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nORIN COUNTY FREE LIBRAR

A Complete Guide to Traditional and

Contemporary 'Designs for

the

Home

JANE GAUSS '

"TH THE ARTISTS AND DESIGNERS OF E

Stencil Artisans League, Inc.

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STENCILING TECHNIQUES

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STENCILING

TECHNIQUES A Complete Guide to Traditional and Contemporary Designs for the

Home

JANE GAUSS WITH THE ARTISTS AND DESIGNERS OF THE Stencil Artisans League, Inc.

Watson-Guptill Publications/New York

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Dedication This book

is

dedicated with love to Adele Bishop

warmth, and

grace,

a three-day

Adele

style.

seminar where

a full-time career.

first

learned

I

introduced

how

saw

firsthand

how

genuine beauty,

to professional stenciling at

my

passion for stenciling into

my mentor and teacher during a twoWheni began to teach national seminars,

her techniques and creativity affected so

In 1986, Adele graciously accepted

our

me

develop

to

artist of

She subsequently became

year Master Teacher training program. I

—an

my

many

lives.

request to be SALI's guest of honor at

national convention in Arlington, Virginia. She offered the assembly

first

encouraging words, expressing her pride in the direction the League had chosen to

pursue and challenging us never to lose sight of excellence earned through hard

work, education, and dedication. Her influence and support have helped SALl

become

the intemationall)' recognized decorative arts organization that

Senior Editor: Candace Raney Edited by Joy Aquilino

Designed by Areta Buk Graphic production by Hector Campbell

Burmesch

Photo on page 1: Quilts designed and stenciled by Judith Barker and American Traditional.

Julia Hierl

Photo on pages 2-3: Designed by Jane Gauss

From The Complete

for

Book

for Plaid Enterprises.

of Wall Stenciling by Jane Gauss, copyright

©

1984 by

Plaid Enterprises. Courtesy

of Plaid Enterprises. Inc.

The images as noted on pages 2-3. 11. 24-25. 46. 47. 49. 51. and 70-71 copyright ©by Plaid Enterprises. Inc.. P.O. Box 760, Norcross. Georgia 30091-7600. Used with express permission.

All rights

and

stencil paints,

On page

63:

The

reserved. Plaid Enterpnses manufactures a complete line of stencils,

books under the brand name Stencil Decor'.

instructional

lattice wall

border by Sandra Buckingham originally appeared

A Harrowsmith Guide by Sandra Buckingham Camden House Publishing. 1989).

Stencilling:

New

York:

in

(North York, Ontario, and Buffalo,

Copyright© 1995 by Jane Gauss First

published

in

1995 by Watson-Guptill Publications,

a division of BPI Communications,

1515 Broadway, Library of

New

York, N.Y.

Inc.,

10036

Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Gauss. Jane. Stenciling techniques: a complete guide to traditional

contemporary designs cm. p.

for the

and

home / Jane Gauss,

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-8230-4992-2 1

.

Stencil

work

—Amateurs' manuals.

Amateurs' manuals.

I.

2. Interior

decoration

Title.

TT270.G38 1995 745.7'3—Clc20

All rights

reserved.

any means

95-24583 CIP

No

—graphic,

or information storage

Manufactured First printing.

1

in

part of this publication

may be reproduced

or

used

in

any form or by

electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping,

and

retrieval

systems

—without written permission

of the publisher.

Hong Kong

1995

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9/03 02

01

00 99 98 97 96 95

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it is

today


PREFACE My

reasons for writing Stenciling Techniques:

Guide

A Complete for the Home

Traditional and Contcmpoiaiy Designs

to

are very simple:

me, and

to

To share ihe joy

ihal slenciling has

proclaim ihc successes

ol the

many

brought

God's

gift to

Ciod.

1

hope

in

which we touch

own

those talents

others' lives are

what you

that you'll share

by expressing your

gilied

we do with

each of us, and what

and the ways

our

gifts to

learn from this

book

personal style through slenciling.

stencilers of the Stencil Artisans League, Inc.

What you Icx'cl

book

learn from this

your Slenciling

skills

be determined by

to

grow

would not

you

contributions of the

many

creatively For the first-time

has dabbled in stenciling but wholeheartedly, this book

of learning

personal

more about

style.

isn't

is

stenciling

sure they want to pursue

and developing

it

ol designs, styles,

surfaces that lend themselves to stenciling. of

its

and

and

Through

hope

that this

stenciling

book

A

book proves without a doubt more than one way to stencil. The technic[ucs contributors, this

will

am

be the

and those who

special

Stencilers

we

all

thank you

without the

and designers of

indebted to the

lirst ol

strive to

this

many

to celebrate

maintain the standards

enjoy today.

to the

members

book, and especially

the additional weight of

members

and support, and

of

Emporium, who sandwiched

helped create the

I

of the League lor ihcir coniribulions

of excellence that

a

stenciler,

serves as a relerence for prospective

presenting a muliilude

clients,

who

exist

gifted artists

the Stencil Artisans League.

a testament to the benefits

For the prolessional designer,

decorative painter,

work

Stenciling Techniques

complete how-to guide. For someone

stenciler, its a

Ac:knowli:dgmi:nts

of your

of expertise, Stenciling Techniques will inspire

and challenge you

it

will

and experience. Regardless

my

spend time away from the

my

staff at

in the tasks that

for

shouldering

responsibilities so that

office. Special

thanks

1

could

to Claire

could experience the same delight in stenciling that each

Hiram College, ior her very Nancy Forester, who helped with the photography and managed the ofiice so that could have lime away to write; and to Joy Aquilino for her editing, and the Imal push to make all of

SALI member experiences and shares. Our

this

that there's

shown

herein can serve as a starting point or can be

incorporated into your

Above

all,

own

style.

Fve written Stenciling Techniques so that you

talents are

Andorka, an English major meticulous assistance

I

come

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together.

at

at

the computer; to


CONTENTS Introduction

'

8

MATERIALS AND TOOLS

h

Stenciling Supplies

16

Designing and Cutting Your Owtl Stencils

20

Adapting

a Stencil

from an Existing Design

23

BASIC TECHNIQUES

24

Stenciling with Liquid Paints

26

Applying Liquid Pamt with

28

a Stencil Roller

Stenciling with Solid Paints

30

Sampler

32

Avoiding and Correcting Mistakes

34

Creating Dimension with Color and Value

35

Stacking

36

Freeform and Freehand Stenciling

37

Block Printing

39

STENCILED INTERIORS

44

Stencil Print

Planning a

Room

46

Preparing Walls for Stenciling

48

Measuring and Lapng Out Borders

49

Accent Borders

52

Border Styles

54

Stenciling a Ceiling

60

Ceiling Gallery

62

The Stenciled Environment

64

Stenciled Floors

68

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OTHER STENCILING PROJECTS

70

Wood

72

Furniture

Fabrics

78

Stenciled Quilts

82

Canvas Floorcloths

84

Ceramic

88

Tile

Accessories

93

Paper and Canvas Prints

96

Embossed and Pierced Paper

97

Outdoors

99

Exterior Accessories

103

ADVANCED TECHNIQUES

104

Stenciling with Airbrush

106

Theorem

108

Stenciling

Stenciling

Creating Volume with Shadows

111

Trompe rOeil

114

Imaginary Vistas

116

Creating a Fantasy

119

Special Effects

122

STARTING YOUR Becoming

OWN

BUSINESS

a Professional Stenciler

124 126

WORKING WITH PATTERNS

128

Contributors

136

Retailers, Wholesalers,

and Manufacturers

139

144

Index

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INTRODUCTION What

Stenciling?

Is

Stenciling

Itinerant artist

the process of applying paint or

is

pigment into the cut-out areas of impervious

to paint.

It

powdered

a material that

currently enjoying a revival, as

is

has been identified as the most

and

primitive form of printing,

as such has

Like so

B.C.)

many

art forms, stenciling

appeared without a distinct point of

used as a means

origin.

seems

'Stenciled Floors," pages 68-69.)

was often

It

as other techniques

waxed

Cloth, heavy paper,

were developed.

papers, and even delicately

from the French estenceler

Latin scintilla ("to spark").

books,

It

was the French who

add glistening decorations

stencils to

fabrics,

and playing

("to sparkle")

cards. In

began

It

was

to migrate to

at this

Europe during the

settlers

began her research

late

first

longed for the

color and ornamentation of their native lands, yet their

and

While

furniture.

forty

stencils, as

been revived

artists of

when

New

England,

who were

homes

active

from 1760

to 1840,

of the east. Scenic wallpapers imported

from Europe were expensive, and depicted distant scenes such as Grecian gardens or

palatial

available

European

estates, or

you

own home. You

MB

Historic

carries

Decor

(see

fauna. These

by

several

and

its flora

and

charming motifs and images were influenced

European models, including German, Dutch,

was treated as a separate space and motifs were applied by eye rather than by careful measurement. In addition to walls and floors, decorative painting from this period was applied to a wide range of surfaces, including fireplace surrounds, English,

and French designs.

In general, each wall

mantles, fireboards, boxes, and canvas floorcloths. Historians have traced surviving stencil designs to

approximately

fifteen itinerant artists.

traveled in

New

Many

of these designs

Moses Eaton, Jr., who worked and England circa 1800 to 1840. Eaton's bright

have been attributed

to

on warm backgrounds suggest an industrious home life spent close to the hearth and a profound appreciation of nature. Their simplicity and boldness lend an atmosphere of gaiety and informality to an)- setting. Another well-known patterns

page 136

in

Poll}' Forcier, ovvTier

for

more information),

an extensive assortment of precut historic

stencils for borders, full wall treatments,

and

floors.

Adele Bishop and the Stenciling Renaissance of the 1970s For

a

number

of reasons, including the influence of

Modernism on American fell

art

and design, decorative painting

out of fashion in the mid-20th

preceding

stencil the local countryside

and use

to enlarge, embellish,

can also contact

individuality of expression, inspiring itinerant artists to

battles fought

and

was

currently

m libraries and bookstores.) The stencil designs

American bicentennial

paint

is

of the itinerant artists are also available in several copyright-

on the Continent. Stenciling and mural painting provided well-to-do homeowners with some famous

Stencils,

that of the itinerant

is

stenciUng and mural painting were fashionable in

the wealthy

The

placement as

for

published in 1937. (The revised edition

who

m so many

attic.

relationships.

Janet Waring's book. Early Amciican Wall first

of

Early American Stenciling Styles

New

floors,

Eaton family homestead,

Eaton had a keen eye

and design

well as for color

free collections, for

essentials.

visiting the

who

an extensive record of

complete designs. There were no registration marks

on these

your

of stenciling that has

is

seventy-eight stencils she found comprised approximately

from decorating their homes beyond the barest

of todays countr)' decorating themes

in 1924, there

she discovered Moses Eaton's stencil box in the

poverty and struggle for freedom prevented most of them

The period

torn down, or

the decorative art of that era. She traveled throughout

m the homes

time that Europeans

America. These

used

to their wallpapers,

16th and 17th centuries, stenciling appeared of the wealthy.

and the

first

of the stenciling from this period

homes were remodeled,

lost, as

England, tracing stencil patterns that adorned walls,

woven human hairs were used as the first stencils. The word "stenciling" evolved during the Middle Ages in France,

has been

destroyed by time and neglect. Thanks to Janet Waring,

to print or decorate a variety of surfaces,

and then abandoned

much

Unfortunately,

have

to

who

and murals. His style is contemporary trompe Toeil

murals based on his designs. (See also

artists create wall

been used by

cultures dating back to the ancient Egyptians (around

2500

Rufus Porter, an associate of Eaton's

is

specialized in freehand paintings

of Adele Bishop it,

m

and her partner

interest in

centur)-.

As

a result of the

1976 and the innovative

efforts

Cile Lord in the decade

an American decorative heritage was

renewed. Bishop unexpectedly came across Early American Wall Stencils in the late 1950s, and the simplicity

and dignity of the

decided

to recreate

to

tr)-

them

was so impressed with

stencil designs that she

in her

own home.

Although Adele had never stenciled before,

it

occurred

would enable more accurately, and to create a logical system of register marks for overlays and repeats. She first used acetate book covers for this purpose, since at the time the only material used to make stencils was an opaque manila board. She had also read about a to her that a transparent stencil material

her to trace directly from patterns

product used primarily by the sign-painting trade called "japan paint," which dried instantly and could be used

on hard

surfaces.

With French handmade brushes, which m a circular motion, she was

she used to apply paint

able to duplicate the soft, translucent look of the early

American designs.


Historic Stencil Patterns These patterns, which were adapted Motifs (edited

by Suzanne

E.

Ironi Earh American Design Chapman; Dover PubHcations: 1974),

represent the range of design and complexity of the stencil motifs of late-18th

and early-19th century America.

irrc^y^^iB Wall slcncih //oni the Josiah Sage house

in

rijf

South Sandisfield, h4assachusetts.

Wall stencil and pineapple motif by Moses Eaton, from the Grant house

Wall stencil from the Jesse Ayer house

in

Hampstead,

New

/o

in

North Saco, Maine.

Hampshire.

oY

Wall stencil from the Mansel Alcock house in

Hancock,

New

Hampshire.

^Y


Encouraged by the success she enjoyed with these innovations, Adele brought her

work

working

Cile continued In 1972,

to the attention of

as a

custom

stcnciler

m New York.

Adele and Cile were asked by Vikmg-Penguin

to

complexity was no longer an obstacle, as she could use as

book on stenciling. Their book, The An of Decorative Stenciling, was published in 1976 to coincide with the American bicentennial. Although the publication, national promotion, and distribution of the book was successful, the stenciling materials used by Cile and Adele were still somewhat difficult to obtain, as Adeles mail order business was their only source. At that point, stenciling had still not been recognized as a craft by any

many

national craft, art supply, or decorating company.

the decorating estabUshment. Unfortunately, the early

American decorative

style wasn't

widely recognized until

the mid-1970s. Undeterred by her

lukewarm

Adele turned her energies toward creating

more

write and illustrate a definitive

a

reception,

broader and

sophisticated approach to decorative design. She

realized that transparent materials could be used to practically

any design

in stencil form,

and

produce

that a designs

overlays as were necessary to recreate

it.

In the early 1960s, Adele taught Cile Lord, a friend fine artist,

Bishop

how

to stencil.

Soon

thereafter they

and

founded

& Lord, a custom stenciling business located in

New York

methods and inspired by sources

as

art,

advancements

in decoration

day stenciling seminar. In addition

wide-ranging as they

in stenciling, students

made remarkable

and design and received man\'

methods, careers

producing

in

by developing

to

a three-

to acquiring proficiency

were instructed

custom

items for

craft

continued

by her colleagues Kathie Marron-Wall and

Zilda McKinstry, Adele responded

City Using Bishops materials and application

ancient ci\ilizations and abstract

In spite of this, interest in stenciling increase. Assisted

in effective teaching

stenciling, historic restoration,

sale,

and

starting their

own

favorable reviews. Eventually, the attention generated by

businesses. In 1982, Adele began publishing a quarterly

the

media created a seemingly insurmountable problem for who wanted to stencil: the scarcity of stencils and stenciling materials. In 1968, Bishop 61 Lord produced a stencil kit containing die-cut stencils, paints, brushes, and an illustrated instruction book, which they sold through a small mail order business in Vermont called American

newsletter. The Stenciler's Guild

others

seminar graduates with up-to-date information about the

Decorative Arts, Inc.

start their

Bishop

moved

to

& Lord was dissolved m Vermont

Detail from a

in

when Adele

ihc st\k oj'Rii/us Poricr

a monochromatic color scheme

to Jit

a

It IS

many

which provided

through Adeles influence and persistence that so

stencilers

and were able

were made aware of

to

own

artist active

important

craft,

use their love of color and decorating to

second renaissance, not only

an itmcranl

this

businesses. Today stenciling

Europe and Asia

client's needs.

Letter,

decorative stenciling community.

a

expand her mail order business and

naKilcd nail mural based on

example was done 10

to

1970,

News

is

experiencing

m the Americas, but m

as well.

during the early 19th century. This particular

Designed and stenciled by Linda Carter

Lcjlzo.


The

stencil moiijs oj ihe wall

adapted from a traditional

and

chest

quilt block.

(left)

and canvas

floorcloth (right) are based on early

American

designs.

The motij on the

chest

is

Wall and chest designed and stenciled by Adele Bishop and die Lord; floorcloth designed and stenciled

by Adele Bishop.

Historic designs were adapted for this 20th-century rustic kitchen.

Designed and stenciled by Jane Gauss for Plaid Enterprises. From

The Complete Book

Š

of Wall Stenciling by jane Gauss, copyright

1984 by Plaid Enterprises. Courtesy of Plaid Enterprises,

Inc.

11


a

Stenciling Style Today

decorating trends p^ak, they are often imitated by the

As we trace the thread of stenciling through histor); it becomes apparent that it has helped satisfy the inherent human need to modify and personalize interiors. This form of cultural communication reflects lifestyle, personality, and economic status. As the 21st century approaches, we can be certain that stenciling will affect posterity in the same way During the last quarter of the 20th centur); we have seen a renewed awareness and interest in the decorative

wallpaper

past, as well as

an attempt

to integrate

heritage into our homes. This

decoratmg,

in

which

elements of that

spawned

the eclectic style of

a mixture of styles

and

old and new, are integrated to produce a perfect

As

environment

a decorating

and wallpaper, and

objects,

both

unique decor

—

will

stenciling

1990s, the trend has shifted to wallpapers that simulate faux finishes

such as marbling,

is

as stable as

pamt

remain a practical and desirable

decorating trend regardless of current fads. In

fact, as

rag-rolling,

and sponging, and

feature freeform patterns that accent architectural elements.

Shown below and latest

Another is

opposite are but a few examples of the

trends in stenciling and decorative painting. ver)'

strong influence

on the

future of stenciling

the Stencil Artisan League, Inc. (SALT).

this organization is

known

to the

human

faux finishing, and related decorative

work

of SALl

in 1984,

organization during

its first

to contact SALI, see

arts.

race: stenciling,

This book

is

a

and the members who have

been instrumental in the growth of

how

Founded

dedicated to perpetuating some of

the oldest art forms

testament to the

for stenciling!

medium,

For instance, wallpapers that mimicked

industry'.

primitive stenciling flooded the market in the 1980s. In the

this

very prestigious

decade. For information on

page 136.

Block piinting's loose, jhumg designs complemeni a

range oj surfaces and interior decors. The walls of this living

block-printed

iris

garden. (See "Block Printing," page 39.)

Designed and block-pnnted by Vi and Stu

12

lightly textured

room are elegantly enhanced by a

Cutbill.


—

:%"V

4j<..

--V

J 1

+

)

â&#x20AC;˘^v

4

The textured venue Jor

this

pla>.lci

walls iind niliii;^

()/

d ^nudl

sunroom are a

"wish upon a star" motij, in which the

Man

in the

perfect

Moon

is

harassed by a menacing cherub. The ceihng was sponged with several colors oj interior k^tex flat wall paint,

background glow jor the night sky)

navy

that

to

from

light

yellow

(to

provide a

a combination of purple, white, and

was gradually lightened as

the sky flowed onto the wall.

The

completed sky was then sprinkled with gold leaf stars. (See also "Stenciled Interiors," pages

44-69, and "Stenciling a Ceiling," page 60.) Stencils

from L 'nj Designs;

stenciled by Linda Nelson

Johnson and Lori Rohde.

Bring jour garden indoors

Create a three-dimensional

(rt(n,s/()/ni

effect

an nucnor space with

stenciling.

by using several values of one color

within each motif and by adding shadows to suggest pictorial depth. (See also

"Advanced Techniques," pages 104-123.) Designed and

stenciled by

Susan Kolb.

You can

stencil

a wide range of

surfaces, including fabrics, wood,

and ceramic white apron

an

ivy

tile. is

Here, a plain

embellished with

and ribbon

stencil. (See

also "Other Stenciling Projects,"

pages 70-103, and "Fabrics,"

page

78. This pattern,

also used on the

tile

which was

rug on page

90, appears on pages 130-134.)

Designed and stenciled by jane Gauss.

13


t

1

'--

.Si

â&#x20AC;˘

---s,

'?

1

^""^^ ^^ft '.JH

y-f" ^.:::: â&#x20AC;˘

F^

1

Tilt'

primiavt'-sfvlt' motifs in this

Adele Bishop was

among

by Janet Wahng, published

14

sunny parlor were stenciled with japan

the first to use transparent mateiials in

paints,

handmade

artist's

and japan paints for stenciling.

1937. Designed and stenciled by Adele Bishop.

brushes,

and

stencils cut from clear acetate.

Stencil designs from Early

American Wall

Stencils

'T

^^^1


MATERIALS

AND TOOLS :\"'"

V Mi.

°^

0^:^\

r

1/'

The recent surge of

interest in stenciling has

a virtual flood of products

m.^

:t

"/,)0 and designs,

expanding selection of types, innovations for

^'Z

the

number and

home

colors,

produced

a constantly

and exciting

decorating. This

sudden growth

in

variety of stenciling products has in turn

increased c[uality and lowered prices, as manufacturers

and

stencil designers

compete

for their fair share of the

market. In an attempt to attract the hesitant beginner,

more products designed

for the hrst-time stenciler are

being offered than ever before. This chapter reviews stencilings three fundamental material requirements is

applied, the paint

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

a template

itself,

through which paint

and an applicator

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;and

explains the benehts and drawbacks of working with the

various products in each category. The steps invoh'ed in

designing and cutting your

own

stencils are also outlined,

with tips on adapting stencil patterns from motifs in

your decor.

15


STENCILING SUPPLIES One

of siencilings

there are

no

most inviting

"right" or

aiiributes

is its

versatility

"wrong" materials, or even hard-

As you experiment with the materials discussed in this chapter, and as your stenciling skills (and comfort level) improve, you will develop preferences for certain products and your own ways of using them. If you discover an item or devise an approach that helps you achieve a particular look, as long as it doesn't impede your projects progress or dampen your enthusiasm and-fast rules for using them.

for

it

— —you can consider yourself

%^s you study

book

this

a stenciling innovator.

for instruction

and

inspiration,

carefully read through each project description to see

materials were used

and how the

which

stenciler applied them.

This will give you an idea of the kinds of products you will

need

to stencil

your particular project, surface, and decor.

coloring of specific areas or because their motifs are too close together to permit adequate bridges

computerized

Before the stenciling renaissance of the mid-1970s, the

As

and cut

their

many

a result,

own

and

—transparent up

was extremely

were obliged

stencilers

to design

make todays precut

laser cutting

Stenciling Paints In many ways, paint is the most critical component of a stenciling project. Many kinds of paints are suitable for you can use practically any paint. Before making a choice, however, you must determine which pamt will produce the look you want on the surface you'll be stenciling and has a consistency that you can manage stenciling; in fact,

comfortably, as paint with a runny or watery consistency

very

difficult to control.

Keep

in

mind

that the

the tollowmg: •

What

are the physical characteristics of the surface you'll

be stenciling (glossy or matte, smooth or rough)? •

What

sort of surface preparation

is

required?

to this

new

instance, a wall or ceiling will require a

designs appearing each month. Precut stencils are

particularly useful to beginners, for a stencil pattern

whom

simply tracing

can be intimidating, and

on learning

to

who

need sanding or stripping; and project,

ensure

Stencils,"

at

and Cutting

pages 20-22.)

which

which paint

is

applied;

and

opaque

made from

(treated cardboard,

a variety of materials,

are

dnaded among

stencils

may

require

sure you've taken the proper steps to

durability.

What about

ma

day-to-day use? Will the stenciling be

on an item that needs frequent outdoors, some kind of exterior surface

both

—those whose motifs

What about effortlessly,

cleanup?

Some

paints clean

and other •

stencils, brushes,

applicators.

How much paint a long

up almost

whereas others require solvents and/or the

immediate and thorough cleaning of

When

several stencils to allow for the precise

or, if

protecuon?

hea\y paper, and metal) and

transparent (polyester film, acetate, and Mylar).

working with multi-overlay

make

its

washing,

bridges,

are the parts of the stencil that separate the openings.

Precut stencils are

fabrics

high-traffic area or

Every stencil has two components: windows, which are the openings through

a

laundering and ironing. Before you begin your stenciling

outlined in the next chapter, you can ivy your hand

Own

washing or

fresh coat of paint; a piece of prefmished furniture will

work with pamt. Once

creating an original stencil. (See "Designing

The answer

question varies from project to project. For

you've mastered the basic procedures for applying paint

Your

most

repositioned almost instantly. You should also consider

of precut stencils available in a wide range of styles, with

instead should focus

and

stencils

accurate and easy to use.

adapting histonc designs

stencils, either b)'

or creating their own. Today there are literally thousands

and cutting

the elements

flexible materials

desirable paints are quick-dr\'ing, so that stencils can be

availability of high-quality precut stencils

limited.

easier to accurately line

it

of a design. Consistently durable

is

Precut Stencils

make

materials

way

is

needed? In general, a

in stenciling.

little

paint goes

For example, one 2 -ounce

container of acr)dic or japan paint or one stencil crayon or container of stencil cream provides adequate coverage for

moderately complex borders in two to three average-

sized rooms.

your

You should take

finish will

into account

whether

be opaque or transparent; depending on

the type of paint, the former might require

more than

one application.

The following

is

an overview of the

ty'pes of paints

that are formulated expressly for stenciling.

Consider the

advantages and disadvantages of each and review the application techniques outlined in the next chapter (see

pages 23-31) before making your

first

purchase.

Acrylic Paints Acrylic paints, Precut stcncih arc

made from a

variety oj materials, including

cardboard, metal, and polyester film.

16

which

are water-based, are available

forms: fluid acrylics, which are packaged

squeeze bottles, and tube

acrylics,

which

m

2-ounce

are often

m

two

plastic

used by


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

come

line ariisis. Fluid acrylics

cUid di\'

\'er\'

c(nickly,

in a

wide range of colors

Stencil Crayons and Creams

while lube acrylics are available in

The

lewer colors, are more e\pcnsi\-e ihan lluid acrylics, and general!)' rec|uire slightly longer

acrylics because lhe\' are

more

diAing limes than

heax'ily

prefers lo

cusiom-mix colors on

small plastic or glass jars, these paints were

lluid

Some brands

pigmcnied. Tube

acrylics appeal lo die Ime-aiiisi-iurned-stencilcr

who

is

a paleiic.

when exposed

now

advance

crayons and

watersoluble, requiring only soap and for clean up. Solid

lo ihe

ol appl)'ing

This

air.

common problem

beginners, by essentially eliminating the will

results

m

loo

a wet,

much

much

paint with too

smudged

i^rini.

pressure,

which

he colors blend beautilull)'

I

characteristic requires the use of an extender or other

and can be used

to create

soK'cnt such as isopropyl rubbing alcohol to maintain

looks, with

paint buildup on stencils or brushes.

paint consistenc)'

and

keep

to

|:)ainl

brushes or stencils (see page 26).

It

Irom drying on also

means

either

you limsh stenciling

lor the dax:

little

Stencil crayons

you

that

both opaque and transparent

and creams can be used

to decorate

almost any surface, except fabrics that require frequent

must be scrupulous about cleaning your brushes and stencils alter

in

initially oil-based.

stencil paints ha\'e lexolutionized stenciling, particularl)' for

impervious to water. Moreover, acrylics

begin lo ihicken and cure

are

water or a watersoluble brush cleaner

Acrylics dry quickly lo an opaque, saUny, durable finish thai

solid or so-called "dry" paints are the latest

in stenciling materials. Available in sticks or

washing.

You can use

one of the commercial brush cleaners expressly

If

the surface has a slight sheen or gloss, apply a

spray sealer alter you've finished stenciling. This forces the paint to set or cure.

formulated for acrylic paints, or a household cleaning soap like

Murph)'s Oil Soap and

warm

Once youVe gained some

water.

practice

and you'd

straight out of the bottle

Fabric: Paints

working with

like to

make

acrylics

more translucent prints, you can try adding aciylic gel medium to your paint. This increases the paints "open" time without altering

consistency and enhances

its

In contrast to acrylic paints, fabric paints

either with an iron or a hair dryer

or less permanently) so several brands

its

make

check labels

color possible.

with your particular

Acrylics can be used

be painted, as long as additix'e

known

it

on

virtuall)'

any surface that can

as textile

medium can be mixed with

paint to produce a colorlast stencil print

product breaks

pigments

to

film so that

down

on

To ensure

An

doesn't ha\e a high sheen.

acrylic

long

and

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

to set the paint

(more

can endure laundering. There are fabric paint

on the market, so

sure that what you buy will

work

fabric. life

for

your

fabric prints,

and

textures

fibers are not

recommended

should be avoided. Also, because

you must

all

for stenciling

and

prints gradually fade

with repeated washings, the paint must be slowly worked

the acrylic binder, allowing the

bond with the fabric and softening the it's more flexible alter it dries. (See also

a

soft

hrst evaluate the suitability of the fabric itself, as certain

This

labric.

to

it

and types of

lummosit)' and transparency, making lustrous glazes of

remain

Most require the application of heat

flexible after drying.

softer,

paint

into the fibers;

"Fabric

the labric the print will lade

il

it

is

onl)' lightly

"dusted" on the surface of

much more

rapidly For

more

information on fabric preparation, paint application, and

Paints," below.)

laundering, see "Fabrics," page 78.

You can

Japan Paints

also use fabric paints to stencil other types of

on paper you must

Japan paints are oil-based paints that contain a quick-

surfaces, but unless you're stenciling

drying additu'C. Formulated lor use on hard surfaces and

protect your completed design with varnish or another

originally

used

used by sign painters, these paints were

for stenciling in the late

wanted the richness and translucency oil

transparent linish.

first

1950s by Adele Bishop, ol traditional

who

lube

paints but without the long drying times they require.

In fact,

even

after acrylics

were adopted by the stenciling

community, man)' professional

stencilers

continued

favor japan paints for their soft, transparent prints

smooth consistency of

application. Japan paints

lo

and

do have

a

lew drawbacks, however: They are not as easily obtainable as acrylics, their limited palette requires that man)' colors

be mixed, and they must be thinned and cleaned up with solvents such as turpentine

and mineral

spirits.

The

potential health hazards of these solvents have motivated

many

stencilers to switch to watersoluble acrylic or solid

stenciling paints.

Japan paints do not bond well

to glossy surfaces,

including walls with a semi-gloss finish. As they cannot be set

with heat, japan paints should not be used on

fabrics.

Slcniilin\:^

lo right):

acrylics,

puinls aic cnailahk in scycral

foi

ms (fwm bach

row.

left

spray paints and stenciling crayons, japan paints and jluid

and

solid stenciling creams.

17


CER.AMIC Paints

produces a different kind of

There are two types of ceramic paints, which are used

to

opaque

to

print,

from vibrant and

dappled and transparent.

decorate smooth, glossy surfaces. Ceramic studio paints are formulated for glazed or unglazed ceramic firing,

these paints

day-to-day use and regular cleaning

on

tiles.

After

become permanent and can withstand

floors, countertops, or in

when

are installed

tiles

showers. Aaylic enamel paints

and

are intended for already installed glazed ceramic tiles glass or ceramic vases or lamps.

damp

can be wiped with a scrubbing.

When

Once

dry; these paints

cloth but can't endure vigorous

working with

acr}'lic

min your

Niany stencilers favor traditional stencil brushes, whose short, dense bristles are designed to distribute paint evenly

and prevent

from oozing beneath the

it

motion produces an even shading, and

Though they

var)' in size as well as in bristle length,

are

tools.

round or tube-shaped, and the length. The bristles of high-quality

long. Their handles are bristles are all the

painstaking preparation can be achieved ver\' quickly

to use the

easily,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

First

and foremost, the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;money.

fine mists

toxic

fumes

safety

mask be worn

surfaces

must be

masked

If it is

you

to prevent overspra)'.

you must

Finally, in addition to the airbrush itself,

and

distribution.

brushes made specifically for stenciling,

can't find

possible to adapt a variety of other brushes. Paint

supply companies bristles that

multi-purpose brushes with

offer

stiff

can be trimmed and taped into a circular form.

Inexpensive shaving brushes can also be used

you intend

if

pouncing technique. let it dr)'

its a

to stop stenciling to clean a

completely before working with

good idea

to use a separate

brush

for

each color or color family and to have a selection of sizes

surrounding

at all times. Also, all

carefully

paint hold

another color,

they produce require that goggles and a respirator or

pronde maximum

stenciling brushes are flagged or split to

brush and

and

same

So that you won't have

but involve significant investments of time

particularh' for airbrush

pouncing motion

and degree of softness, most stenciling brushes made of hogs hair or boars hair bristles at least 1 inch

and Airbrush Although their effects are somewhat different, spray paints and airbrush use the same method of application and require the same precautions. While a spray-pamted stencil print is delicately dappled and an airbrushed one is softly blended, both methods build color slowly by means of a fine spray. Stenciled spray pamt and airbrush prints are quite beautiful, and with some experience and

and

a

yields a light stippling.

density,

Spray Paints

and

This type

stencil.

of brush produces two classic stencil effects: a circular

enamels, you must

clean your brushes and stencils immediately or these

quick-dr}ing paints will

Stencil Brushes

also

purchase a compressor and special airbrush-compatible

available. After

completing each project or stenciling

session, always clean

your bmshes following the

manufacturers instructions, making sure that no residual

pigment remains on the

bristles.

inks or paints. Because these considerations can

overwhelm even the most intrepid beginner, spra\' pamt and airbrush should be regarded as alternatives for the

A wedge

seasoned

can

stenciler.

Spray paints and airbrush can be used on walls,

floors,

For more information, see

Sponges of cellulose sponge or a piece of natural sea sponge

ser\'e as

an inexpensive and disposable stenciling

Lightly dab the sponge into the paint, blot

it

on

tool.

a paper

"Stenciling with Airbrush." page 106.

pounce or rub the sponge over the stencil window. While a sponge can be used to quickly daub a shaded print or create a dappled background texture, it

Blocking Glazes

not as manageable as a stencil brush, especially

metals, plastics

and

fabrics.

These translucent glazes are formulated

specificalh' for

use with block-printing techniques (see page 39). Their gel-like consistency

and

illustrate the differences

reflective properties dramatically

between

a paint

and

a glaze.

executed with opaque paints, block prints look

flat

When

and

unappealing, but glazes permit the color of the background to

show through,

giving

them depth and dimension.

Blocking glazes can also be applied with a pouncing

motion on

a traditional stencil,

and used

towel, then

defining the edges of a motif.

A

recent addition to the stencilers toolbox

sponge-tipped applicator, w'hich

is

a soft

is

the

foam sponge

attached to a stick. These applicators are inexpensive, reusable,

One

and

offer the stenciler yet

of their advantages

dried, stencil

for faux finishes

is

when

is

another textural option.

that they can be rinsed, towel

and then used while

still

slightly

damp.

In contrast,

brushes must be thoroughly cleaned and allowed to

dry completely before they can be used again.

such as rag-rollmg and sponging. Stencil Rollers

Brushes and Applicators Historically, stencilers

Stencil rollers,

have used whatever materials are

available to apply paint, including sea sponges, wool, even

cut and car\ed potatoes (for block printing).

types of brushes and applicators are for stenciling.

18

made

Depending on how they

Today

several

specifically

are used, each

which

are

made

of a dense foam, are valued

by experienced stencilers for two reasons: They create prints of unusually delicate shading that cannot be achie\-ed with a brush,

and

the)-

cover large areas quickly

Rollers can also be used to apply the larger primar)-

elements of a

stencil,

with subsequent overlays applied


w

iih

brushes. Keep in

pami because these

mind

ihat you'll tend lo use

more

sponges, potatoes, and other vegetables and

rollers are so absorbent. Since youll be

either carving

them

applying more paint than \'ou would with a brush or a

their natural contours. Recently, several

sponge, you mighi wani to consider using a spray adhesive

miiddticed die-cut reverse stencil blocks

on back

o'i

the stencil. This product holds the stencil

neoprcne-i)pe rubber,

There are

ol the

a strip of

fii'si

stenciling applicators,

wool

to

produce

solt,

and man\'

ii

and pounce

a cloth, then gently rub

subtle prints.

into pami, blot it

pencil

ii

into the stencil

your own slencHs (see page 20), youll work out your ideas on sketch paper. Use a so you can quickly make revisions as your image

to

takes shape.

When

ircieing or

need tracing

your hands with turpentine

attach the original

you're working with

The type hnd, e\en

of

m

paints,

wear

light-

later.)

wool appropriate

for stenciling

is

not eas)- to

Garage and tag sales are good

fabric stores.

sources lor wool blankets,

oil

whose

a\'ailabilit\'

today

is

from

V\7u'n designing

want

you'll

(If

a

other items thai a sienciler should ha\e

reflect the entire stenciling process,

htting disposable surgical gloves to a\-oid hax'ing to clean

window.

made from

durable material.

conception through application.

100-percent untreated wool around )'our

index and middle lingers, lighik dab

on

sex'eral

on hand. These

stencilers today use

Wrap

a flexible,

companies have

MiscKi.i.ANKous Equipment

delinilion.

Wcx^L Wool was one

by

edges of the mollis

liiniK against the surlace, giving the

moie

more

fruits,

into simple geometric shapes or using

work surface. When posHioning pencil for

limited.

adapling a design Irom another source, |:)aper.

Use masking tape

and ihe tracing paper

to

lo lirmi)'

your

a stencil, use a lighi-colored chalk

marking the position of repeat

lines, a ruler or

straightedge to align the pattern repeats, and masking tape or repositionable spray adhesive to fasten the stencil

Die-cut Bix^cks

Block printing (also positive

form of

a

known

motif

traditional stencil to

as reverse stenciling) uses the

— the

make

a

part thai

window

is

cut

away from

in place. a

to create a loose,

freeform design with subtle dimensional shading. Printing

blocks can be cut from a

In Luldilion lo

x'ariet)'

stenLiUng brushes, sea

of materials, including

spon\:^es, spon\:,e

When

painting a stencil

make

sure you have the

appropriate solvent to maintain the consistency of your

and clean brushes and Keep plenty of paper towels handy. paint, correct mistakes,

stencils.

apptuators. and slene\l rollers can be used lo apply paint.

19


.

OWN

DESIGNING AND CUTTING YOUR The materials used to make stencils are as varied as the era and culture in which stenciling is used. Virtually any material can be used to create a stencil

mask

a precise area of

background.

if it

will effectively

A stencil

As your accustomed

you

stencil,

stenciling skills develop

will

3.

and you become

It is

you

If

various motifs as each table

an mfringement of copyright

and

stencils are acetate. Mylar,

to

be cut and

Adele Bishop was the

first

makes

make

stencil board,

still

which

recommended

is

and

lines

While appl)ing

original

all

of

which

is

and

that

to accurately align the

painted.

The use of a

light

for multiple overlays to ensure

stencil board, trace the motifs for

with solid

a small portion of

each overlay

an adjacent

paint,

you

will use this

lines.

window

to

align motifs.

are 4.

Mylar (generically

Continue are

to trace until all the

accounted

for.

elements in the design

Number and mark

the top edge

of each sheet with a registration guideline so that

compatible with

and water-based paints and whose transparency easier to align overlays

it

is

For

support an accurate shape.

stenciler to use

referred to as polyester film), oil-

from

the accuracy of the tracings.

copy or adapt the

materials used to

on

the design requires

motif from the preceding overlay with dotted

The most common

both

If

and use dotted lines appear on the others. These

used during stenciling

lines are

own home.

enough

trace the design or motif

for the motifs that will

you

design of a fabric or wallpaper for use other than in your

thick

marking pen,

a

particular overlay in solid lines,

designs and either trace or adapt one of those patterns.

few words of caution:

Using

overlays, trace the motifs that will be cut

publications that contain copyright-

to trace a precut stencil pattern, or to

both, and remove the design once

the transparent stencil material.

probably w-ant to cut your owti.

many

windows through

cut

you can

the design for a single overlay to the board,

affix

you're done.

manipulating color and design withm a precut

to

can consult the

A

t

petals.

don't feel comfortable creating a stencil from scratch,

free

the motifs over a piece of carbon paper, or

simply

can be created

with masking tape, paper doilies, fabric or paper lace, or

even natural objects such as leaves or

STENCILS

sequence, placement, and position will be accurate.

repeats.

Cutting the Stencil Supplies • •

A ruler

For measuiing

repeats:

For the

Mylar (4 or

Cut •

Assemble your supplies and

stencil:

from

Plastic

P.

J.

For tracing the design:

5 mil, single matte) or

(for

A

opaque

A

fine-tip

permanent marking pen

carbon paper and a pencil

cutting

of glass (12

x 14 x 'A

inch,

PVC

If

you

Don't

tr)^

to cut

your

ner\^ous about cutting, practice

feel

copy of the pattern or on the pattern

finished tracing so

itself after

you can make your mistakes

first

you've

there.

stencilers learn to cut stencils with a utility knife.

an

electric cutter

ver)' stencil:

A craft

or utility knife with

Your

works best with E-Z Cut

Note

that

Plastic, leaxing

few ridges behind, but won't cut through

stencil

board's wax)' coating.

replacement blades or an electric stencil cutter with a

Remember, cut only on the solid black lines, tr)ing to them directly in half. Do not cut the dotted lines; these will serv'e as your guides to registration and alignment. di\ide

cur\^ed tip •

a

relax.

pressed for time or expect to be

Before purchasing an electric stencil cutter, most

A piece

mat

For cutting the

when youre

cutting skills will quickly improve with practice.

stencils)

cutting surface:

stencil

interrupted.

on

with sanded or covered edges) or a "self-healing"

E-Z

Tetreault or stencil board

(for transparent stencils) or

first

For repairing the

stencil:

Masking tape

for stencil

board

or Scotch Invisible tape for acetate or Mylar

Cutting with a

Tracing the Design 1.

You

Measure the length of the

when

that,

aligned side

by

orderly sequence) and the requires. Di\iding a stencil is

recommended

if

the stencil has

or 2.

if

a

side, will create a

more than one

many

continuous,

number of overlays that it design among several overla)'S color will be used,

small or delicately cut windows,

theorem or bridgeless

stencil

is

them both securely

will find that the cutting

1

Sit in a

work making

chair

whose height is comfortable for you at your and make sure you have adequate lighting.

Position your cutting surface directly in front of you. 2.

Hold your

utility

rest the heel of

on

by cutting

all

must

sides of the design.

you're working with opaque stencil board, either transfer the design to the board

you

by tracing

is

surface,

sure to leave at least a 1-inch border of stencil material

If

technique described below

but this method ensures the highest degree of success.

desired.

in place,

Knife

probabh' the exact opposite of what you want to do, which is to trace the motifs with the utility knife as if you were holding a pencil. You must resist your instinct to do this. It will take some practice to get both hands working together,

Position )'our transparent stencil material over the stencil

pattern and tape

20

if

repeat (a single set of motifs

Utilipi'

or art knife as you

would

your hand on the cutting

a simple shape, applying

a pencil

and

surface. Start

enough pressure

so that the tip of the blade cuts through the stencil and

makes contact with

the cutting surface.


.

3.

Working

\'cry slowly,

inch the blade loward

Many models now

To

)'ou.

prevent your culling hand Irom wiwcring or lloaiing

controls,

window, keep the heel of your hand on the cutting surlacc. You should onl\' use xoui' lingers

that not

above the

to

move

hand

stencil

the knife. At the

move

to slowly

same

the stencil so thai

you

are always

electric culler.

Do

not

shape has been cur\'e,

lilt

As wiih

the lip o( the knife blade until an entire

lift

cut.

When

the heel ol the

you come

When

to a point or a

Its

hand so you can turn the

tiu-n the stencil

so that your blade

position. This eliminates

present,

any

is in its

and the shape should pop

An

,\N

original

cutting

tip.

The

stencil cutters

efficiency

Resting the heel of your knife as vou

and ease of handling of

have improved considerably

hand on your woih

would a pencil and begin

is

healed

electric

in recent years.

suijace, hold

to cut the stencil

your

you

to

m

when moved

your

siencil. it

il

is

a straight

on

)'our culling surface.

Place the traced siencil

Apply

a

much

pressure will bend the lip and too

As

if

uniform pressure

it

around the shape. nol

hold ihe

can turn the

to

lili

oi

(Too

will

stencil material.)

by moving

to a point or a

the cutlers lip from the stencil.

lip in place

a point

liitle

a pencil, trace the motif

When you come

juncture in the moiil,

Do

to the lip ol the culler.

Irom cutting thi\)ugh ihe

you were holding

When vou come

utility

by inching the

blade toward vou. With the other hand, turn the stencil as that the blade oj the knife

a

it

any direction, making

1

3.

by means of

in

2.

out.

ElECTRK: STENCIL Ct'TTHR

electric cutter perforates a stencil

moved

difficult to control

prevent CUTTlNCi WITH

on scraps before applying

horizontal or vertical path.

snags that might be

little

on ihc gloss

possible to cut the design with a tracing motion, bui

culimg,

)'ou started

iry culling

)ou should practice using ihe

a ulilii)' knile,

cutting lip can be

more

you reach the point where

Note, however,

u leaves ridges within ihe

)'tHi liiid iliai

II

your aceiale or Mylar,

electric culler

stencil material. 5.

ol

lips.

can be cut smoothly with an

side of the sheet.

cutting toward yoursell. 4.

stencil materials

all

windows

lime, use your other

leaiure comloriable grips, thermostat

and cur\'ed copper culling

luivc.

when

lijt

rotating

on

the heel of your

a corner.

hand

.so

you

siencil.

cut so

always jacing you.

Hold

the electric cutter as

moying

it

oxer

its

ij

it

were a penal and trace the motij by

oudine.

21


.

Correcting Mistakes made

After you've

all

your cuts and evaluated your work,

made a few errors. For example, windows may be uneven, you may not have followed some of the cutting lines exactly, or you may have cut through a bridge or two. You can make

you ma\-

find that )'ou"ve

some

the edges of

of the

adjustments and corrections by doing the following: •

If

your windows are incorrectly shaped, you can trim

the stencil with a utility knife.

If

you're right handed,

place the area to be

trimmed

blade. (If you're

handed, just reverse the

left

to the

Icjt

of the cutting stencil-to-

blade position.) Moving the knife toward you, trim the stencil •

If

window, removing

a tiny sliver at a time.

you've veered only slightly inside or outside a cutting

line.

the

It

mean

that

you should reshape

easily distort a

shape even more by

doesn't necessarily

window. You can

trimming and retrimming. Besides, such an "imperfection" is

part of the personal touch that goes into cutting a

stencil

want

by hand. Before you discard the

to

apply paint through the

determine just •

If

how

problematic

window

needed before you begin

is

\isible in

stencils

your sample

you

simply

affix

some experimentation

go back and trim the

overlay(s) to

in the process of cutting or

a bridge,

fit

stenciling: If a line or bridge

print,

on the appropriate

then add re^stration marks.

in question to

that the shapes in each overlay

is

lines,

it is.

precisely against each other. Again,

If

you might

you're creating a bridgeless or theorem stencil,

must make sure

stencil,

Practice design: Begin by tracing the motifs oj the first overlay in soUd

remove

it.

handling a stencil you tear

Scotch Imisible tape to both sides

of the bridge and recut the

window

to

remove any

excess.

Practice Design Practice

makes

perfect! See

page 129 for a simple, three-

color stencil pattern that even a no\ice can cut successfully

while working to improve his or her technique. 1

On

the

first

overlay, trace the

stems and leaves of the

and horizontal

flower, as well as the vertical

registration

marks. 2.

On

On

the second overlay, trace the motifs jrom Stencil

re^stration lines with dotted lines

the second overlay,

mark

the motifs from Stencil #1

with dotted lines and trace the petals of the tulip with a

solid lines.

Complete the

and

ftl

and

the

trace the petals of the tulip with

third overlay, identify each

one for proper

sequence, then carefully cut the stencils.

solid line. 3.

On

the third overlay,

mark

the motif from Stencil

#2

with dotted lines and trace the berries with a solid 4.

line.

As you remove the overlays from the tracing, identify them as Stencil #3, #2, and #1. This step ensures that the overlays are stenciled

m

the proper sequence.

5.

Cut each overlay on the solid

6.

Print the stencil

on

lines only.

practice paper to evaluate the

quality of your work.

Make

corrections or adjustments

as needed.

22

J


ADAPTING A STENCIL FROM AN EXISTING DESIGN Not

surprisingly, you'll clisco\'cr ihai inspiraiion for

original stencil designs can spring from

many

The width

your

depend on the decor of the room )'ou"d like to stencil, if the room is just beginning to take shape and contains little in the way of draperies, furniture, and other restrictive details, you're and your siencil preit\' much h"ec to de\'cUip the decor most instances, your stenciling decisions

design

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;m

will

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

practically

the decor of a

room

is

On

any direction.

the other hand,

well established, or

design an en\ironmeni

in

which

same or comparable motils or

you plan

you may want

fabric, or

a piece ol

if

to

to

even an object,

antique china.

Because stenciled images are composed of

windows and

if

the elements share the

colors,

adapt the design of a wallpaper,

such as a vintage print or

all

a

ol

the wallpaper border that she had ordered lo

match her comforter and draperies seemed

sources. In

lo

overpower

the room. Jan dissected the border by cutting out the lloral

lorms, then distributed

ihem more

main

loosely to give

the design an open, airy look. Jan eventually reduced the

various colors in each flower and leaf lo two. Overall the stenciled borck'r

is

less elaborate

than the original,

)'ei still

complements the decor beautifully The dull. Hat linish ol the textured walls provided an excellent surlace lor stenciling. Jan cut this stencil with a pair ol

manicure

for the

scissors,

whose curved contours were

just right

arched motifs. She applied acrylic paints with siencil

brushes, finishing selected elements with highlights designed

system of

bridges, adapting a stencil from a secondary

to visually diminish the texture of the wall. after stenciling a repeat,

Immediately

Jan loaded a brush with white paint

source usualh' involves a process of simplification (the

and highlighted the centers of

reduction of an image into segments) and isolation

be done easily after the stencil has been removed. Jan also

(choosing one or a few motifs from

among many).

example shown below, Jan Demerath adapted design ("Rhapsody" by Croscill) through such

In the

larger cutout areas. This can

recommends using disposable baby wipes

for

removing

a fabric

water-based paint from walls. (For more information on

a process.

avoiding and correcting mistakes, see page 35.)

jan began by culling ihc wallpaper border apari

to select

a few design elements, then rearranged them unlii she

licit

a pleasing layout.

The completed

stencil

border coordinates with the

[lorcd pattern of the draperies without detracting

lively

from

them. Designed, adapted, and slencded by Jan Demerath.

23


^; to create images (see page 39), has contnhuted to its of block printing, a type oj stenciling that uses positive Jorms Plaid Enterprises. Courtesy of Plaid Enterpnses, Inc. recent surge in popularity. Designed and block-printed by ]anc Gauss and Liza Glenn for

The

24

loose, Jree-jlowing style


mr'^

BASIC

TECHNIQUES Before you can lackle your

stenciling project,

you must have an understanding of basic application

I

s>

first

tecliniques.

Armed with

this information,

you can then

consider the variables specihc to your project. The stepby-step photographs in this chapter are designed to help the first-time stenciler get started,

even on the

first

experience, you

improve your

attempt.

may

If

find

and

to

ensure success

you have some

some suggestions

stenciling that can

style or technique.

After you've read through the instructions for

*

applying each type of paint, begin by experimenting

with different paints and techniques. Regardless of your level of experience,

to

develop your

experimentation will enable you

own

style, so that all of

designs and prints bear the of creativity ÂŤ^>

stencilers

beginners

It's

will motivate

stencil

of your unique brand

encouraging to remember that the

whose work at

mark

your

is

featured in this

one time, and

and

that

book were

all

some day your work

instruct others.

25


.

STENCILING WITH LIQUID PAINTS When working with

Loading the Applicator

liquid paints, maintaining their

most important part of the stenciling procedure. Although the recommended paint consistency

consistency

is

the

is no "ideal" that you must you must determine what is

heavy cream, there

that of

work

is

to achieve. Instead,

and applicators

stencils

is

i9»

up 1.

minimal.

and

the techniques

you use

tools for application

important

It is

a paint that

to

is

it

can be

shaded prints or

difficult to

to clean

is

used and that color and shading are

When

the paint

mixed

is

to a

m a screw. surface.

a

2.

achieve

built

workable consistency,

twist

it

then

to the plate,

as

if

you were driving

This loads the pamt into the center of the

Remove

smeanng

on

it

outer bristles or

its

the applicator from the paint.

At this point, the applicator

pamt

your stenciling

and

into the paint

it

applicator without

if

not formulated specifically for

high degree of coverage, delicately

that

such as an interior house paint with

stenciling,

paint

little

gradually, resulting in a ver)' smooth, defined edge.

place

remain the

remember, however,

and opaque, stenciling

hold the applicator perpendicular

Regardless of the type of paint used for stenciling,

same.

stenciled prints are bold

always done with a dryhrush technique. This means that

very

appropriate for a particular project, as long as paint

buildup on

Even when

loaded with

is

remove

to begin stenciling. Try to

from the applicator by rubbing

it

all

much

too

far

of the paint

into or blotting

on

it

tools adequately

paper towel. Hold or tape the paper towel securely

Supplies

with the applicator.

a

to

your work surface, then make several circular strokes • •

For stirnng paint: craft sticks or palette knives For maintaining paint consistency and rejuvenating applicators:

mineral

For loading the applicator: a

An

For

applicator:

Using masking tape or repositionable adhesive, attach

4.

Hold the applicator

the stencil to the surface, glossy side up.

plastic plate

flat

tilting

brush or sponge applicator

blotting the applicator:

For affixing the

it

so that

Although

paper towels (use an

it

low-tack masking tape or

smudge

Maintaining Paint Consistency it is first

is at

it

test

the proper consistency for stenciling

taken from a newly opened container.

requires thinning only after

when

exposed

it is

to the

air,

if

the container

is left

is left

an open window, can cause paint

to cure

more

Use isopropyl rubbing alcohol or extender

and turpentine or mineral

spirits to thin

some general guidelines

from

rapidly.)

to thin acr)'lics.

maintaining a

Stir the paints

thoroughly in their containers, making

bottom. Shaking the container will not mix the paint

sitting •

on the

shelf for

Place approximately

1

if it

has already been opened and

some

time.

teaspoon of paint on the plate

the applicator

and

stencil.

at

Mist the

add thinner one drop at a time, then pamt thoroughly. Do not thin paints to a runny consistency. This will paint lightly or

stir

the •

make

it

difficult to sufficiently blot the paint

applicator, resulting in a wet,

26

a

paint

on

wet the

paper towel, then

no longer appears wet, you can begin

When

the

stenciling.

Applying the Paint a stencil

window, you must

concentrate your Msion on the uncut surface surrounding it

rather than

applies to

on

filling in the

technique

all

shape.

is

The

technical term for

called focus oj vision,

and

it

types of paint and stenciling techniques. By

concentrating on the area around the windows, the edges

more effectively, and the pamt is more evenly within each motif and accumulates quickly on the stencil.

less 1

Using either

smudged

print.

from

)'our

a

pouncing motion or

withm

a circular stroke,

the stencil window.

perpendicular to the surface wrist

The paint should be the consistency of hea\y cream. As it thickens, it will become gummy and

up on

on

the appUcator

much

again on the uncut part of the stencil.

it

stroke

the paint

a time.

quickly build

too

distributed

sure to incorporate any pigments that have settled to the

completely especially

is still

of the shapes are defined

workable paint consistency. •

Wipe

this visualization

japan paints. The

for

behind, there

As you apply pamt withm

open. (Note that

certain conditions, such as extreme heat or the draft

following are

Daub

stencil. If a

It

either

has been poured onto the palette or applicator-

loading surface or

removed all of you must always test the

that you've already

your applicator on an uncut margin of the applicator.

when

may seem

a pencil,

perpendicular to the surface.

consistency of the remaining paint before stenciling.

stencil:

repositionable adhesive

In general, paint

your hand as you would

in

its tip is

the paint from the applicator,

absorbent brand) •

on the

3.

spirits for

japan paints •

stroke

applicators outer bristles or surface.

extender or isopropyl rubbing alcohol

for acrylic paints or turpentine or

make an X

Finally,

towel to remove any pamt that remains on the

and moving your

at all

entire arm.

stroke. Start with a light stroke,

apply

Keep the applicator

times by locking your

Do

and

not use a

sweeping

as the paint

is

released from the applicator, slowly increase the pressure.

As you work the applicator

in first a clockwise, then a

counterclockwise motion, hold the stencil in place with

your other hand

to

keep the paint from seeping beneath

it.

2. Lift the corner of the stencil from time to time to

evaluate the depth of color

edges on each motif.

than to lighten

it,

so

Its its

and

much best to

to

check

easier to

work

for sharp, crisp

darken a pnnt

slowly.

To darken a


.

molif,

do nol imnicdiaicly reload ihc

increase pressure in order lo

from

its

center.

a|")|")licaioi";

conimue

through the solvent. Never immerse an applicator

simply

lo release paini

soK'ent,

Only reload the applicator when you

can no longer discharge color Irom

Rl-JUVENATING THE APPLICATOR you must

procedure maintains the applicators

dense

on the

bristles ot a stencil stencil.

the stenciling process

faster

transparent stencil Qx

when

when you can no

Dampen

applicator will pick stencil

it,

the center of a piece of paper tow^el folded into 1

work

a circular motion,

the

window, as

this will

during the

up

lirst

was

the paint that

on the

left

application.

Reloading ihl Applic;aior

Clean a

longer see through

up around the windows makes look messy and ill-defined.

quarters with approximately

Using

easier, since you'll

less often.

paint ihats built

the edges of the print 1.

and

much

stencil.

insert the applicator inside the

brush) and reduces paint buildup

much

Irom becoming soggy

to kee]") the applicator

Return to the

cause the stenciled motil lo streak.) The solvent in the

tlexibility (.especially the

This "clcan-as-you-go" approach makes

have to stop to clean your tools

in

working

you're

il

applicator on the area surrounding:^ the window. (Do nol

rcju\cnatc the apphLUtoi: This

tirst

even

nol use water,

with water-based paints. The solvent evaporates quickl)'

enough

it.

2.

Before reloading,

and do

teaspoon of solvent

Before reloading, test the consistency of the paint on the plate.

Chances

are that

working quickly lor

If

it

has thickened slightly even

maintaining paint consistency

the paint or mist

(isopropyl rubbing alcohol for acrylics, or mineral spirits

the paint

or turpentine for japan paints), then pull the applicator

consistency

is

it

with a

pump

Add

a

sprayer.

was

you're

drop of solvent

Make

for the initial

loading

—or —before 1

to

sure that

the consistency of heavy cream it

if

necessary, review the guidelines above

same

the

reloading.

Hold the applicator

perpendicular to the plate, dip

and

paint,

it

into the

twist

it

with a screwing

motion. 2.

Stroke the freshly

loaded applicator on

paper towel

a clean

to

remove excess

paint. 3.

Before stenciling,

test the

consistency

of the paint

on

the applicator by

^^^

daubing

it

on an

;

/

'

f

uncut portion of the

J%± t Hk ^m ~-^^5^B

^^^^H

.-''^^^'~

4.

While applying

the paint, focus

your vision on the surface of the

immediately

stencil

surrounding the <

,-''

window. •'--'

^^p. ^^^^^^^fddg^_V^

stencil.

the stencil to

5. Lift

evaluate the print's

r-^"'

A

depth

of color

and

the definition of

its

edges. 6.

""^^P

To rejuvenate your

applicator,

through towel

a

draw

it

paper

dampened

with the appropriate solvent.

27


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

APPLYING LIQUID PAINT WITH A STENCIL ROLLER As demonstrated by Sandra and Linda Buckingham

at a

recent Stencil Artisans League convention, stencil rollers

apply paint remarkably quickly and produce shaded prints of exceptional subtlety.

foam

roller, interior

wall paint,

You can

stencil

and

a stencil cut

a

dense

from

your

gummy if exposed

roller, roll

water,

it

and wrap

to air too long.

To

m plastic wrap or

.

Load the

roller

with paint, then blot

it

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

basically a "drybrush" technique.) This allows )'ou to

work quickly and 2.

Pressing

lightly,

get

an even

apply the

coat.

roller to the entire stencil first

one direction, then another. Increase the pressure as

in

the paint begins to adhere to the surface.

dampened with aluminum foil if you

on brown paper.

the roller into the paint. Blot the roller twice

on brown paper, then on paper toweling until is removed. (You need to roll off excess paint just as you would with a brush it's still

"'reju\'enate""

When

maintaining paint consistency.

Work

most of the paint

complete in just a fraction of the time

over a moist paper towel

it

Before you begin, re\iew the instructions on page 26

first

with a foam roller using any

plan to take a break for more than a few minutes.

1

1.

5 -mil

type of Uquid paint, but keep in mind that a roller absorbs more paint than a brush or a sponge. A dense foam roller is more suitable for stenciling than a standard paint roller, which is designed to soak up as much paint as possible. When used with interior wall paint, a roller can become particularly

*

for

For their presentation, Sandra and Linda used

polyester film.

you've finished stenciling for the day, clean your roller

with soap and water.

it

The

stencil

is

takes to apply

paint with a brush or sponge. 3.

If

desired, shade the motifs with a brush or sponge.

2. Blot

the roller again on paper toweling.

28

.


3. Roll

the entire stencil

first in

one

direction, then another.

4.

Check the

print for color

produces a sharp print

5.

Shade the motifs with

a brush or

sponge

if

desired.

and

definition.

much more

A

stencil roller

rapidly than other applicators.

The completed stencil-roller print. Designed and stenciled by Sandra and Linda Buckingham.

6.

29


.

STENCILING WITH SOLID PAINTS As

is

many

the case with

of the paints

now used

with

stencihng, solid paints were originally developed for use fine artists or for other crafts.

of solid paint crayons

Many

of the

new

and creams designed

specifically for

and permanence (even on

stenciling offer blendabilit)'

b)'

generation

fabrics)

without the bother of dirty stencils or run-under prints. Because paint consistency

among brands

is

so similar,

you can mix and match paints from several manufacturers, making a large and varied palette easily obtainable. Just

make

sure that the base of the paints

water or

the same, either

is

ncYci both. Follow the manufacturers

oil,

instructions for cleanup.

Working with

Stick Paints or Stencil Crayons The word "crayon" can

Hi

easily mislead stencilers into

thinking that they can use a stick of solid paint to color in a

window

directl);

Rcmo\c

the u

ti.v

seal

jivm ihc

stick

or crayon with a paper towc

something you should never do.

Instead, think of a stencil stick or crayon as a container of

which

paint,

is

essentially

what

it is.

This means that, as

with liquid paints, you need a palette or loading surface on

which

to deposit the paint,

The

into the appUcator.

paint onto the applicator paint

is

is

the

to

work

used

the paint

to load the

means by which

the solid

converted into a liquid. Once these steps have

been taken,

crayons can be used to produce both

stencil

opaque and shaded 1

and an area

circular stroke

A new

prints.

solid paint crayon or stick

is

sealed with a

coating that must be removed before

Gently peel away the coating or

it

make

several

with the crayon on a paper towel. Discard the 2

Using either an uncut part of the surface such as

a piece of

stencil or a

aluminum

wax

can be used.

foil

X strokes wax seal.

nonabsorbent

or

waxed

freezer paper as a palette, stroke the stencil crayon directly 3.

Work

on

its

surface.

the applicator into the paint with a circular

stroke, then stroke

paint into 4.

Hold

it

on another surface

to disperse the

Apply some paint then load

it

to the

uncut part of the stencil or onto a separate loading surjacc.

onto the applicator

it.

the applicator perpendicular to the stencil, then

apply the paint into the

window with

a circular or

pouncing motion.

Work

the paint into the bristles or the surface oj the applicator

30

Ik


Working with Stencil Creams

2.

similar to those 1.

Remove

the

made with

stencil

this coaling will

need

lorm

to remo\'e

alter it

paint,

lime you reopen the

3.

A

the

skim coal jivm the

LOinpleted

.solid

on

which usually means

remove any globs of

that the paint hasn't

been

was too much paint on the applicator to begin with. Hold the brush perpendicular to the stencil, then apply

the

paint into the v/indow with a circular or pouncing motion.

container.

Remove

it

manipulated properly with the applicator or that there

any period of disuse, so

e\'cr)'

directly into the paint.

surlace. Blot the applicator only to

it

with a paper towel. As these paints are "self-sealing,"

you'll

it

the border ol the stencil or another paint-loading

crayons or stick paints.

skim coat Irom the paint by wiping

Load an applicator by wiping

Disperse the paint into the applicator by rubbing

The consistency of stencil cream paints is similar lo that of cream blush or lipstick. Stencil cream prints look \'cr)-

siu'[ace oj the paint with a

stened paii^L print. Stencd crayons

paper towel

and creams both

Load

the bnish by stroking

yield prints oj

sojt,

it

directlv into the paint.

subtle shading with sharp, crisp edges.

31


STENCIL PRINT SAMPLER The

stencil prints

below and on the opposite page

illustrate

the range of values and textures that can be achieved

simply by varying or combining the tools and methods of paint application.

A

iraditional tlrvbnish

pnnl

applied with a ncncil brush stroke,

in acrxlic in

paints

a circular

showing verv smooth, controlled edges.

Blue Laser stencil b\ American Traditional.

Acrylic paint applied with a brush using a

combination of circular and pouncing techniques.

Acrylic paint pounced on with a sponge

wedge.

Acrylic paint swirled, pounced, and dabbed

on with a sponge apphcator on a

32

stick.

HM


An opaque Each Liquid paint lightly loaded on a sponge applicaloi and applied

wiping motion. Stencil

Stencil

l^v

m

a

set

print stenciled with stencil crayons applied with a brush.

oj motijs

was shaded with a second color

Stencil designed by

Deb Mores.

American Home.

creams applied with a brush

to

produce dark-to-lighl shading, from the edges

to

each motif

to

its

center Stencil designed by Melanie Royals.

33


AVOIDING AND CORRECTING MISTAKES The key

to a successful stencil project is planning,

way

preparation goes a long

little

problems. With that said,

that

a

preventing major

should be noted that very

it

and

errors can't be corrected,

in

and

what you know

is

feu-

a

Paper Proofs A paper proof is sample to stenciling.

of the design or go unnoticed

b\- virtually

everyone

Use

of frustration.

"mistake" might very well be perceived as an integral part

else.

own Bmsh-undcrs (also called run-undcrs) are smudges of paint

the print.

window of an individual motif. Brush-unders occur when the bristles of a brush slip beneath the surface of the stencil during application, or when the stencil

not secured tightly enough to the stenciling surface.

is

Run-unders

are caused

by paint seeping under

either because the paint

is

flush against the stenciling surface. in place

and press

ensunng

that

your

is

Always tape the

tightly to the surface while

it

paint. Repositionable spray adhesive

tape for

a stencil,

too runny or the stencil

is

more

not

stencil

applpng

reliable

than

stencils stay in place.

print has dried completely to

blot

at least let

make corrections, but you up first. If necessar);

the paint set

minor smudges with

a

paper towel or cotton swab

moistened with the appropriate solvent. •

If

the

smudge

is

with a kneaded overlaps the

more conspicuous or area

and paint over

another part of the stencil to cover •

For

really big

can't

be removed

it

it,

window

or use

let dv)\

and

restencil. If

on

fabric,

wood, or other surfaces

with special considerations, refer to "Other Stenciling Projects," pages

70-103,

in this print

for specific instructions.

show an

uneven appUcation of paint and poor focus oj vision. Continue proofing your stencil

on paper

until you're

pleased

with the results, then use the proof as

a guide for

34

when

and

for

(See "Measuring

ser\-es as a tool for

measuring

stenciling a wall border into

understanding the flow of a design.

and Laying Out Borders," page 49.) You should make more

Paint color, value, and intensity.

than one proof

— three or four

are suggested

to

evaluate these variables, as well as variations in paint, tools,

and application. To

assess color intensity

paper with the background color

accurately, paint the

The

of the wall or object before proofing a stencil.

have

will

a significant

impact on the

overall effect of the design, so don't leave out this

important

step.

first

Before you

commit

day or two and

live

to

any treatment, wait

at least a

with your proofs. For instance,

if

you're proofing a wall border, tape the proofs to the wall

room

of the actual

at the border's

approximate height.

Appraise them in the context of the existing decor and furnishings, both in daylight

print

as the

or, if

model

and

artificial light.

Use one

necessary, specific areas from each for

your project, and

refer to

it

throughout the stenciling process.

spreadsheets

work

leftover wallpaper

quite well for proofing.

by painting

it

You can use

with the background color

of your project (or just plain white) to cover the pattern.

you're working

The green motifs

corners,

whether you cut the windows

For borders and large designs, the backs of computer

with another motif.

smudges, repaint the surface,

will see

any of your cutting errors are discernible in

paper proof also

of the prints

eraser, shift the stencil so that the

smudged

A

if

repeats, particularly

paper prior

paper proof to check the following:

background color

The following are a few suggestions for correcting brush-unders and run-unders when stenciling walls, ceilings, and other flat, repaintable surfaces: • If the smudge is ver)- slight, use a kneaded artists eraser to remove it. Its generally not necessar)- to wait until a should

a

You

design.

precisely, or

extend beneath the

a sheet of

The accuracy of overlays and alignment of repeats. A paper proof is particularly effective for evaluating stencils of your

Brush-unders and Run-unders that

made on

print

an invaluable tool that can save you hours

It is

color, value,

and

intensity.

The unwaxed

side of 24-inch-wide freezer paper

option. Blank newsprint's poor absorbency

make

it

an unwise choice.

and

is

another

dull color


CREATING DIMENSION WITH COLOR AND VALUE As you can see from the

stencil print

sampler on pages

Shade each motif from dark (around the edges)

32-33, you can suggest depth and dimension within

a

(near the centers) with one color, or place a

print simpl)' b)' varying a single colors value. Value

the

unilonn application of color

relative lightness or

darkness of a color, as

it

is

relates to

to

to light

mask over

darken specific

Moderate the values of similarly colored moiils

to suggest

while (the highest value), black (the lowest value), and ihc

depth by varying pressure during application. With

range of grays in between. Pink, for example,

technique, darker petals within a flower will appear

is

maroon is a low-value red. which color and value are used

a high-

value red, while

The ways

in

closer, in a stencil

design are primarily based on personal preference. There are several •

approaches

to consider.

Paint each motif with one

often

done

m

flat,

You

color. This is

so-called "primitive-style" prints based

on 18lh-ceniury and early IQth-ceniury designs, and in

simple

modern

This

is

them

colors.

called ovcrpiinling. all

these effects, then try combining

in a single print. You'll find that the character

content of the stencil

room,

this

while lighter ones will appear further away.

Shade selected motifs with one or more other Experiment with

can;

opaque

a

areas.

will inlluence

itself,

as well as the

your decisions about

and the

decor of your

color, highlighting,

and shading.

designs.

AJLcr applying a single, unijorni layer

oj painl,

use a

musk

to

daiken

The sluiLkd

piini.

The position of the mask can he easily adjusted so

that the contours of the shading are soft

specific areas of the leaves.

and natural-looking.

This lovely wisteria

was

print

stenciled

m

two colors of paint,

and with overlays a nudti-shaded print

was produced.

Stencil

designed by Decorative Arts Studio.

This ivy design shows

another type of shading.

By moving

the flower

cluster stencil slightly

and

stenciling with a

very

light touch, the

flower cluster looks

much is

larger

added

and depth

to the print.

Stencil designed

by

This

*

^*t

lamb was

stenciled in

gray

acrylic, then

with black. This type of blending, which

is

shaded

called

overprinting, suggests a handpainled look. Stencil

designed by

Deb Mores.

Deb Mores.

35


STACKING In addition to the shading effects

technique

known

as stacking

and depth by overlapping the is

first

is

shown on page

used

to create

35, the

dimension

prints. In a stacked stencil print,

print (which will appear closest to the viewer)

masked with

the cutout portion of

the second stencil

is

its

stencil,

positioned to overlap

removed, and

it.

then

The cutout

portion of the

first

represented

transparent, the stencil for the second

3.

Remove

behind the

36

is

the second first.

print

slencil.

is

The second

if

print will

the object

appear to be

print

is

replaced and the outline of

its

"concealed" area

is

gently painted m. t

Although stacking

technique because

is

usually considered an intermediate

to create murals and other complex images, Nancy Tribolet demonstrated at a recent Stencil Artisans League workshop that even a beginner can it is

used

achieve this dimensional style of stenciling. stencil

4.

creams and a

soft stencil

The completed stacked

Tribolet.

print.

brush

for

Nancy used

solid

her presentation.

Designed and stenciled by Nancy


FREEFORM AND FREEHAND STENCILING The designs and repeal patterns

many

of

and

particularly borders, are unvarying

usually occur at regular intervals

and

other uses different values and freehand veining in the leaves

stencils,

Motifs

fairly rigid.

are identically or

very similarly positioned. In contrast, /ree/orm stenciling

depth and dimension.

to suggest

Sandra also created an elegant cave

uses individual motifs as the building blocks of a design,

paper masks.

randomly varying

color

their position, sequence,

according to the stencilers personal of the

room or

stenciling

is

project.

Because of

taste

and orientation

and the needs freeform

its flexibility,

often used to highlight or enhance a particular

area or feature of a room. This stenciling style

is

most

compatible with design motifs that are innately free-flowing,

such as leaves, vines, or flowers, but

it

can be used with a

wide range of others. Freehand

motif. For example, all

wash

First,

she loosely applied a rich terra coita

ol diluted latex

housepaint

ihai the intensity of color varied

measured and taped

off the

you might want

with low-tack Kleen Edge tape. She applied the vivid earth

and foam

rollers,

using long, unevenly torn strips of freezer

paper to paint the jagged edges between them, occasionally

to

add veins

to

some

in solid black

Julia Heirl

Burmeschs wreath design makes the most of

her sunrooms limited wall space, a result of a high, peaked

and many windows. The

ceiling

the tiny roses in upholstery fabric

your color choices on

make sense Shown below and on

a

paper proof

to ensure

visually.

examples of freehand

the following page are

some

some

also

stenciling,

of

which

theme was inspired by on wicker furniture, which she also used as a guide to custom-mix acrylic paints. She used smaller brushes ( Vs to Vs inch) to maximize speed of application and paint control with the single-piece stencil. cut floral

housepaint on a semi-gloss surface, Sandra Buckingham

number

leaf

and vine patterns

One

is

lighter green over a darker green

to

delicately

rose

Melanie Royalss freeform stencil sets feature individually

include freehand painting. Using eggshell finish latex

completely different looks.

using stencil

brushes and a circular rubbing or swirling technique.

color that contrasts significantly with that of the stenciled

adapted individual

randomly Next, she

colors of the stones veins and striations with sea sponges

bears eyes. For best results, do your freehand work in a

that they

in all directions so

background of the border area

She then stenciled the figures

of your leaves, or add pupils or highlights to a teddy

motif. Test

bedroom motif

overlapping colors to increase the complexity of the texture.

stenciling (also called overpainting) is the

addition of handpainted details to a previously stenciled

or

art

with a combination of precut stencils and lorn freezer

and

of

leaf stencils that

ways

produce two

veins, connecting vines,

shaded

with

in a

background, while the

artists liner

can be combined in any

to create one-of-a-kind designs. All of the

and

tendrils are

added freehand

brushes and thinned paint, which enhances

the handpainted look of the designs.

These two applications of the same grapevine stencils demonstrate the versatility of using

a Jew individual leaf stencils as the building blocks

ofajreejorm design. They can be combined, overlapped, and shaded to look like

meandering

Stencils from

vines, clustered branches, or

Buckingham

Stencils

Garden Room

shaped

topiary.

Collection; stenciled

by Sandra Buckingham.

37


JYixs \arge

wnath

is

composed of a

series of single-piece stencils.

Designed and

stenciled by Julia Hierl Burmesch.

A

background created with latex paint, sponges, and

freezer paper provides just the right look for these cave painting stencils. Designed and stenciled by Sandra

Buckingham.

^rr-^^m^r c

4

^?^ '<^%..

The flowers oj these very

realistic-looking

geraniums are composed of overlapping

layers of petal cluster stencils, starting with a dark color lighter color

It

always helps

and finishing with a

a real plant when doing

to look at

this

type of design.

Designed and stenciled by Melanie Royals.

Three stencil

sets

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;"Romantic Ribbon â&#x20AC;&#x201D;were

Trellis,"

"Sweetheart Rosebud Topiary"

number

topiary set comes with a ceramic pot,

38

"Sweetheart Ivy Topiaiy," and

to create these stencil piints.

oJ topiary shapes can be created using the topiary stencil

clay pots.

ribbon

used

The

trellis.

ivy

and

and rosebuds can be

the ivy topiary

Any

The rosebud

comes with three

also be entwined at

Designed and stenciled by Melanie Royals.

sets.

sizes of

random through

the

II


BLOCK PRINTING Dating back to ancient Egypt, block printing (also as reverse stenciling) has

known

been used throughcuu history

To prevent glaze from creeping up the handle

leaves.)

during loading, you might choose to notch the handle with

and embellishment. Block printing uses

for decoration

your

a sharp craft or utility knife. This step isn't required, but

the positive forms ol motils to create an image, whereas

you skip

traditional stenciling uses their negative, or cutout, shapes.

block so that the handle doesn't get smudged.

Even

il

new

you're

to stenciling,

chances are good that

1.

you've made block prints before. (Remember those potato prints you made in elementary school art class?) You can also use

sponges and other vegetables and

fruits, either

by

On

the edge of the natural shape of the blocking pad.

this line,

make

Hold the block

a cut

face

up

no deeper than

cut a

stunning wall motifs, cascading

or twisting vines.

should be

make

define the natural shape of the block.

Vegetable printing can even be used to

beautiful

wedge from a very

'/id

inch.

your nonwriting hand, then

in

carving them or using their natural cut profiles, to create florals,

if

have to be extra careful when loading the

you'll

At the ponu where the handle meets the block, lightly

mark 2.

it

the handle into the pierced line.

Il

shallow wedge, just deep enough to

fabric designs.

Many

stencilers

Marking the Layout

block-prmt with die-cut blocking

pads made from a neoprene-type rubber.

When

Using

used

with translucent, gel-like glazes, these pads produce

mark

quilter's tape or chalk,

on the stenciling surface or

How

the

pa]~)cr prool.

11

ol the

design

applicable,

breathtaking prints so easily that even a beginner can

follow the natural configuration of the motif you Ye working

achieve professional results.

with.

Keep

Supplies •

in

mind,

toward

gravitate

lor

example, that leaves

a light source.

or chalk line as your design progresses.

For niarking the jlow

oj the design:

'A-inch quilter's tape

or a light gray chalk pencil

Loading the Block

Blockmg pads

1.

Blocking glazes

For loading

Brushes:

the blocks: a plastic plate or a sheet of palette

2.

For

flat

(for

loading the blocks) and round (for

flat

brush, evenly apply

a

moderate amount

Using the same brush, load the block with several shading. Note that a moderate load of glaze will

produce three

blotting the loaded blocks: scrap pieces of

brown

paper bags •

the

values of color. This produces very natural-looking

finishing the prints) •

With

of glaze to the detailed or cut side of the block.

paper •

will typically

You can remove the tape

to five prints,

depending on the porosity

of the blocking surface. 3.

Before

making

a print, test the loaded block

For correcting mistakes: an old terry cloth towel

practice sheet of paper. Continue to practice

moistened with water

until

you

feel

Attached to each blocking pad

used

to load the

is

a short

paper, gently blot

handle that

block with glaze and to remove

it

is

from the

printed surface. (Do not use this handle to create stems on

or a smooth,

block

if

a

on paper

comfortable with the pressing and

procedure described below.

Notching the Handle (Optional)

on

flat

it

on

If

a scrap piece of

surface. You'll also

you've overloaded

it,

lifting

the block slides on the

or

if

brown paper bag

want

to blot

your

you're block-printing

a piece of fabric.

1

.

Using

map

quilter's

tape or light gray chalk,

the general flow of the design.

39


Making

a Print

"rubber-stamped" and allows the glaze to bond to

Hold the loaded block by the handle with one hand,

1.

turn the block over, then lightly press or set

against

it

the surface, resulting in a 3.

and remove 2.

it

to load the

4. Position the

from the surface.)

Press

down

your

fingertips.

hold

it

To prevent the block from left

make another

become

progressively lighter,

is flexible,

and shading.

the block can be

"behind" a darker print or shows a motif in

part of the shape. Repeat with the other hand. This

Before you overlap prints,

a

moderate amount

it

3. it

4. Set

block on the surface to be printed, then release the handle.

make

sure the

profile.

first

one

has dried.

was

of glaze.

to

rolled so that just a portion of a shape appears

hand while you

like

it

block for additional prints. With each

Because the neoprene

sliding,

look.

print.

"walk" the fingers of your right hand around that

Load each blocking pad with

5.

If

on

the block

is

loaded too heavily or

if

you want

a delicate print, blot

a piece of scrap paper.

Hold the block against the surface with one hand, then walk the

fingers of the other

40

more handpainted

handle, then reapply

creating natural gradations in color

over the entire surface of the block with

with the fingers of your

its

pressing the color will

technique prevents the prmt from looking

2.

block

the block by

the surface to

the surface with the other hand. Release the handle

immediately (Use the handle only

Remove

around the edge.


Adding Finishing Touches

Correcting Mistakes 1.

If

you make

a mistake

on

a wall or

wood

surface,

remove

the glaze with a terry cloth towel slightly moistened

with water.

If

the glaze stains the surface,

you can

reblock the same area with a lighter load of glaze. 2.

Before removing prints that you are slightly

smudged around

and look

your proof

at

feel are

You don't have like vines

1.

is

the edges, stand back

a glaring one, or

if it fits

into the

Remove

the block by the handle, then print again.

dry before adding details

Dip the round brush

begin working on

group of motifs.

in neutral glaze, load

and moisten

it

with only

with a drop

it

of water. 2.

As you paint the vine or other

detail,

already printed motifs, letting

it

drag

become

it

through the

fully saturated

with glaze. 3.

design as a whole.

6.

after printing a

a hint of the motif color,

Darker prints add depth and dimension to the flow of the design. Before making a correction, consider

whether the error

to wait for glazes to

tendrils. In fact, its best to

them immediately

too dark or

to evaluate the overall pattern.

and

Keeping your wrist loose, use to lightly

7.

a pulling, twisting

motion

connect some of the leaves and flowers.

You can make three to five prints with each load each successive print is slightly lighter.

of glaze. Notice

how

8.

Using a round

brush loaded with neutral glaze hint of color, a hint of

and add

a

connecting

vine. Block glazes

and blocking pads by Plaid Enterprises.

^1


Vegetable Printing

Carving the Potato

In the step-by-step photographs

page, Carol

shown on

Lumpkin demonstrates

the opposite

the beauty

simphcity of vegetable printing. You can

1.

car\'e fruits or

vegetables into simple shapes like flowers or leaves, or create

more

and

intricate florals.

the fruit or vegetable

itself,

either

You can

whole or

prints are casual, loose, impressionistic,

weathered

Some

in

also print with

3.

cut. Vegetable

and

in half, either horizontally or vertically,

On

one half of the potato,

lightly car\'e the desired

shape into the cut surface.

When

you

cut (about

Continue

slightly

are satisfied with 1

inch) straight

to cut

your shape, make

down

a

deep

into the potato.

around the outline of your shape

until

you've returned to the starting point.

appearance.

of the best fruits

are also the

2.

sophisticated designs such as vines, berries,

fruit garlands,

Cut the potato

depending on the amount of printing surface you need. Make a smooth, even cut.

and

and vegetables

to use for printing

4.

From

5.

remove sections of potato so that only your shape is left. The printing surface of your potato should project out

most common: potatoes, turnips, apples,

pears, carrots, cabbage, celery,

paints

work

paints

do not mix well with

best with fruits

and artichokes. Acr)4ic

and vegetables; most oil-based their natural fluids,

far

making

the outside of the potato, cut inward to gently

enough so

that )-our hngers won't get in the

while you're printing.

Make

potato securely and that

printing difhcult.

Although the instructions

that follow are for a

cooking potato, you can use any

fruit

raw

or vegetable

it

way

sure that you can hold the

doesn't slip while printing.

If

necessar); trim the sides of the potato for an easier grip

you

or use a fork for a handle.

have on hand.

Making a Print Supplies For making the

To print: a fruit or vegetable of

your choice

For carving the fruit or vegetable: a paring knife

For loading the carved fruit or vegetable: an

and

a

print:

will take several

of blank newsprint until

"garland of plenty" vegetable print designed and printed by Carol Lumpkin.

42

It

minutes and several prints before the

vegetable will begin to print accurately Practice on sheets

blank newsprint

{

A

with pamt by brushing the paint

potato into the paint. Experiment with both methods.

brush

paper plate or palette

For proofing the

artists

print, load the potato

onto the printing surface of the potato or by dipping the

you

are pleased with the results.


1

.

Lightly carve the desired

shape into the cut surface of the potato.

2.

Working from the outside

of the potato, cut

inward toward the

carved outline of the shape, removing sections of the potato as you go.

3. Print

your design on the surface to be stenciled.

4.

If

desired,

add small

details with

an

artist's

brush.

5.

A

finished potato

print.

Designed and

printed by Carol

Lumpkin. -Âť

#

43


The stenciled dado that

it

Adele Bishop.

44

in this dining alcove

is

based on Slavic embroidery motifs.

complements the decors other principal element

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

Its

simplified color

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Native American throw rug

scheme reduces

the complexity of

instead of overpowering

it.

its

design so

Designed and stenciled by


STENCILED INTERIORS

While

stenciling

medium,

an extremely

is

flexible decorating

there are a few basic guidelines to follow

when

stenciling a room. Perhaps the best advice for first-time stencilers

room

that they

is

should focus on

example,

at a tune; for

Then,

after the furniture

place,

you can decide

would enhance or

it

a

a

I'm stenciled," carefully.

By

it

are

back

to

be a professional decorator to

it

seems

feels

perfectly to

"comfortable" If

starting with a

each time you

shout out, "Look

probably means that little

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;when

it

at

me

wasn't planned

stenciling

and then

gradually adding more, you can be sure that your will suit

your

taste

in

additional stenciling touches

rooms decor

room

a

at the ceiling line.

and accessories

complements the space

walk into

border

one part of

detract from the visual balance of the

room. You don't need

know whether

if

a

just

and

room

lifestyle.

45


PLANNING A ROOM Your stenciling should blend with and enhance everything else in a

room, from the color of the walls

flooring,

and

accessories.

and accessorized, then

room

a

If

is

if

room

the

is

On

which

accessories from

to

you can use

design, then

a

Do

many

and design each time you look through

layout

these pages. Since your

task

first

to

is

A

can be applied,

your

own

let

how

derived from the

much

So

fact that

of stenciling's appeal

each stenciler can use

it

Room

you begin

the stencil design in terms of orientation vertical,

room wall

and individual or spot

motifs.

first

follow

when

is

a specific

2.

.

all

sequence of steps

stenciled

«#

\

3.

from

is

stenciled approximately 72 to

used to frame doorways and

or to divide a wall into stenciled panels. All

down

to the chair rail or kickplate.

to

Add

Individual or Central Motifs

Central motifs and accessory embellishments are stenciled last.

There

is

no

definitive rule as to

how

these motifs

should be placed. Stencil several proofs of the motif and

same placement

relationships throughout the entire

room. For example, an indi\idual motif can be used as a of the following horizontal

central focal point, or repeated systematically to create a

®

«iL

^JL

.MMMMMMM

effect.

;^-o^_;^.v -^i 'aSJ-J^ '\i ^if'^-.-ff -i^iS'S '^.vir.*;-"-*-'

^^ ^i.^."!^ ^,^«

fe.''} .Ms. -A'.

^*s^?*^

V

/ /

/

/

a wall,

above the base molding.

mopboard

complex wallpaper

^itx

on the lower part of

rail to

use them to determine the best placement, then maintain

placements:

\y^

is

must be stopped by a horizontal line. "When stenciling around doors and windows or creating molding panels, first stencil the horizontal, then drop the

divide the

stenciling walls.

can have any or

or at

rail,

consider

Stencil All Horizontals

A room

or wainscoting can be stenciled either V2 to

Stencil All Verticals

the 1

<

i

^

\ 3

\

/

1

f

>

\

*

\

\

\

'*

@

1

I

/

>\:f^f^

vyc_/-^^Yy'iL/"%^'

1"

/

\l

*A

y»l \.yc,/'^\.>^/'^\>Q./'%\yQ./'%v>Q./'^l Stencil all \ior\zonta\ borders first.

From

Stenciling Your Walls by Jane Gauss, copyright

©

1990 by Plaid

Enterprises.

Courtesy of Plaid Enterprises,

Inc.

Stencil a\l vertical borders second. All verticals

must be stopped by a horizontal.

From Stenciling Your Walls by Jane Gauss, copyright

©

1990 by Plaid

Enterprises.

Courtesy of Plaid Enterprises,

46

is

vertical stencil lines

horizontal,

Then

rail

kickplate or

windows

to

into sections so that the distribution of the stenciling

be balanced. There

A

vertical

room, you must

accommodate spacing

with the dimensions of the entire room.

Vertical borders are often

is

into Sections

stenciling a

to

it

personal en\ironment.

Dividing a

and then

fit,

V4 inch above the base molding.

express his or her individuality, creating a completely

Before

narrow design

below the chair •

these images pro\ade a springboard for

creativity.

chair

A dado

choose a starting

point for your stenciling and to consider where and

is

the customary height of 32 to 36 inches from the floor.

decorating and stenciling ideas that you'll learn something

new about

window

V4 inch above or below an architectural chair

wide range of

layout. There are so

not select a

in proportion •

and

the area above a door or

above, a door or window. Instead, choose a design that

Study the photographs of the stenciled interiors that to color, design,

top of a room,

continue with the complete design to maintain the flow.

of the particular decor or room.

approaches

at the

inch below the ceiling line

stencil the portion of the design that will

the other

draw inspiration for color or more dramatic stencil as the focal

later in this chapter. You'll find a

If

1

not wide enough to utilize the complete border stencil,

point of the room. Evaluate each design within the context

appear

border stenciled

a

is

or crown molding.

'

complement

and has few or no

sparsely furnished

A frieze

positioned approximately

completely furnished

select a stencil that will

rather than conflict with the existing decor.

hand,

to the fabrics,

Inc.

Add

individual or central motifs

last.

From

Stenciling Your Walls by Jane Gauss, copyright

©

1990 by Plaid

Enterprises.

Courtesy of Plaid Enterprises,

Inc.


This primitive-style

example of how

and

bedroom

an excellent

is

combine horizontal,

to

vertical,

central motifs. Starting with the colors oj the

patchwork

quilt,

which provided the only source

oJ color in the room, a deep blue

doesn't detract

from

was added

The

create a pleasing country look.

the antiques, which remain

the focal point of the room's decor Designed

stenciled by jane

to

stenciling

and

Gauss for Plaid Enterprises.

From The Complete Book of Wall Stenciling by Jane Gauss, copyright

Š

1984 by Plaid

Enterprises. Courtesy of Plaid Enterprises, Inc.

This detail of a tiny laundry illustrates

color

how an

and design can convert a

utilitarian space into

The

room

effective use of

ceiling, soffit,

a showplace.

and

the bottom

half of the walls to chair rail height

were painted value of the

The

tree motif,

from

a

in

slightly

darker

cream wall color

light

which was adapted

the border,

was enlarged and

centered on the painted walllabinets.

The the

stenciling

on the ceiling makes

room appear

light,

larger, leaving the

uncluttered wall areas available

for the laundry equipment. Designed

and

Gauss for Plaid

stenciled by Jane

Enterprises.

From The Complete

Book of Wall

Stenciling by Jane

Gauss, copytight

Š

J

984 by Plaid

Enterprises. Courtesy of Plaid

Enterprises, Inc.

47


PREPARING WALLS FOR STENCILING The general

Wood

rule for surface preparation for stenciling

applies to walls, too: Virtually any surface can be stenciled as long as

it

Below

doesn't have a high gloss or sheen.

some parameters

for

or Plywood Paneling

Before stenciling a paneled room,

you work on

are

preparing and protecting a range of

its

wall surfaces for stenciling.

surface, stenciling

This

is

Plaster and Drywall oil-

minimum

two coats

of

or latex-based. is

Semi-gloss paint

is

flat

With most

or satin-finish

paints, a

required for an even finish. Allow

24 hours before

paint to cure for at least

recommended

generally not

and

your prints with

a protective

amount

working on prejinished paneling, wash

sealer.

dirt. If

the paneling

is

to

first

it

stained dark, test

first

you might want

a case,

try stenciling

in white acrylic, then stenciling

The white

it.

such

your color choices, or

your

your colors

through translucent colors,

will radiate

allowing them to stand out against a dark background.

work on any dark background.

This technique will

may

Ijyour paneling has a "factory" gloss finish, paint

coating. (See "Protecting High-Traffic Areas," below.) In any

event, be sure to save at least a small

If you're

over

you've stenciled in a high-traffic area,

to preserve

working on unfinished wood, apply a base stain

wood

motifs

bathroom or kitchen, however, it would be flat, unwashable finish. In

want

will

results are

make any

to

or clear

to reevaluate

impractical to leave walls with a

you

and

Ij yo,u're

stain obscures their colors. In

paints,

prevents the stenciling paint from curing completely In an

if

whether the end

translucent paints on a small sample to see whether the

as a base

and japan

as its hnish interferes with the quality of a stencil print

these instances, or

that

by preparing

first

then applying any finish coats.

it,

to verify

originally anticipated,

remove wax or

stenciling.

for stenciling paints, especially stick paints

area such as a

recommended

adjustments for the actual project.

Paint plaster or dr)'U'all surfaces with a

pamt, either

way

the best

what you had

it is

sample piece of paneling

a

adhere to

its

surface.

with an oil-based

of paint for

touch-ups or correcting mistakes.

flat

You can

flat

not

either (1) paint the paneling

or satin-finish paint, or (2) apply a

varnish before stenciling, then apply another coat of

varnish (satin or gloss) to the entire surface to restore

Textured Walls

sheen

Textured walls need not remain unstenciled. In

depending on the stenciling technique, the surface texture print.

the finish coats of varnish or polyurethane. Test a small

m a stenciled

of a wall can enhance natural color variations

For example, block printing and applying

its

has dried completely.

Afier stenciling, wait at least three days before applying

fact,

after the stenciling

section before applying polyurethane or urethane. Note that oil-based pohoirethanes can yellow with age.

stencil

crayons with a brush both work well with textured walls. Bear in

mind

your

that the degree of texture will affect

design

more

is

flnish.

might disrupt

the continuity of the print. Test the design on a small,

concealed area that can be easily painted over door, for example

—before

a protective

The stenciled portion of any wall is as washable as the background paint. There are some areas, however, that

flattering for a textured wall. If a design

features tiny motifs, the texture of the wall

Protecting High-Traffic Areas For most rooms, stenciling doesn't require

choice of stencil design. In general, an open, flowing

require a semi-gloss scrubbability

—behind

The scrubbability of

a

flat

or eggshell-finish

kitchen area, for example, where there

tackling an entire room.

is

If

you'd

be limited. Stenciling wallpapered room but are

like to stencil a

to consider leaving the

stenciling directly over

it.

stenciling paints adhere •

Ij the

room

is

papered

in

wallpaper in place and

As with painted

most

than

messy renovation, you

enthusiastic about the prospect of a

may want

less

effectively to

mud

If you're stenciling in

need that

to

all

seams

are glued, then reattach

to the walls. Paint the wallpaper

with

local paint store. is

veiy

light,

select a water-based

once

initially

Check

no

it's

If

dried, then

Most products

the finish appears to be streaked

you need

to

apply a second coat.

To repaint a varnished or finished wall, treat

it

as

if it

any loose sections

sand the wall or apply

lightly •

a

primer

coat.

You can apply a protective coatmg any time after

room

stenciling.

into one of

Even

wallpaper. (A water-based latex paint might dissolve the

those categories that generally requires a protective

apph'

at least

It is

recommended

two coats of paint

patterns or colors that

that

you

to sufficiently cover all

may show

through.

were

painted with a semi-gloss paint. To repaint, either

to see

a flat or satin- finish

the protective finish with a flat roller

very quickly

oil-based paint or a primer specifically designed to cover

surface of the wallpaper.)

48

stenciling.

your

background surface

Apply dr)'

faults in the plaster, there is

remove the paper before

If the

clear urethane. Oil-based finishes yellow over time.

by blending

an older home whose walls were

m kitchens, bathrooms, laundry' or

rooms, and children's room usually need the protection

available from

matte finishes.

a solid color or mini-print,

papered to cover cracks and

would

of a finish coat. This protection can be achieved ver)' easily

with the wallpaper's color and/or design. •

stove,

with several quality products in a variety of surface finishes,

surfaces,

stenciling can provide a decorator touch

in a

frequent splashing

around the sink or spattering grease from the

Wallpaper

pamt

if

finish,

the

it

in question doesn't

fall

might receive more wear and

originally

expected. Simply wash

tear than

you

off dirt or fingerprints

with a mild wall cleaner, then apply the finish coat.


MEASURING AND LAYING OUT BORDERS Once you've prepared your walls, gathered all your supplies, and made several paper proofs as guides for color and placement, you're ready to easiest

and most enjoyable

start stenciling

1

The two

motifs.

definitely the

which

is

as

you walk

move

m

categories of border designs are based

the 2.

on

in. You'll

design will

lit

mio

paper prool indicates that one of the

8 inches or

motifs will

less.

fall

slreteh

design element, such as a large swag or a cluster of

inch as you stencil the

(lowers. The repeats of these borders usually measure more than 8 inches.

of border. least

10

below

feet long,

room whose

walls are

continuous flowing border regardless of the

for

will

4.

remove chalk marks, use an pencil

mark

surface,

can't

mark your

walls.

erasers can leave

a

painted

permanent red

1/2

prevent

first

wall

and completing the corner

If

the second wall

is

one

meets the

that

its

length.

Return to the dominant corner and continue stenciling

where the

As you

stencil

toward the corner

and fourth walls meet, use the paper determine whether it's necessary to stretch

third

proof again to

To

A graphite

artist's eraser.

final third of ihc wall to

either

and second walls meet, continue stenciling

or squeeze the motifs.

be removed completely from

and pencil

first

in the other direction.

stencil's repeat

prove to be invaluable

determining the amount of stretching

to

Alter stenciling the

the second wall.

or squeezing required for each repeat.

Use only light-colored chalk

the

your

primary

you should

subordinate corner, stencil only two-thirds of

all at

follow the stenciling instructions for a

if

or squeeze each repeat consistently by 'A to

where the

that pertain to the particular type

measurement. Your paper proofs

measuring tools

how

an awkward corner break. 3.

N4easure the repeat of your stencil design, then follow

you're stenciUng a

stencil's

directly into the corner,

Centered borders are those that tcaturc a prominent

If

to either

the next corner. For example,

or flowers. The repeats ot these borders usually measure

the mstructions

moving

or the right, stencil approximately two-thirds of

lelt

the wall. Then, using a paper proof, determine

Continuous flowing bonloy., such as a vine with berries

the

doorway

Starting in the ck)minant corner and,

the

m

somewhere near

usually

is

the

is

begin stenciling

both dueciions, and end

subordinate corner, which

grouping of design

a single

corner,

at this

part of the process.

measurement.

this •

repeat,

one you see

first

But where do you start? That depends on the size of

your design's

Locate the dominant corner of the room, which

If

this

corner

is

the subordinate

one, stencil only two-thirds of the third wall's length. 5.

On

the

two walls

that

use paper proof to

meet

in the

mark how

subordinate corner,

the design will end. By

either stretching or squeezing the design repeat

you can match the design

on each

smudges.

of these walls,

Continuous Flowing Borders

part of the design (such as a small sprig of leaves) and

there

Note

that the guidelines for stenciling a

border are the same as those

for

continuous flowing

hanging wallpaper.

use

it

is

a small

perfectly. If

space remaining, select a nondescript

to finish the repeat, rather

than ending with part

of a prominent motif.

When

Wall #1

stenciling a

condnuous /lowing

border begin with the dominant

^

corner of the room and work

m

both

directions toward the subordinate

W

corner From Stenciling Your Walls

= Most Dominant Corner

by Jane Gauss, copyright Mr = Least Dominant Corner

©

1990 by

Plaid Enterprises. Courtesy oj Plaid Enterprises, Inc.

Doorway Wall #3

49


Handling Corners

4.

Although you can prevent from

falling into or

large or

prominent motifs

on corners by stretching or squeezing

repeats, with a continuous flowing border, parts of the

A stencil

design will inevitably traverse comers.

Double check your calculations by placing the paper at the cent-er of the wall and "walking" the design

proof

into the corner. 5.

Rarely

do the dimensions

of walls

should fade almost imperceptibly into or over a corner

most

while maintaining the basic flow of the design.

repeats to

you

cases,

will

need

make them

and

stencil repeats

work out

coordinate so that the corners

print

to stretch or

perfectly In

squeeze the

fit.

Attach the stencil to the wall wiih tape, leaving the

1.

portion of the stencil free that will continue onto the

next wall.

Stencil vertical borders only after

Using a feathering motion or

2.

Verticals

a light

sweeping stroke,

apply the paint into or on the corner. This instance where a fade-out of color

is

is

the only

borders in the

end each

all

the horizontal

room have been completed. Begin and border V2 to

vertical

1

inch from a horizontal

border.

acceptable.

Attach the remaining portion of the stencil to the

3.

adjoining wall, then detach the stencil from the

first

wall. Stencil this portion, feathering the design

from

Verticals with Guidelines

A

guideline for a vertical border

is

an existing architectural

the corner onto the adjacent wall.

molding, such as a corner, window, door, or chair

Do

Alw^ays stencil V2 to V4 inch from corners, and always

not

around this

tr)'

bend

to

a corner.

the stencil

Your eye

will

and dab paint into or

immediately be drawTi to

unusually strong accent of color.

When

the color

from top

to

rail.

work

bottom.

Before stenciling vertical borders, use a bubble level to

is

feathered to a gentle fade, your eye will naturally complete

check the plumb of the moldings.

any shapes that are incomplete.

line of a

molding

A border

will draw^ the eye to a

that follow-s the

crooked doorjamb

window frame. This is particularly important in older homes. Do not add stenciling to areas that will accentuate or

Centered Borders With

this type ot border, you'll start at the center of the

wall v^th the center of the design and

work toward

plumb, use the bubble

the corners. 1.

Measure the length of the

Find the center of each wall and mark

it

with

lightly

By

of repeats that will

Remember

onto each

the one

that

and

work out

that ever}' design has at least

sometimes even three) motifs If

fit

starting at the center of the design

the center of the wall, the corners will

points.

are

mark

two

(or

can act as center

you selected doesn't

fit

There are no

well into the

series of

to use

paper proofs

add

a striped

set rules for

on

determining

a single wall. Attach a

to the wall

and evaluate

a

few

arrangements. 1.

Once you've determined

their

number and placement,

comers, remeasure the design using the other. In a swag

use a tape measure or yardstick to precisely measure the

design, for example, the center point can be either the

distance from the center of each vertical.

comer with

a

complete motif.

Affix the stencil to the wall

with tape,

2.

Use

a

bubble

marking with registration

2.

level to

Use a feathering motion or a

light

complete the guidelines by

a piece of chalk. Align this line

marks on the

sweeping

3.

A

lightly

with the

stencil.

finished corner.

Note how the area

of

leaving the portion that continues onto the

stroke so that the color fades gradually into or

diminished color appears visually complete.

adjoining wall free.

on the

Blossoms and berries

corner.

Enterprises.

50

a

without borders are used to di\ide

how many verticals

swag or the end of the swag. Use the center point that enables you to end or begin the

.

and corners

a piece of chalk to

a wall into sections or panels, or to effect to a wall.

the

actual center of the

1

and

Verticals without Guidelines Vertical guidelines

number

Calculate the

same.

the moldings

repeat.

chalk.

half wall.

If

level

parallel vertical line.

2.

3.

architectural problems.

stencil

from

Plaid


Individual or Central Motifs

4.

As with horizonlal and vertical borders, use paper proofs to determine the placement and spacing for central motifs. Whether the motifs are the same or different will affect their placement and

spatial relationships.

where they would be

central motifs

Do

partially

line.

5.

are

all

space,

same is which means the

next should be the same.

Tape your paper proofs in position on the wall

to

determine an approximate layout.

Measure the distance from the bottom of the or ceiling line to the top of the chair

This

the

is

amount

rail

6.

Divide this

amount

of space

For example,

if

bottom of the want

there

you is

will leave

between motifs.

6 feet (72 inches) between the

frieze to the

top of the kickplate, and you

to stencil three motifs within that space, divide

72 by

This calculation allows for 18 inches between

4.

same manner motif.

Measure the

Measure the height of each motif

total

sum

space availabe for the central motifs. in a specific row.

of iheir heights (the total space

required for stenciling) from the available space. The

remaining amount

is

last

3.

Subtract the

of

in the

the center of the

Position your paper proofs in an approximate layout.

as the space

number

marked

1.

frieze

designs you want to stencil in that space. The result the

Continue measuring and marking

2.

or kickplate.

the

lo indicate the center

between motifs should be the same.

of positive space available for the

amount by one more than

mark

motif.

DissiMiiAR Central Motifs The measurement for central motifs that arc dissimilar uses the available negative space, which means that the space

central motifs. 3.

lirst

Measure the same distance from the center point. Make

until you've

that the space jivm the center of one motij to the center of the

2.

a light chalk

another mark to indicate the center of the second motif.

not use

covered by

Identical Central Motifs

1.

Make

point lor the

wall groupings or picture frames.

The placement for central motifs that determined by measuring the positive

Begin measuring from the bottom of the frieze or ceiling

4.

You

will

number

is

measurement

the

that will

be used

between motifs.

need one segment of space more than the of motifs because you'll need to leave space

above and below as well as between them. For example, if

the available space

is

6

feet

of the heights of three motifs

(72 inches) and the is

sum

28 inches, subtract 28

from 72, then divide by 4 (one more than the nutnber of motifs). This calculation allows for

1

1

inches above,

below, and between motifs.

the centers of the motifs.

For a centered border, use the center

point that enables k

you

to

1

and end

begin

at each corner with a

complete motif.

From

Stenciling Your

1

Walls by Jane Gauss, copyright

Š

1990

by Plaid Enterprises.

7.

Courtesy of Plaid Enterprises, Inc.

1

To measure spacing 1

for identical central 1

motifs, divide the

available space by the

number

of motifs

you're planning to stencil

plus one.

From Stenciling Your Walls by jane

site -!^H^

t.i.t.t.t.t.i.i.t.t.t.t.t.-.t.t.:..--.t.t.i.i.i.t.t.i.:..l.

To determme the amount of space

sum

of the heights of the motifs from the available

space, then divide by the

number

Gauss, copyright

Š1990 by

to leave

between dissimilar central motifs, subtract the

of motifs plus

one. From Stenciling Your Walls by Jane Gauss, Plaid

copyright

Š

1990 by Plaid

Enterprises. Courtesy

Enterprises.

Courtesy of Plaid

of Plaid Enterprises, Inc.

Enterprises, Inc.

51


ACCENT BORDERS A

border doesn't necessarily have to be stenciled

way around

a

to highlight

one

room. You can use

all

the

a partial or accent border

specific area or establish subtle visual

connections to create a complete decor. Martha Johnson

designed an accent border featuring to accentuate her living

rooms

lilacs

and

butterflies

windows. In

large

this

which involved removing wallpaper, refurbishing the plaster walls, and

particular project, the surface preparation,

glazing the walls in several layers of translucent, gradated color,

comprised the bulk of the work.

After stripping the wallpaper

and smoothing the walls

with plaster, Martha primed and painted the walls and

window

frames with white semi-gloss latex paint and the

baseboards with

light violet

alkyd satin enamel paint. She

then mixed a light glaze consisting of satin

enamel

spirits

paint,

1

part of the alkyd

and

1

part mineral

(kerosene could also be used), increasing the ratio

two darker

of paint to create

glazes.

When

strong paint solvents such as mineral

room

1

part glazing liquid,

is

working with

spirits,

make

1

.

The areas surrounding the

walls

were taped, then glazed

in

three

sections.

sure the

adequately ventilated and wear a respirator.

After taping the surrounding surfaces, Martha began

painting the base of the wall with the darkest glaze. To

prevent a hard edge from forming between colors, as

Martha applied the darkest glaze the

a second person applied medium-value glaze immediately afterward. As the

glazes

met and were blended by

-ÂŤ^^

a large stipple paint brush,

a gradual transition from one color to the next began to

emerge. After a stipple

all

three glazes were applied,

'\

Martha worked

brush over the entire wall, across the top, from

side to side,

up and down, softening

its

color with each

atm

pass of the brush.

Martha stenciled the

lilacs in a

range of colors, including

medium pink, white, mau\'e, and cnmson, adding dimension by handpamtmg some of the background petals with a liner brush.

leaves

11^

She created highlights and dark tones in the

by mixing green with both dark blue and yellow and

using a mask

to produce veins and shading. Using a liner

2. Stenciling

shading

in

the

first

^^ S^4

overlay.

Masks were used

to

produce veins and

the leaves.

brush and black stencil crayon thinned with turpentine,

Martha

also

handpainted the

legs,

antennae, and wing

^i;^

veins of the tiger swallowtails.

3.

Adding depth within the flowers using

thinned with turpentine.

52

a liner brush

and crimson


*n^iÂŤ^

4.

Each accent border

is

centered over a

window, with blooms cascading down the sides of its frame. The butterflies appear both in flight and at rest on flowers. Designed and stenciled by Martha Johnson.

53


BORDER STYLES A border is their craft. stencils

where many novice

stencilers begin practicing

There are hundreds of beginner-level border

on the market

that are

use, but don't stop there in

both affordable and easy-to-

your search

for the "perfect"

Look at the many examples on the next few pages and let them spark some new ideas. Then sit in the middle of the room you're planning to decorate and envision which designs and treatments might work for you. design.

This gracejul Victorian design

was

inspired by a lace collar

The

stencil

was positioned

approximately 12 inches below the ceiling line so that the

windows and door moldings would create

visual breaks.

Acrylic paints in several values

were used

to create delicate

shadings with sharp, crisp edges. Designed

Mary

hv

and

Severns.

The Jree-Jlowing pattern of

this

stencil design

transforms living

into

room

this

atriuni

an English

country garden. stipple stroke

used

to

optical in

A

was

achieve an

mix of colors

both the leaves

and

the flowers.

Details were added after the stencils

were removed,

enhancing the

freehand look of the work. Stencils

designed by Jan Dressier; stenciled

by

Dawne Marie

Johnson.

54

stenciled


Slcncilcd with nil-hascd opaque scmi-^loss

_

-_ ¥

'fflfl:

k

fi

inferior houscpainl over a scmi-^loss surface,

these

randomly placed cows simultaneously

echo and counter the checkerboard of this

tiles in

charming bathroom. The "pasture" was

added

later with a separate grass stencil.

Designed and stem

iled

bv

Ann Hooe.

Ill

I In this child's

bedroom, a continuous

rope border and an "ocean" applied with sea sponges are the key elements in

an amusing marine fantasy. The

seahorse in

is

also featured as

an accent

an arrangement of throw

whose

colors

the wall motifs.

Adventure

pillows,

match those used

in

Underwater Sea

Home

Decorating Kit

and Video by Bunny DeLorie and Kathy Curtis of FeFiFaux

Finish.

#'.:

^

^^^

# (%

'€gfM€€§t£ft§§€n€€t^&mft€

f€f€t€€

This ciiirc/ciivc accent border jor the kitchen

was inspired bv

the stenciler's dinnerware.

After making a photocopy of a chnner plate,

she isolated specific design elements and laid

them out

in

a repeat. The lightly textured

walls were painted in latex enamel, then

sanded with extra-fine sandpaper bonding with the acrylic

to

improve

stencil paints.

While

no special seeder was required for the motifs

above the cabinets, the

stencil

over the stove

was protected with water-based varnish. Designed and stenciled by Jan Demerath.

55


The winding the cove

trail

of (his block-printed ivy border

molding look

like

it's

suspended

in

molding, which can also be used as a plate

makes

midair The rail,

was

attached directly to the wall about 12 inches below the ceiling line.

A

line

of V-Âť-inch masking tape was used to

guide the general flow of the design, with a second

line

of tape used for the intertwining leaves. For complete instructions on block printing, see page 39. Designed

and block-printed b\

A

babx's birth

train track

announcement was

was

the inspiration for this whimsical design.

stenciled first in order to estabUsh a visual reference point.

were then stenciled with two interchangeable overlays, which were used the design in different areas of the room.

to

Vi

and Stu

Cutbill.

The The cars modify

The animals were then stenciled and

their

features painted by hand. As a finishing touch, irregularly shaped dots inspired

by the layette fabric were randomly stenciled

in black.

Designed and stenciled b\

Peggy Eisenberg.

This stcnciler used the proportions oj an octagonal

bathroom window as

the basis for a graceful trellis design.

The neutral green of the

trellis

provides a subtle backdrop

for the randomly placed vines, flowers, and berries, which

were stenciled with a bv

56

Ann Hooe.

light touch.

Designed and stenciled


m&^^^^&^'^^m

The unusual placcmcnL

oj

acccnl floral and hiid moLijs

liansfoynicd this small guest room into an enjoyable retreat. In addition to displaying

the shelves provide a

other room accessories,

venue for an example of the stacking

technique (see page 36), as can be seen parrots (shown above). Mote

how

enhances the dimensional look of the stenciled by

Tins nursery border

was

Mary

30

to

36

the

baby

to

and

Designed and

prints.

Severns.

stenciled on a white stripe painted over a sojt blue wall.

Placing a border at crib height prevents

and allows

in the vine

the texture oj the wall

enjoy

its

design

it

from being interrupted by

and

colors, too.

inches off the floor, a crib rail looks best at

the crib itself

While a chair

rail is

48 inches or more

usually

off the floor.

Designed and stenciled by Julia Hierl Burmesch.

Fruit

and vegetable swags

stenciled over a sponged

background of gray and beige lend warmth

contemporary kitchen. The

stencils

with acrylics, then overpainted in

and

stenciled by

were

oils

to this

white

initially set in

bv hand. Designed

Heather Whitehouse.

57


w^-

X

z^^^.

^^^^k'^Slfl^^

Muf

J

07' Ji This colorJul pheasant Jneze

A

was

stenciled over a black

background

to create

maximum

stenciled plate rail displaying several artjully arranged volumes provides

contrast. Stenciled by Jo Miller

an

unusual doorway accent. Designed and stenciled by Toni Grove.

Adapted Jrom a beautijid vanity sink by Jrieze

Kohlcr,

an

touches to this small

powder room. Peony

stencil designed

by Jeanette McKibben; ivy stencil designed by Chris Smith; stenciled bv Chris Smith.

58

ivy

and an accent border oj peonies lend charming


ff^.*

ÂŤ Âť

The owner of this house wanted

to

bring light and

life

to

an otherwise

dark and drab hving/dining room. The walls of the dining room were first painted bright white, and the ceiling above the painted

in

to create

a subtle cloud

painted a the two

a pale sky blue, then sponged with

sojl,

effect.

was

soffit

white latex paint

flat

Three of the living room walls were

buttery yellow. The remaining wall, which separates

rooms and contains an archway, was first painted white,

then stenciled in an all-over basketweave (complete with braided trim), using yellow paint that

easier to

work

with.

for thefreeform floral prints,

The

stencils

had been thinned

which seem

were taken from

jlowcr, leaf, basket,

slight!}' to

make

it

The basketweave provided the perfect backdrop

and

trellis

to

be entangled in

it.

a variety of

sets that include

designs, which gives the stenciler

The flowers and leaves

the freedom to create onc-of-a-kind prints.

were stenciled with brushes and acrylic paints

in

a wide range of

The paints were thinned with extender

to

achieve a smooth,

colors.

creamy

consistency,

making them easier

to

work with wheri using

the smaller brushes to create three-dimensional effects in the flowers

and

leaves. In the dining

around

room, a grapevine

the soffit with smaller flowers in

of which appeared to

wrap around

extend toward the ceiling leaf veins cuul

sky.

trellis

was

stenciled

random groupings, some

the edge of the soffit trellis

and

After the stenciling was completed,

meandering vines and

tendrils

were added using

thinned paint and liner brushes. Stencils from the Stencils and Strokes Collection by Melanie Royals; designed

and

stenciled by

Melanie Royals.

59


"

STENCILING A CEILING Dont discount your As

shovxTi

by

Sherr)'

touch-ups, the other hlled with solvent. In addition to

ceiling as a surface for stenciling.

Gholson, a ceiling can be as

as a wall for displa)ing stenciling that

effective

complements

ever)'

using the solvent to freshen paints, you can rejuvenate 'your applicators without getting off the ladder.

aspect of an established decor. Sherr)' divided her ceiling into a grid that reflects both the structure of the

the elements of

room and

decor, then used the grid as a part of

its

Out a

Laying

The following

Ceiling some

are

her design.

a ceiling into sections.

Working on a smooth dr\'\vall surface painted with a soft mauve latex paint, Sherr)- stenciled an arbor of crisscrossing

to plan a

twigs

b)'

following a chalked grid that ensured a balanced

1.

First, you'll

need

you can

ceiling,

squares to

a

demands

walking

at

the ceiling in the

scaffold.

2.

For a standard 8-foot

you can make a scaffold by positioning two 2 x 6s between two stepladders. For ver)' high or vaulted ceilings, you'll need to rent a real keep

stencils flush to the ceiling. If the grid of

is fairly

scaffold

your

dampens your enthusiasm, consider working on

Sherr)' also has a

it

tray,

one

filled

determining

how

and

light fixtures

large

the stenciling should be

where you would

Sketch several grid

add areas of interest. making sure that its

like to

possibilities,

4.

When

odd number

of segments usually creates a

Using

dimensions

gridding any surface, note that an

more pleasing

than an even number. a light-colored chalk pencil or a chalk line

chalk box has been

later.

to the

of the room.

effect

mark

filled

the ceiling with the grid lines.

mixture,

Keep two small bottles on your with background color for quick

grid to guide your stenciling,

you complete

whose

with a light-colored chalk

few helpful hints for stenciling a

ceiling with liquid paints:

paint

on

major

foot), indicating the position of the

segments are generous and correspond

simple and the prospect of climbing on a

paintable ceiling wallpaper and installing

When

as well as 3.

scaffold. Instead of tape, use repositionable spray adhesive

to

floor plan

plan to decide where the stenciling should not appear,

that can be configured into a scaffold, or

design

its

square = 6 inches (or 2

distributed within the grid, carefully re\iew^ the floor

one of the new ladders

either purchase

1

pieces of furniture.

first

of looking up at your work.

1

a scale of

elements of the decor, such as

logistical issues to take into consideration,

place and the ph)sical

Then draw

structural features.

graph paper, using

of the stencil so that a repeat couldn't be discerned.

not the least of which are getting

can also be used

Measure the dimensions of the room, taking into account all its

manner, var)'ing the direction and orientation

There are a few

that these

floor pattern. (See "Stenciled Floors,

page 68.)

distribution of prints. She then stenciled wisteria blossoms in a freeform

gndded

general guidelines for duiding

Note

Use the

remo\ing each segment

it.

OPEN POORWAY

Shcrrx Gholson's room giid includes stnictural elements

as well as

major decorative

components such as a baby

grand piano and the central ceiling fixture.

T Grid width:

r

3'4" each

Grid length:

&&" each

T' Hanging

i

right fixture

O o lO

O

V floor length

60

20'

as


f'^0 1'

Âť=-

The'

(u'i^i^

arbor ucis numl

i/i'J (ni-/

Arbor slcncH designed by jan

(he chalk hues oj

liic ^^/

IlI.

'

.1

sae

Iu'I^s in

4 Jo emphasize terlain areas, wisteria blossoms were also stenciled on the wall

Dressier.

//I

this

sleniil designed

exantple, a chickadee

is

the jeatioed accent. Wisteria

bv Deb Mores.

^

W: #'

The rectangular segments

T

of the

grid correspond to the jlow

o/ the

room.

Although the fireplncc point hrctiusc'

(he'

is

ceiling

not centered on the wall, is

now

divided into an odd

i(

remains the joe al

number of

segments.

Designed and stenciled by Sheriy Gholson.

61


CEILING GALLERY As you can see from the imaginatu'e treatments on these two pages, there's more than one way to stencil a ceiUng.

A

may

grid

be useful for organizing a ceiling composition,

but who's to say that a ceiling grid must be rigid or

methodical? Even

if

walls are papered, a ceiling offers

blank canvas for decorative

and

night, are natural

possibilities. Skies,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;and popularâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;

both day

ceiling motifs.

Techniques can run the gamut, from stenciling on canvas panels to sponged color to airbrush. Use the examples

shown

here as a starting point for your

In this unusual tapesUy-

theme

project, strips of

canvas 42 inches wide by 16 feet long were primed, stenciled,

and varnished,

then installed by a professional wallpaper

an exposed-beam

hanger

to

ceiling.

The

design, which

required twelve stencils,

nine colors of japan paint,

and two weeks of labor to complete, was adapted from a scrap offabric. Designed

and

stenciled by

Anne

Rullman and Lynn

An is

Terrel.

elegant coffered ceiling

transformed into a series

of skylights that open to a

perpetual nighttime

sky.

The recessed panels were painted with a midnight blue latex paint, then an

even darker blue glaze

was sponged on surface

to give the

movement and

depth. Stars in several sizes

were stenciled with

gold leaf Designed and stenciled by

and Lvnn

62

Anne Rullman

Terrel.

own

designs.


m^^Ul

Tlu' Victoiian lighting /i.vduv tK (he lciUci 0/ (his

/vc/zoom

This oak leaj

Lt'i/ini^

provided the inspiration for a circular stencil motij of bells and ribbons in

sage and mauve. To

a piece of wood cut

draw a

and pine cone border trimmed

in

accent an antique Lcilmg medcdUon. Designed

gold was designed

and

to

stenciled by jo Miller

precise circle, drill a hole at each end in

to the desired radius, attach

one end

to the

center

of the circle by inserting a nail through the hole, then insert a pencil

through the other and use lattice stencil

it

to

draw

the circumference of the circle.

was handcut and adjusted

the corners. Stencils

to fill the

The

remaining ceiling

from Stencil Decor*' by Plaid Enterprises;

to

ceiling

designed and stenciled by jo Miller

A

lattice

ceiling.

overlooking a cloudfilled sky

The technique

background leaves the this

example, with

foam

roller

foliage

The

lattice

light

it.

foliage

was added with a

in

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

theme for

lattice stencil

white as the sky behind

was

that they

behind

again

the

is

A

this

kitchen

over a white is

stenciled, in

blue eggshell-finish interior latex paint

lattice stencil

and blossoms so The

very simple:

is

lattice stencil

left in

place

when

would appear

to

be growing from

was then removed, and

single wisteria

branch

overlapped, rotated, and flopped

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

and a

stenciling the

the foreground

stencil

used again and

with each layer of leaves

a slightly different color The ceiling was then finished

in light blue,

leaving cloud areas white. Lattice stencil from Buckinghani Stencils

Garden Room

Collection; designed

and

stenciled by

Sandra Buckingham.

The vaulted

ceiling in this

dramatic enlryway (above)

is

graced by playful cupids delicately shaded with airbrush. (For more information on airbrush techniques, see "Stenciling with Airbrush," stenciled by Sheri

page 106.) Designed and

Hoeger

63


THE STENCILED ENVIRONMENT Over the

past few years,

their craft to

produce

many

stencilers have

elaboratel)' detailed

begun

to use

environments.

In the

examples shown below and on the next three

pages, the stencilers have used a variety of techniques and

These innovators have transcended traditional stenciling

decorating approaches. (Although

treatments that exclusively employ coordinated vertical

children's rooms, they are certainly not the only

and horizontal borders

such treatment.) These projects are misleading

to create fully illustrated

either natural, fanciful, or architectural (or a

A

of these). interest in

and to

by-product of

trompe

this trend

Toeil (see

is

a

themes,

combination

renewed and avid

page 114), in which stenciling

a host of other decorative painting

techniques are used

engage the viewer by challenging his or her perception

4^'

â&#x20AC;˘~'4^',,.^..,i5l!8ÂŤ

Chccijul \iUo\\ wdUs pnnulc the backdrop for these jungle

forms.

which were executed largely by hand due

An

effort

was made

to integrate the

elements of the room, as the giraffe

ammd

to the size oj the

images with the structural

rests his

head atop the window

franK while feeding on a leaf and the zebra remains partially hidden "behind" a door Using chalk outlines as a guide, haft paper cut into

curxed masks helped maintain the outside edges of the shapes during the painting process. These

masks were particularly

the zebra's stripes. Acrxlic paints

sponges,

and

details such as eyes

The butterfly alighting on

and eyebrows were added by hand.

the elephant's nose

Designed and stenciled by Christina Gibson.

64

useful in rendering

were sponged on with natural sea

was

stenciled separately.

all

shown

of the projects are

venue

differ

from the projects

earlier in this chapter only in the extent to

stenciling sets these

for

in their

of their techniques are well within the

ambitious beginners grasp and

patience,

of reality

motifs,

complexity, as

all

was used

as

which

an element of the decor. What

kinds of projects apart from others

and commitment they

require.

is

the time,


Pari oj this small

chi/ti's

bedroom was partUioned

oj]

with a wall, into which were cut a child-sized door

and window openings

playhouse. To complete the illusion, the facade oj a child-sized cottage was painted on the wall, incorporating the wall space

(Left)

was

to create

an indoor

window and door The remaining

stenciled to resemble a fenced garden.

The walls were brushed with washes oj diluted household latex

paint, starting with blue at the ceiling, blending into lilac

pink at the bottom of the wall.

was brushed again with a

the wall

and white

latex paint.

(It

amount

oj

were used

dry,

with masks as the foliage behind them was stenciled, then the masks

at

it

were removed and the foreground plants were added

at

a time,

usually takes two or three

coats to stencil a solid white, since such a small

stencils

repeatedly to build up bushes or trees. The pickets were protected

from blue

The pickets were stenciled one

gray paint. For the garden plants, a Jew simple

finally

was thoroughly

series of transparent glazes,

the top to rose at the bottom.

using a foam roller

When

and

paint

is

used

each time.) Shadows were added with stencils and pale transparent

colors. (Right)

A

the cottage window. Stencils from the

Room

in

stronger

watchful cat survejys the garden from her perch

Collection by

Buckingham

Stencils

Sandra Buckingham; designed and

in

Garden

stenciled by

Sandra Buckingham.

65


In this medieval Jantasy children's bedroom, a dragon climbs over a castle wall to find in

a playmate. After the sky and clouds were sponged on

two tones of sky blue and white, the outlines of the

the

dragon were masked

off with kraft

An

to create the

idea that

masking

was reworked several times

names somewhere on

the walls.

Eventually, the stenciler decided to paint a castle

window between

the two beds, over

which a "banner" would be hung. The sky

and stone were masked and sponged

in,

then the banner was added by applying

paint with a sponge applicator through a large stencil of craft

paper The names

were drawn on a second kraft paper stencil,

a

with a sponge applicator, cut with

utility knife, stenciled in

A few

blue

and

violet.

bugs were added for interest and

continuity Designed

Catherine A. Stone.

66

tape,

in

which were also

mortar between them. The dragon was pamted with

during the project was the addition of the children's

parapet and

paper The individual rocks

the castle wall were defined by lines of

used

castle

and

stenciled by

both bnstlc bmshcs (jor outkncs) and sponge applicators (for large areas), with shading

and

texture

added by sponging on a second shade

of green. Cellulose household sponges were cut into various shapes,

daubed

in paint,

were added with

an

and pressed on artist's

to create

polka

dots. Facial details

bnishes. The various plants

interesting contrast to the large shapes of the

and

insects provide

dragon and

castle.


This

charming

windows and

Bunnies, hears, and a nursery create

rhyme frieze

oversized type

in

all

detail creates a visual link

between the two

their actual vista.

contiibute to

an impressive nurseiy wonderland. The nursery rhyme jiieze was executed

with a set of alphabet stencils: "Once upon a time, there was a

little girl

named

Molly Clare who played tag-a-long with bunny and bear." Stencils designed by

Andreae Designs; stenciled by Marjorie Andreae and Julie Robinson. Photographs

ŠJay

copy light

Asquini, Asquini, Inc., 1994.

----

f

flittle

girj^-r

-

named

ITIollyvClare

^ÂŁ*.

% 'ii^Ji

?l After the characters were stenciled, a second chalk line was

drawn

1

inches from the chair rail as a guideline for the large accent pieces such

and bushes. Rows of grass and flowers were added at two chalk lines as well as at a third drawn 2 inches above the

as trees, fences, the first

chair

rail.

The sun,

birds,

and clouds were then added

Mylar cutouts were used over several dimension

to the scene.

motifs to

at various levels.

add depth and

The character

stencils

were taped

to the walls

determine placement, then a chalk

was drawn pink wall

lo

keep them

color,

in

line

m

various locations to

4 inches above the chair

rail

alignment. To block out the underlving

each stencil was basecoated with white using a small

sponge. Both swirling

and

stippling techniques

were used

to

apply the

paint colors using a veiy dry brush: Swirling strokes were used on

some of the animals to create the illusion offur, while stippling was used to create shadows on the fence and lend solidity to small areas.

67


STENCILED FLOORS unadorned or hidden beneath wall-to-wall carpeting, floors are a sadly undervalued commodity in Frequently

left

contemporar)'

home

decor. For the stenciler, a floor presents

yet another opportunity to decorate, beautify, a

and personalize

Starting with the colonial era, the histor)' of stenciled floors in the

United States

spattering

carpeting

and

As with wallcovering, the

marquetr)'.

at that

could only be imported from Europe. As

elegant

homes and

United

States,

cost of

to

continuing renovations, very

it

states that "paint, as

an

oils in this country'

.

.

.

the scarcity of

may have a

prevented

popular floor

simulated to some extent the color of a

its

color,

wood

and

were

first

painted,

it

didn't take long for

floor.

homeowners

itinerant decorators to use these surfaces for stenciling.

In the February,

1994

issue of Early American

Life,

Old Painted

article

by Jean Cresnic,

shows

a floor painted freehand, a style of decoration

"In Search of

you

come from

your stenciling decisions

a variety of sources,

will

that

flight of stairs.

Preparation requirements will vary; depending on the surface. In

any event, remove

clear sealer.

new wood

When

paint. If a floor well, then

and

is

sweep

all dirt

floor with

and wax before you

an oil-based stain or

painting floors, use only

varnished or has a glossy it

clean and

debris. If necessary,

painting.

fill

vacuum

it

cracks with

Remove your shoes and work

stenciling, as

to

flat

remove

wood in

oil-based

finish,

directly

putty before

an unfinished painted floor scuffs

easily.

free-flowing designs,

you can

also stencil a floor with a

gridded, all-over pattern. Simply adapt the instructions for

work

your particular room.

is

produce a color suggestive of colonial-style pumpkin pine,

was sanded smooth and coated with a

clear shellac. The stenciling

it

dust

bathroom floor

were derived from the view of the small lake on which the house

amber and

all

your socks while

for

the pine floor

sand

Although most of the examples shown here feature

an

Floors,"

element with

runner of stenciled carpet on a

"Laying Out a Ceiling" (see page 60) so that they

situated. To

creativity.

possibilities are virtually limitless. You'll

precursor of stenciled floonng. Also accompanying Cresnics

this stenciled

on

to consider this routinely

believed to be very early and rare, and most probably a

The primitive-style nautical motifs of

floor

of stenciled floors shov-Ti

be based on a range You can stencil a floor with a border matches or complements a stenciled wall, transform

that

begin. Stain a

Indian red, gray, and brown were also prevalent. After floors

The decorative

a faux finish, or create a

advantages as a preservative

employment." Pumpkin yellow was since

The examples

its

have

to

the stimulus

wood

neglected surface as a means for expressing your

have come into use in the colonies

not have been recognized; or

pigments and

was

utilitarian flooring into a definitive decorative

Magazine Antiques, Esther S.E Brazer

its

left).

known

of decorating needs.

In an article that appeared in the April, 1931 issue of

about 1725. Before that date

in the area at the time. This floor

is

Linda LefkoS stenciled and handpainted

and

few of these floors exist today.

interior finish, appears to

attributed to Rufus Porter because

find that inspiration will

a result,

m many

inns, particularly in the northeastern

though due

it is

from the parlor of

from 1815. Although

that dates

these two pages will motivate

time was prohibitive even for the wealthy,

painted and stenciled floors could be found

may

was unsigned,

(below

offers a sur\'ey of decorative

a painted floor

motifs are characteristic of his style and he

for

painting techniques, from graining and faux finishing to

it

it

photograph of

Thomas Dodge House

the

worked

room.

since

article is a

T.l

mixture of

and painting were done

on the shellac coat with acrylic paints. The border mural was

The colors

oj this dcliLUtcly

shaded autumn harvest floor were applied

with an airbrush. Before stenciling, theflioor was sealed with a clear sealer then lightly sanded.

The semi-transparent application of the wood to remain visible. (For more

motifs allows the grain of the

painted predominantly freehand, while the coarse, arced brush strokes

information on airbrush, see "Stenciling with Airbrush," page 106.)

which were adapted from the painted parlor floor at Thomas Dodge

Designed and stenciled by Sheri Hoeger

House, were stenciled. After the decoration had cured, five coats of water-based varnish were applied (three coats of gloss finish followed

by two coats of satin finish). Water-based varnishes are nonyellowing, have no

odor,

and usually dry within 2

by Linda Carter Lefko.

68

hours. Designed

and

stenciled


/Ills

kitchen flooi

was

while

u-iishcd wilh

pukhnj^, then stenciled with a jree-Jlowing

fhwer, ribbon, and vine design.

The design was on paper

just laid out

voofs, then transferred

Three coals

to the floor

of pol\urelhane were

added by a professional jloor finisher after ihe stenciling

had

cured.

Designed and stenciled by

P.f. Tetreault.

motifs, patterns,

and

colors

for this faux carpet (above)

and runner (near

left)

were

adapted from traditional Chinese carpeting. Phor stenciling, ihe

jloor

to

newly installed

was sanded and

sealed,

then a circle 10 feel in

lameter was drawn. The circle

was divided

sectors, within

into

which the

positions of the stencils were

Working over an existing jinish concrete floor of this

oj oil-based interior wall paint, the

sunroom was first sanded, then painted wilh one

m.arked with chalk. Each stencil

motif consisted of

coat of gray oil-based industrial floor enamel. The floor was sanded

three to four overlays

with fine sandpaper to improve paint adhesion. The

required

consisted of four 6-inch squares, green,

Each

and

tile

red, all oj

was painted

tile stencil,

which

was sponged wilh dark cream, muted

which were loaded on the sponge simultaneously. sepcnalely, shading

from

light in the

center to dark

details.

and

some handpainled

The black enamel

background was carefully painted

in after the stenciling

around the edges, and the edges were stippled with dark brown floor

was complete. The carpel was

paint lo create depth. The diamond-shaped inset

allowed

tiles

were stenciled

lo cure for

two weeks

with cobalt blue. The floor was allowed to dry for one week, carefully

before applying three coats of

vacuumed, then sponged wilh three heavy coals of acrylic floor

polyurethane. Designed and

which allows concrete

lo

polish,

breathe while protecting painted surfaces.

stenciled bv Linda Durkin.

Designed and stenciled by Linda Nelson fohnson and Lori Rohde.

69


These

sunakd flowerpots

outdoor, see pages

70

can add touches oj color

93-95 and

to

a sunroom, patio, or deck. {Fur mori mjotnwaion on stenciled accessones, both indoor and

103.) Courtesy of Plaid Enterprises, Inc.


OTHER STENCILING

PROJECTS The

stenciler's

move,

stencil

approach

it!"

it

doesn't

Before starting a project, you must take

the necessary steps to to paint

to Ufe is simple: "If

make

and ensure your

the intended surface receptive

design's long

In

life.

many

instances, the physical characteristics or circumstances of a surface that

might preclude stenciling can be dealt with

through careful preparation and protective finishing. In this chapter, stenciling surfaces,

from furniture

is

featured

to fabrics,

on

a variety of

from ceramic

tile

to

decorative accessories, as well as in the out-of-doors. In addition to the general information provided for

each surface or material, the work of each stenciler

accompanied by invaluable project

is

details specifying

preparation as well as stenciling procedure.

71


.

WOOD FURNITURE Wood

furniture offers a wide range of possible surface

by

first-time stencilers are intimidated

tack cloth before painting.

many

treatments and stenciling variations. Although

rather than glossy

preparation

its

requirements, even a beginner can obtain successful results

many

with one of the

If

furniture available in a range of styles, from primitive to If

you're on a budget, think

about giving that

tired old piece in

new

or

lease

on

life,

your

the flea markets

\isit

and garage

sales to

1

through page 77 as inspiration, then seek out a

where you can ask

2.

and preparation

you can

for

your piece.

If

you need further

how

the one restriction for stenciling

be slick or glossy

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

may

for furniture

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

also applies here. Surface preparation

involve sanding, staining, glazing, and

painting, but at the ver)' least requires that

and

dirt

or old,

cannot

that the surface

wax

traces of

all

be removed.

Staining new

and stripped.

If

an unfinished piece

is

rough, sand

with a fine-grade sandpaper, then wipe

Some

of the softer,

more porous woods such

should then be brushed with a clear sanding

sealer),

it

wood

as pine

to the

stir

stain in

and apply

it

of paint.

evenly, covering a

at a time.

for the first coat,

likely to leave

then buff

marks or remove

paint.

then buff with paper again.

dr)',

sometimes three coats

least

two and

are necessar)' to achieve a

smooth,

completely coated surface.

Some porous woods especially

require additional

drpng

time,

around knotholes. These areas may show through not properly sealed

if

first.

Seal knotholes

and

cedar and knotty pine completely with an

like

flat,

opaque white primer

dries

quickly then must be sanded before applying the

according

manufacturers instructions, including drying times.

Stenciling Stained or Painted After the stain or paint

is

completely

Wood

dry, you're

ready

and

by stenciling the

solid paints together, for example,

first

overlay with one type of paint and

the next with another, but

you should use the same type

Begin by proofing the stain on a small, concealed area of

within each overlay. (Also, you can shade acr)iics with

the piece, such as the inside of a drawer.

creams or crayons, but not \ice

If

with a tack cloth before staining, repeating if

grain

is

raised after the

too dark, wipe

the stain raises

wood, sand the piece and wipe

the grain of the

it

first

coat of stain.

this If

it

clean

procedure

the stain

with a clean piece of cheesecloth.

don't like any of the ready-mixed stain colors,

purchase natural stain and

tint

it

If

is

you

you can

with oil-based

artist's

pigments. For your hrst project, however, an oil-based penetrating stain that contains a sealer After the piece has

completely porous, or

it is

if

is

you're worried about

If

the

wood

damaging

to dr)is

ver)'

the stain with

solvent while correcting a mistake, apply a coat of

flat

varnish to the stained surface. This prevents the pamt from penetrating into the stain so that

it

the surface texture

from piece

to piece.

brush and a veiy

Remember

versa.)

and porosity of the wood It is

essential that

light initial

circular

you use

motion

that

will vary a diy

to establish

sharp edges. Before finishing, allow the stencil prints to cure

from one

to

hve days, depending on the type of paint

you've used.

your best choice.

been stained and allowed

ready for stenciling.

can be easily removed.

Finishing Since varnishes and polyurethanes var\- in consistency, content, and finish

(flat,

satm, and high gloss),

test the

start. If

there

is

any evidence that the hnish

is

causing the

stencil paint to blur or bleed, lightly mist the entire stenciled If

the hnish doesn't

cause the paint to bleed, then you are ready to proceed

Begin by sanding the piece with fine to extra-fine sandpaper

with the entire piece. Always follow the manufacturers

(always sand with the grain), then remove

instructions for application

all

dust with a

one

you've purchased on a small area of the stenciling before you

surface with a matte acr)iic sealer.

Painting

72

first

coat of pamt.

also use liquid

the stain thoroughly

paper towel.

amount

to stencil.

both color and absorption. Be sure to

and

a

You can use whichever paint you feel most comfortable working with, either liquid or solid. You can

sealer (not a

which permits an even flow of

on

a small

first

clean with a tack

it

with water by wetting

it

Repeat the procedure for the third coat. At

ver)'

unfinished pieces or those that have been completely sanded

cloth.

is less

alcohol-based primer. This either

is flat

with a piece of broum paper bag. This "sanding"

the second coat. Let 4.

the paint

raw wood,

slightly

then blotting

Allow adequate drying time

woods Stain should only be applied to

finish

its

good-quality brush

"Wipe the entire piece with a tack cloth before applying

new

is

it,

to the surface quickly

it

procedure

direct.

to use their latest products.

Regardless of whether a piece of furniture

sponge brush

Dip the moistened brush into

lightly

Their customer service representatives can give you valuable information on

a

small section of the piece 3.

assistance,

most of the major pamt manufacturers

call

Dampen

Apply

local paint

about products

specific questions

a

you're using an acr)'lic-based pamt, which dries ver)^

only the end of

look for a diamond in the rough. Use the examples shown

store

Apply pamt with

rapidly, follow these easy steps:

or basement a

attic

painted base for stenciling

to prevent streaky buildup.

high-quality pieces of unfinished

traditional to contemporary.

A

can be either water- or oil-based, as long as

and dr)ing

times.


1.

Wipe

ihe entire piece with a lack cloih lo remo\'e

dusi and 2.

Using a

all

1

good-c|ualil\'

brush or

Use

a[iplicaior, api^l)- the lirsi

coat of varnish with the grain, making sure that the finish

doesn't run or puddle. for 3.

free 4.

rounded areas such

Allow the piece

After the second coal o( finish

is

dry sprinkle the piece

with waler and sand with an uhra-fine wei/dry sandpaper.

lini.

to dr\'

A round

bristle

brush

is

completeK'

in

print

excellent

as chair legs.

to 2.

an area that

is

a very lighi, is

Apply

ol the stencil

removed. Wipe the entire piece with a lack cloth

remove dust and excess a third coal ol hnish

procedure.

as

even pressure so that none

An

waier.

and repeal ihe wei-sanding

additional one lo

two coats can be

applied, depending on ihe depth of finish desired.

from dust as possible.

Before applying a second coat, wipe the entire piece

3.

Following the

final

coat of finish and ai least 12 to 18 I I

with a tack cloth. Let dry completely

For a very

fine,

smooth Hnish,

\'ou

hours of drying time,

#0000

can add the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; this

..-,..

.1

'a ilcd fruit

steel

wool.

wax, then tack

following steps:

adapted

table-and-chair set afresh

new

jwm

a walipapct border has given

look. After stripping the pieces

and

primer

to providi

with japan paints

If

lightly buff the entire piece

desired,

wax with

with

a fine furniture

off all residue.

n wiih.

an opaque, neutral surjace, then stenciled

and a Uner brush

for color

and

depth. The stenciled

spray painting them white, a groove was routed around the tabletop

edge was finished with two coats of water-based varnish. Designed

and the edge was painted brick red. The design was first stenciled with

stenciled b\

Anne Rullman and L\nn

and

Terrel.

73


An

already finished piece can also reap the benefits of stenciling.

This particular piece, painted with an off-white milkwood finish

..^^^^^

tnmmed ic'tll

fot-"^^<^y

see C' WfÂť</

in

white and dark green,

and potted topiaiy

stenciled on

its

is

doors.

The prints were finished

with two coats of satin varnish. Clay pot stencil designed by This lovely chest

and

dirt

was refurbished

to

were removed (along with

complement a bedroom decor Dust all the

drawer pulls),

the peeling

paint was sanded v^th medium-grit sandpaper, then the rest of the chest

was smoothed with fine-grit sandpaper and wiped with a tack rag remove

residue. After

to

seaUng with a latex pnmer, the entire chest was

painted with an off-white satin-finish paint. The delicate pearlescent glaze, which consisted of equal parts of paint, Floetrol (a paint additive),

and

water,

was applied by

lightly

dabbing a small sea sponge over the

surface, reloading only after the sponge bridgeless stencil

was designed

to

was

dry.

The nine-overlay

appear handpainted, when

in fact only

small details such as tendrils were painted with thinned solid paints

and a

liner brush.

The chest was finished with two coats of nonyellowing

acrylic varnish. Designed

74

and

stenciled by

Lmda M.

Rogers.

Tribolet; vine

and floral

Nancy

motifs designed by Christina Gibson;

stenciled by Christina Gibson.

and

further enhanced by the vines


EI

â&#x20AC;˘

m

H

M

/I

V'-

was ongmaWy \\rwi}\id

This pine hufch, which painted, sponged., initial

and

in

a darh sfain, was

stenciled in a complete makeover. After

an

sanding, tacking, and priming, the hutch was lightly sanded

and tacked again, then painted with Ribbons,

ivy,

and

irises

eggshell-Jinish white latex paint.

were stenciled

in soft color with a sea sponge.

The meandering vines lend a charming freefor m stencils designed by fan Dressier; mountain wild Stencil Decor^; stenciled by

look. Ivy

and ribbon

iris stencil

from

Dawne Marie fohnson.

â&#x20AC;˘I-

M 75


This prewously unfinished armoire

an old world

enamel white

in

oil

was painted and

stenciled to create

The piece was sanded, painted with latex satin

a pale antique gold tone, then rag-rolled with an antique

glaze and trimmed

acrylics, then

piece

ejject.

in

peach. The stencils were painted with

antiqued with a spatter oj sofi gray

was finished with

oil

glaze.

The

entire

three coats of acrylic urethane. Stencils by

DeeSigns Armoire collection; stenciled by Pegg\' Eisenberg.

A boy's

bedroom becomes a southwestern showplace through a

combination of stenciled walls and furniture. The armoire, oiiginally

a stained antique, was sanded thoroughly, then brushed with a heavy grayish white latex glaze that was then ragged offfor an aged

The frieze and armoire trim were design,

and

the

stenciled with the

same

effect.

pueblo-style

mural on the doors was adapted from decorative fabrics.

To achieve the bold, opaque prints that suggest the southwestern

style,

vibrant aciylic earth tones were pounced on with a stencil brush. The

armoire was then varnished with three coats of latex urethane. Temple Steps stencil designed by Adele Bishop; mural designed

and

stenciled

by Peggy Eisenberg.

76

i


"^

ly

i

<.>^ â&#x20AC;˘^'^^v.

^A r-

\ f4'>\

{khove) The central panels

entertainment center were

in the

doors of

this

prefinished

lightly scuffed with extra-fine steel wool,

then stenciled in acrylics with elegant freeform floral motifs. The

panels were finished with two coats of matte -finish water-based varnish, poUshed with

WOOO

steel wool,

and waxed.

(Left)

The

original darh-toned fmish of this antique silver chest looked severe

against the florcd-striped wallpaper that decorated the dining room.

The chest was primed, painted, and then sponged soft blue-gray.

shading,

The multi-overlay

stencil,

in

a complementary

which yielded delicate

was supplemented with freehand brushwork on

the ribbons

and bow and finished with one coat of matte -finish, water-based varnish. Designed and stenciled by P. }. Tetreault.

77


FABRICS Whether

When

stenciled, block-printed, or painted freehand,

have been colored and decorated with paints and

fabrics

dyes since civilization began. The

earliest sur\'i\ing fabric

fragments are silks dating from the 6th century

During

B.C.

the 16th century in Europe, stencils were used to apply

another element of the decor. Practice on scraps of the

how the paint works on it. Once you've washed and pressed your fabric, lay it flat on a clean surface. (If the fabric is very sheer, first cover your work area with several thicknesses of unprinted

fabric to get a feel for 1.

flocking to fabrics for wall hangings.

Fabrics stenciled in the United States during the

show

early 19th century

intricate

newsprint or a thin flannel sheet. This will serve as

a high degree of skill in their

Many examples from

execution.

including

this period,

blotter for

bedcovers and tablecloths, have survived to paints, as they

use on fabrics and to endure repeated laundering) and

stenciling.

colorfast prints).

Some

chemicals used in

medium

textile

any

Mark

3.

buy enough

fabric so that

you have an adequate surplus

As most

must be

for proofing.

4. Affix

up any of the immediate work surface

Always work by moving stenciled

fabric

guidelines for the print(s) with a removable fabric tailor's

chalk.

masking tape or

the stencil to the fabric with

repositionable spray adhesive.

Follow the basic stenciling procedure outlined in "Basic

5.

Techniques" (see pages 26-31). Using a very dry brush,

or 50/50 natural/synthetic blends are the best candidates for fabric painting.

masking tape

surface with

positioned in front of the area you'll be

IS

it

pen or

heat-set with an iron or

a hair dry'er at a relatively high setting, natural fiber fabrics

work

away from you, allowing it to drape unfolded over the opposite end of your work surface as it dries.

produce

be sure to

case,

follow the manufacturers instructions, and

fabric paints

to

can even withstand the

fabric paints

dr)' cleaning. In

added

is

that seeps through.)

extends beyond the

fabric that

so that

which

a

or dressmaker's pins. Fan-fold or roll

predated the development of fabric paints (formulated for

acrylic paints (to

any paint

Secure the fabric to the

2.

inspire generations of stenciling enthusiasts. These pieces

were stenciled exclusively with oil-based

you're working with fabric and paint, take your

time mixing colors that should match or coordinate vvith

begin stenciling on an uncut portion of the

For example, various weights of cotton

stencil,

duck and pure silk are both wonderful painting surfaces, and can be treated with special dyes or finishing sprays to

gradually pulling paint into the window. Focus of vision

ensure colorfastness.

because

Stretch fabrics such as jersey

and cotton knits can

(see

to a

board (do

ver)' fine

not stretch

it

are also suitable surfaces.

this

makes

results are

much

it

Use

the stenciling process

more

tedious, the

end

simply make your

If

first

then stencil the colors over

Remember

same decorative

you'd

m

of fabric

print with white paint,

that a

advantage

blank piece of

with heat. You can heat-set large pieces

body

If

Spray Paints

and Airbrush

to

delicate, is

shaded prints on

that only air

airbrush-compatible and

for

is

make

either formulated specifically

of fabric paints,

most must be heat-set

working with airbrush and spray

paints,

particularly important that the surface of the fabric

sizing during manufacturing

sizing

is left

on

the fabric, the

wash your

fabrics to

and prevent shrinkage or bleeding the stenciled item, then press

them

surface. If

sure that the paint

permanence.

When

fabric carries the

Their primary

use on fabric or can be mixed vvith a textile medium.

As with other types for

fabric.

and paint touch the

free.

To produce

a

first

its

remove

time you

carefully

to a piece of is

heavy cardboard and leaning

recommended

as well as

it

is

be pressed

uniform print with spray

paints, support the fabric in a vertical position

colorfastness. Before stenciling,

78

it

you're working with an airbrush, is

it.

paint will not penetrate as thoroughly, thus affecting

wash your

that

your clothes dryer.

Working with

and wrinkle

sizing

The paints dry quickly so

by tumble-drying them on the high-heat

setting of

producing

like to stencil a

potential as a blank wall.

Stenciling Fabrics Many fabrics are treated with to provide extra

fabric.

the

easy

Airbrush and spray paints are both excellent means for

As shown through page 87, fabrics can be stenciled complement and enhance a variety of decors. See how creative you can be by adding a touch of stenciling to fabrics.

before setting

brush with these

Don't assume that a fabric must be white or light

let dry,

on

On

v^er)'

Let the print dr)^ thoroughly (at least three to five days)

6.

most rewarding.

fabric,

unappealing and

are next to impossible to correct.

subsequent overlays can be printed almost immediately.

from

such as dotted Swiss

a ver)' dry

m fabric stenciling

is ver)'

paint will clog the weave. Although

color for stenciling to be visible.

dark

to achieve

the fabric

works well with other types of

fabric, too). Very' fine, sheer fabrics

fabrics, as too

keep

fabric to

clogged print

other hand, shading and texturing effects are

tightly), or place a piece of

sandpaper beneath the

sliding (this technique

pm

absolutely essential

is

a heavy,

smudged edges

also

be stenciled. To prevent distorted prints and keep the edges of the motifs crisp and sharp, simply

page 26)

it

by pinning

against a wall.

it It

that the areas of fabric not being stenciled

any surrounding areas be carefully masked or

protected, as fabric

is

especially liable to "grab" overspray

To avoid breathing harmful fumes and accumulation of pamt in the lungs,

it is

to

prevent the

absolutely essential


that goggles all

and

a respirator or safety

mask be worn

at

you should always work in a wellFor more information on stencilling with

times. In addition,

ventilated area.

smudged edges by enlarging make such problems worse.

or conceal

only

Stenciling mistakes

backs of

Correcting Mistakes them

alone. Attempts to

most commonly

stencils.

Keep your work area very

clean,

and

designate a place for your working stencils and another

best advice for correcting mistakes

to let

fabric are

caused by smudges picked up from dirty hands or the

airbrush, see page 106.

The

on

motifs usually

on

fabric

remove mistakes,

is

simply

reprint,

for

your palette and brushes. Above

all,

work slowly

and carefully

Several yards oj dotted Swiss were first

stenciled with

a precut wall border

and perched

bird

accents, then

constructed to Jit the bassinet. Stencil

designed by Adele Bishop; stenciled by

Jane Gauss.

79


'^B^-

ÂťP5

4>

iÂĽ

'f.

t w

(Above) This valance, whose stencil motifs

were inspired by the fabric designs of the arts

and

crafts

movement, was

stenciled with

airbrush, which works well even onfabiics

with a slight texture or nap. Designed and stenciled

by Sheri Hoeger (Right) In

this

unusual combination of wall applique and stenciling,

a

lively

primaiy colors were used

to create

nursery motif. After the fabric for

the applique the wall with

was

cut out

and applied

Mod-Podge^

stenciled ascending

,

to

squiggles were

toward the

ceiling,

where afreize ofjacks-in-the-box at a smaller scale encircles the room. Designed

and

80

stenciled by

Lu Ann Anderson.

^


A

small ribbon motif was enlarged and adapted as a stencil for napkins, potholders, and an apron, as well as notccards and flower pots. (For more

information on decorative accessories, see page 93.) Designed and stenciled by Caroline

Ann

Zarrilli.

81


STENCILED QUILTS The first sixty years of the 19th centur)' witnessed the development of two trends in American folk art. The first was wall stenciling, which initially adorned only the homes of the wealthy, followed by the stenciled quilt. Both movements were centered in the New England states. Men usually stenciled walls and women stenciled quilts, and although they used similar techniques, their distinct means of expression

The a

moved to

England or

by

which were intended for decoration rather than warmth, were both unlined and unquilted. these quilts were layered with batting

stiff

museums throughout

Museum

in

If

to

in

New York

create your

own

stenciled quilt,

pages 78-79 for stenciling

trees in

whole-doth

groups ojJour form white Jour-pointed

quilt.

The intense colors ojthe motijs were

achieved with a pouncing technique. Ajter drying and heat-setting, the stencils

82

were

all oullinc-quilled,

then a narrow

diamond shape was

added

of

stenciling

to the

dimensional Jace oJthe

your

local bookstore

like

and

resources for books on quiltmaking.

can be both tedious and time-consuming. The motifs of

Chnstmas

Museum

City.

you don't have any sewing experience and would

librar)' are excellent

this

the United States, including

Dearborn, Michigan; and the

American Folk Art

When

on

quilters

Folk Art Center in Williamsburg, Virginia; the Henry Ford

duplicated the effects of fine applique, whose techniques

stars

most

Museum in Winterthur, Delaware; the Museum in Shelburne, Vermont; the Rockefeller

gave the stenciled designs a three-dimensional look that

Stylized

stencilers preferred to cut

leather or thin metal,

Splendid examples of stenciled spreads and quilts can

and

handquilted, quilters discovered that the quilting stitches

and birds were

used hea\y oiled papers.

Shelburne

of the

While wall

from

quiltmaking that also featured the

Many

like flowers, fruits,

costly imported chintz fabrics from

India.

their stencils

the Winterthur

early stenciled quilts,

when

Popular subjects

often inspired

1820s knew they had stumbled on

best aspects of the craft of decorative painting.

Later,

style.

be seen in

their art in different directions.

quilters of the

unique approach

these quilts were quite simple, sometimes almost naive in

your

quilt top, refer to the instructions fabrics.

white space between the tree "squares" to increase the

and improve the distribution oJ stitching over the "0 Tannenbaum" quilt designed and stenciled by

ejject

quilt.

Marie Sturmer

on


In this family hciilDOiu quih, cuth ^^Lcnultd bliick liub a specific sentimental value.

A fan

template for the quilting stitches designed and stenciled by

P.

f.

stencil in the

was used as

the

pink squares. Quilt

Tetreault.

A

quilted wall

in

a country-theme decor Pure muslin was

hangmg

stenciled with brushes cut into squares

is

an

effective accessoiy

and soUd

and pieced

paints, then

into the quill.

Quilling slilches were confined lo the dark

green print fabric. Designed and stenciled by Julia Hierl

Burmesch for American

Traditional.

83


..

.

CANVAS FLOORCLOTHS Floorcloths, which are painted canvas floor coverings, first became popular in 18th-centur)' Europe, where they were

used as a decorative alternative

United States

to rugs. In the

the

during the late 1700s and early 1800s, canvas floorcloth was often the only covering over clay or dirt floors in settlers homes.

Used

for centuries as a

an ideal surface for

support for

stenciling.

Canvas

oil

cut

—with #8

to start

on walls or

The

it off.

edges of the floorcloth. Fold

to the

realign the creases with adjacent

side

hems

which can cause the canvas

up

Gluing:

Apply an even coat of quick-dr)ing

at the edges.

Using

wTong

fabric adhesive

side of the canvas within the creased

a rolling pin, crease

time, assuring that

with raw canvas use #10 instead of #8.

then

without

will fold perfectly

to curl

area.

and

roll

one side

at a

pockets are removed. To prevent

all air

buckling, clamp the canvas to a tabletop or lay

In addition to serving as a support for floorcloth or

placemats, canvas can be stenciled and framed or

way out

or glue to the

and #10 weights most suitable for floorcloth. Pre-gessoed (already primed) canvas is available in #10 weight, but if

you want

the

creating bulk at the comers, is

graded by weight

is

all

comers up and and

sides. Press the resulting triangular piece under,

paintings, canvas

the higher the number, the lighter the weight

Folding corners: Crease each side of the cloth, folding the

hem

it flat on and weight the edges evenly Allow the hemmed

the floor

mounted

edges to dry overnight before appl)ing finish coats.

ceilings.

Finishing the Floorcloth

Raw Canvas

Preparing Raw canvas must even out 1

Cut

surface

its

Because of the wear and tear most floorcloths receive, they

be coated wath gesso before stenciling

and protect

it

from wear.

priming

off the selvages prior to

to

should be finished with several coats of

to avoid

wrinkling

1

or shrinking as the canvas dries.

Apply two coats of gesso with a low-nap adequate dr)ing time between coats.

3.

After the second coat has dried, lightly sand the canvas

roller,

allowing

varnish

residue.

Remove

3.

Apply the bristle

with a tack cloth to remove any

Your canvas

is

now

Do

thoroughly.

or water-based

oil-

paint, allowing the

not paint the

first

the

flat

coat to dr)-

back of the canvas.

2. Allows the second coat to dv)' for at least

24 hours before

On

2.

floorcloth, allow at least a 1-inch

hem

is

adequate.

hem.

Mark

the

work toward

its

outer edges.

To create

a

border around the edges of the canvas or as

a part of the stenciled design, affix parallel strips of

low-

making sure their the space between the

tack masking tape or painter's tape,

edges are secure. strips

Apply paint

in

with a small brush or a paper towel lightly dipped

in paint

and

coat dr}' completely before

eight hours of dr)ing time

between

blotted.

one direction,

bmsh,

second coat

is

completely

cmmpled

piece of

applpng

the second.

an additional

six to

coats.) dr); lightly

brown paper

sand the bag, then

it.

the surface with

#0000

steel w^ool,

has dried, lightly

then tack

it.

Backing the Floorcloth when placed over smooth wood, or stone floors. To minimize of sliding, back the floorcloth with a coat of

surfaces such as waxed, the possibility liquid

mg latex or secure

backing

its

double-faced carpet tape

is

perimeter.

required.

Storing a Floorcloth you have the storage space

store painted canvas

After the stenciling has dried completely, crease the

strips of

You can also use a thin jute pad (the kind used under oriental mgs) cut 1 inch smaller than the floorcloth's finished dimensions. For placemats, no special

If

Hemming Canvas

to

accommodate

flat. If necessary, roll

with the design to the inside. Rolling

hem

marked with the chalk pencil, fold it under, then mitre corners and glue the hem as follows: 84

in

Repeat the procedure until you have applied three to

around

your motifs.

4.

Work

Floorcloths can be ver)' dangerous

you're using a gridded layout, begin measuring at the

center of the canvas and Stencil

roller.

On

the front of the piece.

3.

sponge brush, an oil-based

allow^

mb

with a light-colored chalk

Determine the placement of the design using paper proofs. If

a

five coats of finish. After the final coat

hem

placemats, a V2- to V4-inch

hem on

first

tack

Stenciling Canvas pencil.

with

(Under humid conditions,

surface with a

5.

Measure and mark the

dust from the canvas with a tack cloth.

finish

overlapping each stroke. (Avoid the inclination

4. After the

stenciling.

1

all

the

do not wipe excess finish off the bmsh on the nm of the can. This wiU cause bubbles to appear in the finish. Let

or eggshell-finish interior paint.

Apply two coats of

when

dr)-.

to use a back-and-forth stroke.) If you're using a

Basecoating Primed Canvas

1.

applied. Let

brush, or a low-nap

slightly

ready for basecoating.

Canvas can be basecoated with an

is

2.

with extra-fine sandpaper or a crumpled brown paper it

Mist the stenciled surface with acr}iic spray sealer to

ensure that the stencil paint will not bleed

2.

bag, then wipe

satin-finish, water-

based urethane. (Oil-based finishes yellow with time.)

the

or subjecting

it

to

it

it,

its

best to

the floorcloth

into a tight cylinder

extreme temperatures under storage wiU

increase the risk of cracking. floorcloth unless the canvas

Do is at

not attempt to unroll the

room temperature.


imp^r,-->-'--'- â&#x20AC;˘;;-â&#x20AC;˘

(Top) This 2

and

^'v^

X 3 foot trompe

I'oeil tile

rippling problems. (Bottom)

floorcloth

is

mounted on Komatex board, which

The gridded layout shows how

floorcloth, using the intersecting lines of "grout" as guidelines.

the design motifs

is

another way

were distributed

in

to

prolong

its life

and eliminate edge curling

a symmetrical pattern over the surface of the

Designed and painted by Diane Patricia Rich.

85


Photographs of indigenous fish

and a book about

antique fishing tackle were the sources jor the stencil

motifs of this angler's floorcloth.

Ona3x 5 foot

piece of #10 canvas

primed

with three coats of off-white latex paint, the areas within

the curved border were

painted with washes of blue, green,

and beige

acrylic

paint to simulate water

The motifs were

stenciled

with acrylic paints, then the floorcloth

was finished

with three coats of water-

based urethane. Designed

and

stenciled by Lee

x^~.

Anne dluj.

Miller

86

tÂŁat

JxAm^uk.


A efliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii I

imimimmn

piece oj 31

x 50

inch

#10 weight

acrylic-

primed canvas basecoaled wilh creamy

ofj-

while latex paint provides a luminous ground

for thejreejorm botanical motifs strewn over this

springtime floorcloth. The completed

was finished with five

cloth

coats of water-

based urethane. Fringe and border

stencils

designed by Carol Martell; flower stencils designed by Dee Keller; stenciled by Barbara

N. Johnson.

i biifffiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiii""ii""nnuu

Pudgy

pigs

and meandering flowers and

vines

are whimsically juxtaposed in a matching floorcloth

inch

and

director's chairs.

The 48 x 70

#10 canvas was primed with

sponged with a dusty pink. After the floorcloth

was finished with five coats of

water-based urethane, sanding coats.

The chair

texture

acrylic, then

stenciling,

cloth,

and weight

finished in the

which

lightly

is

between

similar in

was

to the floorcloth,

same way. Jasmine,

iris

vines,

sweet pea, and butterfly stencils designed by

Dee

Keller; pig stencils designed by

Tribolet; floorcloth

stenciled by

A flock

and

Nancy

chairs designed

and

Barbara N. Johnson.

of chickens scratching for feed on a

checkerboard floor graces

this

unusual

floorcloth. Following a basecoat of gesso

and

two coats offlat white acrylic paint, the cloth (awning-weight canvas) was glued. The border

hemmed and

was measured and marked

with masking tape, then three coats of dark

green latex paint were applied. After the

border had dried thoroughly, the squares were

measured and masked. Because thtcloth textured,

it

was necessary

credit card to ensure

to use the

a feather-proof

is

edge of a line.

The

chicken and feed stencils were sponged with a

cosmetic sponge and allowed to dry for three

days before finishing with four coats of waterbased urethane

slightly

thinned with water

Designed and stenciled by Patricia Flournoy.

87


.

.

CERAMIC Ceramic

means

TILE the entire job.

A

m the home. To create a

contrast to

other colors, red will not

both glazed and unglazed

color that

has recently become extremely popular as a

tile

for decorative expression

permanent

high-traffic surface,

must be painted with ceramic paints, then carefully fired in a kiln and installed by a professional tile installer.

at the yearly

tile

3.

are always well attended

class given

a

by Harrison-Bell. (The

4.

you're unfamiliar with the process of firing and you

only one or two

projects

tile

want

Many

ceramics studio.

at a local

This type of application will not receive

or a decorative

tile

that

tile

wall, but

stenciling appears

is

not

recommended

6.

for tubs,

of this type of

tile

7.

on page 92. 8.

In

some

significant respects, the process of stenciling tiles differs

sealer into the paint,

to use the paint before

the

tile's

can't 1

on

make changes

1

off the paint

it's

before the

can't

be absorbed by

tiles

are fired:

thumb

too large to

is

or

fix,

a

Simply

on the sprayed

done

to prevent dust

first

color

on

temperatures.

by la)ing them down them upnght on a rack without touching each other or the sides of the kiln. (As reds and Place the stenciled

on

fire to

in the kiln

all

different shades at different temperatures,

of the

tiles

containing red or pink on the same

one shelf on top of the

holes at any time during 2.

With

the lid

open

3.

other, with

1

Close the

lid

Do

no

4.

With

firing.

inch, set the kiln to

medium

and turn heat

5.

After the

the lid closed,

let

less

not plug

to

for a

low

for

1

hour,

second hour.

high until kiln reaches

desired heat and the cone melts or the kiln shuts

from

colors

a piece of

if

off.

cool for three times as long as

first firing,

you can paint over any or

all

of the

you're dissatisfied with the results. (Deep reds

almost always require a second coat of paint and a second

With

the print already in place,

unnecessary to

it's

generally

affix the stencil to the tile the

because ceramic paints will

around. Using an

Be sure to mix enough paint for

medium, simply

glass. (Glass is preferred

tiles

a shelf or stacking

firing.)

mix

stain a plastic palette.)

a

side that could be transferred

the

of

the firing time.

up on

to the painting surface. a palette knife,

made

a kiln, are

than an inch of space between shelves.

Spray the back of the stencil very lightly with face

with a #16 cone. Kiln cones, which

measure the heat inside

shelf.) Place

again. (Note that prints

it

to

then increase the heat to

after firing.)

is

used

pinks

relatively easy to correct

and begin

clean sheet of paper. This

2.

the run-under

add details like highlights or shading. Clean both stencils and applicators immediately using soap and water. Allow applicators to dry thoroughly

place

repositionable spray adhesive, then place

Using

If

you probably added too much sealer to the paint. Use an artist's brush to fill in any gaps resulting from

flat

paper towel before working

a

be corrected or changed

collecting

necessary, correct any run-unders with your

moist paper towel.

at specific

heavy load of paint. Do not blot excess

hard glazed surface,

mistakes or

If

a

various blends of ceramic materials that melt and deform

you have about 15 minutes

window. Because the paint

wash or wipe

container and revived by adding a few drops of water. 'When the paint is dry to the touch, remove the first overlay and position the second. Repeat the procedure

Fire the stenciled tiles

are

dries.

it

paint from the applicator in into the

paint

be stored in a

Firing Stenciled Tiles

In contrast to most other surfaces, the stencil applicator a fairly

sealer can

before reusing.

and foremost, only ceramic studio paints can be used on glazed tiles that will be subsequently fired and installed. If you use Harrison-Bell paints, you'll need to mix them with high-gloss sealer to maintain paint consistency and to ensure that they dry completely. Although the sealer is white, it dnes clear and will not affect paint color. The sealer's label advises "do not fire," but firing doesn't seem to have an adverse effect on paint mixed with sealer. After

should carry

been mixed with

glass palette

first

Any remaining

from the standard stenciling procedure.

First

mixing

sealer.

faulty stencil or to

Stenciling Tile ceramic

second and add the

until the print is complete.

a counter backsplash

An example

tiles.

5.

already in place.

only appropriate for an area that

is

heavy wear, such as

sinks, showers, or floor

is

stencil the print. After the paint

to 5 minutes),

that has not

such services, and your project

possible to stencil ceramic

4

another small amount of paint from the

studios

the owner's or manager's

it

mix

you can apply a second coat deepen the color or shade with another color. If you need more paint to finish the first stencil overlay, transfer to the

is sure to benefit from knowledge about firing. Newly developed paints and primers have also made

offer

overlay

a palette knife to

to

if

to consider the possibility of renting studio time

and/or kiln space

Load the applicator and dries (in

you intend to work on at the most and don't want to kiln of your own, you might

invest in ceramic paints or a

Use

consistency of heavy cream.

stencil patterns for these tiles

don't have access to a kiln, or

glass.

are.

first

of sealer you add depends on the amount you have to mix.) The paint should be the

of paint

appear on page 130.) If

of paint for the

few drops of high-gloss sealer into the paint. (The

amount

by

Carol Phippen featurmg designs by Susan Saye and paints

amount

second sheet of

a

same

the

fire to

mixed. Also, the glass will make reds seem

Transfer a small

onto

SALI conventions, and the step-by-step

photographs shown opposite are from a

is

few words of caution about red: In

both bluer and darker than they actually

tiles

Stenciling classes for ceramic

all

artist's

brush and water as

second time a

mixing

paint the second coat freehand.


1

.

Mix ceramic paints to the desired shades,

transfer a small surface, then

4.

Add

amount

of each to another

add high-gloss

details with

an

artist's

2. Stencil tiles

with a relatively heavy load of

3.

Remove

stencil the

paint.

the stencil,

let

the paint dry, then

next overlay or color.

sealer.

brush.

5.

The

tiles

stenciled

stenciled

tiles

before

firing. Stencils

by Carol Phippen. (See page

designed by Susan Saye; 1

30

for stencil patterns.)

89


k What

it

better place

for a permanent, scrubbable rug than

a laundry room?

No

more crumpled rugs in front of the

and dryer!

washer

Installed

by a professional tiler

with light gray

grout, the rug's

fringes were painted

on

lighter tiles to

emphasize

its

length.

Designed by fane Gauss; stenciled and fired by

Susan Saye.

(See pages

131-135

for ivy and fringe patterns.)

90


The

tile

design in

this kitchen,

with cherrywood cabinets

which was

and white

in the

grew out oj a simple blue-gray floral pattern on a candy stencil patterns in

were combined

an alcove above

the cooktop.

complement

process of being updated

4x4 inch tiles above the countertops,

to create

warm

hues of the Lidnnctiy tuid

/o

introduce the desired

candy dish motif were scattered throughout the field of white tiles above the countertops. Tiles were fired once, overpainted and highlighted as

dish. Several

an overflowing basket offlowers

The colors of the bouquet were chosen

the

blue-gray Three single-color flower designs that were also based on the

needed, then refired. Tiles designed and stenciled by Patricia Fielder

to

â&#x20AC;˘ ,B

y T

V

Di

.Q4A These

6x6 inch tiles contain both

stenciled

and freehand

images. The motifs were first plotted on tracing paper cut to the size

of the

tile,

then traced with a sharp pencil

graphite paper onto a blank

tile,

and

with the resulting lines

used as painting guidelines. The solid forms of the images

were fired first, then color corrections, outlining, highlighting,

and other

details

were added for a second firing. This

technique allows for more freedom

in

design

and a more

relaxed attitude toward both stencihng and painting. Tiles

designed and stenciled by Patricia Fielder

91


The ivy motifs on these

tiles

were

adapted from wallpaper and designed for a scattered, all-over layout so that each would appear to

be one of a kind. Each ivy

pattern required three overlays, with tendrils and some of the

smaller leaves painted freehand.

The first two overlays were stenciled

and fired, then

the final

overlay and details and highlight

were added prior firing. Tiles

to the

second

designed and

stenciled by Patricia Fielder

Although firing stenciled

tiles

prior to professional installation helps

safeguard their durability, already installed stenciled,

and sealed

to

tiles

produce a handpainted

can also be primed,

look.

These

be wiped clean, so while they are not recommended for

tiles

can only

tiled walls in

sure they are dry

and free from any

them with strong detergent,

them down with

XIM Gone

spirits). roller,

in kitchens or utility areas.

example was sponged on

priming

92

in

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

mind

will

that surface preparation

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

cleaning, stripping,

determine your success. Before priming the

tiles,

and

make

oil,

or loose paint or

dirt. If

rinse thoroughly, then wipe

(do not use solvents that contain mineral

Apply a primer/bonder made

showers or on floors or countertops they do work well on backsplashes

Keep

grease,

necessary, clean

specifically for

tile

with a brush or

then basecoat the area with latex paint. (The background in to create

an underwater

this

look.) After stenciling,

paint the motifs with at least three coats of water-based polyurethane. Installed glazed

tile

primed, painted, and stenciled by Maureen Soens.


ACCESSORIES Accessories complete the Icx^k of a

room by adding

finishing

It

can be extremely satisfying to transform a plain, dull,

touches of color, texture and design. You can stencil an

or forgotten object into one that creates color and interest

theme or to duplicate motifs You can also adapt motifs from you've stenciled elsewhere. an accessory to set the tone of an entire decor. As you look

even be sold

object (or several) to create a

through the photographs

in this

book, take note of

accessories can be used to create inviting interiors.

how

make ideal gifts, and can shows or on consignment through interior decorators. The examples shown below and on pages 94-98 are just a brief survey of the variety of looks in a decor. Stenciled accessories at cralt

that can be achieved.

Accessories can serve as both venues

and sources for stencils

stenciling.

The wall

shown above, which decorate

a country French kitchen, were

adapted from an extensive collection of antique

Quimper

was first produced

pottery,

which

in the late

1600s.

The pottery designs were traced and enlarged

to

appropriate dimensions.

Motifs were shaded in several colors to

achieve a handpainted look. To

protect

them during cleaning, the

finished motifs were misted with

matte sealer Design adapted and stenciled by Anita Alsup.

93


The

on the

stencil motifs

tiles

and placemat

are Pfaltzgraff designs licensed by American Traditional.

Each of the

stencil patterns

offered coordinates with a popular stoneware

and

pattern. Designed

stenciled by Judith

Barker of American Traditional.

Create a one-of-a-kind decorator accent by block-printing a lampshade with rose motifs. First,

and vine

spray the shade with one or two

even coats of cream-colored aciylic spray paint.

Load

and

the block with glaze,

starting at the

lampshade's back seam, support the area be blocked with one hand while pressing

to

down

on the blocking pad with the other Before reloading the block, randomly press the pad

on the shade two or three more times

to create

bunches of leaves. Repeat the process

to print

around the circumference of the shade. To add rosebuds, brush the pad with two pink

leaves

glazes

and a

bit

of green at

rosebud, press the leaves.

soapy

Wash

its

base.

For each

pad near or among

off the rosebud

cloth, then use

it

to

the

pad with a wet

add smaller

around the top of the shade. Use an brush loaded with green glaze

to

leaves

artist's

add

vines

connecting leaves and flowers. Let dry for at least

16 hours, then spray the shade with a

clear lacquer Designed Vi

94

cmd Stu

Cutbill.

and block-printed by


(Above and

left)

Caroline

Ann

Zarrilh uses

stencils lo coordinate accessories for bath,

kitchen,

and sunroom.

95


PAPER AND CANVAS PRINTS Since you've begun

on paper,

it

all

your projects by proofing

stencils

probably won't require a great leap of the

imagination to envision your designs as framed prints. Instead of using paper scraps or blank newsprint, you'll

want 140

to

purchase paper in an appropriate weight

lbs.)

If

make

you've worked with canvas to

placemats, or even

you already know paint. If the

you're just an

if

that canvas

is

oil

a floorcloth or

pain