewed once for another 14 years. The 1802 copyright act had the same terms It would seem rather easy to date a photograph within 28 years. The 1802 act was in effect when photography made its popular debut in the 1830s. By 1909, the term had become 28 years, renewable for 28 years. Then in 1976, Congress changed the whole scheme: copyrights would now last through the life of the author plus 50 years. In 1998, Congress extended that to the life of the author plus 70 years for works created on or after January 1, 1978. But of course, millions perhaps of old wedding pictures exist which were created before January 1, 1978. Whether they are in the public domain or not depends on when before 1978 they were registered or published under the 1909 Copyright Act.

Tlingit woman named Lucy Kininhook and Tsimshian man named Rev. Edward Marsden pose for their marriage ceremony, Alaska, ca. 1909.

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Recall that the 1909 Act permitted an initial term of 28 years, renewable for another 28 years, for a total term of 56 years. The work had to be published or registered and contain a proper copyright notice. By 1978 (the effective date of the new terms in the 1976 Act), works copyrighted in 1923 and earlier had run their 56 year course. Thus, if a photograph can be dated to a point earlier than December 31, 1923, it is in the public domain. . . .maybe. The twist is that if a work created before 1978 had not been published or registered by January 1, 1978, it is now subject to copyright under the 1976 Act. The term for these works is generally the life of the author plus 70 years, but at least until December 31, 2047 if the work was published on or before December 31, 2002.

The wedding of Cedelia Wrazen and Bronislaus Nowak, who are of Polish descent.May 1943. They apologized for the smallness of the wedding, blamed it on rationing of food, talked of how their parents' weddings had lasted for four days of feasting.

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It is important to understand what constitutes "publication" for copyright law purposes. “Publication” is the distribution of copies or phonorecords  of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of owner‐ ship, or by rental, lease, or lending. The offering to distribute  copies or phonorecords to a group of persons for purposes of  further distribution, public performance, or public display  constitutes publication. A public performance or display of   a work does not of itself constitute publication. Here's an example: suppose the photograph below was taken in 1918. Suppose further that the photographer, born in 1888, kept the photograph in a cabinet in his studio, sharing it with no one. Wedding chapel. Yuma, Arizona. Many Californians elope to Yuma in order to avoid the California threeday law, which provides for a lapse of three days between application for license and the ceremony.

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On New Years Day 1972, the photographer dies. On the sixth anniversary of his death, the photograph becomes subject to copyright for a term of 70 years running from 1972, that is, until the year 2042. However, under the statute, the term actually will run until December 31, 2047. So a 100 year old photograph could still be under copyright protection for almost another third of a century. Now let's change the facts a bit. In this scenario, the photographer re‐discovers his photo in January 1972. He immediately follows the provisions of the 1909 Act, and publish the photograph with the proper formalities. On January 1, 1978, the photographer dies. How long until the photograph enters the public domain?

Mud Bay or Oyster Bay Indians. Left to right: Olympia Jim, Henry Martin, Ed Smith from Chehalis, his bride, daughter of Jim Tobin, Annie Tobin, Mrs. Mary Jackson Jim.

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Under the 1909 Act which was in effect in 1972, the photographer's heirs would have the right to a 28 year term plus a 28 year renewal, so under that law, the photo would enter the public domain in 2028. But, under the 1976 law, or works which were copyright protected on January 1, 1978, the renewal period was extended from 28 years to 47 years for a total of 75 years. The 1998 legislation extended that by another 20 years for a total of 95 years. In this case, then, the photograph would remain under copyright until the year 2067. The photograph would then be almost 150 years old. MY LATE COUSIN LORRINE NEAL AND HER LATE HUSBAND, LONNIE YOUNG

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As noted earlier, it can be difGicult at times to get accurate information about the creation and publication dates of photographs. Caution is advised before making public use of photographs whose origins are unknown. Why all the recent extensions of the copyright term which the Constitution says is to be "limited?" One reason was to bring the United States into compliance with the provisions of international treaties and the practices of our trade partners. And then there's at least one 800‐lb. commercial gorilla in the copyright jungle. I'm not naming names but his initials are M‐I‐C‐K‐ . . . well, you know who I'm talking about. . . .

WHEN IS A MOUSE A GORILLA? WHEN HE WANTS AN EXTENSION OF HIS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS! Fair Use Fortunately, for the purposes of most family historians and photophilists, there may be a way to avoid liability for infringing the copyright of ancient wedding photographs. There are some limitations on the copyright holder's exclusive rights. One of these limitations is "fair use." Section 107 of the copyright law says that

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the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means speciGied by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. The examples of "fair use" given in the statute are just that: examples, not an exclusive list. The statute goes on to say that In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include — (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonproGit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. In the leading case of Campbell v. Acuff­Rose Music, Inc., 510 U.S. 569, considered by the United States Supreme Court in 1994, Justice Souter said: "The fair use doctrine thus “permits [and requires] courts to avoid rigid application of the copyright statute when, on occasion, it would stiGle the very creativity which that law is designed to foster.” Most family historians and lovers of old photographs desire to make creative use of old wedding photographs, if not an educational use. These four "fair use" factors are applied on a case‐by‐case basis. There is no "fair use" arbiter or tribunal other than a federal court. In the Ginal analysis, only judges can say deGinitively what is and is not "fair use." So get out there and Gind those ancient wedding photographs, scrapbook them, publish them on a blog or social networking site so we can share in them. And how about the pictures of your own wedding? Can you tell if they're subject to a copyright held by someone other than you and your spouse? How about your parents' wedding photographs?

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If you're planning a wedding, will you try to negotiate a more favorable copyright/model release provision? Everything is negotiable and there are many options. This has been a refresher on copyright issues as related to photographs. If it's your Mirst exposure to these issues, feel free to ask questions. This article is for educational purposes only and is not intended to constitute legal advice. If you have an actual legal problem, contact a lawyer licensed to practice in your jurisdiction. Photographic Credits: 1. Woxi Haury: Photographer Unknown Library of Congress found at: Original held by Estelle Reel Collection Repository: Eastern Washington State Historical Society Digital ID: wauaipn.image 952 2. Buchard wedding Photographer: Runyon, Robert, 1881-1968 Library of Congress found at: The Robert Runyon Photograph Collection, [image number 09344], courtesy of The Center for American History and General Libraries, University of Texas at Austin Robert Runyon Photograph Collection Repository:The Center for American History and General Libraries, University of Texas at Austin 3.Alaskan wedding Library of Congress found at: Original held by: Native American Collection no. 275 University of Washington Libraries Digital ID: wauaipn.image 1880 4. Buffalo NY Wedding Library of Congress Collins, Marjory, 1912-1985, photographer. United States. Office of War Information. Overseas Picture Division. Washington Division; 1944. CALL NUMBER: LC-USW3- 024953-D REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USW3-024953-D DLC (b&w film neg.) PART OF: Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection (Library of Congress) REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540

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6. Puget Sound Part of General Indian Collection no. 564 Repository: University of Washington Libraries Digital ID: wauaipn.image 1963 Reference number for image in collection no. 564: Ab-39 Reproduction Number: NA662 found at: 7. Ferraro-Burge wedding Unidentified photographer Call Number: NV9-WS44-5 Digital ID: afc96ran 44947 found at: 8. Wedding chapel. Yuma, Arizona. Lee, Russell, 1903-1986, photographer. United States. Office of War Information. Overseas Picture Division. Washington Division; 1944. CALL NUMBER: LC-USF34- 072104-D REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USF34-072104-D DLC (b&w film neg.) PART OF: Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection (Library of Congress) REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC 20540 found at: 9. Edna Mary Micheau Photographer Unknown Part of the Micheau Family Collection Original held by Margarett Penny Manson, Carmichael, California 10. Lorrine Young Photographer Unknown Part of the Gines Family Collection Original held by Craig Manson, Carmichael, California 11. Oscar Wilde Photographer: Napoleon Sarony found at Wikimedia Commons, 29_Number_18.jpeg 12. Edna & Alquinston Clipping from St Louis American (newspaper), St Louis, MO, 19 June 1939 Photographer unknown Original clipping held by Edna Micheau Penny, Sacramento, California

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There is something about a wedding photo that I find mesmerizing. Perhaps it’s because it captures a couple at a milestone of their life. It freeze-frames a hopefully happy moment. Maureen Taylor The Photo Detective

I Collect Wedding Photographs

I’ve been collecting wedding images for quite a while and am always on the look‐out for new images. My dream is to compile a book of wedding images and history that covers everything from Gloral arrangements to cakes and attire for all members of the wedding party. I’m busy compiling all the data needed to

explain the photos. It’s a frustrating search in many cases. There are clues in wedding photos that defy explanation. The details are often lost in a family history mystery. One of the most misunderstood wedding images is a woman in a dark colored dress with a veil. A quick look at eBay reveals many “Victorian brides in mourning.” This simply isn’t true. Here’s a simple rundown of some basic facts on wedding dress. According to the newspapers of the time, Queen Victoria wore a lace robe and veil. On her head was a “wreath of orange Glowers and a small diamond pin, by which the nuptial veil was fastened to her hair.2” The Queen set a new standard for Victorian brides with her white wedding dress, but not all could afford a dress to be worn a single time. In fact, wedding dress colors varied in the 19th century. 30 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010

Paintin g

by Geo rge Ha y

ter 3

A picture of Rutherford B. Hayes and his wife Lucy Ware Webb on their wedding day, December 30, 1852. Only the caption a n d t h e d a t e o f t h i s c o p y o f a daguerreotype provide information that this is a wedding related image. Lucy Hayes wore a wedding gown but this image doesn’t depict it. You can view her handmade dress on the Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Library [LINK] website. It’s a gorgeous white brocade silk with an off‐white lining.

During the Civil War, women married in their everyday clothes. Purple was a popular choice to honor the deceased soldiers. 5

In this 1860s image, the presence of the Gloral spray held by the man and the small nosegays pinned to their bodices suggest it’s a wedding image6. In 1876. Aunt Ella in her brown corded silk dress [LINK] showed that she was a very fashionable young woman. There were new brown dyes in the late 19th century. In 1890, Sarah Elizabeth Gibson Follett married William Henry Follett wearing a cinnamon brown silk dress trimmed with Glowered silk. It cost $4.00. 7 When a friend’s mother married during World War II, not long after her father died, instead of marrying in a white dress she chose a blueberry colored suit. My aunt married in a simple suit8.

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Bridal dress colors vary with cultures [LINK]. For instance, a bride in a black dress could be Scandinavian. Watch for clues in the style of dress and in the veil. This woman’s Gloral arrangement could signify an ethnic tradition9.

Unfortunately, there are a lot of misidentiGied brides on the web. It’s important not to jump to conclusions when you see a woman in a white dress, the woman could be attired for a summer outing. It’s also important to remember that not all veils signify a wedding; it could be a conGirmation photo.

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I’m desperately seeking more wedding images, especially early images, to use in a forthcoming book on the topic. Got one to share? Please email me at

1 “Marriage of Queen Victoria, February 10, 1840,” New‐Bedford Mercury, March 13, 1840, p. 1. 2 hDp:// 3 Library of Congress 4 hDp://; Harper’s Bazaar 1867

5 CollecYon of the Author

May you grow old on one pillow. ~ Armenian Proverb

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A wedding is a celebration of the beginning of a new family. As such it has a special place in the hearts and souls of people worldwide. Both huge public celebrations and small private ones generate cherished memories. So, how do we save and protect those memories? My mother’s Girst wedding took place in a foreign country surrounded by strangers. It was World War II and her husband, an Army Air Corps pilot, was stationed in the Panama Canal Zone. She traveled alone to Mexico City to marry him. We have the photos and newspaper clippings of the engagement announcement, the telegram announcing they were married and the letter describing the mounds of red tape that had to be surmounted to make it happen. Less than two years later, he was killed in the PaciGic leaving his widow and baby daughter with only memories. Decades later, thanks to digitized newsreels, we have a clip that includes what could be my sister’s father. Since we’ve only seen still photos of him, it’s hard to be sure but the man in the Gilm clip has dimples just like those his daughter is supposed to have inherited from him. Seldom is the historical impact of a wedding considered in planning the event, but many family historians dream of Ginding even the few snippets we have from our mother’s Girst wedding. Photos, invitations or journal entries are treasures to later generations trying to learn more about their ancestors.

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Thanks to the wonders of technology, today even the smallest wedding can be shared with family and friends around the world ‐ instantly. One person with an iPhone and the free Ustream [LINK] app can broadcast the wedding live to anyone with a web browser and Internet connection. Camera phones and digital cameras are frequently tucked in the pockets and purses of wedding guests and capture even more of the special moments surrounding the wedding and reception. And, online platforms for social networking and photo/video sharing offer delightful ways to share those moments.

Type to enter text

[Photo credit: Jill & Kevinʼs Wedding Entrance Dance - YouTube video LINK ]

One of the most obvious examples is this now‐famous wedding dance. No one in that wedding party will forget that wedding any time soon. And, almost 50 million of us have also found it fascinating. It only took a few seconds for the wedding guests to catch the enthusiasm of the wedding party. Even if you are planning a more traditional wedding, having both professional and amateur photographers and videographers documenting everything from bridal showers and the

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rehearsal dinner to the reception send‐off gives you the raw material for any number of memory‐making projects. While social networks such as Facebook [LINK] support video uploads, they do have size limits. Platforms devoted to video, like YouTube [LINK] and Vimeo [LINK], support the quality and size needed to display a high‐quality version of both your video clips and a Ginished wedding documentary. These video platforms also provide the functionality to embed your videos at Facebook, your blog or web site and any number of other social platforms. Once you’ve got family and friends organized to take the photos during the wedding events, you’ll need a place to collect all those photos. If you already use a photo‐sharing service, check to see what features they have for sharing event photos. Flickr [LINK] has a group feature allowing members to share their pictures with a selected group of people. Each photographer uploads their photos to their personal accounts and then shares them to the group. Groups can be public or private (where only members can add or view group photos) or any number of levels in between. During your organizing efforts, it might be handy to have an instruction card available for your volunteers with link and group information. [Photo credit: Screen shot of selected results from a Flickr search for “wedding cake”]

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While we’re talking about Flickr groups, you might want to check some of the existing wedding groups already there. There are groups of professional photographers, cake makers and many other wedding services that are a treasure chest of great ideas. These images are just a few of the thousands found on Flickr in a search for wedding cakes. Every photo‐sharing service offers photo book printing. Because you only order the quantity you want, you can choose to create custom albums for different people. A special keepsake book for the parents of the bridal couple is a unique way to let them know how much you care. You might also look at self‐publishing platforms like Blurb [LINK] and Lulu [] which offer more size and binding features and plenty of room for journaling to include the information that will guarantee this book will become a treasured heirloom for generations to come. Even today’s digital scrapbooking software gives you the ability to combine journaling, photos, video, audio and music with traditional scrapbook design elements to create a multi‐media presentation that can be posted online, saved to a CD or even ripped to a DVD for viewing on your television. If you are a scrapbooking enthusiast, this might be a great option. Adding audio and video to your usual scrapbook elements is surprisingly easy. It doesn’t matter if your wedding is large or small, traditional or uniquely yours. Just make sure you take advantage of your technology toolbox to preserve and share that special day ‐ for yourself and for that family you’re beginning to build.

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Behind The Camera Photographing The Wedding

Of all the occasions celebrated in our family albums, those taken at the time of engagement and marriage are by far the most numerous, as evidenced by the many photographs displayed in this issue of Shades Magazine. From the engagement photograph to the anniversary photograph, early photographers had a great deal of custom and trade in this rite of passage. It is very difficult to distinguish between engagement and wedding portraits, as the studio setting and pose of those being photographed are very similar, with a few exceptions. Often engagement photographs were taken separately, the couple then exchanging the photographs. Wedding photographs that placed both the bride and groom in the frame often show familiarity between the two in the form of a touch, a hand resting on the arm or shoulder of the other. Engaged couples would not have been so publicly familiar.

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ABOVE Individual engagement photographs Photographer: Stevens Location: Chicago, Illinois Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION

BELOW Individual Portrait Bride & Groom Photographer: Otto C. Pasel Location: St. Paul, MN Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION

Date Not Researched

Date Not Researched

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ABOVE Individual Photograph of Bride

Photographer: G.D. Morse Location: San Francisco Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

ABOVE Individual Photograph of Groom Taken In Same Studio On Same Occasion as Wedding Vignette

Photographer: G. G. Oyloe Location: Ossian, IA Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

LEFT Vignette Bride & Groom Together

Photographer: G. G. Oyloe Location: Ossian, IA Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

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A Tip: I believe this is an engagement or wedding photograph. Why do I believe that? Many of the poses adopted in wedding and engagement portraits give prominence to the ring. When determining if you have an engagement or wedding photograph as opposed to an ordinary studio portrait, look for the intentional display of the woman's ring finger. Here, we have the display of the left hand and ring which is amplified by its reflection in the mirror. The ring is prominent in this portrait in two locations leading me to believe it is an engagement or wedding portrait. So always pay particular attention to the woman's hand in a photograph you suspect me be of a family engagement or wedding. ABOVE Engagement or Wedding Photograph Photographer: Montfort & Hill Location: Burlington, Iowa Cate-de-visite: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

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RIGHT Standing Bride - Sitting Groom Photographer: J.T. Wixson & Son Location: Escabana, Michigan Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

BELOW Sitting Bride - Standing Groom Photographer: Haugendorff Location: Milwaukee, Wisconsin Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

The pose of the seated groom and the standing bride with her hand on her husband’s shoulder has become the most familiar photographic representation of the engaged or married couple. However, it is worth noting that in many examples the woman is seated while the man stands beside her. (See left below.) This has more to do with the respective heights of those having their photograph taken than any comment on the politics of sexual struggles in the 19th century. “Photographers were concerned to get both heads into a relatively narrow field of focus. This meant bringing





maintaining a balanced composition. If a tall man was seated, his head was brought into focus with that of the shorter woman beside him.” Audrey Linkman - Open University

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Wedding photographs were taken in the studio, as having the photographer attend the event incurred extra expense. You may have a difGicult time determining the exact date of a wedding photograph, as the wedding party may have gone to the photographer’s directly from the church or come back a week or two later for the sitting. Those whose family collections that contain additional portraits of the bride, bridesmaids, wedding party and relatives; may indicate a greater level of afGluence in your family as all involved extra expense. LEFT

Bride & Bridesmaid Photographer: Warren Location: Boston, MA Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched


Bride, Groom, Best Man & Bridesmaid Photographer: E.B. Core Location: Cincinnati, Ohio Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

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A Large Wedding Party Photographer: R. Czechowicz Location: Chicago, IL Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched


Wedding Party Photographer: J. J. Mancini Location: Rhode Island Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION ca. 1910

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Wedding Anniversaries Wedding anniversaries were also often commemorated with a photograph. As in studio portraits taken for engagements and weddings the couple could be taken individually and/or together. Here we have the individual wedding portraits and the individual 25th wedding anniversary portraits combined into one carte-devisite. RIGHT 11 September 1881 11 September 1906 25th Wedding Anniversary ca. 1906 Photographer: Unknown Location: Unknown Carte-de-Visite: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION

LEFT Wedding Anniversary

Photographer: Arthur Holborn Location: Bristol Cabinet Card: Open University Creative Commons

ca. 1890s

Another type of anniversary photographic portrait portrayed the anniversary couple surrounded by their adult children. A clue to these portraits is that they prominently featured the anniversary couple and regularly excluded sons and daughters‐in‐law, as above. Now go back and take a look at those family wedding and engagement photographs with an educated eye. What can you Gind? Shades MAGAZINE | 49



And what's not to love? It's a happy occasion celebrated with family and friends. Commonly, the event is captured in pictures... a moment in time full of promise, love, and optimism. For the family historian, it's even more than that. Those wedding photos mark a time of transition and a budding new branch on the family tree. One great way to display wedding photos is to create a digital scrapbook page incorporating multiple generations of family wedding pics. It's lovely to show a family line over time, comparing physical resemblances, bridal gown styles, poses, and the beginnings of new branches of the family. However, it can be challenging to Gigure out a way to pull together photos from a broad span of time and make them look like they belong together. Current photos would likely be in color, mid century photos may have been in black and white, and earlier photos perhaps in sepia tone. How does one create an attractive page with that sort of variety? There are a couple of ways to work this out. If you're good with photo editing software, you can colorize the black and white and sepia tone photos so they more closely resemble the more current color ones. Or, you can turn your color photos into black and white or sepia with just the touch of a button in most photo editing software. Once you have a similar look to your photos, it's much easier to put together a coordinated digital scrapbook page.

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Starting with these three dissimilar family wedding photos from 1924, 1948, and 1972...

I created this digital scrapbook page using Photoshop Elements and Picasa.

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"A Beautiful Wedding Day" by Laitha

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Doesn't it look nicely coordinated? There are a few tricks involved in giving it that Ginished, coordinated look. Here's how I did it... To begin with, I purchased a digi‐scrap kit that is very versatile. "A Beautiful Wedding Day" by Laitha, has loads of elements and papers I can use again and again in various wedding scrapbook pages. I could have created all these papers and elements myself, but hey, why reinvent the wheel? (See opposite page.) Next, using Picasa, I opened each of the 3 wedding photos and under the "Effects" pallet, I clicked on "sepia" so that they would all have the same monotone color range. Then I saved the sepia copies. In Photoshop Elements, I selected the photos and deleted the frames to make them easier to work with. Then I chose a background paper that had a bit of an aged look to it.

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I laid out my photos on the background paper and added the frames next. After that, it was just a matter of choosing decorative elements to create the page just the way I liked it. As a Ginishing touch, I put drop shadows on each of the elements. To give it a bit of an aged patina I chose my drop shadow color by sampling from one of the dark areas of the sepia photos. That gave the shadow a slight brown cast which brought an aged look to the bright white elements from the kit. A kit element in its native colors...

With a brown drop shadow added...

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Set against the aged background paper.

You could create a similar page using only two pictures or you could use more if you like. If you've got 5 generations of wedding photos, you could really create a true masterpiece. What a terriGic piece of art that would be! Creating a digital scrapbook page takes time but the results are worth it. You'll end up with a piece of art for your wall or album that will showcase your family's history for all to learn from and admire. Happy Scrapping! Sources: The digi­scrap kit used was Laitha's "A Beautiful Wedding Day" [LINK] . It's available at [LINK] .

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Now Comes

The Bride

The Wedding Costume The use of orange blossoms in the bride's costume originated in ancient China where they were emblems of purity, chastity and innocence. There are few trees so proliGic as the orange; it is one of the rare plants that blooms and bears fruit at the same time, thus becoming symbolic of fertility.

The Bride's Veil: In ancient Greece the bridal veil was yellow; in ancient Rome it was red and usually covered the bride from head to foot. It is traditionally considered bad luck for the bride to be seen by the groom before the ceremony. In arranged marriages the couple rarely saw each other at all. Once the bride and groom were declared husband and wife the veil was lifted, symbolizing the presentation of the wife to her husband.

During the time of the Crusades, orange blossoms were brought from the East to Spain, then to France, and Ginally to England in the early 1800's. By then, many enchanting legends had spread throughout the continent of maidens entwining fresh orange blossoms into a bridal wreath for their hair. The phrase "to gather orange blossoms" took the meaning " to seek a wife".

Brides also wore orange blossom wreaths in the hair on top of the veil, this may be the origin of the use of the tiara. LEFT A Bride and Her Bridesmaids, 1851, by Albert Sands Southworth and Josiah Johnson Hawes, Whole plate daguerreotype, Smithsonian American Art Museum

ABOVE Unidentified Bride

Photographer: Southworth & Hawes ca. 1850 Daguerrotype: George Eastman House

A Gallery of Veils The girl who is obliged to consider expense very closely in the buying of her trousseau will probably deny herself the luxury of a wedding­veil, wearing instead a becoming bandeau of ribbon and orange­blossoms; but the girl with a little more money at her disposal and a desire to conform to all the traditions in her wedding attire will be likely to insist upon a veil of lace or tulle, and with reason. It is undeniably lovely and there is something of poetry in its cloudlike grace. Eleanor Chalmers ‐ The Delineator 1911

ABOVE Unknown Bride ABOVE Mary H. Towsend

Photographer: Sarony Location: New York City Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION ca. April 28, 1871

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Photographer: Unknown Location: Unknown CDV: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION ca. April 25, 1871

LEFT Unknown Bride With Beautiful Orange Blossom Veil

Photographer: Unknown Location: Unknown CC: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION

RIGHT Unknown Bride Veil Removed & Displayed

Photographer: V. Georg & Co. Location: Chicago CDV: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

There is something romantic in the gown and veil of the bride. . .There is poetry in dress, just as there is in a towering cathedral or in a well-molded statue. Shades MAGAZINE | 59

A Gallery of Bridal Hats LEFT & BELOW Two lampshade bridal hats.

Photographer: Unknown Location: Unknown Card Mounted Photographs: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

My Grandmother - Lillian Salter Greene - In a rosebud bonnet, 1919.

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The White Wedding Gown: Mary, Queen of Scots was the Girst famous woman to wear a white wedding gown. Mary was marrying the Dauphin of France and the choice of a white dress was extremely troubling to the French, as white was the ofGicial color of mourning in France. 1840 saw another royal Gigure married in a white wedding gown. Queen Victoria selected a white wedding gown for her marriage to Albert of Saxe‐Colburg. Queen Victoria's wedding photographs were widely publicized, sparking an interest in the white wedding dress throughout England and beyond. The white wedding dress was a symbol of wealth, as the dress could not be washed or reused for another occasion. This demonstrated that the bride's family could afford to spend money on an extravagant dress. Through much of the early 20th century, only a rich woman could afford to wear a white wedding dress. Those who did not come from wealthy families wore dresses in various colors, lavender being one of the most popular. Others wore white dresses which were later dyed another color after the ceremony to be used for other occasions.

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A Gallery of White Wedding Gowns Bridemaids usually consult the bride as to their toilets, and each other as well, that there may be no unfortunate combinations of color to mar the effect of the whole. They usually dress in colors, unless the bride choose some faint tint for her costume; then it is customary for them to wear pure white, and sometimes the whole group are clad in spotless purity. Maude C. Cooke ‐ Social Etiquette, or: Manners and Customs of Polite Society ‐ 1896

OPPOSITE PAGE L-R Bride & Groom - Monkhouse - York - CDV Bride & Groom - Barker - Illinois - Cabinet Card AUTHOR’S COLLECTION African American Bride & Groom - S.B. Smith - Newville, PA -

CDV - ebay $375.00 [Link] Dates Not Researched

ABOVE L-R Two unidentified brides with similar taste. Left - Photographer: Morrison

Location: Chicago Right - Photographer: Barrows Location: Ft. Wayne, Ind. Cabinet Cards: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

TOP ROW Left - Photographer: Cook Location: Toronto Right - Photographer: Kemp Location: Scranton BOTTOM ROW Left Photographer:Kohler Location: Milwaukee Right - Photographer: Unable to read Location: Unknown AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

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A Gallery of Dark Wedding Gowns

TOP ROW L-R Left - Photographer: Wm. Davis

Location: Mankato, MN - CDV Middle - Photographer: Flasskamper - CC

Location: Bielefeld Right - Photographer: Dahl Bros.

Card Mounted Photograph Location: Mayville, N.D. BOTTOM ROW L-R Uncle Will & Aunt Luhistu Left - Photographer: Kellogg

Location: Reedsburg, WI - CC Right - Photographer: Chesebro Location: Toledo, OH - CC All AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

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A Gallery of Wedding Gowns In Color

The colors of the wedding gowns in this Gallery could be lilac, silver grey, pale blue, pink or yellow.

Sometimes a recent bride wears her own wedding gown at a friend's wedding; but it is in better taste not to do so, nor in any other way to invite comparisons. The bride should be permitted to be the conspicuous figure at her own wedding. Etiquette 1889 66 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010

OPPOSITE PAGE L-R Left - Photographer: Matousek

Location: Chicago Card Mounted Photograph Right - Photographer: Friend Smith - CC Location: Detroit THIS PAGE TOP ROW L-R Uncle Will & Aunt Luhistu Left - Photographer: Kellogg

Location: Reedsburg, WI - CC Right - Photographer: Chesebro Location: Toledo, OH - CC BOTTOM ROW Left - Photographer: Cramer Location: St. Louis, MO - CC All AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

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Married in Traveling Dress: Many brides were married in their traveling dress, complete with bonnet. The groom was dressed in dark clothes. This wedding did not require brides‐ maids or groomsmen, but did have ushers, while the groom has his "best man." This should be of silk, or any of the Gine fabrics for walking dresses; should be of some neutral tint; and bonnet and gloves should match in color. It may be more elaborately trimmed than an ordinary traveling dress, but if the bride wishes to attract as little attention as possible, she will not make herself conspicuous by a too showy dress. In private weddings the bride is sometimes married in traveling costume, and the bridal pair at once set out upon their journey.

THIS PAGE While perhaps a bit ostentatious for traveling dress the bride has chosen the proper hat and gloves to set off on her honeymoon.

Photographer: N.M. Wonders Location: Pottsville, PA Card Mounted Photograph OPPOSITE PAGE L-R Left - Photographer: Unknown

Location: Unknown Card Mounted Photograph Right - Photographer: Boyd Location: Seattle Card Mounted Photograph All AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

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A Gallery of Traveling Dress

Sometimes this dress is as elaborate as is at all consistent with good taste for traveling. . . More frequently, and more appropriately, the plain tailor-made suit, with gloves and hat in harmony, is made to do duty. In any case where the bride chooses to wear a traveling costume, even should the ceremony be performed in the evening, the groom will wear a morning costume. This consists of a dark frock coat, dark waistcoat and lighter trousers ; a stiff hat, a light scarf and gloves if desired. The gloves should be light but not evening tints; pale tan or gray being suitable. Shades MAGAZINE | 69

A Gallery of Everyday Best The majority of Victorian and many Edwardian brides wore the best day-dress they could afford. So although these three images may appear to be nothing more than a studio portrait with conventional props and accessories, they are wedding photographs. Remember to look for flowers held by the bride and in the groom’s buttonhole providing supporting evidence of the occasion. And always look for the prominent display of the bride’s ring finger.

ABOVE L-R Photographer - Evans - Ithaca, NY - Cabinet Card John & Rose Brown - Cabinet Card AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

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ABOVE Photographer - Hobert Bros. - Buffalo, NY - Cabinet Card Inset of defiantly displayed wedding ring. AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

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Memorializing a marriage?

When I purchased this tin type, the seller said they believed it was a photograph of a bride and groom signing their marriage license. This can not be confirmed. The photographer, the people in the photograph, and the location where they were photographed is all unknown. The absence of flowers on either the bride or the groom is suspicious, but not fatal to the determination. They have, however, gone to the extra expense of having the tin type colorized which would indicate this was an important occasion. But what occasion? While there is no evidence this is a wedding photograph, I would like to imagine that it is. 72 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010

A most unique photograph of a bride!

Mennonite Bride ca. 1914 Thank you to Maureen Taylor, The Photo Detective, for identifying this young woman as Mennonite and to Marie Breneman of the Mennonite Information Center for identifying her as a ca. 1914 bride. If you have any information concerning the photographer’s mark shown above, please contact the

Sources for the following articles: Wedding Inspiration Behind The Camera Now Comes The Bride The Long and The Short Of It Wedding In Miniature Books: Anonymous. The Tom Thumb Wedding. Boston: Baker, 1898. Darrah, William C. Cartes de Visite in 19th Century Photography. Gettysburg: Darrah, 1981. Lansdell, Avril, Wedding Fashions, 1860-1980. Shire, 1986. Linkman, Audrey. The Victorians, Photographic Portraits. London: Tauris Parke Books,1993. MacPhail, Anna. The Well Dressed Child. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer, 1999. McCulloch, Lou W. Card Photographs, A Guide To Their History and Value. Exton, Pennsylvania: Schiffer 1981. Mace, O. Henry. Collector's Guide To Early Photographs.Iola, Wisconsin: Krause, 1999. Nickell, Joe. Camera Clues. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1994. Norfleet, Barbara. Wedding. Fireside, 1979. Russell-Revesz, Heather. Tying the Knot: The Book of Wedding Trivia. B&N, 2002. Severa, Joan. Dressed For The Photographer. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1995. Wallace, Carol. All Dressed In White. Penguin, 2004. Magazines: Godey’s The Delineator Bride Ceremony Real Simple Bride Martha Stewart Weddings Websites:

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the ancestor network method MAPPING MEMORIES BY CAROLINE POINTER


n his book, Writing Life Stories, Bill Roorback with the help of Kristen Keckler, PhD

demonstrate a technique in the second chapter for recalling childhood memories that they term, “mapmaking.” Like the name suggests, it involves making a map, but not just any kind of map. They suggest making a map of where you grew up in hopes of jarring any memories that would lead to stories. So, I tried it. And, yes, recalling small details about my two childhood neighborhoods that I grew up in helped to jar some long‐forgotten childhood stories. Besides reminding me of how old I am, my map also reminded me of who lived near us, who I was related to in those neighborhoods, and who were my and my family's friends. It made me remember the relationships that my family and I had there, and made me remember how if someone later down the road wanted to know me, really know me, they'd need to know these relationships, too. They'd need to know my personal network. This method of looking at the relationships of ancestors in order to learn more about them is not new. It's called “cluster research.” Not only looking at an ancestor's collateral family members, but looking at the “cluster” of people that lived and had associations with direct ancestors. I love using this method because, frankly speaking, this is where the stories are, which is what I'm most interested in. The only problem I have with this method is the name of it. I may use the word “cluster” every now and again, but I have never said, “Look at my

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cluster of friends over there.” Nor have I ever said, “Yesterday, I was watching through the kitchen window my cluster of neighbors who were...” The word doesn't work for me, nor does it remind me of what type of research I'm doing. Therefore, I've come up with a new and more descriptive term: The Ancestor Network Method. Everyone knows what a network is, right? Compliments of the Online Etymology Dictionary, Table 1 shows information on the various meanings of the word, “network” and its changes over time.

So in a nutshell, today the word, “network,” means an interconnected system of just about anything, including people. It's also used online in conjuction with the word, “social” to form the phrase, “social network, “ which is individuals and groups of individuals who are interconnected (like a net) in various social ways online. Though the use of the word, “network,” wasn't applied to people (in groups) until 1947, people have been socially networking since the beginning of time. I guess, if one didn't work with nets in their occupation, the analogy was lost on them, but once it was used in 1839 to describe transportation, the word seemed to take off from there. Likewise, our ancestors networked, too, and taking a look at their personal network is an important part of the genealogical research process. Ask yourself, “Who was in their network? Who did they know? Who knew them? And what did they know?” Diagram 1 illustrates a typical ancestor's network in general terms. Further, each person in your ancestor's network had their own personal network, which leads to more information and more stories. Don't believe me? Go ahead. Put yourself in the middle of the diagram. Now look around. Did you have relatives? Of course you did. Did you ever buy a piece of gum?

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That was a transaction. If you married, then you had a spouse who brought – for better or worse ‐ some in‐laws with him or her. Of course, they'd be a part of your spouse's network. See, there's another network. Just in case you're at the library and you left your copy of The Ancestor Network Diagram at home, a great way to remember who you're supposed to be looking for in your ancestor's network lies in the word: A.N.C.E.S.T.O.R.

“A” is for...Associations Who were your ancestor's friends?

Group portrait of Freemasons of Anglo-Saxon Lodge, seated and standing, in ceremonial dress. LOC [LINK]

Were they just friends, or were they more? Did they share their secrets with their friends? Not only looking at who your ancestor's friends were, but looking at the type of organizations your ancestor may have belonged to can help you learn more about your ancestor. What kinds of organizations did your ancestor belong to? Were they Free Masons? My 2nd great‐ grandfather, Daniel Rook Vaughan was a member of the Knights of Pythias, and the organization was able to provide me with when he joined their lodge, which helped me to narrow down when he moved his family from Eagle Pass, Texas to San Antonio, Texas. In addition, it educated me on just what the Knights of Pythias is and what its function is. This information helped me to understand why Daniel joined in the Girst place. For your convenience, a list fraternal organizations can be found here [ LINK ].

“N” is for...Neighbors Sometimes we like our neighbors. And sometimes we don't. Did your ancestor know and like their neighbors? Did their neighbors like them? Did their in‐laws live next door? Did

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your ancestor sue their neighbor, or did their neighbor sue them? Did your ancestor end up marrying their neighbor? Were they related to them? While growing up, I always heard my Gran, my aunt, and my mom talk about their neighbors, especially Vyla Clifton. It was always, “Vyla Clifton” this and “Vyla Clifton” that (all good things). Well, when I found my Gran's U.S. Passport Application, I found attached to it a letter from Vyla Clifton vouching for my Gran's identity. I went on to Gind her as a neighbor, just like I remembered my family talking about. However, it w a s n ' t u n t i l I s t a r t e d Barn erection. Raising last half of gable end panel into place. Southeast Missouri Farms Project - LOC [LINK]

r e s e a r c h i n g m y G r a n ' s mother's, or Alice Vaughan's, siblings that I found out who Vyla was. One of Alice's sisters was named Vyla. I then found that Vyla had married a man with the last name, “Sproul,” and then she married a man with the last name of “Clifton.”

Along with having a penchant for marrying (she married once more, which made Ginding her death certiGicate a little challenging). Vyla Clifton wasn't just a neighbor. She was family. Finding her helped to add another part to my family's story, but it also helped to Gind a naming pattern that was crucial in taking the Vaughan line back 4 more generations than what I already had and possibly more. All from a neighbor named Vyla Prudence (Vaughan) Sproul Clifton Brandenberger.

“C” is for...Church

The super big churches of today are a relatively new concept. I go to a smaller church myself, and everyone knows everyone else, which can be trying at times, but I enjoy it. It's like a family, and that's exactly how our ancestor's churches were. Like a family. So it's not a far‐fetched idea that researching some other members of your ancestor's church might yield some information about your ancestor. All the members are each a part of your ancestor's network because that's one of the places (and sometimes the only place) they

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Falls Church, Falls Church, Fairfax County, Virginia - LOC [LINK]

would socialize. Whatever families lived in the same vicinity of your ancestor probably went to the same church. I know it's hard for a new person to walk into my church and go ungreeted. In fact, it's impossible. Rest assured, if your ancestor went to church, someone there knew them. If your ancestor's children were baptized, or if anyone married in the church, there were witnesses, both formal and informal. Who were they? More than likely, someone close to the family or family members. I have been pretty successful in Ginding lists of members of churches in county history books, which then have led me to church records. Reading those lists, though, is like reading a family tree sometimes. They're all there – in‐laws, relatives, friends, etc.

“E” is for...Education The main purpose of school is to educate. However, not all education is done in a traditional manner. Sometimes education occurs between classes with friends. Identifying who your ancestor went to school with and who their teacher was can help to uncover more details about your ancestor's life. For example, my husband has a 3rd great‐grandfather, George L. Hackett, whose education was mentioned in a township and county history of Blooming Grove, Richland County, Ohio. Below is an excerpt: The Mirst school in the township was opened December, 1824, in the cabin erected by William Guthrie in 1816. It was a three­months school, and was taught by Robert Finney. Mr. Guthrie has occupied this cabin about two years, when he erected a better one in the same yard, and thus the old cabin was honored by becoming the Mirst schoolhouse. Those who attended this school were Nathan S. Guthrie, now a resident of Shiloh; Francis, Eliza and Lydia Guthrie; George, Betsy, Margaret, William, Mary, and Drusilla Hackett; Washington, David, Sallie and Mariah Long, and William and Thomas

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Classroom scenes in Washington, D.C. public schools: general classroom scene, 1st Division ca. 1899 LOC [LINK]

Dickinson. It was a subscription school, the teacher receiving $8 or $10 per month. Mr. Guthrie says that he [and] his brothers and sisters attended that school during the winter in their bare feet. The schoolhouse being in their [y]ard, they were able to get to it, often through the deep snow, without frosting their feet. Besides the fact that it looks like the old story of “having to walk to school uphill both ways in a blizzard,” was alive and well in the 1800's, this passage helped me to link George Hackett of Blooming Grove, Ohio, for whom I did not have any recorded parents nor any leads, to the other Hackett children in Blooming Grove, Ohio, for whom I did have recorded parents. I had only been able to Gind William, but none of their sisters, so this changed the whole dynamic of my search, leading me to other resources. In addition, this passage led me to future spouses and/or neighbors. I had found a part of George Hackett's network.

“S” is for...Spouse Spouses are a huge part of your ancestor's personal network. Rarely did someone not know their spouse, or their spouse's family. They were usually daughters or sons of neighbors and friends. Oftentimes in‐laws moved with them and/or they moved‐in with them. Identifying your ancestor's spouse's personal network can lead to many clues about your ancestor's family. For example, in the George Hackett family mentioned previously, one of their sisters,

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Photographer - Mathias Matousek - 1895-1900 Chicago, IL - Wedding Photograph -Collection of footnoteMaven

Margeret Hackett, married another George Hackett from Pennsylvania, for whom I was able to trace his parents. There has always been a theory held by the George Hackett of Blooming Grove, Ohio family historian that somehow these two Hackett's were related in some way. Now, this is not proof, but it's certainly a lead to explore, and also it has put me in good graces with this family historian, who happens to be my husband's Girst cousin, once removed, a.k.a., Aunt Sally. Another reason to look at your ancestor's spouse's network is migration. Many times branches of families, in‐laws included, moved together. So, if your ancestor's spouse's family left more of a paper trail to follow, then this can be a clue as to where your ancestor migrated from. In addition, the spouse's network can help to Gind your ancestor's siblings who also wed into the same family as your ancestor's spouse's family. The connections can be very big in your ancestor's spouse's network.

“T” is for...Transactions

Have you ever watched two kids trade toys? “If you give me that, I'll give you this,” kind of thing? It's an illustration of a simple transaction, but it's a transaction nonetheless. Think about all of the transactions you complete in a day. Now think about the transactions your ancestor completed in a day, a week, and/or a month. From buying children's clothing to trading a load of oats for their neighbor's spotted heifer (cow). Oftentimes, selling land to kinfolk and/or neighbors. They were all transactions, and if your ancestor was like my husband's great‐grandmother, Pearl (Williams) Pointer, then they wrote it down. Pearl wrote down detailed notes of all of her transactions that occurred on the farm in Iowa for every single year. If she bought shoes for one of her children, she wrote down what it cost, where she bought it, and who it was for. Every sale on the farm, including sales of hogs,

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mules, cows, horses, and eggs, was written down. Every time she bought wire for the fences, it was written down. There's even transactions written down for different parts of her buggy that needed replacing. No matter what she wrote down though, she always notated who or where she bought it from. Those were people she knew. More than likely, some were neighbors and relatives. These were people who were a part of her personal network.

“O” is for...Occupation

“So, what do you do for a living?” Everyone has either asked and/or been asked this question. Have you ever thought about your co‐workers or your boss? How do you know them? Perhaps you're friends outside of work. Perhaps some are family. You may even work for your father‐in‐law. Identifying your ancestor's occupation and/or occupations can help to identify those people who were in your ancestor's network. All people they knew to varying degrees. Think about it. If your ancestor was the only blacksmith around, everyone who owned a horse in that town, knew the blacksmith. Did your ancestor own the local watering hole? Then he/she knew quite a few people. And if that same ancestor lived in the same town in Texas that my 2nd great‐grandmother, Annie (O'Brien) Vaughan did, then he/she probably knew Annie since it's rumored in my family that she visited the local watering hole every day and had her tin cup Gilled up at the back door with Irish whiskey. And if this is your ancestor, please contact me. I'd love to verify this story. If your ancestor was in the military, it falls into this category. For some, it did turn into an occupation. Looking at who your ancestor served with and under can be very revealing. Many siblings and cousins can be found if they served together. For example, in my

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Occupational portrait of a cooper, three-quarter length, with barrel and tools - LOC [LINK]

Blacketer line, there were around 30 Blacketer men who served on the Union side. I have veriGied that all of them were related in some form or fashion to my grandfather, James Wesley Blacketer, whose father, Harrrison Blacketer served for the state of Missouri alongside his brother Samuel and his father Howell Blacketer. Granted, Blacketer is a unique name and that made it easier to identify, but you get my drift. These men had relationships, making them all members of the same network.

“R” is for...Relations When I was little, my older sister, Terri, used to wake me up by sitting on me and tickling me. I hated it, but I loved her. To show her the depth of my love, I annoyed her by following her everywhere she went. I wanted to be with her and to be like her. Well, and maybe I wanted to get her back for the tickling just a little bit. My sister and I and the love‐hate relationship we had growing up is nothing new. Siblings have close relationships based upon growing up together and experiencing the same things. To know an ancestor's sibling, is to know a little something about your ancestor. Tracking your ancestor's siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles, nieces, and nephews is a worthwhile effort and can jump start your research for a particular ancestor, who seemingly left no paper trail. You never know. You might just Gind out they hated to be tickled, too. Likewise, in researching my grandfather, Joseph Marshall (a.k.a. “Big Paw Paw”), I learned that he was a bigger than life character with a colorful past. I researched his older sister Jane, and found that her husband, Otto Rosin, had a younger sister by the name of Emma, making her Big Paw Paw's sister‐in‐law. So, I researched Emma a little further, and I found that she married Big Paw Paw in 1917. That's right. My search led to, well, more relations, and to the fact that my grandmother wasn't Big Paw Paw's Girst wife. In fact, she may not

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have been his second or third wife, either, which was something my family never knew. To make a long story short, Big Paw Paw's marriage to Emma Rosin didn't have a very happy ending. They divorced. Apparently the rest of Big Paw Paw's family was not very happy about this, and Big Paw Paw became somewhat of an outcast with his family. So much so, he changed the spelling of his last name from Marschall to Marshall, unlike the rest of his family. To add insult to injury, since the family was Catholic, he was excommunicated from the church because of the divorce as well, which is probably the reason my dad grew up a Methodist. So studying my grandfather's sister‐in‐law led me to marriage records, church records, divorce records, land records, etc. for my grandfather. Oh, and it led me to the fact that apparently quite a few women found living with Big Paw Paw very difGicult. No matter what you call this method – the cluster method or the ancestor network method – when using it, you are basically reconstructing your ancestor's personal network. You are taking a look at where your ancestor went, what he/she did, and who he/she dealt with on a regular basis. So, dust off your ancestor's shoes, put them on, and lace them up. Walk around in them. Look around with your ancestor's eyes. Now think about the people in your ancestor's network. Who were they? How did they know your ancestor? What did they know about your ancestor? What stories could they tell about your ancestor? ©2010 Caroline Pointer Sources/Credits: Roorbach, Bill and Keckler, Kristen. “Memory.” Writing Life Stories, 2nd Edition. Cincinnati: Writer's Digest Books, 2008. Pages 25-43. Harper, Douglas, compiler. Online Etymology Dictionary. 2001-2010. : 2010. Graham, A.A., compiler. History of Richland County, Ohio, It's Past and Present. Mansfield: A.A. Graham & Company, Publishers, 1880. Pointer, Pearl (Williams). “Day Book.” IA. Story County, Iowa, 1924-1941. Privately held by R.L. Pointer, Texas. 2010.

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Man polishing his shoes on a machine. ca. 1900 - NYPL Digital Collections [LINK]

So, dust off your ancestor's shoes, put them on, and lace them up. Walk around in them.

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Centerville Standard Published in Shades Of The Departed Since 2009.

100 Years Too Dreadfully Early

Ladies Are “Thrilled” by Arrival of New Photographer

Penelope Dreadful Intrepid Reporter

The widow of Harold K. Smythe has announced the sale of his photography studio to the well-known East Coast cameraman S.M. Early, and the ladies of our fair town are twirling their parasols with excitement. Mothers and daughters alike are delighted that Mr. Smythe’s studio will no longer stand dark and shuttered as it has for the past six months.

Although he has only been in our town a matter of weeks, cameraman S.M. Early has already set the trend for fashionable and clever photographs.

Readers of this newspaper may recall the freak accident in which Mr. Smythe was killed while attempting to photograph Col. Crandall’s prizewinning rooster in a “refined” setting. The rooster crowed, the plaster column crashed, the wooden partition crumpled, and a heavy brass urn crashed to the ground striking the poor photographer on the skull. Smythe was knocked senseless and never returned to consciousness.

Early promises to place examples of his recent work in the studio window where passersby are welcome to reflect on the photographic style which has become his mark.

Smythe had built a considerable reputation here for portraits and sensitive group sittings. Bridal couples and young ladies have felt the loss most severely and anxiously await the arrival of Mr. Early from the East.

Centerville Welcomes “Stylish and Clever” Photographer

“Why, he really has a most highly trained sense of style,” said Mrs. Stanford White on her way out the studio door. “He is bringing New York and Philadelphia to us.”

It appears that Mrs. White is not alone in her praise of the photographer’s abilities, for a steady stream of customers has kept the sidewalk busy in front of the studio address, and Early’s calendar is booked well into next month. Early specializes in bridal group portraits in innovative settings.

“Too Early” for THAT Kind of Thing in Centerville A near riot took place Wednesday morning on Main Street when Mr. S.M. Early pulled back the curtain

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Centerville Standard to display an exhibit of photographs in his studio window. Passers-by were seen to stop dead in their tracks, jaw dropped as they examined the pictures more closely. Young men, especially, crowded round the window with much shoulder-slapping and mugging. Shortly after the display opened two ladies arrived in a carriage to retrieve a photographic order but their way was forcibly blocked by the young men. “No, no, you shall not go,” they chanted, until the two women were forced to retreat to the other side of the street. It was only after the young men were invited inside by the photographer that order was restored to the streets. At about the same time, the photos were removed from the window leaving only a small placard which read, “Wish you were…” Mr. Early has achieved considerable notoriety as an avant garde photographer since he bought the business from our esteemed late townsman, Harold K. Smythe.

Too Much, Too Early for Centerville Mr. S.M. Early, Photographer, has closed the door of his studio on Main Street and vacated the premises without notice following the police raid of the business last week. Mr. Early came to this town only a few months ago after purchasing the studio business from the much beloved photographer, Harold K. Smythe. 90 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010

Promising to provide “new and interesting” photographic techniques, Mr. Early was much sought after by brides and their mothers, however, another hints of another kind of business soon became apparent. The first sign that something was amiss was noted by businessmen across the street who commented on the number of young men visiting the side door of the photographer’s establishment, often in groups of two or three. The young men entered, stayed briefly, and exited clutching a parcel under their coats. Most recently, in an attempt to interest clients in “creative” postures for bridal groups Mr. Early displayed a series of such images in the studio window. While some saw the photographs as humorous and clever, others were not amused. Unfortunately for Early, his venture into clever technique brought considerable attention to his establishment and as a result a warrant has been issued for his arrest on the suspicion of selling lewd and lascivious material. A public auction will be held Monday, June 21 to dispose of his goods and effects and to satisfy his creditors. No photographs will be displayed or sold.

Centerville Standard – 100 Years Ago Today In a strange epilogue to a story begun 100 years ago, the photographs of noted photographer S.M. Early have been located in metal trunk. Among the images are 200 never‐before‐seen prints and nearly 4000 negatives. Early was a young photographer with a reputation for pushing the boundaries of propriety when he came to Centerville from New York City in 1910. He was especially known for his creative use of props and settings, especially with groups such as collegians, ladies’ societies, and bridal parties. His career nearly came to an end in the small town of Centerville after several complaints by d i s g r u n t l e d m o t h e r s p r o m p t e d a p o l i c e investigation of the business. A late‐night police raid failed to Gind evidence of wrongdoing, but Early packed up his camera equipment and relocated to a nearby state. Ironically, the scandal cemented Early’s reputation as a forward‐thinking photographer and he quickly found a market for a new kind of portrait bearing a not‐so‐subtle subtext. Early’s grandson, New York fashion photographer Zachariah Early, will mount an exhibit of his grandfather’s work in the near future. Copyright 2010 Denise May Levenick

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The Long & The Short Of It

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The root of the word "wedding" literally means to gamble or wager! "TO TIE THE KNOT" The term, to "tie the knot," originated in Roman times. The bride wore a girdle tied in many knots. The groom had the "duty" of untying those knots. WHY THE BRIDE STANDS TO THE GROOMS LEFT Brides of old were captured. To ensure that family, friends, or perhaps another bridegroom did not spirit the bride back home or to another wedding, the groom placed her to his left freeing his right hand or sword arm to defend against attack. LOOK OUT MEGAN SMOLENYAK SMOLENYAK It is unlucky for a woman to marry a man whose surname begins with the same letter as hers: To change the name and not the letter, is to change for the worst and not the better. But what kind of luck is it to acquire the same surname? I’m sure Megan can tell us. SIBLINGS MARRY ON THE SAME DAY It is bad luck for siblings to be married in the same year, much less on the same day. Yet, there are traditions for sisters who do make this choice. The eldest sister walks down the aisle Girst and departs the church Girst. She is the Girst to be given away by her father. Just not sure about wearing the same gown and veil as our sisters to the right have done.

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SEALED WITH A KISS One of the images of the traditional wedding Girmly etched in our minds is that of the new husband and wife sealing their vows with a kiss. The wedding kiss dates back to the earliest days of civilization when a kiss was used as the formal seal to agreements and contracts. Considered legally binding, it became a wedding custom to seal the marriage vows at the end of the ceremony with a kiss. HIT ME WITH YOUR BEST SHOT Many things go Glying through the air at weddings: rice (for fertility), bouquets (for protection), and garters (for luck). Throwing rice originated from an ancient Pagan tradition of showering a happy couple with grain, rice, and nuts to wish them a fruitful union. Pagans believed that the fertility of the seeds would be transferred to the couple on whom they fell. The tossing of the bridal bouquet and the garter can be traced to England and the belief that a bride, through her garments, could pass on her good fortune. In order to keep from getting their dresses ripped off their bodies, brides began throwing their bouquets and garters to the overly zealous guests. The throwing of an old shoe after a newly married couple on their departure was also generally accepted. The principal bridesmaid threw the shoe, the other bridesmaids ran after it, the belief being that the one who got it would be the Girst to Wedding Shoes - Courtesy NYPL be married. She then threw the shoe among the gentlemen, as it was supposed that the one who was hit would also be married before the others.

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IT HAS A RING TO IT The Engagement Ring: In 860 A.D., Pope Nicholas I pronounced that an engagement ring was a required statement of nuptial intent. He also insisted that engagement rings be made of gold to signify the Ginancial sacriGice on the part of the prospective husband. Engagement and wedding rings are worn on the fourth Ginger of the left hand because it was once thought that a vein in that Ginger led directly to the heart. Diamonds set in gold or silver became popular as betrothal rings among wealthy Venetians toward the end of the Gifteenth century. In the symbolic language of jewels, a sapphire in a wedding ring means marital happiness. Aquamarine represents marital harmony and is said to ensure a long, happy marriage. A pearl engagement ring is said to be bad luck because its shape echoes that of a tear. One of history's earliest and smallest engagement ring was given to Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII. She was two years old at the time; her betrothed was the Dauphin of France. Seventeen tons of gold are made into wedding rings each year in the United States! Snake rings dotted with ruby eyes were popular wedding bands in Victorian England ‐‐ the coils winding into a circle symbolized eternity. This was the engagement ring worn by Queen Victoria. In the United States, Puritans refused to wear most jewelry, including wedding and engagement rings. They were considered ostentatious and frivolous. “Instead, a betrothed couple would exchange a thimble – a practical item a young woman could use as she sewed linens and clothing for her dowry. After the wedding, the thimble’s cup was often cut off (symbolizing that her dowry was complete), and the rim could be worn as a ring.” The Wedding Band: The circular shape of the wedding ring has symbolized eternity (undying, unending love) since the days of the early Egyptians. A primitive bride wore a ring of hemp or rushes, which had to be replaced often. Durable iron was used by the Romans to symbolize the permanence of marriage. Shades MAGAZINE | 95

HEAR YE! HEAR YE! In 1798, lithography was invented and it became possible to produce very sharp and distinctive inking without the need for engraving. Now, not only nobility and the rich could announce their nuptuals. This paved the way for the emergence of a genuine mass-market in wedding invitations and announcements. Wedding invitations were delivered by hand and on horseback, because of a highly unreliable postal system. A ‘double envelope’ was used to protect the invitation from damage en route to its recipient. The tradition remains today, even with a more dependable postal system.

If the wedding was private, it was the custom to send, soon afterward, marriage notices to friends. Maggie A. Zahm and Florentine G. Barker announce their marriage of Tuesday, February 8, 1870 on an announcement card accompanied by two calling cards attached with a bow. Notice that the bride’s calling card is smaller than the groom’s; proper etiquette for 1870.

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OUR SUPERSTITIOUS ANCESTORS BRIDESMAIDS DRESSES The tradition of bridesmaids dressing the same as each other and in a similar style to the bride comes from the belief that evil spirits had a more difGicult time distinguishing which one was the bride and putting a hex on her. This, of course, left some poor bridesmaid to take the hex rap for the bride. BRIDAL PARTY In Anglo‐Saxon times, the groom had the help of "bridesmen" or "brideknights" to help him capture and/or escort his bride. Later they would make sure that the bride got to the church and to the groom's home afterward. The women who accompanied and assisted the bride were called "bridesmaids" or "brideswomen.” A bride was carried over the threshold to prevent the evil spirits of the groom’s home from touching her.

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WHEN TO BE MARRIED Marriages have the following results according to the day on which they are celebrated: Monday for wealth ; Tuesday for health ; Wednesday the best day of all; Thursday for crosses ; Friday for losses ; Saturday no luck at all. Happy is the bride the sun shines on; but rain on the wedding day is good luck.

My Grandparents choose the “best day of all” for their wedding. Wednesday, 4 June 1919. My Grandmother should have been happy, as the sun was shining and the temperature was 91 degrees in New York City.

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AND SO WE END WITH ­ SOMETHING OLD ­ SOMETHING NEW Something Old ­ Something New ‐ Something Borrowed ­ Something Blue. . ..And a Silver Sixpence in Her Shoe! Originating in the Victorian era this saying and it’s instructions signiGied good luck. "Something Old" was to symbolize the connection to the bride's family and their past. Often this is represented by a family heirloom worn or carried by the bride on her wedding day. A bride may choose to wear a family member's wedding dress to honor and represent an old object. "Something New" symbolized good fortune and success. A bride could choose to say her shoes are new or use her wedding gown as the new item. Many brides choose to wear a new piece of jewelry. This “Something New” could then be handed down as the “Something Old” upon the marriage of the bride’s children or a favored relative. "Something Borrowed" symbolized the love and support of the bride’s family and friends. A borrowed object could be a token from friend, such as a lace handkerchief or a beautiful piece of jewelry, to be used just for the day. “Something Blue" symbolized faithfulness and loyalty. A bride could choose a blue garter, ribbon, or add blue Glowers to her bouquet. "A Silver Sixpence In Her Shoe," was a blessing for wealth. All photographs in the collection of the author - footnoteMaven. All ephemera in the collection of the author unless otherwise noted.



My grandmother still regrets the fact that a dry cleaner ruined her wedding dress, and I am sure there are plenty of other women with the same regret. In the past, tips about wedding dress preservation have not always been in the best interest of, well, preservation (such as the vacuum packing process popular in the 1980s, which left dresses with permanent creases and other, more severe problems). However, in the present internet world, it seems pretty simple to Gind reliable, accurate information about preserving wedding gowns and other textiles that comes from professionals and not just people with a service to sell. I don’t actually know anything about textile preservation or conservation, so keep in mind that the sources and organizations I point to below are simply the result of some internet research – not any deep personal or professional knowledge. The amount of information out there is huge, but I have tried to Gind some information and resources that come from the world of degreed conservators and preservation professionals. There are lots and lots of commercial services and companies that offer wedding dress and textile preservation products, and hopefully some of these more scientiGic resources will help you to evaluate those vendors’ claims and practices. When looking for advice and resources, searching for professional organizations and non‐ proGits who support the work of conservators is helpful. Searching these sites for only information about wedding dresses is sometimes limiting, and even when it is successful,

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The end result of all this planning and care? Decades from now, your dress should look as beautiful as it did on your wedding day.

the information is sometimes written with the layperson in mind, which may mean that there is very little precise information and a lot of generalities.

• The Canadian Conservation Institute [LINK] has a helpful page about caring for textiles, complete with speciGics about how to store clothing and even how to kill bug infestations.

• The American Institute for Conservation [LINK] has a similar resource page, which offers fewer instructions for do‐it‐yourself work, but equally comprehensive background information about the issues facing fabric and clothing.

• Conservation Online (or CoOL)[LINK] is afGiliated with the AIC and is a giant repository for information about the conservation of pretty much anything that might be part of a museum or library collection, including textiles. • The website for the Regional Alliance for Preservation [LINK], on the other hand, links to professional conservators and organizations to contact for advice or for‐hire help. Searching for information on the websites of institutions with signiGicant collections of clothing and textiles is also quite helpful. • The Victoria and Albert Museum in London has a huge collection of textiles, including lots and lots of historic clothing. Their textile resource pages are fantastic, and they do include a speciGic page on the preservation of wedding gowns and veils [LINK]

• The Smithsonian, which also has large costume collections, runs the Museum Conservation Institute, whose website contains a section on textiles, including a page on how to store clothing and fabrics properly depending on the climate in which you live. [LINK] This is obviously not a comprehensive list, but hopefully can serve as a starting point when looking for information on wedding gown storage and preservation. I know I will probably be revisiting these links at this time next year, when my own wedding is over and I am trying to Gigure out how in the heck to store my dress.

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in miniature

The entertainment may be given by any number of children from three to seven years of age. The more that take part, the surer and more complete the success will be. Forty or fifty should be secured at least, if at all possible. The minister should be a boy about twelve years of age with a clear, strong voice. Great care should be exercised in selecting the bride and groom. Both should be able to be heard distinctly, so that the ceremony may be as effective as possible. The tiniest little folks may with wonderful ease be trained to take the various parts in a . . .

Tom "umb Wed!ng Baker’s Entertainments For Children 1898

The New York City wedding of Charles Stratton and Livinia Warren was the launching pad for the “wedding in miniature” also know as the “Tom Thumb Wedding.” Society in the 1800s was fascinated by Charles Sherwood Stratton, who was discovered by the famed showman Phineas Barnum in 1842, when he was just four years old, stood 25 inches tall and weighed 16 lbs. Barnum taught the child to sing, dance and carry himself onstage, all the while, billing him as a European General. Probably Barnum's most successful sideshow performer, Stratton traveled all over the United States and Europe, meeting many heads of state, including: Abraham Lincoln, Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. In 1863, Stratton married Lavinia Warren Bump, a perfectly proportioned woman who stood 31 inches tall. Their wedding was one of the most important social events of that season in New York, with over 2,000 guest attending the reception. (See Smithsonian description next page.)

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Mr. and Mrs. General Tom Thumb On February 10, 1863, "The Little Queen of Beauty" married international celebrity "General Tom Thumb" in a lavish ceremony at New York's fashionable Grace Church. The two performers enjoyed a true romance before announcing their engagement, which Tom Thumb's employer, P. T. Barnum , promoted to the hilt. For weeks before the wedding, crowds of 20,000 or more paid $3,000 a day to see the bride‐to‐be and her engagement ring. Barnum received 15,000 requests for tickets to the reception (which cost $75 each). On the wedding day, crowds blocked Broadway for hours, and newspapers published pages of detailed descriptions of the "Fairy Wedding," the gifts and the guests, who included New York's most fashionable families. Barnum completed the wedding party with best man "Commodore" George Nutt and Minnie Bump, Lavinia's actual sister, and for years the group toured the globe, eventually reaching Japan, China, Australia, and India. Brady made many Throughout the twentieth century, the wedding of Charles Stratton and Lavinia Warren was commemorated by elementary schools and church Sunday school classes in what were known as “Tom Thumb Weddings.” The events were mainly used as fund raisers. The “Tom Thumb Weddings” spread throughout the country by word of mouth and through printed plays produced by W. H. Baker. In 1898, the “Tom Thumb Wedding” became a part of the series of Baker’s Entertainments for Children. Baker's instructions state that the cast of characters should include "a minister, bride and groom, maid of honor, groomsman, father and mother, bridesmaids, ushers guests, and Glower‐girls. The costumes should be similar to real wedding costumes. They should be as elaborate as possible. They add largely to the successful effect, and are all easily and inexpensively made.”

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Baker's vows for the Groom: I, Tom Thumb, take thee, Jennie June, to be my lawful partner from this day forward, for better, but not for worse, for richer, but not for poorer, so long as your cooking does not give me the dyspepsia, and my mother‐in‐law does not visit oftener than once a quarter, and then not to remain all night; so long as all bills for millinery shall be paid out of spending money furnished by your beloved father, out of gratitude for not having you l e f t u p o n h i s h a n d s i n t h e deplorable station of a helpless spinster. And thereto I give thee my word and honor. Sure enough.

Baker's vows for the Bride: I, Jennie June, take thee, Tom Thumb, to be my lawful partner from this day forward, for better, but not for worse, for richer, but not for poorer; provided that you do not smoke or drink; provided that you will never mention how your mother used to cook, or sew buttons, or make your shirt bosoms shine; provided that you carry up coal three times a day. . . And thereto I give thee my word and honor. Sure enough.

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Tom Thumb weddings even made it to the wild and wooly mining town of Wallace, Idaho, as seen in Shades Wedding Cover photograph. In the nineteenth century, Wallace, Idaho, was a frontier silver mining town in the Coeur d'Alenes mining district. Our cover photograph of a Tom Thumb Wedding was taken in 1898, by T.N. Barnard, the premier landscape photographer in the area. (Thanks to the University of Idaho Library for their assistance in dating this photograph and attributing it to Bernard.)

In 1889 T.N. Barnard and his wife moved to Wallace, Idaho where he established his photo studio. The studio was destroyed in a Gire in 1890 with a small amount of his negatives surviving. Barnard made most of his living from his landscape photographs, which were for sale to the general public and commissions for portraits. Ten years later in 1898, Nellie Stockbridge arrived in Wallace, Idaho. Stockbridge was a dedicated photographer and businesswoman. Initially, Stockbridge worked as a retoucher for Barnard in his studio, and later took over the business when Barnard became mayor of Wallace.

All photographs in the collection of the author.

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Ad - City of Providence Tax Book - 1862

The Imprint Or Logo - Backmark of "A. E. Alden's, Providence, RI," with a pen cancelled orange two‐ cent "U.S. Internal Revenue" tax stamp afGixed to verso. From A.E. ALDEN’S Photographic Rooms, and Emporium og Fine Arts, Nos 59, 61, 63 and 65 Arcade, Providence, R.I. Negatives Preserved, Additional copies furnished if desired.

Augustus E. Alden has been called one of America’s most proliGic photographers during the carte‐de‐visite period. Alden operated photographic studios in (Springfield, Massachusetts) (Saratoga Springs, New York) (Troy, New York) (Providence, Pennsylvania) (New York, New York) (Pittsfield, Massachusetts). Alden was a descendant of the pilgrim John Alden. As you can see from the imprint to the right, the inventive Mr. Alden also set up shop in Barnum’s Museum. Augustus Alden married Ella A. Blake, 8 October 1859. They made their home in Providence with their three children, Martha, Lillie and John, and numerous employees. He died 6 November 1914.