The Future of Memories
Go West Young Man
Hats On The Frontier
Fascination With A Photo
The Family Record
Law, Lawmen & Lawlessness
A Dreadful Past
The Healing Brush
The Fecklessness Of Fashion
On The Cover Photograph Little Sure Shot Library Of Congress
Judge Roy Bean and The Gilded Lilly
Do You Have A Photo Of A
Behind The Camera
Famous Outlaw - Maureen Taylor
Inside The Railroad Car
In Every Issue
From My Keyboard
Letter from the editor Your comments
The Last Picture Show
The graphic image on the back of a carte-de-visite or cabinet card
Download The Magazine
from my keyboard fOOTNOTEMAVEN
OUT WEST In this issue of Shades we travel out West. Well, that is if we can decide just where West is hiding. West means different things to different people, at different times in our history, in different parts of our country. Also, with this issue of Shades we ride off into the sunset minus a member of our posse. George Geder has relinquished the reins of his Healing Brush Column to the very capable Janine Smith. I miss George already. He has been a member of Shades from the very beginning. When I asked him to jump off a cliff with me, he held my hand and we jumped. No questions asked. You couldnâ€™t ask for a better friend. George is being guided by his ancestors. Bringing them to life one document, one photograph at a time. We wish him well and look forward to seeing him as a contributor to Shades in the future! And now we pin a badge on the newest member of our posse, Janine Smith. Janine has been featured on Shades in Friday From The Collectors. She is the owner of Landailyn Research & Restoration, a Texas-based company whose services include family history research and photo restoration. She is an award winning photoshop expert. Many of you know her work, all of you are going to love her. She hits the ground running with an interesting article on photographs and fading. Saddle up! Weâ€™re headed out west.
contributors PENELOPE DREADFUL
Penelope Dreadful is the alter ego of Denise Levenick. Denise authors the blog, The Family Curator and gives us something “Dreadful” every month.
Vicki is the author of Creative Moments. She also authors the blog BeNotForgot.
Janine is the new author of The Healing Brush Column. She also owns Landailyn Research & Restoration and is an award winning restorationist.
Denise is the author of The Future of Memories Column. She also writes the blog Family Matters and experiments with her iPad
Sheri writes The Year Was . . . Column. She also authors the blog The Educated Genealogist.
Caroline is the new In2Genealogy Columnist. She is also the author of the Family Stories blog.
Rebecca authors the Saving Face column. She also writes the blog A Sense of Face.
Craig authors the Appealing Subjects column. He also writes the blog Geneablogie.
Maven edits Shades Of The Departed The Magazine. She also writes the blog footnoteMaven and Shades of the Departed.
LEAVE A MESSAGE WITH THE EXCHANGE Web Sites Worth Surfing By Lisa Alzo Family Chronicle November/December 2010 â€œWhat genealogist can resist an intriguing old photograph or the interesting story behind it? This online destination will satisfy that curiosity and more! Shades of The Departed is a beautifully produced free online blogmagazine dedicated to "the fascination with old photos and our connection to them. . . The magazine is in full color and gives the look and feel of turning pages; only virtually instead of with a printed copy. . . The excellent content and superb presentation make this online resource a must read!â€?
To Lisa Alzo & Family Chronicle: From all those who contribute to this work of LOVE, thank you for acknowledging our magazine. This was a beautiful and unexpected surprise and reward. As always Lisa, your writing shines. The Staff of Shades
Go West Young Man Who said "Go West, young man?" Horace Greeley, would be your answer? Another myth. John L. B. Soule was the real author of the saying. In 1851 Soule was editor of the Terre Haute Express. One day Richard Thompson, later Secretary of War, and Soule had a conversation in which Thompson advised Soule to go West and grow up with the country, while praising his talents as a writer. Thompson challenged Soule to author a column for the paper that would convince people the expression was that of the famous Horace Greeley, Editor of the New York Tribune. Soule started the article by saying Horace Greeley could never have given a young man better advice than that contained in the words, "Go West, young man." Of course, the advice was not quoted from Greeley; it was merely compared to what he might have said. But in a few weeks the exchanges began coming into the Express ofQice with the epigram accredited to Greeley. So wide a circulation did it obtain that at last the, came out with an editorial reprint of the Express article, and the following foot‐note: "The expression of this sentiment has been attributed to the editor of the Tribune erroneously. But so fully does he concur in the advice it gives that he indorses most heartily the epigrammatic advice of the Terre Haute Express, and joins in saying, 'Go West, young man, go West.'" The Illustrated American. Publisher: New York : Illustrated American Pub. Co., 1890.
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Perhaps a better question would be, “Exactly where’s the West?” At the time Greeley adopted the expression he was speaking of Erie, Pennsylvania. The term was often used to denoted any area at the end of the sidewalks. At one time or another in our history, much of the country was considered the wild west. On this and the next page is a “pull” article featured in the Godey’s Lady’s Magazine of 1889. It was meant to entice the population West where everything was bigger better and cheaper. This article was describing Illinois. Not the west of today, but the west of 1889.
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Our vision and our ancestors’ vision of the West was heavily inQluenced by photographs. Take, for example, the photograph of Annie Oakley, Little Sure Shot, on the cover of Shades and below. This was a woman of the West. A member of Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show that traveled the country. Oakley was a girl from Ohio. The photographs of Oakley and Cody show an idealized version of the West.
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These two photographs are a far better representation and most likely people who actually lived and worked in the real West.
Above Two Cowboys I.D. Pete Hutton Leeds, N.D.
Right Woman Wearing Glasses Callaway San Antonio, Texas
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HATS Maureen Taylor ON THE FRONTIER What do President Lyndon Johnson, President Ronald Reagan, reality star Bret Michaels and the Arby’s Roast Beef sign have in common? A cowboy hat. These wide brimmed, high crowned h e a d w e a r
a r e
s y n o ny m o u s w i t h t h e American west.
Excerpt from Fashionable Folks: Bonnets and Hats (Look for it in Spring 2011). Maureen Taylor is known as the Photo Detec%ve. www.maureentaylor.com [LINK]
respecting cowboy (or girl) would
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be without one. One man is responsible for this iconic symbol of the west. John B. Stetson, the son of a Philadelphia hat m a n u f a c t u r e r , developed consumption and went west to recover. This man is part of the
western legend. Supposedly, he showed his traveling companions how to
make tents from felt and also constructed a
In 1906, Stetson died a millionaire. Today
sample hat from the same material. He sold
his company remains in business in
it immediately to a cattle driver. Back in Philadelphia in 1865, Stetson invested $100 in tools and fur launching the John B. Stetson Hat Company. Initially he designed typical hats, but when they didn’t sell he returned to the hat style he’d designed on the frontier. He called it the “Boss of the Plains.” It was similar in design to hats worn by the United States army and by some confederate troops. Wide brimmed hats were also worn on plantations. It was Stetson’s marketing methods that sold it. He sent samples to vendors throughout the United States. He wore his hat everywhere becoming a walking advertisement for his product. An original Stetson had a gold leaf “Stetson” on the inside.
Garland, Texas. Presidents, criminals, western lawmen and even women wore his legendary hat. A scene in the movie M u r p h y ’ s R o m a n c e s u m s u p i t s
Western folks appreciated the simple
attractiveness. James Garner’s character
design. Stetson’s high crowns kept warmth
shows another man, all the ways the hat
near the head of the wearer and because it
can be worn to present an attitude.
was waterproof it kept them dry. It was
According to Lee Hall, author of Common
also functional. Wearers could use them to
Threads: A Parade of American Clothing,
retrieve water from streams or lakes for
“the Stetson signaled success, power, and
washing or drinking. It gained the
individuality. 3 ” A caption on a Farm
nickname “ten‐gallon hat” even though it
Security Administration photo reported,
only held about a half gallon. In 1882, the
“There is an old saying in Texas that a man
best quality Stetson hats sold for $3.50.2
never buys but two Stetsons, one when he Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 13
gets married and the other when his oldest son gets married.4” While their husbands (and a few women) donned these utilitarian hats, frontier women wore bonnets that resembled styles worn in the 1840s. They were Qitted at the back of the head and extended a bit past the face. A piece of fabric called a curtain covered the neck in the back. These functional headwear, protected women’s skin from damaging sunlight and provided some shade. In this period, fashionable women shied away from freckled, tan complexions. Any woman could make her own bonnet from simple cotton fabric. Distinctly western clothing—levis, chaps, and loose Qitting dresses called “mother hubbard’s” enabled men and women to work unencumbered by fashion. From the tops of their Stetson or bonnet covered heads to their functional boots, these frontier men and women wore what the rest of the world would consider “American fashion.” Sources Hall, Lee. Common Threads: A Parade of American Clothing. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1992. Lee, Russell “Cattleman with his grandson at auction of beef steers and breeding stock at the San Gelo Fat Stock Show, San Angelo, Texas,” March 1940. Library of Congress LC‐USF346‐035542‐C Murphy’s Romance (1986). Directed by Martin Ritt. Nuttall, Kelly., “The History of Stetson Hats.” www.ehow.com. Accessed on October 13, 2010. Photos and captions Cowboys Eating Tomatoes. Photographer Erwin E. Smith, Bonham , Texas. Library of Congress, Lot 13593, no. 27. Russell Lee, “Cattleman with his grandson at auction of beef steers and breeding stock at the San Gelo Fat Stock Show, San Angelo, Texas. The Stetson hat,k leather coat and boots are standard everyday wear of ranchman.” March 1940. Library of Congress LC‐USF346‐035542‐C Woman in a frontier bonnet. Tintype. C. 1880s. Collection of the author.
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Fascination with a photo Del Rio Texas Chamber of Commerce
Judge Roy Bean & The Gilded Lillie
Legend has it that after viewing a photograph of English actress Lillie Langtry on a playbill, Judge Roy Bean took her last name for the name of his town. He then christened his saloon after
There are only half a dozen houses in Langtry, and one of them is a combination 'Beer and Law Shop' presided over by Judge Roy Bean, who is the most autocratic and most original Judge in all Texas. As the name of the town is Langtry, the Judge...has quite appropriately named his place the 'Jersey Lily.' His sign bears these words: 'Ice Cold Beer & Law West of the Pecos.' The Reporter's Nosegay: Brightest and Best Blossoms From the Philadelphia Record's Famous Column, 1890. by Charles Reade Bacon 16 Shades MAGAZINE | Out West 2011
Del Rio Texas Chamber of Commerce
her nickname, "Jersey Lily.â€?
Unfortunately, a sign painter misspelled "Lily" and the sign read "The Jersey Lilly".
Lillie Langtry - In The Collection Of The Author
Well, there goes a lovely legend! The town of Langtry started its municipal life as Eagles Nest, Texas. In 1882, it was renamed for George Langtry, an engineer and foreman who supervised the immigrant Chinese work crews building the railroad through the area. The town being named Langtry and Bean’s fascination with Lillie Langtry was merely a coincidence, but a rather fortuitous one. Roy Bean was one of the Qirst citizens of Langtry. He had left his home in Kentucky at age sixteen to follow his brothers Sam and Joshua out west. Sam owned a saloon and trading post in Chihuahua where Roy was employed. Roy killed a Mexican outlaw who tried to rob the store and Qled to California to escape retaliation. He lived with Joshua who owned a successful saloon and was the Qirst mayor of San Diego. A duel over women landed Roy in jail in 1852. Those same women smuggled knives inside hot tamales into the jail and Roy escaped. He went back to work for Joshua who was killed two years later in a love triangle. As you can see, before becoming the stuff of legend, Roy Bean had a very checkered past, most of it involving women. In 1863, while living in San Antonio, Roy settled down marrying and fathering four children. To support his growing family, he engaged in several money‐making enterprises that were certainly less than honest. He chopped wood taken from land he didn’t own and sold milk he thinned with river water. The milk scheme worked until a customer found a minnow swimming in the milk. Bean’s creative waterin’ them cows at the river.” When the marriage soured, Roy headed for
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Courtesy Of WebShots
explanation? “By Gobs, that’s what I get for
Vinegaroon, Texas, to a tent city populated by hundreds of railroad workers. Roy set up his own tent selling liquor and goods. He was his own best customer. 2 August 1882, authorities appointed Roy justice of the peace for Precinct 6, Pecos County Texas. Roy moved on to Langtry, and with the exception of one term, was elected to the position of Justice Of The Peace from 1882 to 1902. Here he built the famous Jersey Lilly (combination saloon, billiard hall, and courtroom) and became the “Law West of the Pecos.” Roy had one law book, The Revised Statutes of Texas, 1879. He used no other. Most of his decisions were arbitrary and consisted of emptying the accused's pockets. Dead or alive. The most famous case involved a worker who fell from a bridge with fatal results. Roy conducted the inquest conQiscating the dead man's pistol, "for the use of the court," and Qining him forty dollars for carrying a concealed weapon. Just the amount of money found in the dead man's pockets. A connection to the famous Lillie Langtry would bode you well in Roy's court. A cow thief hauled into court looked at the wall behind the bar covered with photographs of the famous actress and mentioned he had seen her perform in Chicago. Court was adjourned to the bar where the case was dismissed in exchange for a description of the actress's performance.
While legend cites Judge Bean as a "hanging Judge," there is no record he ever sentenced a man to be hung. The Judge encouraged the legend that the town was named for the famous actress whose beauty he so admired. In the many letters he wrote to Langtry, asking her to travel west and visit, he claimed the legend as gospel.
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Upon receiving a note from Roy that he had named the town in her honor, Lillie wrote and offered to have a fountain built in the square. Roy thanked her profusely, but refused the gift saying, “if there’s anything these hombres of Langtry don’t drink, it’s water.” Judge Roy Bean died March 19, 1903, and on New Year's Day, 1904, Lillie made her only visit to Langtry, a one‐hour stopover on her way to San Francisco. The citizens of the town presented her with Roy’s bear (which escaped) and his pistol. It is said she kept the pistol on her mantle for the rest of her life.
Chittenden, Lawrence W. Ranch Verses. New York City: Putnam’s, 1921.
All this from a photograph.
Chittenden, Lawrence W. Ranch Verses. New York City: G. P. Putnam’s & Sons, 1921. Slatta, Richard W. The Mythical West: An Encyclopedia of Legend, Lore, and Popular Culture. Oxford : ABC-Clio, 2001. Texas Monthly, “The Gilded Lily.” 1979.
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Lilly Langtry was one of the Qirst celebrities to use her image for commercial advertising. Pears, a very famous English beauty soap, had an active advertising campaign in which they paid notables to endorse their soap. One of the most beautiful actresses of her day Mrs. Langtry provided the celebrity endorsement on the advertisement seen here. The photograph below, used for the advertisement, was sold by Henry Rocher & Company, Chicago.
A New York Photographer told an interviewer that. . . The Qirst person I ever paid (for a photograph) was Sarah Bernhardt. . . But one of the greatest cards of recent years is Mrs. Langtry. We have sold so many pictures of her I should really be afraid to make an estimate, but scores of thousands of her photographs are sold every year.
THE FUTURE OF MEMORIES
the family record DOCUMENTING EVENTS BY DENISE BARRETT OLSON
For generations, the family Bible has documented the big events of our family history. While these bits of history are precious treasures, the modern family has become more complex with blended families resulting from multiple marriages ‐ or even no marriages ‐ and friendships as close as any family could be. In addition, we want to document more events than just births, deaths and weddings. How do we give all these events and relationships the attention they deserve? The increased interest in scrapbooking may well be a result of this desire. I’m constantly impressed with the imaginative ways scrapbookers document both the big family events and those tiny precious moments that often live only in a memory. Although I don’t have the time or room to pursue this fascinating hobby, it doesn’t mean I can’t steal some of their techniques and put them to use on a much smaller scale. Sometime back, I found a beautiful artist journal that wasn’t too big or too small. Since then, I’ve been building pages to document important family events. Photos and memorabilia ‐ such as this invitation to my brother’s wedding ‐ get tucked into the book until I have a few minutes to arrange them properly. For events that don’t have photos, I’ll write the necessary information on a blank page and hope that something will be acquired later.
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In addition to the births, deaths and weddings, I’ve got pages celebrating graduations, retirements, anniversaries, reunions, special awards and other newsworthy items for family, blended family and special friends. Unfortunately, my beautiful artist journal is almost full as is my storage closet. My time is more often spent digitizing these special mementos than arranging them in a paper book. Recently, I’ve been looking into digital alternatives for my family record. My Qirst thought was to move to a digital scrapbooking platform. In addition to photos and digitized memorabilia, digital scrapbooks support both audio and video. Hmmm. Tempting, but this is more time‐consuming that I want and my archival options are slim. While I can print the resulting pages ‐ and even print them to PDF Qiles ‐ other alternatives are slim and may not adapt to future technology changes. I found a delightful alternative sitting right on my desktop ‐ my journal. I use MacJournal [LINK ] to “jot down” ideas for articles, notes about events, phone calls and other parts of my daily life. I also use it to record personal notes like an interesting recipe, a useful quote or an event to remember. MacJournal supports including photos, audio and video items in my journal entries and allows me to maintain multiple journals. Better yet, my archival options include text, rich text with attachments, PDF and HTML (my preferred option). So now I’m pushing beyond my existing MacJournal comfort zone to experiment with the features that would support my family record and see what I can do to add some creative pizzazz to my journal entries. It’s looking like this could provide design Qlexibility with a minimal amount of effort (after I get past the self‐education phase) to give me a lovely digital alternative to my original artist journal. And, because it is digital, I’ll be able to share my family record by exporting and emailing it anytime I please. Windows users will Qind several journal/diary options that might work for you. Take a look at Advanced Diary [LINK ]or The Journal [LINK] to see if one of them Qits your style. Today’s digital journals are much more than a Dear Diary replacement. They provide the technology to document our family history in such a way that the people, places and events come alive with video and audio supporting the event’s vital statistics. Think of the treasure this will be for your future generations. Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 25
law, lawmen, & lawlessness A GALLERY OF PHOTOGRAPHS CRAIG MANSON
Fort Smith, Arkansas, is the home of the United States District Court for the Western District of Arkansas. In the late 19th century, the court's jurisdiction extended into most of Indian Territory (where the present day state of Oklahoma is). The presiding judge of the court from 1875 to 1896 was Judge Isaac C. Parker, who came to be known as the "Hanging Judge," because of the 160 death sentences he handed out. Parker delivered sentences with oratorical Qlourish. For example, in condemning Mary Kettenring to the gallows for the murder of her husband, Parker said: The details of the terrible crime are shocking in the extreme. They show such wickedness, such brutality, and such total disregard of human life as to shock and sicken the stoutest heart. These details all point in one direction, and that is towards your guilt, as well as the guilt of your associates. . . . . . . I suggest that you endeavor to be forgiven by the God whose law you have most wickedly offended. Ask mercy at His hands. We are taught that you can only obtain it by sorrow and repentance for having taken upon your soul the stain of the terrible crime springing from your having, for gain, most cruelly and most wickedly robbed your husband, Andrew J. Kettenring of his life; of an innocent and unoffending life. [Note: Mary Kettenring's conviction was overturned on appeal and she was acquitted in another trial before a different judge]. 26 Shades MAGAZINE | Out West 2011
Parker ordered that a gallows that could accommodate six prisoners at once be built on the grounds of the courthouse.
Yet, Parker said of himself,
"I am the most misunderstood and misrepresented of men. Misrepresented because misunderstood." He did not see himself as particularly cruel or death‐inclined. He had been the city attorney of St Joseph, Missouri, and later a congressman from that district. As a member of Congress, Parker supported omen’s suffrage and sponsored legislation to care for veterans. As a judge, he sat on the school board of Fort Smith and was a community‐spirited individual. He imposed the death penalty only cases of rape and murder, which were capital offense under federal law. And his jurisdiction was unique. Lawlessness ran rampant in Indian Territory because of conQlicts between whites and Indians. The federal government had done little to "ensure domestic tranquility" in the Territory. Parker's judicial predecessor, had been impeached for judicial improprieties. The sobriquet "Hanging Judge" is probably too harsh in connotation for Judge Parker. He took his enormous responsibility seriously. For most of the time he was on the bench, federal law provided no appeal from a judgment of death. Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 27
Parker eschewed the circus atmosphere that surrounded hangings. On execution days, he generally stayed away from the courthouse. Parker had at his disposal more than 200 deputy United States Marshals‐‐an unheard‐of number for a one judge court. Their job was rid Indian Territory of crime. Among the deputies who served with Parker's court were Bass Reeves, said to be the Qirst African‐American to become a deputy U.S. Marshal. One of the more colorful defendants to come before Judge Parker was the notorious Belle Starr. She was tried for horse theft, a long with her husband Sam Starr, and sentenced by Parker to nine months in prison. Parker handed down more death sentences than any other s i n g l e d i s t r i c t j u d g e i n history.
Above - Bass Reeves Left - Belle Starr
JUDGE LYNCH AND HIS POSTCARDS FROM HELL There was another "hanging judge" who stalked the Old West; he was known as Judge Lynch. Commissioned by fear and credentialed by prejudice, Judge Lynch took many more lives than Judge Parker, with the explicit support of communities from Denver to San Francisco. Often, out of either cowardice or complicity, legitimate lawmen stood aside and allow their prisoners to be taken from them by mobs. According to the Tuskegee University archives, the following table shows the number of 28 Shades MAGAZINE | Out West 2011
lynchings in western states from the 1880s to the 1960s.
Above - Laura Nelson Okemah, Oklahoma 1911 Table Indicating Lynchings in western states from 1880s to the 1960s
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Judge Lynch's victims were frequently "memorialized" on postcards. Here are some of them. Some readers may Qind these images very disturbing. Right - [Reno] A man named "Red" Wood is hanged in Nevada's last lynching, Hazen, Nevada, 1905.
Above - [Nebraska] William Brown, lynched 1919, Douglas County, Nebraska.
Right - [Santa Rosa] unknown man lynched in Santa Rosa, California 1920
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Above - [Duluth] Elmer Jackson, Elias Clayton, and Isaac McGhie hanged at Duluth, Minnesota, June 1920, falsely accused of rape and murder. (The evidence of rape was slim and the alleged murder victim was alive and healthy after the alleged event). Note: The city of Duluth has apologized and built a monument to the three dead men. In 1918, a Finnish immigrant was hanged in Duluth for refusing the WWI draft.
Right [Montana]Compton and Wilson, most likely cattle rustlers, hanged in Helena, Montana
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Above Left - [Tombstone] John Heath, hanged at Tombstone, Arizona Above Center - [Redding]The Ruggles Brothers, John and Charles, accused highway robbers, hanged at Redding, California 1892. Above Right - [Missouri] Lynching at Sixto, Missouri, year unknown Below - [Oregon] 1900
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a dreadful past MANY HAD SOUGHT HER BY PENELOPE DREADFUL
Belle turned away from her husband’s casket as the Qirst clods of the damp cold Dakota earth struck the wooden box. She moved slowly, murmuring her thanks to those who stood behind her, heads bowed, in reverence and grief, and making her way to the ebony carriage waiting beyond the headstones. Someone offered an arm to guide her, but she declined with a shake of her head, silver curls bouncing. No, she thought, I will do this alone. Each heavy step was made with care, Belle supremely conscious that her once‐strong limbs had weakened with the years. She couldn’t risk a fall, not now, not until she had taken care of something at home. Belle had not been alone for so long, it must have been years. Always, Albert was there. And then when he became ill, Albert and his devoted nurse made certain that Belle was never lonely, never in need of anything, but never alone. Now, all she wanted, was a few minutes to herself. In her home. Alone. Before Albert’s children came pushing through the door, their grasping hands touching every thing and part of the life she had built with her own Prince, her own Knight in Shining Armor. The carriage pulled up to a stately brick home, built only two decades ago when Albert recognized his wife’s need for a home of her own, one free of the echoes of previous lives and wives.
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She walked with determination to the front door, and let herself in. Earlier, the servants had all been ushered out by Albert’s children. They didn’t want the expense of one extra day’s wages. Belle loved the house, every ornate turret and scrolled cornice. She had felt like a princess approving Albert’s construction plans and ordering furnishings for the grand life Albert planned. And oh, life had been grand. The balls, the dinner parties, the cozy evenings by the Qire. Her skirts rustling as she moved, still graceful at nearly three score years, Belle moved up the curving staircase her hand on the carved walnut banister. She remembered fondly how Albert had deQied each birthday by sliding down the railing like a mischievous boy, she standing at the bottom of the stairs, holding her breath lest he slip off too soon. His only concession to another decade was to begin the descent one stair step lower each year; at his last celebration he was still halfway to the second Qloor. Belle moved quickly to the bedrooms, and through to Albert’s private dressing room. What she sought was surely there, Belle thought. She recalled seeing the photograph propped against his shaving mirror, but it had disappeared just about the time Albert became ill, and now she wanted to Qind it before someone else did! The dressing room was lined with Qitted drawers and cupboards. One by one, Belle pulled them out and patted the contents with her gloved hand. Finally, frustrated and empty‐ handed she sighed deeply and sat down in a chair.
Where can it be, she thought. Where ever would he have put it, or…
The alternative was almost too much to bear. If Albert’s children had found the picture they might threaten to expose her or, even worse, take legal action against her. Beautiful Belle had grown used to the comforts provided by her loving husband and was reluctant to lose everything to her vengeful stepsons. Albert had made clear that he would
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provide for her, and she did not intend to let his greedy children leave her a homeless pauper instead. If only he had notarized or Qiled the Will he wrote and read to her. “I have an appointment,” he had said. And then, the photo and the Will were gone, and a few weeks later, Albert was gone too. His sons conQirmed a decades‐old document and told Belle the sad news – Albert had died leaving her penniless. “I don’t believe it,” Belle cried out frustration. “I won’t believe it.” She grasped the carved arm of the chair to rise and her Qingers touched something crisp on the underside of the wood. Belle stopped. She dropped to her knees and looked closely at the chair. “Of course,” she smiled. “The chair. Oh, Albert, you silly wonderful man. Oh Albert.” ConQidently now, Belle tilted her head and followed her line of sight with her arm to remove an envelope, carefully tacked beneath the chair. Just large enough to hold a cabinet card photograph, the envelope was simply addressed: To My Belle (I knew you would keep looking, my dear). She pulled out two items. A short simple document naming Belle heir to their home, its furnishings, and enough income to maintain her very comfortably for life. True to his kind nature, Albert named each son and listed the businesses and properties that would be theirs as well. He even made bequests to the servants that would keep them securely in their old age. And then, she removed a photograph that she knew well. It was an image made in her youth, a popular photograph that had found it’s way into the hands of many gentlemen. Holding the picture, they came to Qind her, to gaze and sigh and hope. Many had sought her, but only Albert had won her heart.
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Photograph From The Collection Of footnoteMaven
THE HEALING BRUSH
photographs fade AN INEVITABLE FACT BY JANINE SMITH
Photographs fade. This is an inevitable fact. Some fade faster than others, due to conditions such as the way the photo is stored, or displayed, or the way it was developed for instance. You can slow down the process, in most cases, by employing proper archival storage methods, but sooner or later they will fade. Naturally, the lightest areas of a photo will fade Qirst. It’s fairly rare to see a photograph taken outdoors in the 20’s to have any detail (that is clouds) visible at all. In this photograph of Soldier Jewell Bond, you’ll notice the whole side (his left, our right) of his face has faded and much of the detail information of his ear, the curl of his handlebar mustache, the lower eye area and the side of his nose is now gone, even though the detail in the rest of the portrait is very good. What this tells us is that the photographer probably used a very bright light, probably an electric arc‐lamp, at the left of the subject. This lighting was very harsh and bright, causing the over lit areas of the face to fade Qirst.
A Note From The Author: I am more than honored to be asked to assume the responsibility of The Healing Brush. I am not replacing George Geder, as no one could ever replace George. It’s more a case of my stepping in to give George a little more time to work on his passion, African Ancestored Genealogy. These are some mighty big shoes I’m attempting to Rill, and I only hope I do George proud. I know he’ll always be there when I have to cry “Help!” and will be happy to do so, because that’s just the kind of wonderful person he is.
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Evaluation of Photograph When evaluating this photo for restoration, I determined three primary goals; correcting the color cast, repairing the discolored areas and other specks/spots and bringing back at least some detail in the faded area. The Qirst thing I tackled is the color correction. Starting at the top, there are many ways to correct color cast, but there’s no “one size Qits all” method. No one way is the only way, and no one way is better than any other when you’re talking about color cast or photographs in general. However, not every method will work on every photo. CASTING OUT COLOR Since this photo isn’t, and more importantly, never was, color, two particular methods came to mind, both essentially striping all or most of the color away. Since this wasn’t a color photo, all the color we see is the result of age, so removing the color won’t take away any of its historical signiQicance. The two possibilities I considered were converting the photo to its original black and white state, or, using the Hue and Saturation adjustment to lower the hues of the color cast, rendering it black and white, but with a slight remnant of the color cast, for a duotone effect. Let’s take a look at the Hue/Saturation option, Qirst.
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Both Photoshop and Photoshop Elements have Hue/Saturation adjustments, found in the Adjustments panel in both editors. Once in the Hue/Saturation panel, Qind the dropdown box at the top, set to “Master” as default. This dropdown box represents colors within the image. Try to determine the color cast you want to lessen by eye. If you see a yellow cast, in the drop down menu select Yellow, and move the Saturation slider down. You can take the slider all the way down, until you have a black and white photo, or you can leave just a bit of color. I personally prefer to leave a little color simply Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 41
because I believe it makes the photo a little more attractive than a stark black and white image. If there is more than one color cast present, repeat the process by choosing that color in the drop down menu. If the color isn’t present in the image, change the saturation slider, it won’t affect the image at all, so if you’re having trouble determining if the cast is red or magenta, try them both and see what happens! In Photoshop, you can choose the selection slider and use it to determine the color cast you want to lessen. Choose the selection icon, shown in the illustration, on the previous page, and click on the color you want to identify. Without taking your cursor from the area, you can even slide your mouse to the left to lower the saturation value.
The other possibility we’ll consider is converting the image to black and white. This the one I would ultimately choose, and I’ll tell you why in a moment, but Qirst I want to discuss why, if possible, I recommend not going the route many would, converting the entire image to black and white, either by removing channels, converting to grayscale, or converting to black and white in anything other than an adjustment layer. Among many other reasons, if
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you convert to grayscale, or remove a channel (an option only available in the full version of Photoshop, not in Elements), you are Qlattening the image, striping its channels away. Not only do these channels contain color information, but depth in tone. To my way of thinking, it’s always a good idea to leave options open, and by Qlattening an image, whether by taking out channels or Qlattening layers, you’re losing some options you may Qind you need again later. Even though converting an image to black and white without an adjustment layer, either by Image > Adjustments > Black & White in Photoshop or by Enhance > Convert to Black & White in Elements, will not technically Qlatten the image, you are modifying your original layer. Work with an adjustment layer in Photoshop and be sure to duplicate your original layer, a good practice, regardless of what software you use. The duplicate layer will essentially become your adjustment layer in Elements. In fact, a black and white adjustment layer will suit just as well in any circumstance as removing channels.
The Red, Green & Blue Channels For This Image BETTER BLACK AND WHITE One of the arguments for removing color channels in digital photo restoration is that not only do the channels include color and tonal information, but damage information, as well. In other words, there may be one channel that contains much less damage information than the other channels, then, therefore the thinking is if you only keep that channel, you’ll be getting rid of much of the damage, and as a consequence part of the restoration work will be done away with, as well. If you look at the example, above, you’ll see the red channel has less damage remaining than the green channel, and much less than the blue channel. Obviously, if you remove the green and blue channels, you’ll have a much cleaner image to begin your restoration work on, so this is what we’ll do in this case. But we won’t physically
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remove the color channels; instead we’ll use a workaround that will keep our channels intact.
A Black & White Adjustment
The very same outcome can be accomplished by making a black and white adjustment. The default Qilters include red, green and blue Qilters among the others. These will effectively mimic the color channels and you can have the result without striping the channels themselves!
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Here - Vivid Landscape Takes The Red Intensity Way Up In Photoshop Elements 9, in the Convert to Black & White dialog (Enhance > Convert to Black & White), go through the default settings to Qind the one that will give you the same basic results. In this case, the Vivid Landscapes Qilter takes the Red Intensity way up, mimicking the red channel. Usually by using a color channel to lessen the damage, as we’ve mimicked by using the Red Filter in the Black & White adjustments, you also get a lighter over‐all image. It’s a case of giving up something, in this case, contrast and depth, to beneQit from something else, which here is less damage to Qix. But it’s not anything that can’t be easily Qixed with one simple step. Duplicate all your layers using keyboard shortcut Shift+Ctrl+Alt+E (Shift+Cmd+Opt+E on a Mac). With this duplicate layer active, go to the Layer Blend Mode dropdown menu at the top of the layers panel and select the Multiply Layer Blend Mode. The result might be too dark, if so, simply bring the opacity of the layer down. In this case, I lowered the opacity to 50%.
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CLEAN UP CREW Now we’ve gotten rid of the color cast, gotten rid of some of the damage, and brought some depth back into the photo. Now we’ll Qinish cleaning it up. Before you start, duplicate all the layers, one more time. This will be your working layer, the one you’ll be doing all your healing brush and cloning work on. Most of the work you’ll be doing is this type of monotonous work, but as monotonous as it may be, it’s crucial to take your time, work up close with a small brush and take your time. It’s this work that can really make or break the restoration. Be very careful, especially when working with areas as faded as some in this image, to not clone away areas that actually should be there!
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When we’re done with the small specks and spots (which we won’t go over bit by bit, here, because we’d all fall asleep), we’ll move on to the few remaining bits of larger damage. In this image, there is only one major stain left after the black and white conversion. It’s not terribly large, and can be Qixed easily with the Patch Tool or the Healing Brush.
PUTTING A LITTLE COLOR BACK Perhaps it’s just my personal preference, but I think an old black and white photo never looks its best stripped of all its patina. It’s a little like an Octogenarian whom has earned every line upon their face getting a face lift and having every single wrinkle removed. It just
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doesn’t look quite right. To put color back in, we’ll use a faux Duotone technique, using two colors to give the photo depth. You can use any two colors you like, though brownish‐red tones, yellow‐brown tones and grays seem to work well on very old photos. In this case, I use two tones in the yellow and brown ranges. Begin by making a new, blank layer, at the top of your layer stack, by selecting the Create a New Layer icon.
Fill the layer with your Qirst color (here, cfc295). If you’re color is the foreground color in the color selector in your tool menu, use keyboard shortcut Alt or Opt+ Backspace, if it’s the background color, use Ctrl or Cmd+ Backspace. Go to the Layer Blend Mode drop down menu at the top of the layers panel. Scroll through them (click on “Dissolve” under “Normal”, then use the down arrow on your keyboard to scroll down) to see what each blend mode does. Find one that adds a bit of color, tone and depth. I chose Color Burn, and then lowered the opacity to 35%.
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Create another new, blank layer over the Qirst color layer, and Qill with your second color choice (in this case #eee9ce). Again, scroll through the blend modes to Qind the look you like. I used the Lighten blend mode here, and lowered the opacity to 20%. There’s no rule about the opacity level, either. Use what looks good to you. You’re looking for a look that feels authentic and you also can’t go wrong with subtle.
Remember, you can always change your color choices, blend modes and opacity values. Experiment to Rind the look you like best!
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An Outlaw In The Family?
Ask Maureen Taylor The Photo Detective
Several years ago a client contacted me to sort out the truth from the Qiction in a photo. He was told it depicted Jesse James. This notorious and legendary western gunman has an incredible number of pictures attributed to him. All it takes is a quick search on Google image www.google.com (click on the Images tab) to see what I mean. There are dozens of supposed images of the man. So what’s a person to do if they think they own a picture of a famous Qigure? First step back and face reality. In 99% of the cases, the photograph is a look‐alike not the actual person but a facial double. I’m not talking about “mass produced” images sold by photographers, booksellers and publishers that our ancestors collected, but original one‐of‐kind photographs.
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Before jumping to conclusions, learn everything you can about the famous individual such as life dates, where they lived and who they married. Find copies of all known and veriQied pictures of them for comparison purposes. Next, try to Qind documents such as pension papers or enlistment papers that mention physical description. You’ll need that later. In order for a photograph to be authenticated there are a few things that tell an actual picture from a close second. Provenance: Knowing the trail of ownership is a key piece of the puzzle. Can you directly trace the photo back to the famous person or their family? If you don’t know the answer to that question, there is already an unanswered question about the veracity of the image. Context: Was the photograph taken in the area in which they lived or traveled? Let’s assume you don’t have a photographic copy of an original. If you know that James never traveled to Alaska, but you have a picture of him taken in that region, then it’s probably not him. If you’ve already gotten this far, let’s see how the rest of the evidence adds up. Photographic method: What type of photograph is it? In another client’s case, the famous person died in the 1840s during the daguerreotype age (1839‐c. 1865), but the image was a tintype, a type of photograph that didn’t appear until 1856. A good overview of photographic types appears in O. Henry Mace’s Collector’s Guide to Early Photographs (Krause, 1999). Photographer: Research a photographer like they are a member of the family. Search their name on Google, in census records and don’t forget city directories. You can verify when and where they worked. If you have a photograph of a young person in 1860s clothing, but a photographer who had a studio active in the 1880s, then it’s likely the picture is a copy of an earlier image. Clothing: Does the clothes Qit the timeframe in which the subject lived? For instance, James died in 1882 so a man with a waxed handlebar mustache is probably not him. Those types
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of mustaches were very common in the late 1890s, but not during his life. Study the clothing from head to toe, then use guides such as Joan Severa’s Dressed for the Photographer (Kent State University Press, 1995) for comparison. Facial Characteristics: The most difQicult photo identiQication technique involves comparing facial characteristics. In particular it is helpful to look at the following: Shape of face: oval, heart shaped, round, square Eyes (shape, position, color, size) Nose and nostrils (shape, position, size) Ears (shape, size, position on head, length) [There are thirteen parts of the ear used by the CIA for comparison purposes. Ears, like Qingerprints, are unique] Hair pattern (baldness, widow’s peaks) Eyebrows (size, shape Moles Teeth In addition to looking at the images, it helps to compare the measurements between various features such as the length of the tip of the ear to the point of the chin, and the space between the eyes. In my client’s case, the facts added up nicely and I thought he actually owned a photo of Jesse James. The man had Jesse’s narrow jaw, exact eyes, the same shaped face and an interesting bump on one of his ears. It took time, but additional facts came to light about ownership and family history. Photos Jesse James 1864, Library of Congress Jesse James, May 22, 1882, Library of Congress, Biog File, James, Jesse. This caption obviously contains unveriQied information. Jesse was killed on April 3, 1882. Maureen Taylor, www.maureentaylor.com, is known as the Photo Detective. Watch her videos on Vimeo. You’ll Rind her at Facebook and on Twitter too. So…Do you think they are the same man? Email me at email@example.com. Photos
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While I don’t have permission to share my clients’ image, here are two from the Library of Congress. So…Do you think they are the same man? Email me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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the fecklessness of fashion HOW A FORMED RODENT FORMED THE WEST BY CAROLINE POINTER
“O Beautiful for spacious skies, For amber waves of grain, For purple mountain majesties Above the fruited plain!” ~ 1st stanza of America the Beautiful Rirst written by Katherine Lee Bates as a poem in 1893 while atop the mountain, Pikes Peak, which is named after the explorer Zebulon Pike, who unsuccessfully attempted to be the Rirst to climb the mountain, but had to be satisRied with being the Rirst to observe and document the peak in 1806. ~
Thanks, in part, to Hollywood and its penchant for romanticizing real life, for most people the term, “Old West,” conjures up images of cowboys, horses, outlaws, stagecoach robberies, and gold miners, just to name a few. But how did this rough and rowdy era known as the “Old West” get started? Why did it start? And, most importantly, how can knowing these answers help you in your genealogical and family history research? The reasons are many and varied and while it's rather difQicult to dissect history, it could be said that this era began with a helluva business deal, a rather cute rodent, and fashion. And
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somehow, without the help of Entertainment Tonight and cable news, these three elements started what would eventually become the “Old West.” And what does all this have to do with genealogy? Actually, quite a bit. These three events led to exploration of the wild west, which led to more land acquisitions, which led to the forced displacement of Native Americans, which led to frontier wars with Native Americans and border wars with Mexico, which led to more and more people from the East Coast to migrate westward, and luckily for researchers there are many online resources for this time period that exist and can be used to help document the lives of ancestors and to help discover who they were. Were they Native Americans? Cowboys? Explorers? Miners? Traders? Outlaws? Prostitutes? Who were these ancestors who moved out West during the 19th Century to Qind the opportunities that this raw land had to offer? Further, there are some fundamental historical events that occurred during the 19th Century that can help lead you to genealogical clues about your ancestors. Following is a guide, of sorts, of these events and some links to websites that may be helpful in focusing your efforts on these ancestors that made that risky westward trek. “You may have made a noble bargain for yourselves, and I suppose you will make the most of it.” ~The French Minister Talleyrand remarked to the American Ambassador to France, Robert R. Livingston, upon the U.S.'s purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million in 1803.~ A HELLUVA BUSINESS DEAL The French Minister was correct. At just under 4 cents per acre, it was a bargain, and President Thomas Jefferson did not pause in Qinding out how America could make the most of it. In early 1804, he sent Lewis & Clark to Qind just what America had bought. However, Lewis & Clark were not the only explorers to set out to Qind what was beyond the Mississippi River. Many other explorers, such as Zebulon Pike, Stephen Long, and Robert Stuart, explored the area as well. Links to more information about the Louisiana Purchase and these early explorers can be found below.
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LOUISIANA PURCHASE: Information about and digital images of the Louisiana Purchase with a map of the territory from the National Archives. [LINK] The Louisiana Purchase [LINK] Louisiana Purchase Manuscript Goes On Public Display [LINK] National Geographic: Lewis and Clark [LINK] Louisiana Purchase: Primary Documents in American History [LINK] Lewis and Clark Trail [LINK] Map from 1810 of U.S. and its territories showing the Louisiana Territory. [LINK] Map of the Lewis & Clerk Expedition [LINK] Westward Expansion and Exploration, 1803‐1807 [LINK] Exploration and Settlement, 1820 [LINK] Explorers, Trappers, and Traders – A list with links to more information. [LINK] A RODENT MAKES AN HISTORICAL FASHION STATEMENT Who would have ever guessed that the craze over beaver hats in English fashion in the 19th Century would lead to opening the western part of the United States? There's nothing like a little Qinancial incentive to get risk‐taking adventurers to create new trails or Qind existent trails in an unexplored land (at least unexplored to the European white man) in order to trap beavers and trade their pelts at trading posts throughout the West. However by 1845, the remaining North American beavers' collective sigh of relief could be heard 'round the world, I'm sure, when, in the Qickleness of English fashion, beaver hats were out and silk hats became haute couture. Thus, ending “Beaver Fever” and leaving silk worms frantically trying to increase their production to meet the new demand. Following are links to information about fur traders, fur trading, trading posts, cattle trails and migration trails that include maps. Many of these trails and trading posts were employed throughout the 19th Century for a multitude of uses, including stagecoach routes, mail routes, railroad lines, and military forts, and links to maps of these are included as well. Keep in mind that as transportation methods improved, the number of people migrating increased as well. Therefore, depending upon when they migrated, taking a look at these maps might be helpful in Qinding your ancestor's migration route, in locating where they might have made pit stops on their journeys, and in Qinding where they may have eventually settled. At the very least, they can give you an idea of how tough it was to travel back then and give you a glimpse of how badly they must have wanted to go.
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“The making of a beaver hat was a complicated process involving the removal of a pelt's guard hairs to produce a wool called Rluff (only the soft underfur could be used), and a brushing of the stripped pelt with nitrate of mercury to stain the tips a yellowish red. Over time the mercury vapor often attacked the nervous system of the hat maker, distorting his speech, causing twitching and lurching, and giving rise to the term 'mad as a hatter.'” ~Page Stegner in Winning the Wild West
TRAPPERS AND TRADERS: Explorers, Trappers, and Traders – A list with links to more information. [LINK] Jedediah Smith and America's Western Expansion and Exploration [LINK] John Jacob Astor: Wealthy Merchant and Fur Trader [LINK] American Mountain Men and Western Fur Trade: Trapping and Trading ‐ designed for children, but is very informative for everyone. [LINK] Museum of the Fur Trade [LINK] The Mountain Men [LINK] Traders and Indian Trappers of Beaver Pelts [LINK] Mountain Men, Fur Trappers [[LINK]
Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, Exploration and Settlement 1820-1835
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Trails Linking the West [LINK] Trails and Roads in the American West [LINK] Tales and Trails of the American West [LINK] Historic Trails of the Old West [LINK] Fur Trading in the American West [LINK] America On the Move: John C. Fremont (Eyewitness: American Originals from the National Archives)[LINK] Map of the Oregon Trail [LINK] Many maps of U.S. trails and its westward expansion. [LINK] Trails West Across the Plains and Mountains [LINK] Trails West: A Map of Early Western Migration Trails [LINK] Old West Maps [LINK] Cyndi's List – Migration Routes,
Roads, and Trails [LINK] Maps of various western state's cattle trails [LINK] The Handbook of Texas Online – perform searches for cattle trails, trails, cattle drives, etc. to Qind out more about Texas' trails in the 19th Century in this Texas‐sized encyclopedia. [LINK] History of Cattle Brands Cattle Branding cattle was serious business back then, and a rancher had to register his own brand, leaving, of course, a paper trail. [LINK] STAGECOACH ROUTES Stage Routes of the Old West [ LINK ] Stage Coach Lines and the Pony Express [LINK] Early Roads, Trails, and Stage Coach Routes [ LINK] History of the Stage Coach in Texas [ LINK ] Stagecoach Lines of the American West [ LINK] The ButterQield Overland Stage Route [LINK] Western Stagecoach Travel [LINK] Map of the ButterQield Overland Stage Route [LINK] Map of Stagecoach Routes At or Near Hinkletown, Iowa [LINK] A History of California: the American Period [LINK] Wild West Tales by R. Michael Wilson [LINK] Stagecoach History: Stage Lines to California [LINK] RAILROADS Expansion of Rail Roads to 1860 (map) [LINK] Expansion of Rail Roads to 1880 (map) [LINK] Various 19th Century railway maps. [LINK] The Library of Congress American Memory – Railroad Maps 1828‐1900 Collection [LINK] Historical Maps of the Union PaciQic (scroll down to the bottom of the screen) [LINK] Central PaciQic Railroad Photographic History Museum (includes maps) [LINK] Central PaciQic Railroad Across Nevada [LINK] The Railroad in the American West [ LINK] Transcontinental Railroad Museum Exhibit [ LINK ]
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FORTS AND MILITARY POSTS Forts Across the American West [LINK] U.S. Military on the Texas Frontier [LINK] Old West: Forts and Historical Sites [LINK] Links to Old West Forts and Towns [LINK] List of Old West Forts [LINK] Historic Forts of the Old West [LINK]
Camp Apache, Arizona
“Buy land, they're not making it anymore.” ~Mark Twain~ LAY OF THE LAND The Louisiana Purchase was just the Qirst acquisition of land in the West by the United States. The Louisiana Territory included the lands that would become the following states: all of Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota (west of the Mississippi River), most of North and South Dakota, northeast part of New Mexico, parts of Montana and Wyoming, Colorado (east of the Continental Divide), and Louisiana (west of the Mississippi River and New Orleans). It also included small portions of land that would become part of the Alberta and Saskatchewan provinces in Canada. Moreover, the United States' acquisitions of land that would make up the “Old West” didn't happen all it once, but rather in stages. The following is a timeline of the additional United States' land acquisitions west of the Mississippi River: 1818 – British cession of land to U.S. included present‐day eastern part of North Dakota, small northeastern part of South Dakota, & northwestern part of Minnesota. United States
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ceded the lands that would become part of the Alberta and Saskatchewan provinces of Canada. 1819 – Spanish cession of land to the U.S. included southwestern part of Louisiana and small area in north central Colorado. 1845 – Annexation of the Republic of Texas, which included all of present‐day Texas, the panhandle of Oklahoma, a southwestern portion of Kansas, three‐fourths of the eastern part of New Mexico, southeastern and north central portion of Colorado, and a south central portion of Wyoming. 1846 – Treaty signed with Great Britain involving the Oregon Territory, that included present‐day states Washington, Oregon, Idaho, northwestern portion of Montana, and southwestern portion of Wyoming. 1848 – Mexico's cession of land that would become California, Nevada, Utah, western portion of Colorado, most of Arizona, southwestern portion of Wyoming, and western part of New Mexico. 1853 – Gadsden Purchase, U.S. purchased from Mexico lands that would become the southern portion of Arizona and the very most southwestern portion of New Mexico. In their December 2010 issue, Family Tree Magazine has a state‐by‐state guide of online resources for all 50 states. Using this guide, which they've made available online for free here [LINK], can be helpful to Qinding out when each of the above listed western states became territories and states. Have you ever wondered why an ancestor up and moved from, say, Iowa to Kansas? It may have something to do with the fact that Iowa became a state in 1846 and Kansas was a territory in 1854 and then became a state in 1861. Knowing the states' territory and statehood time lines could be important to your research. Further, the settlement of the land occurred through a series of land acts over the course of the 19th Century. The federal government enticed settlers to move west by offering cheap
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land through a series of land acts. Additionally, in order to entice men to become soldiers needed, the federal government also offered up military bounty lands as payment for services rendered, which also helped to settle the untamed western lands. The most notable land act of the 19th Century is the Homestead Act of 1862, but there were many more that occurred during this time period, including those for mineral lands (e.g., gold) and timber lands. Obviously, knowing when these particular land acts occurred can also help to Qind out the motivations o f yo u r a n c e s t o r s ' we s t wa rd migrations. Online you can Qind land Homestead Patent
patents through the Bureau of Land Management – General Land OfQice
Records' (BLM‐GLO's) website, [LINK]. Not only will this provide a digital copy of the land patent, but it will also give you the information needed to order Land Entry Files, which are rich in genealogical information. Keep in mind, however, that if your ancestor's land application was canceled and a patent never issued, then a land entry Qile was still created and is archived at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. And it can contain genealogical information about your ancestor. These are not included on the BLM‐GLO website. Therefore, if you have looked on their website and were unable to Qind a patent, don't give up. They could have a canceled land entry Qile. Also remember, that generally speaking, the land patents can be found on the BLM – GLO's website, and the land entry Qiles (the application paperwork) can be found at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. Also, while the land patents can place your ancestor in a speciQic time and place, the land entry
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Qiles (application paperwork to obtain the patent) can contain a wealth of genealogical information due to the speciQic requirements of the land act that the land was being purchased under. For example, among other requirements, the Homestead Act of 1862 required an applicant to reside on the land they were wanting to purchase for 5 years to qualify for the patent. So the date of the patent is at least 5 years later than when the applicant actually had begun to reside on the land. Plus, their Qile may have records of the required improvements that were made on the land, citizenship information, military service information, etc. If the applicant had military service, then residency time requirements were reduced. So, if you're trying to pinpoint exactly where your ancestor had been between census records, then obtaining the land entry case Qile would be important in doing this. More information about the land entry Qiles, the different land acts, and obtaining copies of the Qiles can be found in the following places: Bureau of Land Management – General Land OfQice Records – They have a new beta website that includes mapping features. Take some time to explore this website and its new layout and features thoroughly. [LINK] BLM‐GLO Records: Reference Center – This reference center is a sub page of the BLM‐GLO Records website and of special note are the links located on the left‐hand side, especially “Our Record Keeping History”, “Public Lands History”, “Patents”, and “Land Entry Case File”. [LINK] National Archives: Land Records [LINK] National Archives: Research in the Land Entry Files of the General Land OfQice [LINK] National Archives: The Rocky Mountain Region [LINK] The National Archives at Fort Worth [LINK] National Archives at Riverside [LINK] National Archives at San Francisco [LINK] National Archives – Great Lakes Region [LINK] National Archives in the Central Plains [LINK] National Archives in the PaciQic Alaska Region [LINK] Public Lands and Claims in the American State Papers, 1789‐1837 [LINK] The American State Papers – The Library of Congress: American Memory [LINK] Land Records: Charles Ingalls' Homestead File – Can give you a good idea of what can be found in a Homestead Land Case File. [LINK] National Archives Publishes New Guide To Records of the American West [LINK] Additionally, the BLM‐GLO Records has a YouTube Channel [LINK] with videos that cover their history as well as many other types of videos. Scroll down for the pertinent videos for the “Old West” time period which include No.2 Surveying the Land, No.3 The Early Disposal
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Policies, No.4 When Grass Was Gold, No.5 Indian Lands, No.6 The Mineral Frontier and Part I, No. 8 The Problem of Free Range, and No.9 Oregon and California Timber. “There was never a good war, or a bad peace.” ~Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richard's Almanac~ THE WARPATH As they have done repeatedly throughout history around the world, wars were fought in the 19th Century that helped to open up the West, directly and indirectly. The most notable would be the Civil War, but there were others as well. Following is a listing of these wars as well as links to more information about each one. Please note that the Civil War was covered in a previous issue and can be accessed online here. [LINK] As mentioned before, warrants for military bounty lands were issued in payment for services rendered when the federal government needed soldiers, and they continued to do so until 1855. However, litigation on claims caused records to be created long after 1855, leaving behind a nice paper trail. Additionally, most of the military bounty land Qiles can be found using the same strategies as the non‐military land acts, and most of the warrants associated with the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 were combined with the veteran's pension Qiles and can be accessed like other military pension Qiles. Also, even though the American Revolutionary War did not occur in the 19th Century, those veterans (and heirs) who had not previously applied for land, may have applied under later military bounty land acts. Additionally, they may have sold or assigned their warrant scrip in order to buy public lands. Either way, they had to apply and be approved for the warrant initially, leaving paperwork behind. War of 1812 (1812‐1815) From HistoryCentral.com [LINK] Resources In NARA [LINK] The War of 1812 by Carl Benn (Google Books) [LINK] A Guide to the War of 1812 [LINK] Mexican War (1846‐1848) NARA: Military Resources: Mexican War, 1846‐1848 [LINK]
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The Mexican War [LINK] PBS: The U.S.‐Mexican War [LINK] The Mexican War from the Handbook of Texas Online [LINK] Descendants of Mexican War Veterans: The U.S.‐Mexican War [LINK] The Mexican War, 1846‐1848 (map) [LINK] Civil War (1861‐1865) See Shades of the Departed, April 2010 Issue [LINK] Spanish‐American War (Apr 1898‐Aug 1898) NARA: Spanish‐American War Records [LINK] The World of 1898: The Spanish‐American War [LINK] The Spanish‐American War Centennial Website [LINK] PBS' Crucible of Empire: The Spanish‐American War [LINK] Indian Wars (1817‐1898) Courtesy of Library Of Congress (b&w film copy neg.) cph 3c21245 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c21245
Indian Wars Time line [LINK] Indian Wars, ConQlicts, and Disturbances, 1614‐1893 – Access Genealogy [LINK] Buffalo Soldiers and Indian Wars [LINK] Legends of America: Battles, Campaigns, and Massacres of the Indian Wars [LINK] Indian Wars by Robert M. Utley and Wilcomb E. Washburn (Google Books) [LINK] Map of Some Indian Wars, 1860‐1890 [LINK] Further Reading An Overview of Records at the National Archives Relating to Military Service by Trevor K. Plante [LINK] NARA: Research in Military Records [LINK]
“We are now about to take our leave and kind farewell to our native land, the country our Great Spirit gave our Fathers, we are on the eve of leaving that country that gave us birth, it is with sorrow we are forced by the white man to quit the scenes of our childhood...we bid farewell to it and all we hold dear.” ~Charles Hicks (Tsalagi) Cherokee – Trail Of Tears, 4 Nov 1838~
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THE FIRST INHABITANTS Native Americans were the Qirst explorers and inhabitants of the American West as they were in the East. Additionally, relations between Native Americans and Qirst, Europeans, then Americans has been ongoing since Europeans set foot on the North American continent. Thus, there is a long history between the two entities that includes clashes between the two very different cultures. Because of this history, there are a substantial amount of records that were created that can be very useful in conducting Native American ancestral research. The following links include online maps and guides to get you started. Guide to Native American Genealogy – The State Historical Society of Missouri NARA: Published Primary Sources Relating to Native Americans [LINK] Native American Records at the National Archives [LINK] Indian Bounty Land Applications by Mary Frances Morrow from Prologue Magazine (NARA) [LINK] Doing the Genealogical Research – Department of the Interior [LINK] American Indian Records Available on MicroQilm at the National Archives in Fort Worth, Texas – Because this regional archive encompasses the state of Oklahoma, many Native American records can be found here. [LINK] The American State Papers – The Library of Congress: American Memory [LINK] Essentials of Indian Citizenship: Tracing Your Indian Ancestor – Oklahoma Historical Society [LINK] Native Americans in the Census, 1860‐1890 by James P. Collins – Prologue Magazine (NARA) [LINK] Legends of America: First Owners of the American West (video) [LINK] Which Old West and Whose? ‐ University of Wisconsin [LINK] Native American Nations [LINK] The Trail of Tears by Randy Golden [LINK] Map of the Indian Territory [LINK] Maps of the United States Indians By State – provides lists of Native Americans who were in each state originally as well as those who were relocated there by the federal government. [LINK] Indian Land Cessions [LINK] Teaching With Documents: Maps of Indian Territory, the Dawes Act, and Will Rogers' Enrollment Case File (NARA) [LINK] Early Indian Tribes, Culture Areas, and Linguistic Stocks – Western U.S. (map) [LINK] “The lure of gold called to them and they went – by the tens of thousands, prospectors swarmed over the mountains of the West. Although few ever struck riches, the search drove them to explore every nook and cranny.”
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~Page Stegner in Winning the Wild West Eureka! Shiny bits of yellow metal lured many westward. And it really wasn't any surprise why they'd drop everything and move to an untamed land. I'm sure after comparing their wages of seven dollars a month to two to three hundred dollars a day, there was no doubt why they went. However, many never saw this kind of money, but the fact remains that the gold deQinitely lured them to “gold rush” boom towns. Additionally, not only was gold sought after, but so was an equally shiny metal, silver. As mentioned previously, there were speciQic mining land acts that were passed that may yield information about your “gold rush” ancestor. Likewise, knowing the timeline of the “gold rush” as well as where speciQic metals were mined might help you learn a little more about your ancestral miners. Following are links to websites with more information about mining and, speciQically, about the “gold rush.” San Francisco Gold Rush Chronology, 1846‐1849 – The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco [LINK] The California Gold Country [LINK] The California Gold Rush, 1849 – EyewitnessToHistory.com [LINK] All About the Gold Rush – Idaho State University [LINK] Gold Mining in the United States – Wikipedia with sources. [LINK] Silver Mining in the United States – Wikipedia with sources. [LINK] California's Untold Stories: Gold Rush! – The Oakland Museum of California [LINK] Minor Gold Rushes, Major Gold Production – Utah History To Go [LINK] History By Subject – The Virtual Museum of San Francisco (Scroll down to the Gold Rush subject. Has many links to more Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 67
information and online exhibits.) [LINK] Silver and Gold: California Daguerreotypes – The Daguerreian Society [LINK] PBS: The Gold Rush [LINK] California Geologic Survey – Gold ‐ Includes a link for a map of historic gold mines in California in PDF format. [LINK] Trails to the Gold Rush [LINK] One unfortunate byproduct of the Gold Rush was the rise of prostitution. According to Page Stegner in his book, Winning the Wild West, the 1850 census for California indicates that 92% of the population was male. How can knowing this help you in your research? Tracking down a female ancestor is hard enough, but trying to track down a female ancestor who happened to have an unsavory occupation is even harder. The following links provide more information on prostitution in the “Old West”, including details that may give you tips on how to identify brothels in census records. Old West Female Outlaws: The Business of Prostitution [LINK] Legends of America: Saloons of the Old West [LINK] Legends of America: Painted Ladies of the Old West [LINK] Legends of America: The Painted Ladies of Deadwood Gulch [LINK] The Ladies, God Bless 'em!:Shady Ladies of the Old West [LINK] Gold‐Rush Era Prostitutes [LINK] “In the long winter evenings he talked to Ma about the Western country. In the West the land was level, and there were no trees. The grass grew thick and high.” ~Laura Ingalls Wilder~ VARIOUS NUGGETS As with all genealogical research, census records are essential. However, one particular census year that is sometimes overlooked that can be helpful in late 19th Century research of western states and territories is the 1885 census. In the National Archives' Prologue Magazine, there is an article entitled, The Forgotten Federal Census of 1885, written by Rebecca Crawford that is extremely informative, and it can be accessed online here. [LINK] In addition to the 1885 census, there are many online resources that can be beneQicial to the overall research of American 19th Century ancestors that moved West, and the links to some are as follows:
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PBS: The West – This is the companion website to the 8‐part documentary that Qirst aired on PBS in 2006, and it is chock full of information about 19th Century America, including an episode‐by‐episode tour, timeliness, photographs, and much more. Also, if you are so inclined, the documentary and related materials can be purchased in their online store. [LINK] A series of videos based on PaciQic Northwest pioneers can be found on Rootstelevision [LINK] Completion of Railroad to California (video) [LINK] Real Wild West, Part 1 ‐ from History Channel via AllHistories YouTube Channel (1st of 4‐ part video series) [LINK] U.S. Continental Expansion AllHistories YouTube Channel (video) [LINK] War of 1812 – AllHistories YouTube Channel (1st of 10‐part video series) [LINK] Transcontinental Railroad – AllHistories YouTube Channel (1st of 5‐part video series) [LINK] Spanish American War In The Phillipines – AllHistories You Tube Channel (1st of 5‐part video series) [LINK] Mexican‐American War – from History Channel via AllHistories YouTube Channel (1st of 6‐ part video series) [LINK] Road To Pine Ridge: The American West, 1840‐1890 – from Timelines.tv YouTube Channel [LINK] From a Business Deal To Fashion To a Rodent There were many reasons why people moved West in the 19th Century. Surely, more than what can be listed here. Reasons that were as varied and as vast as the land to which they were going. Some being good. Some being very bad. And just as many, if not more, lying somewhere in between, but the fact remains that they did move, leaving in their dusty wake not only trails, but records of where they traveled and where they settled, voluntarily and involuntarily. Records which weave stories of ancestors that, when sewn together, reveal their motivations, their hopes, their fears, their dreams, and their decisions ‐ both good and bad ‐ that helped to complete a large portion of the quilt of America. “If there was a road, I could not make it out in the faint starlight. There was nothing but land: not a country at all, but the material out of which countries are made.” ~Willa Siber Cather in My Antonia [LINK]
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Credits Carmack, Sharon DeBartolo and Nevius, Erin, editors. The Family Tree Resource Book for Genealogists: The Essential Guide to American County and Town Sources. Cincinnati, Ohio: Family Tree Books, 2004. Hone, E. Wade. Land and Property Research in the United States. Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry Incorporated, 1997, Stegner, Page. Winning the West: The Epic Saga of the American Frontier, 1800‐1899. New York, New York: The Free Press, 2002. Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Luebking, Sandra Hargreaves, editors. The Source: A Guidebook to American Genealogy, 3rd Edition. Provo, Utah: Ancestry, Inc., 2006 © Copyright 2010 Caroline Martin Pointer
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Behind the Camera
Photograph From The Collection Of footnoteMaven
F. Jay Haynes (1853 - 1921) - OďŹƒcial Photographer of the Northern Pacific and Yellowstone Park - fM
Haynes Palace Studio - 60 ft. long Northern Pacific Railroad Car Top - Photograph Bottom - Photographerâ€™s Imprint, Cabinet Card
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Inside the Railroad Car
Interior of the Palace Car Studio at Helena, Montana, 1886 furnished at a cost of $2000 I have always wondered what the interior of a photographic studio railroad car would have looked like. Well, here is one. Although not that of just any photographer, this is the railroad car of the OfQicial Photographer of the Northern PaciQic Railroad, Frank Jay Haynes.
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Montana Historical Society Research Center
Lily Snyder Haynes and Frank Jay Haynes at the time of their marriage, January 1878. Haynes career took a major turn in the late 1870's when the Northern PaciQic Railroad hired him as their "OfQicial Photographer." Haynes received a wage and a rebuilt Pullman railroad car that became his personal rolling photographic studio. He photographed all of the railroad’s facilities as well as photographing the beautiful countryside wherever the railroad's tracks went...horses, wild animals, stagecoaches, military forts, trading posts, Indians, tepees, river boats, etc. Hoping to attract more commercial and passenger business for the railroad, the Northern PaciQic used Haynes' photographs in their advertising and travel brochures. Haynes also promoted his personal photography business while traveling on railroad business. Recognizing the need for a professional photographer among the increasing
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Photograph From The Collection Of footnoteMaven
Photograph From The Collection Of footnoteMaven
volume of settlers moving west, Haynes would advertise in the local papers along the Northern PaciQic route announcing that the Palace Studio Car would be in town on a particular day. This advance notice made it possible for families to travel to town in the family wagon, dressed in their Sunday best, for a family photograph. Businesses, merchants, and anyone needing photographic services could take advantage of his availability. Developing occurred in the railroad car and Haynes was able to earn private commissions and while at the same time also earning railroad pay. Haynes traveled through the Dakotas, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington for the Northern PaciQic and to Yellowstone in the 1882‐1883, taking a large number of photographs wherever he went.
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Haynes Photography Studio 1876 - Moorhead, MN
Haynes Studio Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1898 76 Shades MAGAZINE | Out West 2011
But it was Yellowstone Park that would capture most of Haynes' life work. In 1884 he became Yellowstone's Qirst OfQicial Photographer and obtained the Qirst federally‐issued license to operate a photographic concession at Mammoth Hot Springs. Haynes opened The Log Cabin Studio, which served Yellowstone for many years selling photos to visiting tourists. Photography wasn't Haynes only business venture at Yellowstone. Haynes owned the Yellowstone National Park Transportation C o m p a ny t h a t a t i t s p e a k h a d 1 8 stagecoaches and surreys and was responsible for transporting nearly 40% of
all of Yellowstone's annual visitors.
Haynes was an excellent businessman and lived a prosperous eventful life. Left & Above: F. Jay Haynes During his career, Haynes produced a huge body of work. WikiMedia
2,400 Stereoviews, thousands of Cabinet Cards, thousands of individual and family portraits, and tens of thousands of hand-colored photographs.
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Shades & Politics Next Issue
On News Stands 1 February Politics & Photographs January/February 2011
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THE LAST PICTURE SHOW
The Imprint Or Logo - The famous Palace Railroad Car and Haynesâ€™ three branch studios.1874 in Ann Arbor and Wisconsin. 1875 "Temple of Photography" "Dr." William Lockwood. From 1876 to 1879, Haynes operated a photographic studio in Moorhead, Minnesota. In 1879, he moved his studio to Fargo, North Dakota. In 1889, he moved his studio to Saint Paul, Minnesota, and operated there until 1916. In 1897, Haynes opened another studio at the Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, called "Haynes' Log Cabin Studio". From 1876 to 1905, official photographer of the Northern Pacific Railroad. In 1877, photographed the Dakota Territory from Bismark (now North Dakota) to Deadwood (now South Dakota). In 1878, travelled 3000 miles down the Missouri River to photograph from Bismark, Dakota Territory, to the Pacific coast. In 1881, visited Yellowstone National Park and returned to photograph the park every year until his death. In 1883, accompanied President Chester A. Arthur's expedition through Yellowstone, photographed the driving of the last spike of the Northern Pacific Railroad. In 1884, became the sole photographic operator for Yellowstone, a position he held until 1921.
Frank J. Haynes, or F. Jay Haynes, or the Professor. Born 28 October 1853; died 10 March 1921. Wife - Lilly V. Snyder, managed the darkroom and business in Fargo, North Dakota 1879 1889. Daughter - Bessie L. Son - George O. Son - Jack E.