SEMANTICS AND VOCABULARY BY: SHAYRA GABRIELA SALAZAR
SEMANTICS The study of the meaning of the words, phrases and sentences.
MEANING Is the message conveyed by words, sentences, and symbols in a context.
Covers those basic essential components of meaning that are conveyed by the literal use of a word.
Has to do with the personal feelings or attitudes of the speaker.
SEMANTIC FEATURES Are the specific features of a word that helps to decide if the word fits based on the context of a sentence.
SEMANTIC ROLES Is the actual role a participant plays in some real or imagined situation, apart from the linguistic encoding of those situations. AGENT AND THEME The entity that performs the actions technically known as the agent and the entity that is involved in or affected by the action is called the theme INSTRUMENT AND EXPERIENCER Instrument: an entity used to perform an action. Experiencer: one who perceives something
LOCATION, SOURCE AND GOAL Location: the place where the action happens Source: the place from which and action originates
Goal: the place where the action is directed Lexical relations Is a culturally recognized pattern of association that exists between lexical units in a language. SYNONYMY Two or more words with very closely related meanings are called synonyms. ANTONYMY Two forms with opposite meanings are called antonyms. HYPONYMY When the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another, the relationship is described as hyponymy.Â
PROTOTYPES The idea of “the characteristic instance” of a category is known as the prototype.
HOMOPHONES AND HOMONYMS Two or more different forms have the same pronunciation; they are described as homophones. POLYSEMY When we encounter two or more words with the same form and related meanings.
METONYMY A thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that things or concept.