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Workshop at maHku Utrecht Improving Transferia


Imprint Editor: space&matter and maHKU students Editorial Coordination: Sascha Glasl Graphic Design: space&matter

Supported by


Content 5 Context 7 Transferia parking garages in NL 9 Transferium Westraven in Utrecht 13 Lecture 19 Assignment 21 Analysis 43 Strategy & Design 71 Conclusion


Context Dutch society was confronted in the nineties with the negative effects of the strong growth in car use. Therefore, outside Dutch city centres, the state decided to build a small number parking garages of a very specific type. Each were well connected to public transport and new of their kind. These building types were called “transferia�. In general they were seen as a solution for decreasing the amount of cars entering the city centres. Drivers were expected to leave their cars within the transferia and switch to public transport to enter city centres. After years it became apparent that some fulfilled their aims better then others. As Prof. Dr. Henk Meurs stated in an interview on RTV Utrecht, this has mostly to do with the time you need to get to your aim. It is proven that good traffic connections to public transport would have the most effect on their success. We strongly believe that there are also other strategies that can help to make these parking garages more attractive. The task of this workshop will be twofolded: First we have to take a closer look and analyse the transferia on the basis of the one example of Westraven in Utrecht. Secondly we will develop spatial strategies to improve the attractiveness of these places.


A8

A10

CS

city centre A59

P A1

A4

P A2

Parkeergarage Arena, Amsterdam

A8

A2 A10

CS

P

city centre

A59

P

CS

A59

city centre

P

A1

A4

A2

P A2

Parkeerplek Pattelaarpark, s’ Hertogenbosch A2

P P A59

P

CS

A59

city centre

A2

P

city centre CS

P A2

Modus Link, Apeldoorn Noord

A1

P

A50

city centre

CS

P

A1

Parkeergarage SIttard Geerweg, Sittard 6

P CS

A2

city centre

A50


Transferia parking garages in NL Amsterdam Arena, metro en trein naar het centrum. Apeldoorn Bij het treinstation De Maten Arnhem GelreDome, Trolleylijn 7 naar het centrum Barneveld Barneveld Noord, 4 treinen per uur naar Station Amersfoort Groningen Kardinge Hoogkerk Europapark; P+R Citybus naar de binnenstad. € 3,00 voor maximaal 5 personen. Haren: P+R Citybus naar de Groningse binnenstad en Station Groningen ‘s-Hertogenbosch: Vlijmenseweg Pettelaarpark Stadion De Vliert/Sportiom; bus naar Centrum. Hoorn: station Hoorn, trein naar station Amsterdam Centraal. Leeuwarden: WTC Expo Kalverdijkje, buslijnen naar Leeuwarden centrum. Middelburg: Mortiere, gratis busvervoer van de Mortiereboulevard naar het centrum en terug. Leiden: Transferium ‘t Schouw, bus naar Den Haag en Katwijk. Nijmegen: P&R Ovatonde bij Ressen, bus naar het stadscentrum van Nijmegen en Heyendaal. Renesse: o.a. pendelbus (naar de campings en het centrum). Ridderkerk: Waterbus Rotterdam-Drechtsteden Utrecht: Westraven, sneltram naar Utrecht Centraal; P+R Veemarkt, buslijn 77 naar de binnenstad. Sittard: trein naar Maastricht en Heerlen.

7


8


Transferium Westraven in Utrecht

P P city centre

A27

CS

A2

P P

P P+R Westraven

A12

9


Floor plan

Section

10


elevator ramp column

ceiling

entrance

grid 3000 mm

stairs dividing wall

fence bycicle parking 131439 mm fence

4740 mm 16000 mm 6500 mm stairs

Westraven Isometric view

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Lecture The lecture at the beginning of the workshop was to inspire the students with different directions of thought. Furthermore, it gives an overview of the history of parking garages and formulates themes belonging to the context of this building type. Innumerable reference projects prove that the cultural relevance can be reached with the transformation of theses disregarded building types.


Workshop about parking garages.

Temple street parking garage in New Haven, Connecticut, Paul Rudolph, 1962.

The combination of walls within the structure created beautiful sculptural garages.

There is a lack of interest for parking garages Phaidon Atlas proves that There are 1052 projects from 75 countries in the Atlas and only one parking garage.

Mixed parking space.

History of parking garages.

Marina City Tower, 1964, Goldberg, Chicago Mixed building: Residential and commercial. Very sculptural.

1886 - the first carriages were designed by Carl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler. Only a small amount were produced

Cars are visible from outside.

1913 Henry Ford invented the famous “Model T� Mass production created 15 million cars between 1908 and 1927

Monofunctionality in the sixties till eighties Many garages were build with no ambition, lack of interest, little budget and the car gained a bad image because of pollution and accidents.

The amount of cars raised enormously

Many concrete structures were built. Monofunctional

A new building typology was born: Palmer&Singer manufacturing company GA NYC 1910 as cars needed to be weather protected. At the beginning functions were included in the parking garage, such as repair, chauffeur housing, long time storage and selling.

Examples of monofunctional parking garages in Utrecht.

In the twenties and thirties there was a political discourse about parking garages. CIAM Many types were developed. In the fifties and sixties, a huge amount of garages were built as the car was celebrated.

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Examples of monofunctional parking garages in Utrecht.

Examples of monofunctional parking garages in Utrecht.


Examples of monofunctional parking garages in Utrecht.

There is something missing. There are other forces which should stay in dialogue with architecture. Culture and politics are excluded from the development.

Recently new initiatives evolved to put traffic and parking garages back on the planners agenda. Renault traffic design award. ADAC price. The European parking association.

Case study: Transferia

Some contemporary buildings catch attention and try to add relevance to the typology.

Case study: Location

Lincoln Road, Florida, Herzog De Meuron, 2010 Shopping, dining, residential, parking.

Case study: Improving Transferia

Events in the parking garage.

Case study: Improving Transferia

Commercial developers create corporate architecture.

Context

The most important things are economic factors with user orientation and cultural relevance missing.

Westraven

Technology Many new technological developments have changed the building typology.

Westraven

Automated parking garage in Wolfsburg, Germany, Autostadt. Visitors can take a tour of a duration of 15 minutes

Westraven

Influences on architecture.

Westraven

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Westraven.

Program.

New developments of the Canal Island Centre.

Garage 1907, Chicago. Housed horses and cars in one building.

Development of IKEA (next to Transferia).

Outside / inside The bar symbolizes the entrance.

New IKEA by Kavel Architecten.

Atmosphere.

Analysis

Concrete contributes strongly to the atmosphere. What else?

Flexibility.

Timetable / use

Site architects, James Wise, 1981 A car park with villas & gardens An even older project was published in 1908 in Life magazine. How flexible is the structure of a parking garage?

Operation map of the railway system in Tokyo. Documentation of the performance. Opening times can be added with other operations. Design a timetable!

Relation public / private.

Safety: Parking garages are known as unsafe spaces.

Nolli map 1748 of Rome by Giambattista Nolli. A new map of Rome based on Bufalini’s map from 1551. New: direction to north (before it was east), shows enclosed public space as colonnades in St. Peters square and Pantheon as open civic spaces. Underground tunnel system in Houston Air conditioned, avoid bad weather. Open weekdays from 6am - 6pm

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Users & stories: Climbers like the concrete structures.

Some gay communities use the parking garage as meeting point.


Skaters like the surface of the floor.

Annual parking day.

Tuning clubs use parking garages for gatherings.

Car loft.

Transformation examples.

A commercial for beach on top of the parking garage at a fair in Frankfurt 2006.

Made in Tokyo, Bow Wow.

Parking garage at the fair in Frankfurt 2005.

Made in Tokyo, Bow Wow.

Commercial in Bielfeld garage.

Made in Tokyo, Bow Wow.

Furniture trade in old Stern garage, Chemnitz.

Made in Tokyo, Bow Wow.

Art on parking garage, what is the impact?

Temporary market in Seattle.

Camping site in office structure, Archizoom, nonstop city.

A cart track was erected temporarily in the Jaarbeursplein in 2010.

Parking and sport.

Michigan Theatre in Detroit (Concert Hall and movie house) Built on the site of the garage in which Henry Ford produced his first Automobile.

Spencer Tunick in Q-park parking garage, Amsterdam.

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Assignment The task of this workshop was two-fold : First, we took a closer look and analysed a transferium on the basis of one example, Westraven in Utrecht. Secondly, we developed spatial strategies to improve this building typologie.


Analysis The students had to work on one of these themes by collecting information, creating analytical sketches, photos, movies, schematic drawings, texts, interviews, performances, thoughts, ideas, and common knowledge. Program Flexibility Visibility Users Safety Atmosphere Occupation Choreography Relation public / private and Outside / inside Context


These images are about verbs. This is the first verb: waiting.

These are the square meters you need for waiting.

The ticket machines are standing in the ‘waiting room’.

Second verb: buy a ticket.

These are the square meters you need for buying tickets.

First you have to drive a while before you can park your car.

Third verb: the car driving around.

These are the square meters you need for parking your car.

There are parking spaces that you can rent. It then becomes a private space. 22

ada

ms

mr .a

mr.

da m

s

This is the first space you enter when inside the building.

Fourth verb: renting your own parking place.

These are the square meters you need for having your own parking place.


Program The parking garage of Westraven in Utrecht has a very small program. They do not have many activities or shops within the garage itself. The only thing one can do within the parking garage is wait, buy a ticket at the ticket machine, drive your car around and hire a private parking space. I have put together the programs for now and for the future. I have made a schedule to enrich the program. It contains new activities such as renting bicycles, a cinema and a sneaker store. I made this program so in the future visitors will be attracted to the parking garage. In the diagram you can see the requirements for a particular activity, for example how many staff are required or what kind of furniture an certain activity needs. Olga van Lingen

m2

number

-

-

30

85

50

60

2500

50

1

1

1

-

-

30

85

50

60

2500

50

1

1

1

staff

store

furniture chairs

7

3

2

11

23

5

1

602

203

54

3

couch

1

0

0

2

3

0

0

0

0

0

1

cask desk

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

2

1

1

showers changing rooms

tools

music

screen

light extra

machines

water

food

clothes

An overview of the requirements for a new program.

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1.Four entries: maintenance with elevator, 2 staircases and tramstation

2.There are two square staircases made from glass

3.The elevator tower is also made with a glass and steel construction

2. 4. 8. 5.

5. 7.

7.

7.

7. 5.

5. 8. 2.

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3.

1.

Column grid is connected by beams, strength by dividing walls and fencing

4.Steel fences are on the ground floor, concrete/steel railing on other levels

5.On each level there are old fashioned waterpipes

6.On each level and in the staircases there is electricity

7.For more stabilitiy there are dividing walls in the middle of the garage

8.Notable 1: junkspace, pubic space, where you can’t take anything

9.Notable 2: at nightfall, almost every level was empty


Flexibility The conclusion of my research on the flexibility of Westraven parking garage is that the existing structure is not flexible at all. The parking garage appears modern by the special concrete finish of the exterior, embellished by horizontal concrete and steel. The garages construct is of a new standard building grid, consisting of concrete columns and horizontal beams. In the middle of the building are two concrete partition walls with a parallel steel fence located to strengthen the whole building. Westraven facilities: Each floor is appox. 5500 m2 - 176 car parking on each level - private parking - 2.48m high floors - upper floor is usually empty - 1 elevator and 2 staircases to 6 levels - 2 ramps 6% - indoor tram station - bicycle renting - water- and electricity facilities - offices and large malls located near. Anneroos van Vredendaal

elevator ramp column

ceiling

entrance

grid 3000 mm

stairs dividing wall

fence bycicle parking 131439 mm fence

4740 mm 16000 mm 6500 mm stairs

Isometrie of one level, each building subject of the construction is apart

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1_Europalaan south; around 300m away

2_Europalaan south; around 150m away

3_Europalaan south; around 50m away

4_Griffioenlaan; under the garage

5_Griffioenlaan; closer to RWS building

6_Griffioenlaan;from the Rijwaterstraat building

7_Europalaan north; close to Bastion Hotel

8_Europalaan north; in front of the garage

9_Europalaan north going to the south

10_A12 highway view

11_A12 highway view

12_A12 highway view


Visibility The research focused on the visibility of the highest point of the building: this turns out to be by far the most visible point of the building itself. However, it is not completely visible from some points of the main road. It’s parallel to and completely visible from the highway; this makes it easy to recognize and understand how to reach the parking lot. Not the same can be said ​​ of the road Europalaan on which the parking is set Coming from the north and continuing south, the view is not always clear and readable, and sometimes is almost impossible to see the building even if you are very close. Frederico Violato

Map which describes parking visibility from all major roads

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Users in the entrance, driving in.

Interviewing in the waiting room.

Some of the users I interviewed.

First floor, a user went through.

Second floor, a user passed through.

Third floor, a user went to take his car.

Users Age Group coming from

28

opinion

30-40

near Utrecht

working

none

30-40

far from Utrecht

shopping

none

30-40

near Utrecht

working

none

30-40

near Utrecht

working

none

40-50

far from Utrecht

shopping

none

40-50

far from Utrecht

shopping

none

40-50

far from Utrecht

working

none

50-60

near Utrecht

shopping

none

50-60

far from Utrecht

shopping

none

60+

far from Utrecht

shopping

Coffee Shop

Forth floor, no user stayed here.

Top floor, empty

travel target

Users on different age groups, locations,targets and improving opinions.


Users This user analysis was made on a Wednesday at 10 am. Ten users information was collected for research. During 10 am to 10.30 am, seven users stayed in the waiting room; the 1st 2nd and 3rd floor had one user pass through, respectively, however, they did not stay for long. Meanwhile, Nobody stayed at 4th or top floor. According to the interview, 6 out of 10 users came from other cities away from Utrecht. In contrast, four of them came from the country side nearby. All of them are older than 35. Six of them came to Utrecht for Shopping and four for working. Nine users did not have any opinion of improving this parking garage, only one user wanted to improve the waiting room by being able to have a cup of coffee. Through the interviews, most of users come to shop even if they live in cities such as Leiden and Delft. Their spare time to go shopping is during Monday to Friday, 10.00am to 4.00pm. Through the analysis we can see, Utrecht has a huge potential for recreational activities, through highway A12, A27 and A2. People from different cities could easily drive to P+R Westraven and then go to Utrecht city center by bus and tram. Ciu Xun

North of Netherlands

working shopping

Leiden

Utrecht

Den Haag

P+R

Most of the users came from other cities which is far from Utrecht, their travel target is for shopping during weekdays.

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30

Security parking gate at the entrance

The Blue building stands as the main lobby and security room

Security room inside the main lobby will keeps you under surveillance

Parking building entrance needs more effort in creating uniformity in lighting

Ceilling angles in this building make it more difficult to create uniformity in lighting

Lighting fixtures need to be easy maintained, durable and reliable

Natural lighting during day time

See through stair cases keep you visible

CCTV surveillance and lighting are 2 important thing in security system that can’t be separated

Lighting un-uniformity and direct strong lighting can create glare problems in the CCTV system

Illumination challenges in security system

Lighting uniformity inside the motorcycle parking area; some areas are much darker than others.


Safety Security for parking buildings attract a large amount of press. If you study the statistics, roughly 80% of the criminal acts at shopping centers, malls and business offices occur in the parking lot. The Westraven Transferium has taken several efforts in security. The security office is located inside the lobby room, and also functions as the information counter where the blue uniformed security staff stand by to provide you with all the necessary help. The CCTV screens are easily visible from the visitor’s point of view. CCTV and lighting are two important factors in building security that can’t be separated. The key for Illumination for a CCTV system are: even illumination, distance of illumination, running and maintenance, angle of illumination, quality of lighting and integration between camera and lens. Camera positioning is also very important for security system effectiveness. CCTV cameras and lighting grids should not be positioned to aim direct light at the camera lens, nor to create reflected light which could produce CCTV glare. As light is the source of all color, to achieve true color CCTV images color correct white light, exactly matching the true visible spectrum. It is recommended that a minimum of 10 foot-candles of lighting are to be installed throughout the parking structure. Although the transferia building is very open, some parts of the parking interior seemed not to have enough natural and artificial lighting. Uniformity in lighting still needs to be improved inside the parking area. The elevators and stairs are located on the perimeter which permits natural surveillance from exterior public areas via a glass-backed stair and elevator lobbies. The 90º parking line layout provides an advantage for natural surveillance, CCTV coverage and structured surveillance and response. Although the parking area is well equipped with CCTV cameras, there are not enough emergency call stations. Surveillance without potential response might provide low trust from customers. It is not uncommon in high crime or remote areas to install Emergency Call Stations that can be used to call security forces or police to an emergency situation. Paramita Daradasih

Ground floor CCTV camera plan CCTV Camera

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32

Association with prison

Similarity with prison atmosphere

Similarity with prison atmosphere

Main used materials

Metal

Concrete

The repetition of the building

Example of repetition

Example of repetition

Example of repetition

The lighting is distributed around the floors

How lighting enters building


Atmosphere Among the open area and set within the beautiful landscape I found the Westraven building quite out of context. It has very strict form and appearance. My first feeling about the atmosphere while entering the building was associated with very cold and scary place. It seemed to me that it is abandoned place without life. I saw many cars passing, but still it was the place I can call the ‘lost’ one. It reminded of prison. This wasn’t a prison for people, but this was a prison for cars. The association with prison was based on every element of interior. The first was the visual factor of materials and their color. The material used for this building is concrete and metal. These materials are in grey color are very cold. Psychologically grey has the meaning of neutrality, boredom, coldness, safety and conservatism. The repetition of every floor brought nothing new. Rhythm in this building was defined as the meaning of order. Although as colors, shapes, light beams, and textures were repeating all around the building with much consistency it became boring. It was not an interesting place to be, just the obligatory place to go and park your car. The light as well was very dull. Although it was an open building there was not enough light even during day time. Light level also influences how we behave in a space. Under that kind of light it seemed for me it was a safe place to be in. Ana Abashidze

Interior repetition

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Peak hours 8.00-12.00

Moderate traffic 12.00-17.00

Car pick up hour 17.00-20.00

Timetable

Parking loading

Ground floor-3rd floor

4rth floor Floor plans of the maximum occupation 800-1.000 cars

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Roof


Occupation The occupation of the Westraven Parking Garage varies between the week days. According to the observations the parking area is mostly occupied during the workdays of the week (Monday till Friday). During these days the approximate number of cars visiting the parking area is 1,000 on daily basis. On the weekends the number of cars visiting the parking garage is reduced significantly and varies between 25 and 200 cars daily. Analyzing in more detail the daily timetable of the parking, peak hours, moderate traffic hours and “car pick up” hours can be distinguished. Peak hours of the parking are between 8.00 and 12.00 am, moderate traffic hours are between 12.00 and 17.00 pm and “car pick up” hours are between 17.00 and 20.00 pm. The loading progression of parking is made gradually from the basement to the roof. Hence the basement floor is the one filling first and upper floors filling after. Xenia Margarita Armao

0

Monday till Friday 1.000 cars 63%

16 250 250 250 250

Saturday 200 cars 13%

0 0 0 0 50 200

Sunday 25 cars 1.5%

0 0 0 0 0 25

Numbers of cars during the week

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Movement direction for cars

Footpath

Movement direction for Cars

Footpath

Horizontal movements of cars and people

Vertical movements of cars and people 36

Movement direction for cars

Footpath


Choreography For the choreography analysis I inspected the movements and stops of users on the site of the parking garage and observed horizontal and vertical movements of the vehicles and pedestrians. The direction of movement both for pedestrians and vehicles is a static element directed by signposts and floor signs so vehicles can circulate in a regular way into the parking garage. The daily circulation of the cars have been arranged by the arrows on the floor and each parking space with rectangle line represents the stops of the car. There are two main choreographies associated with vehicle movement: The first one is a circulation whereby there is a access to all floors with a circular movement around the ramp and straight corridor (middle section). The second one is a circulation that maintains access to upper floors by skipping the immediately consecutive floor which enables you to drive/circulate around the ramps without using the middle corridor. These two choreographies are the most common movements of the vehicles in the parking garage. There is also a specific user preferred to circulate between the first and second floor which were completely full, persistently avoiding higher floors to find an available parking space. This was another interpretation of the choreography by a user. Pedestrian circulation predominantly vertical with the use of lifts and stairs followed by horizontal dispersion to the location of vehicles. Pembe Birinci

Three different choreographies from the parking garage in a daily routine.

37


The way from inside to the outside.

Do you think it is outside?

38

No ceiling above you


Relation public/private and outside/inside Parking garages are defined as semi public buildings. Although they are recognized as a public space, they are subject to very different rules. Where do public roads for bike, pedestrians, and cars connect to the inside? Parking garages are a special place to the relationship of public/ private and outside/ inside .You can own a place for a week, a month even a year, but when the time is up , the private will change into semi public. The parking place feels like some island of privacy within the semi public. Within other buildings it is obvious to define inside and outside, but not in a parking garage. The top level for example has a floating boundary (see pictures left). When we are standing under a bridge we also think it could be a semi inside, because the place can give your protection and keep away from the blazing sun or a storm. Zhang Meng

way of people, bikes and cars

39


1

rws

2

3

4

W IKEA

P

1) Rijkswaterstaat presence creates activity in the area

2) Westraven facade, industrial outlook

P

A12/E30/E35

Long section and program along the Europalaan

3) A12 highway provides excellent connections

4) A ‘retail landscape’ nearby adds activity to the area

rws

5

6

W

B

P

5) Park next to Rijkswaterstaat building

6) Public transport to the city center and IJsselstein 40

8

7

Europalaan

cross-section and program of the Europalaan

7) Overview of the Europalaan

8) Bastion Hotel on the opposite side of the road


Location and Context Transferium Westraven is located to the south of Utrecht. It is conveniently situated near the A12 highway, which provides connections to The Hague and Amsterdam. A number of public transport connections towards various locations in Utrecht are available for travellers. A large number of shops and retail activities are located just on the north of the highway, as well as numerous offices in the area. The transferium connects to the Europalaan, and is situated directly opposite the Bastion Hotel. The Rijkwaterstaat building next to the canal creates activity around and behind the parking garage. Given the extensive connections and ongoing activities around the Transferium, it is remarkable that the parking garage is used only for about 50% of it’s capacity. The potential in terms of location, use and space and current situation is not utilized. Otto Paans

rws h

The transferium is located in a dynamic area, with lots of activity and movement going on. In contrast, the transferium is just a passing-through place, it’s potential is not utilized.

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Strategy & design Inspired by the analysis, the students had to develop a concept/ strategy for an improvement of the transferium “Westraven�. To illustrate the concept one can make use of storyboards, performances, models, movies, sketches, development strategies, real installations, sculptures, technology, interactive media, interior designs and public design plans, landscape architecture, newspapers. mock-ups...


The two main definitions of a garage: housing and providing services.

Amsterdam and Arnhem already have big fashion events, where is Utrecht?

Designing a fashion garage, where the whole process of fashion can be seen.

Five graduated designers have their own atelier. Each has its own talent, which is why there are five different ateliers. Among the ateliers is a great studio to work together.

There will be several events.

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Fashionshows, workshops and drive in-fashionshows.

The whole process from fashion in one building.


Fashion Garage There are three fashion cities in the Netherlands. Amsterdam, Arnhem and Utrecht. In Amsterdam and Arnhem there are already several fashion events, but there are none yet in Utrecht. Utrecht has a lot of potential in the fashion industry. There is an art school where fashion can be studied producing fashion graduates each year. These are fashion designers who need to find a place to work. I designed a fashion garage. A garage where you can see the whole process of fashion. A space where you can not only buy clothes, but also where you can view the entire process. On the fifth floor (the roof) five designers have their ateliers. Also, the events will take place there like drive in fashion shows. On the fourth floor is a large shared studio, where collaboration can take place. In this studio, the designers can develop their clothing, make samples and produce their final designs with machines. Beside the machines, you have five stores, one for each designer. Beside the ateliers and stores there are also events. Events such as fashion shows and workshops. I want the fashion industry to be more transparent. I want to show what’s happening behind the clothes. Olga van Lingen

DESIGNER 5

Designer 5

DESIGNER 1

Designer 1

DESIGNER 4

DESIGNER 2

Designer 4 Designer 2

DESIGNER 3

Designer 3

6) visitors

5) catwalk

4) studio designer

3) collaboration

2) design

1) designers

The design of the fashion garage in different layers.

45


5th floor (the roof) where the ateliers of the designers are situated.

5th floor (the roof) where the catwalk could take place.

4th floor where the collaborative studio is. In the studio each of the designers have their own shop.

5th and 4th floor. On the 5th the five ateliers. Among the ateliers is their shared studio (pink outline).

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The design when an event is happening. For example the drive in fashion show.

47


Flexibility: wind climates

Notable: junkspace

Target group: homeless people

Solution: capsule beds

Two capsule types:the beds have extra space on the top or on the side.

‘Bedless’ accomodation is located under the ramps on the ground floor. It’s possible to create two overnight accomodations for a total of 114 homeless people. 48


Bedless? > Bed for less The only flexibility that I noticed was the wind and the three different climates (wind, drafts and wind-free in the staircases). I went looking for functions for different wind climates. It was easy to find inspiration for design necessary to wind and wind-free areas, but I couldn’t find functions related to draft. So then I checked who is used to life outside in the different climates. My answer, homeless people. Another interesting aspect in the parking garage were the unused/ empty spaces under the ramps with no function, known as ‘junkspace’. I linked these two results, by asking myself who can use that space where nothing happens yet? Who can fill the empty garage during closed hours? I have investigated whether there is any need for more sleeping accommodation. This showed that the homeless people in Utrecht can go 14 days a month to the ‘Snurkhuis’ or ‘Sleep-inn’. The other days of the month they have a to stay on the street. Utrecht has about 1,000 homeless adults, 93%of which are male. The existing dormitories are located in the city centre of Utrecht which creates inconvenience and severe irritation to the locals. I have been inspired by the so-called capsule hotels, the smallest and minimalist overnight accommodation. The capsule has a size of 2 m3 and extra space on the side or top and has a locker, a night light and a bar for you to pull yourself up. Annaroos van Vredendaal

Impression of the floorplan

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50


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Westraven Motel Parking The Westraven Parking, in the south of Utrecht, in recent years has become a problem as this huge structure has only one program to provide parking spaces. This means that all over the year, this building, most of the time is empty or unused fully. Therefore it is necessary to add new programs to this building, in order to take advantage of its structure. For my project I started observing the users of the parking lot, they’re mostly salesmen, or people who have to stay in town for one or two days for business or reunions. These people need to find a cheap place to stay that is easy to reach and that may allow them to leave the car easily. I then observed the gaps of the car parking, I noticed that the roof is always empty and that there is enough space to think of designing a place that has the characteristics stated above. My project is therefore motel parking on the roof of the Westraven. A motel where you can do almost anything from inside the car. Once reached the top floor, the user can check-in directly from his/ her car, and reach the room always inside the car, avoiding prying eyes, and safeguarding his/her privacy. On reaching the room, he/ she could access the room through an entrance located inside parking space, so that no one can disturb them. Check-out is always done in the car, to avoid wasted time and to remain anonymous. Frederico Violato

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Detailed View

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Motel parking view: how it should look.

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James Rosenquist’s gallery Moma museum, N.Y.

Denon Gallery, Louvre museum, Paris

New Eco-Aware Design exhibit, Cooper-Hewitt museum, N.Y.

Ron Arad exhibition, Moma museum, N.Y.

Gallerie d’ Apollon, Louvre museum, Paris

Triennial exhibition, Cooper-Hewitt museum, N.Y.

Elliason’s Illusion exhibition Moma museum, N.Y..

Rubens Gallery, Louvre museum, Paris

Hewitt Claudy exhibition, Cooper-Hewitt museum, N.Y.

Modern art gallery 56


Open Gallery The recorded observations of Westraven Parking Garage’s daily occupation clearly demonstrated that the parking area is rarely fully occupied. To make the Westraven parking more appealing for people and increase its daily occupation the idea of creating an open gallery in the parking area is proposed. It is believed that the construction of the gallery will encourage the gathering of people and will increase the popularity of the Westraven Parking garage. The open gallery will be constituted by different exhibitions with distinctive themes. Each exhibition will have its own unique theme and atmosphere. Drivers that will pass through the parking area will have the opportunity to experience different exhibition themes in the same gallery. Painting exhibition, photography exhibition, sculpture exhibition, etc will be some of the constitutive parts of the gallery. Since the area will combine both the parking and gallery facilities visitors and users of the parking garage are expected to observe and buy art works. People who will be interested in an artwork can ask for further information in the reception area of the parking garage. Xenia Margarita Armao

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P

W

P

W

Current situation and new strategy. Combining functions saves time, adds dynamics to the parking garage and makes it possible to avoid traffic jams. Furthermore, it might encourage the use of bicycles

P P

08:00

08:15

11:00

P

16:30

17:00

18:00

18:15

19:30

20:15

P P

20:30

Scenario’s and utilization of functions which may occur during the day.

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Parking, sporting, drinking and still saving time Time is the central element within this strategy. Due to traffic jams, people tend to spend a lot of time trapped on the road. When they arrive home, they have to cook, eat quickly and hurry to be in time for their sport activities. By concentrating all activities like sport, showering and eating into the transferium, people will always be in time for their sport lessons, they can take time to eat, and go home after the rush hour is over, all in all, they will save time and avoid frustrations. To encourage a large public use the facilities in the parking garage will cover a wide array of services. These include diverse sporting facilities, showers, sauna, a laundry for sporting clothes, lockers, a restaurant and a bar. In the future, the parking garage may also be updated to facilitate already existing bicycling routes and to encourage bicycle use for travelling from and to work. Otto Paans

P

Initial concept in which volumes with a specific program are inserted into the existing structure

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3

3

4

P

5

4

4

5

P Side view, design of the 4th and 5th floor and associated program

60

>

4

>


The fourth floor and the roof are used to house a number of different functions. The sports area includes cross-trainers, treadmills, spinning bikes and sit-up benches. On the roof a basketball court is located. All supporting facilities like changing rooms, sauna’s, laundry and lockers are directly accessible for sports players. People who just want to eat or drink in the restaurants don’t have to pass through the sports area, but they can witness other people training. Through the whole design, these leisure and sporting activities mingle with the original parking program, resulting in the surprising experience of being in a parking garage, fitness center and bar all at the same time.

The new program adds dynamics, movement and a wide array of activities to the transferium. Due to it’s location directly behind the facade, the sports center makes the energy visible.

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Ïnspired by Indonesian “Layar Tancap“

and also American style Drive-in theatre

Tickets are available via parking atendant

Radio transmitted movie sound

By day time it will be the same garage

Movie projected to the building near by


Westraven After Dark Inspired by my childhood “Layar Tancap” in Indonesia, a movie night arranged by neighbors and family, I present you “Westraven After Dark” . A drive-in theatre located at the Westraven transferium. The theatre is fully equipt with an open diner with roller blading waitresses, rentable bean bag for your movie night picnic, radio transmitted movie sound, and a giant building-sized screen located on the building near by, where the movie is projected. Westraven After Dark opens weekly during weekend nights, with two movie runs at 19.00 and 21.30. Its simple yet romantic. All it needs is a screen, glow in the dark paint for marking the night parking lines and a collaboration with local radio station to transmit the movie sound. Don’t worry about the cold wind to stop you from arranging a romantic date! the movie can play in all kinds of seasons and weather, and you will still be comfy and warm inside your car, enjoying the night. So, what are you waiting for? Paramita Daradasih

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The bride and groom arrive at the Westraven

They follow the red carpet

Carpet is lit by the cars

Now they are officialy husband and wife

They celebrate

The first dance

Wedding dinner

They cut the cake toghether

the end is a big party


Wedding Making a wedding on the roof of the Westraven seemed very good idea to me. Nowadays everyone is searching for unusual and unexpected locations to have a wedding. For this reason this is very good place. On the top of the building the area is quite big and it’s more than enough to have a wedding. I tried to use the place and use the idea of the cars. As it is a parking garage, a wedding filled with cars seemed very interesting. As cars can be relocated where necessary, it’s easy to change the situation. First they will lighten the red carpet for the bride and groom. Then they will be changed to make a dance floor for a first dance. The dinner place will be located on the first half of the roof, and second part will be for cars and dancing area. Its also comfortable to move in the wedding with your car, and leave it with ease. I think people will enjoy the atmosphere, and have a non typical feelings at this wedding. Ana Abashidze

The top view of the buliding,

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The advantage of the Food Garage

Food Selling Process

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Food market With the busy daily schedule that comes with modern life, even grocery shopping becomes a tiresome chore. With this in mind, my aim was to develop the parking garage into a space where one daily chore becomes integrated into the daily routine of busy individuals. Moreover, in the globalized world that we live in, the garage maintains a competitive trading space by offering a space for small scale farmers. My strategy consists of two parts; the first, food transportation where the goods are transported from the farms to the parking garage. The local farmers will box up their daily fresh vegetables and fruits and bring them directly from farm and to the parking garage in wooden boxes which they will then be displayed in the shop. The second is the creation of an opportunity for current garage users to drive into spaces where the goods can be loaded on to their vehicles. There will be six different food stops which will be located at the first and second floor. This enables users to reach the shops very quickly and easily. They will drive into the shops, stop and ask the staff to load the food into the trunk. In a world where urban populations are overwhelmed by technology, consuming large amounts of processed goods and fast food, the opportunity to bulk buy fresh fruit and vegetables maintains the combination of technology with healthy living. By replacing a trip to the shopping market after a hard lengthy day at work, the converted parking garage reduces effort and saves time. In addition, the food garage cuts costs both by way of petrol and the advantage of bulk buy. There will also be two smaller shops which will sell chopped vegetables and fresh juices for daily consumption. Pembe Birinci

A conceptual collage of a food stop

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climb on the net

climbing is a populai sport

roller blaidng is one of the extreamesports that lets you feel like your flying

launderette

after hour party space

take away restaurant

Release your employees in the meeting room .

People need find a place, which is beautiful and empty, to celebrate their birthday.

Having a wedding on outside without losing the funtions of Church is better.


Children garage Zhang Meng

Multi-service space Bampang Pramono yihaa! my car

I need a

is clean!!!

party!!!

laundry, never

yup, here is

this fun!!!

pickup locker!!!

nice grocery vending machine

picking up my dog I hate... dentists!!!

P-R Westraven P-R Westraven

openingstijden maandag t/m vrijdag 05.00 - 01.00 zaterdag 07.00 - 01-00 zon- en feestdagen 08.00 - 01.00 tarieven parkeren per dag â‚Ź 4.00 parkeren + OV per dag â‚Ź 4.00

Wedding place Zhang Meng This is my birthday party!

Welcome to our wedding

I am during a business meeting

The different functions of the roof garden.

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Conclusion This year our office was again invited by the maHKU Utrecht Graduate School of Visual Art and Design to give a workshop for the public design and interior design department. Based on the last workshop, where we aimed for strategies concerning the transformation of parking garages from the 70’s and 80’s, we were focusing this time on a special type of parking garage which evolved in the Netherlands in the 90’s: The Transferium. We first had to take a closer look and analyse the transferia on the basis of different topics. The analysis, especially the small occupation of the building, showed that there is the need of improving these parking garages thats are only 50% is in use. Together with the students, we developed several programmatic strategies which could help to make these parking garages more attractive. Temporal events and spatial interventions could be the starting point to improve these building types. Learning from these spatial and programmatic experiments could help to develop the building type further into a working traffic hub. Sascha Glasl space&matter

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space&matter


Improving Transferia  

Dutch society was confronted in the nineties with the negative effects of the strong growth in car use. Therefore, outside Dutch city centre...

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