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Mobility and Transport 839 -1200-05

Mobility and Transport Pocket Statistics 2012

Neuch창tel, 2012


Mobility and Transport Pocket Statistics 2012 1

Parameters for passenger transport

Page

3

2

Parameters for goods transport

Page

6

3

Funding

Page

8

4

Transport infrastructure

Page

9

5

Transport enterprises

Page

10

6

Means of transport

Page

11

7

Use of means of transport

Page

13

8

Passenger transport performance

Page

16

9

Goods transport performance

Page

20

10

Transalpine goods transport

Page

23

11

Accidents

Page

25

12

Energy consumption and effects on environment

Page

26

13

Costs

Page

28

Glossary

Page

30


1 Parameters for passenger transport Population growth has same influence as increase in personal mobility

Per capita increase in motorised traffic mileage

55%

1970–2010

Percentage of commuter traffic (work and education/training)

30%

2010

Percentage of leisure traffic

40%

2010

Households with private cars

79%

2010

The amount of passenger traffic depends on the average daily distance covered, the size of the population and the number of trips taken by foreigners in Switzerland. The daily distance covered is affected by the distances between place of residence and place of work and the location of shops or the destinations of leisure activities. The various means of transport available also play a role. In selecting specific means of transport, availability (vehicle ownership, distance to nearest public transport stop, service frequency), price, travel comfort and time needed for trip are particularly important factors. The average distance covered per capita grew at about the same rate as the resident population in the last decade. The increase in the distance covered was probably also attributable to the rising standard of living, although short-term variations in per-capita GDP have little effect on the distance covered per capita. 79% of Swiss households have at least one car. Socio-economic framework conditions for passenger transport 115

Index 2000=100

Per capita GDP Resident population

110

Kilometres per capita1

105 100 1

95 2000

1

2002

2004

Source: Federal Statistical Office

2006

2008

Per capita land transport performance (Swiss and foreign nationals)

2010 Š FSO

3


Reason for travel in 2010 (Average per capital daily distance by trip purpose)

5%

Commuting to work (8.9 km)

6%

Education/training (2.0 km)

24%

Shopping (4.7 km) Travel on business/ official travel (2.5 km) Leisure (14.7 km)

5%

40%

Service and escort (1.8 km) Others (2.1 km)

13% 7%

Average daily distance per person in Switzerland: 36.7 km Sources: Federal Statistical Office, Federal Office for Spatial Development

© FSO

Trips made by the population in Switzerland in 2009 20

Number of trips per person Travel with overnight stays Day trips

15

10

5 1

0

Up to 4901

4902 – 7149

7150 – 9634

9635 – 12 841

Each income group contains exactly one fifth of Swiss households

12 842 and over

Monthly household income in CHF1 Source: Federal Statistical Office

4

© FSO


Price movements in passenger transport 120

Base December 2010=100 Consumer price index (CPI) Public transport by road and rail

100

Air transport 80

Passenger cars, motorcycles, bicyles, (purchase, upkeep)

60

Fuel

40 20 0 1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Source: Federal Statistical Office

Š FSO

Number of cars and bicyles per household 100%

No car/bicycle

90%

1 car/ bicycle 2 or more cars/bicycles

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

1994 2000 2005 2010 Cars

1994 2000 2005 2010 Bicycles

Sources: Federal Statistical Office, Federal Office for Spatial Development

Š FSO

5


2 Parameters for goods transport Goods transport has almost doubled since 1980

Increase in transport performance

85%

1980–2010

Increase in GDP (at constant prices)

63%

1980–2010

Increase in transport performance of heavy goods vehicles

49%

1993–2010

only domestic transport only transit transport

20%

1993–2010

184%

1993–2010

Increasing goods transport is a side-effect of economic growth. This is because productivity can be raised in particular by increasing quantities and this is only possible if production is concentrated on fewer and fewer locations. The result is growing national and international economic interdependence. This increase in the division of labour and the rising standard of living lead to an increase in goods transport. Goods transport on road and rail increased by 85% between 1980 and 2010, mainly because of the development of road transport. Growth in the goods sector was stronger than in passenger transport and disproportionate to the GDP. 59% of all transport by heavy goods vehicles is domestic, 17% transit. Expressed as a percentage, transit transport has grown considerably faster since 1993. While rail transport costs have fallen since autumn 2007, road goods transport has become more expensive since then.

Socio-economic parameters for goods transport Index 1990=100 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 1990 1995 Source: Federal Statistical Office

6

Transport performance (tkm) – rail, road GDP International economic interdependence (total) International economic interdependence of goods 2000

2005

2010 © FSO


Domestic and international goods transport by road (Transport performance of Swiss and foreign heavy goods vehicles)

300

2010

Index 1993=100 17%

250 200

8%

150

59%

15%

100 50 0

97 19 99 20 01 20 03 20 05 20 07 20 09

19

93

19

19

95

Total: 16 090 m tonne-kilometres

Domestic transport

Total

Export

Import

Domestic transport

Transit

Export

Import

Transit

Source: Federal Statistical Office

Š FSO

Price movements in goods transport 120

Base April 2001=100 Goods transport total Goods transport rail

115

Goods transport road Producer price index

110 105 100 95

April Oct. April Oct. April Oct. April Oct. April Oct. April Oct. April Oct. April Oct. April Oct. April Oct. April Oct.

90 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source: Federal Statistical Office

Š FSO

7


3 Funding Confederation pays approximately half of subsidies

Public expenditure on transport

CHF 16.5 bn

2009

Confederation’s share of public expenditure on transport

53%

2009

Petroleum tax as a percentage of revenue from road transport

52%

2009

Public expenditure on transport in 2009 10000

CHF million Total 8242

8000

4000

1579

2000

3437

0

Cantons

984

3226

6000

Communes

Total 8106

Confederation

1846

5276 Other costs (Air, shipping traffic): CHF 172 million

Road traffic

Public transport/Rail

Source: Federal Statistical Office

© FSO

Revenue from road transport in 2009 3% 1% 3% 3%

Petroleum tax revenue (incl. surcharge) Motor vehicle taxes and fees

15% 52% 23%

Distance-related heavy vehicle fee (LSVA) Customs revenue from motor vehicle imports Motorway toll sticker Fees (parking/bicycles) Revenue from VAT

Total: 9790 million CHF Source: Federal Statistical Office

8

© FSO


4 Transport infrastructure Transport infrastructure covers a third of settlement areas

National highways

1,790 km

2010

1,406 km

2010

Cantonal roads

18,040 km

2010

Communal roads

51,622 km

2010

5,124 km

2010

of which motorways

Length of railway network Transport areas as a percentage of ­settlement and urban areas

32%

1992/97

Area occupied by transport infrastructure Structure: 1992/97

1.8% 9.5% 6.5%

82.3% Total: 89 329 ha

Motorways areas

35% 30%

Road areas

25%

Railway areas

20%

Airports and airfields

15%

Increase 1979/85–1992/97 32.4

10%

9.3

5% 0%

1.3 MotorRoad ways areas areas

5.0

Railway Airports areas and airfields

Source: Federal Statistical Office

© FSO

Length of national highways In kilometres 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Source: Federal Roads Office

Mixed traffic roads Two and three-lane highways Motorways (4 to 7-lane)

© FSO

9


5 Transport enterprises 3% of all enter­prises are active in the transport sector

Enterprises in the transport sector

8,341 2008

of which surface transport

6,919 2008

Employees (full-time equivalents) in transport

139,182 2008

of which surface transport

89,613 2008

Percentage of enterprises in transport sector

2.6% 2008

Percentage of employees in transport (full-time equivalents)

4.1% 2008

The number of enterprises in Switzerland was roughly 322,000 in 2008, about 3% of which were active in the transport sector. While the number of enterprises in land transport fell slightly between 2001 and 2008, the number of air and water transport enterprises grew as did that of other service providers in the transport sector. The total number of employees (full-time equivalent) rose by 8% between 2001 and 2008 to just over 139,000.

Transport enterprises and employees 10 000

Number of enterprises

160 000

Employees (full-time equivalents)

140 000

8 000

120 000 100 000

6 000

80 000 4 000

60 000 40 000

2 000 0

20 000 2001

2005

Land transport and transport via pipelines Source: Federal Statistical Office

10

2008 Water transport

0 Air transport

2001

2005

2008

Warehousing and provision of other services in transport sector Š FSO


6 Means of transport Over half as many private cars as inhabitants

Road motor vehicles

5.6 million

2011

Change

+67%

1980–2011

Private cars

4.2 million

2011

Goods vehicles

0.3 million

2011

Motorcycles

0.7 million

2011

Tractive railway vehicles

2,997

2010

Aircraft registered in Switzerland

3,709

2011

The pool of road motor vehicles has grown by two thirds since 1980 to 5.6 million. Around three quarters of them are private cars. Statistically speaking, therefore, one person in two owns a car; moreover, for some time a trend towards four-wheel drive vehicles and diesel-powered vehicles has been observed. There has been a particularly strong increase in motorcycles: their number has almost quintupled since 1980. In 2010, 79% of all households owned at least one bicycle.

Pool of road motor vehicles 6 000 000

Vehicles Mopeds Motorcycles

5 000 000

Industrial vehicles Agricultural vehicles

4 000 000

Goods vehicles Passenger vehicles

3 000 000

Passenger cars

2 000 000 1 000 000 0 1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Sources: Federal Statistical Office, Federal Roads Office

2005

2010 Š FSO

11


Passenger cars by engine capacity and fuel 100% 80%

Cubic capacity 9.1 11.6

25%

12.9

14.4

14.3

12.6

11.2

10.8

20%

24.2

26.7

26.6

15%

28.3

25.2

25.2

22.0

22.4

23.1

Proportion of diesel vehicles

19.9

19.8

60% 40% 20% 0%

33.9

18.1

10% 5%

25.6

1990

2000

2010

2011

0%

up to 1399 cc

from 2000 to 2499 cc

from 1400 to 1799 cc

2500 cc and over

4.0

2.7

1990

2000

2010

2011

from 1800 to 1999 cc Sources: Federal Statistical Office, Federal Roads Office

Š FSO

Lorries by payload 100% 90% 80%

6.4

12.5

16.3

18.3

18.5

16.7

16.9

42.3

41.2

18.9

19.1

2010

2011

20.1

70% 60% 50% 40%

62.2

53.2

30% 20% 10% 0%

15.1

13.8

1990

2000

< 5 tonnes

10 < 15 tonnes

5 < 10 tonnes

15 < 20 tonnes

Sources: Federal Statistical Office, Federal Roads Office

12

20 tonnes and over

Š FSO


7 Use of means of transport Kilometre performance of private motor vehicle traffic

Biggest growth in passenger transport

55,893 m veh.-km

2010

Average occupancy of passenger cars

1.60 pers.

2010

Kilometre performance of road transport of goods

5,871 m veh.-km

2010

Domestic transport as a percentage of heavy road transport of goods

74%

2010

Takeoffs and landings in scheduled and charter air traffic

450,690

2011

Traffic jams on highways

15,910 hours

2010

Mobility needs can be met in various ways. The choice of transport means and vehicle occupancy influences road and rail traffic and affects the impact on infrastructure and environment. In passenger transport, transport performance by rail has increased by 38% since 1995 and by road by 22%. The kilometre performance of road transport as a whole increased by 21% over the same period. In heavy goods transport, there was a shift towards semi-trailers. The development of air transport can be gauged more easily on the basis of takeoffs and landings in Swiss airports instead of covered distances. The reason for this is that scheduled and charter traffic originating and terminating in Switzerland largely involves routes over foreign territory. Movements at the three national airports (Zurich, Geneva and Basel-Mulhouse) more than doubled between 1970 and 2011. Kilometre performance 150

Index 1995=100

Rail – train-kilometres passenger trains

140 130

Private road passenger transport – vehicle-kilometres

120 110

Public road transport – timetable kilometres Road transport of goods – vehicle-kilometres

100 90 80 1995

Air transport – Scheduled and charter traffic movements 2000

2005

Source: Federal Statistical Office

2010

Rail – train-kilometres goods trains Bike – vehicle-kilometres © FSO

13


Kilometre performance or transport performance? Kilometre performance is measured in vehicle-, train- or timetable-kilometres and is useful for gauging the impact on infrastructure and environment. This would hardly be possible with the transport performance indicator, measured in person- or tonne-kilometres, because a particular transport performance, depending on the occupancy and load, is achieved with a varying number of vehicles. Transport performance does, however, show the demand for mobility as well as the services actually provided by the transport system.

Kilometre performace in road transport 70 000

Million vehicle-kilometres resp. timetable kilometres Velos

60 000

Public road transport (tramways, trolley buses, buses) and private coaches

50 000 40 000

Heavy goods vehicles

30 000

Light goods vehicles

20 000

Motorcycles (incl. mopeds) Passenger cars

10 000 0 1995

2000

2005

2010

Source: Federal Statistical Office

Š FSO

Occupancy of passenger cars in 2010 (by trip purpose) 2.5 2.0 1.5

Passengers by car 1.60 1.12

1.36

1.99

2.05

Leisure

Service and escort

1.64 1.24

1.0 0.5 0.0

Total

Commuting to work

Education/ training

Shopping

Travel on business, official travel

Sources: Federal Statistical Office, Federal Office for Spatial Development

14

Š FSO


Takeoffs and landings in civil aviation (National and regional airports, only fixed wing aircrafts) 1 000 000

Movements

800 000 600 000 400 000 200 000 0

1950 1960 1970 1980 1985 1990 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009

Scheduled flights

Charter flights

Other commercial flights

Non-commercial flights

Source: Federal Office of Civil Aviation

© FSO

Takeoffs and landings in civil aviation, 2010 Basel-Mulhouse St.GallenAltenrhein

Zürich Birrfeld

Grenchen La Chaux-de-Fonds Les Eplatures Bern-Belp

Ecuvillens Samedan

LausanneLa Blécherette

Sion

Genève

LuganoAgno

Number of flight movements

Type of movements

268 630

Scheduled flights

Other commercial flights

100 000

Charter flights

Non-commercial flights

10 951

excluding commercial pleasure flights

Sources: Federal Statistical Office, Federal Office of Civil Aviation

© FSO

15


8 Passenger transport performance Private motor vehicle traffic responsible for three quarters of land transport

Annual mobility per person (distances in Switzerland and abroad)

20,500 km

2010

Average daily travel time (in Switzerland and abroad)

89 min.

2010

Public transport as a percentage of total passenger transport performance (including non-motorised traffic)

19%

2010

The sum of all the distances covered on road and rail by residents and ­foreigners in Switzerland was 122 billion person-kilometres in 2010 (including non-motorised traffic). On average, each person resident in Switzerland travelled 20,500 km in 2010 by some means of transport or on foot, including 13,600 km in Switzerland. Daily distances in Switzerland are largely covered by private motorised transport and the choice of means of transport varies greatly depending on the trip purpose. The main trip purpose was to engage in leisure activities, followed by commuting to work (see page 4). The longest average daily distances are covered by men, young people aged 18 to 24 and people living in rural communities. The population as a whole spends an average of one and a half hours each day travelling.

Passenger transport performance 140 000

Million kilometres per person Non-motorised transport

120 000 100 000 80 000

Public road transport ...

...

60 000

Railways and cable railways Private motorised road transport

40 000 20 000 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Source: Federal Statistical Office

16

Š FSO


Choice of means of transport (Average daily distance per person in Switzerland) 40

Kilometres

35

Total 31.3 1.5

30

Total 36.7 0.9

Total 35.0 1.8

Total 35.2 1.1

6.1

7.0

8.6

24.4

24.3

24.4

5.6

25

Other transport means Public transport Motorised private transport Non-motorised transport

20 15

21.8

10 5 0

2.5

2.7

2.8

2.8

1994

2000

2005

2010

Sources: Federal Statistical Office, Federal Office for Spatial Development

Š FSO

Choice of means of transport by trip purpose in 2010 (As a percentage of all stages of a trip) 100%

Other transport means Public transport

80%

Motorised private transport Non-motorised transport

60% 40% 20%

op pi ng Tr a bu vel Of sin on fic e ial ss tra / ve l Le isu re S an ervi d ce es co rt

Sh

Co

m m to utin wo g rk Ed uc at tra io ini n/ ng

0%

Sources: Federal Statistical Office, Federal Office for Spatial Development

Š FSO

17


Average daily distance in Switzerland by population group in 2010 50

In kilometres

40 30 20 10

s –7 80 9 an ye I d n a co ha rs m m b. or m o e un f a ye es g ar s an glo d me iso ra ag gl Inh late tion om ab d c er ita cit ore i at nt io s es n of co o In m the ru ha mun r ra bit l c an es om ts m of un es

65

–6

4

ye

ar ye

4 –4

45

25

ar

s

s

s

ar

ar

ye

ye

4 –2

17

18

6–

M en W om en

To t

al

0

Sources: Federal Statistical Office, Federal Office for Spatial Development

© FSO

Daily travel time by trip purpose in 2010 50

Minutes Other transport means Public transport

40

Motorised private transport Non-motorised transport

30 20 10

he rs Ot

Co m

m u to ting Ed wor k uc at tra ion/ ini ng Sh op pi ng Tr b a Of us vel fic ine on ial ss tra / ve Le l isu Se re rv ice an es d co rt

0

Average daily travel time per person in Switzerland: 83.4 minutes Sources: Federal Statistical Office, Federal Office for Spatial Development

18

© FSO


Passenger traffic flows in 2010 Passenger traffic flows in 2010

Road Road Persons per year (in millions) Persons per year (in millions) 1 1 10 10 30 30 60 60

Rail Rail Persons per year (in millions) Persons per year (in millions) 1 1 10 10 30 30 60 60

Sources: INFOPLAN-ARE, Traffic modelling TM-DETEC; Geostat-FSO; swisstopo Sources: INFOPLAN-ARE, Traffic modelling TM-DETEC; Geostat-FSO; swisstopo

© FSO, ARE © FSO, ARE

19


9 Goods transport performance Falling share of goods transport by rail

Goods transport performance

26.9 bn t-km per year

2010

Rail share of goods transport (modal sharing)

36%

2010

In 2010, the goods transport performance amounted to around 27 billion tonne-­ kilometres. The highest previously recorded value was 28.2 billion tonne-kilometres in 2008. Goods transport recovered only partially in 2010 from the subsequent decline due to the financial and economic crisis. If the entire period from 1980 to 2010 is considered, transport performance increased by 85%. Goods transport by road (+149%) increased more than by rail (27%). The modal split therefore developed markedly in favour of road transport: The rail share of goods transport fell from just under 53% in 1980 to 36% in 2010.

Goods transport performance 30 000

Million tonne-kilometres Road Rail 1

25 000 20 000 15 000 10 000 1

Net tonne-kilometres not including the proper weight of goods vehicles trailers) containers and swap 1 bodies in mulitmodal transport

5 000

1

1(incl.

0 1980

1985

1990

Source: Federal Statistical Office

20

1995

2000

2005

2010 Š FSO


Transport performance by means of transport by road and rail in 2010 18 000

Million tonne-kilometres Transit Export

16 000

Import

14 000

Domestic transport

12 000 10 000 8 000 6 000 1

4 000

1 2

2 000 0

2 2

Road 1

Heavy goods vehicles only Including the proper weight of goods vehicles (incl. trailers) containers and swap bodies in mulitmodal transport

Rail 2

Source: Federal Statistical Office

© FSO

Transport performance of heavy Swiss and foreign goods vehicles in Switzerland and abroad by type of vehicle 18 000

Million tonne-kilometres

16 000

Heavy semi-trailers and articulated lorries – foreign vehicles

14 000

Lorries – foreign vehicles

12 000

Heavy semi-trailers and articulated lorries – domestic vehicles

10 000

Lorries – domestic vehicles

8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 Source: Federal Statistical Office

2010 © FSO

21


Goods traffic flows in 2010 Goods traffic flows in 2010

Road Road Tonnes per year (in millions) Tonnes per year (in millions) 1 5 1 10 5 20 10 20

Rail Rail Tonnes per year (in millions) Tonnes per year (in millions) 1 5 1 10 5 20 10 20

Sources: INFOPLAN-ARE, Traffic modelling TM-DETEC; Geostat-FSO; swisstopo Sources: INFOPLAN-ARE, Traffic modelling TM-DETEC; Geostat-FSO; swisstopo

22

© FSO, ARE © FSO, ARE


10 Transalpine goods transport High rail share compared with France and Austria

Transalpine heavy goods vehicle traffic

1.26 m

Change

-10%

2011

Quantity of goods transported (rail and road)

40.1 m net tonnes

Change road

+63%

2000–2011

Change rail

+24%

2000–2011

Rail transport share (CH)

64%

2000–2011 2011

2011

The number of transalpine trips through Switzerland by heavy goods vehicles more than quadrupled between the opening of the Gotthard tunnel in 1981 and the year 2000. Since 2001, a stabilisation in trips has been noted, which can be attributed to the implementation of flanking transfer measures, the introduction of the Distancerelated Heavy Vehicle Fee (HVF) and the increase in weight limits. The quantity of goods transported over Swiss alpine passes by road and rail reached a record total of 40.1 million net tonnes in 2011. This is more than twice as much as in 1981. The share of goods transported by road recorded a particularly large increase. But in contrast to neighbouring countries, Switzerland’s transalpine goods transport is still mostly done by rail: In 2011, 64% of the net tonnes transported through the Alps were transported by rail.

Transalpine goods transport by road (Number of heavy goods vehicles in Switzerland) 1500

1000 vehicles

1200

Domestic vehicles Foreign vehicles

900 600 300 0 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 2011 Sources: Federal Office of Transport, Federal Roads Office

© FSO

23


Transalpine goods traffic volumes (Million net tonnes) 50

France

50

Switzerland

50 40

35

35

35

30

30

30

25

25

25

20

20

20

15

15

15

10

10

10

5

5

5

0

0

0

Rail

19

80 19 85 19 90 19 95 20 00 20 05 20 10

45

40

19 80 19 85 19 90 19 95 20 00 20 05 20 10

45

40

19 80 19 85 19 90 19 95 20 00 20 05 20 10

45

Austria

Road

Source: Federal Office of Transport

© FSO

Railway share of transalpine goods traffic (Base: net tonnes) 100%

Switzerland Austria

90%

France

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1980

Mt. Cenis/Fréjus-Brenner alpine arc.

1985

1990

Source: Federal Office of Transport

24

1995

2000

2005

2010 © FSO


11 Accidents Fewer people killed on the road thanks to traffic safety measures

Road traffic Persons killed Persons seriously injured Persons slightly injured

320

2011

4,437

2011

18,805

2011

Rail traffic: Persons killed (excluding suicides)

13

2011

Air traffic: Persons killed in Switzerland

13

2011

Progress in road safety has led to a decrease in the number of persons killed on Swiss roads since 1970. The decline between 2004 and 2006 is partly attributable to the reduction of the blood alcohol content limit to 0.5 mg/ml, as well as to penalties with loss of driving licence and the associated preventive effect. Most people killed are in the 18 to 25 age group. Since 1970, the percentage of persons seriously injured in road traffic has fallen almost as much as that of people killed. Slight injuries in road traffic showed a different trend: Their number has also fallen since 2003, but had been rising for a long time before that year. Accidents with killed and injured occur much more rarely in other transport modes. In the case of railways, they mainly involve persons trespassing on railway property. Victims of road accidents 140

Index 1970=100 Killed Seriously injured

120

Slightly injured

100 80 60 40 20 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Sources: Federal Statistical Office, Federal Roads Office

2011 Š FSO

25


12 Energy consumption and effects on environment Transport is the biggest energy consumption group

Transport’s share of energy consumption (final consumption)

34%

2010

Transport’s share of CO2 emissions

37%

2010

Growth rate of transport’s CO2 emissions

13%

1990–2010

The benefit of mobility (Chapters 8 and 9) comes at the cost of undesirable effects. These include the use of scarce energy resources as well as noise, air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Transport accounts for 34% of domestic energy sales. It is therefore the largest energy consumer group, ahead of the households and industry. As 96% of transport energy requirements are covered by petroleum products, its share of total petroleum consumption is as high as 60%. A large proportion of air pollution and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) comes from the road and air transport. Road transport is also the main source of nitrogen oxide (NOX), a precursor substance of low-level ozone and a contributory cause of acid rain. Road transport also releases large amounts of health-damaging particulate matter (PM10, see info box on the right). Thanks to technological advances such as diesel-particulate filters and catalytic converters, air pollutant emissions caused by transport have been markedly reduced in recent years. However, the limit values set for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter are in some cases still being greatly exceeded. Energy consumption from transport 350 000

2010

Final consumption in TJ

300 000 200 000

Kerosene 44%

150 000 100 000

Electricity (rail and public road transport)

32%

50 000 1995

2000

2005

Source: Swiss Federal Office of Energy

26

Diesel

20%

250 000

0 1990

Petrol

4%

2010

Total: 307 270 TJ

Gas and other energies: negligible

© FSO


CO2-emissions from transport 18

2010 (not incl. internat. air transport)

In millions of tonnes of CO2

16 14

Private cars Delivery vans

12 10 8

Lorries/ buses Motorcycles 1.5%

6 4

Petrol tourism

2 0 1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Transport (not incl. internat. air transport) International air transport

10% 13% 12% 5%

68%

Rail 0.2% Shipping 0.7% National air traffic 1.1%

Total: 16.3 m tonnes

Source: Federal Office for the Environment

Š FSO

PM10-exhaust-emissions from motorised road transport 2500

Tonnes Coaches

2000

Scheduled bus services

1500

Delivery vans/ light commercial vehicles

Heavy commercial vehicles

1000

Private cars

500 0 1990

1995

2000

2005

Source: Federal Office for the Environment

2010 Š FSO

Fine particulate matter (PM10) Fine particulate matter (PM10) refers to particulates with a diameter of less than one 10000th of a millimetre. These can penetrate deep into the lungs and lead to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The carcinogenic components of emission from diesel engines are particularly harmful. 27


13 Costs External costs of road transport many times higher than those of rail transport

Costs of private road transport

CHF 51 bn

2005

Cost coverage in road passenger transport

90%

2005

Costs of goods transport by road

CHF 16 bn

2005

Cost coverage in goods transport by road

96%

2005

Road passenger transport’s share of external passenger transport costs

96%

2005

Road goods transport’s share of external goods transport costs

92%

2005

The economic costs of transport, that is the actual sums paid by causers, the state or third parties, as well as the non-monetary costs such as damage to the environment and noise, totalled just over CHF 82 billion in 2005. In comparison, the GDP then stood at CHF 463 billion. Thus, the costs of mobility exceeded those of, for example, health care or the public education system. Road transport accounted for about six times more than rail transport of the total mobility costs of CHF 82 billion. CHF 8.4 billion of total mobility costs were external costs that were borne by people other than the causers (see info box on the right).

Economic costs of traffic in 2005 60 50

CHF billion Environment

51.3

Safety

40

Infrastructure

30

Transport means

20 10 0

16.3 2.9 Private Public Gods passenger passenger transport transport transport Road

Source: Federal Statistical Office

28

1

6.5

2.4

1 1

Rail: not including 2.4 billion CHF ancillary businesses and inter-company invoicing

Passenger Goods transport transport Rail1 © FSO


External costs of transport People choose their mode of transport on the basis of the cost they have to bear themselves (fuel, maintenance and depreciation of their own vehicles, the price of tickets and season-tickets, payments to transport companies). However, the so-called external costs, which are borne by third parties (often the community as a whole), are not taken into account. These include in particular the consequential costs in the form of damage to the environment and health, as well as damage to buildings and loss in value. In passenger transport, travelling with oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own car causes many more external costs than travelling by public transport. The same applies to goods transport by road compared with rail. Most transport in Switzerland is by road. The result is transport structures which impose great burdens on the community and do not achieve an economic optimum.

External costs of transport in 2005 9000 8000 7000

Road 8074 CHF million

CHF million 8074

Accidents

9% 25%

11%

1941

6000

Health Buildings

16%

14%

5000

3000

23%

3%

4000

Rail 455 CHF million

6134

2000

Climate Other environmental areas Nature and landscape

7% 24%

1000 0

Noise

455

Road

280 Rail 1

Goods transport Passenger transport

1

incl. third parties

Source: Federal Office for Spatial Development

16%

176 22% 3% 2%

26%

Š FSO

29


Glossary External costs Costs which are not borne by the causer but by other users or by the general public (inter alia: part of the costs of accidents, noise, air pollution etc.).

Stage Part of a trip covered using the same means of transport, with going on foot regarded as a means of transport. A new stage begins with every change of means of transport.

Goods transport performance Variable to describe performance in goods transport, which takes account both of weight of goods and the distance they are transported. The transport distance is expressed in tonne-kilometres, a tonne-kilometre referring to the transport of one tonne over one kilometre.

Transport mode Infrastructure or the mediums by which means of transport move (road, rail, water, air). Transport modes are also used to group the means of transport.

International economic interdependence Average value of imports and exports of goods and/or services as a percentage of GDP. Kilometre performance Distance covered by vehicles within a specific period of time (in vehicle-, train- or timetable-kilometres). Means of transport group Inclusion of different means of transport in the categories of public, private and nonmotorised traffic. Modal sharing Distribution of transport service among various transport modes (e.g. road, rail). Non-motorised traffic On foot, bicycle.

30

Transport performance Total distance covered by persons in one year, measured in kilometres per person. Trip A trip begins when a person sets off for a specific place or a specific purpose. A trip ends when the place is reached or the purpose changes, or when a person stays in the same place for over one hour. Trip purpose Purpose for which distances are covered or individual stages or journeys are under足 taken (commuting to work, education/training, shopping, travel on business/official travel, leisure, service/escort).


Websites Transport statistics (summaries) www.transport-stat.admin.ch Transport policy (summaries)

www.are.admin.ch

Roads

www.astra.admin.ch www.strasseschweiz.ch

Public transport

www.bav.admin.ch www.litra.ch

Aviation

www.bazl.admin.ch

Finances

www.efv.admin.ch

Accidents

www.unfalldaten.ch

Energy

www.bfe.admin.ch

Environment

www.bafu.admin.ch www.environment-stat.admin.ch

Imprint Publisher:

Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHA Federal Statistical Office (FSO), Neuchâtel

Information:

Telephone: 032 713 64 76 E-mail: verkehr@bfs.admin.ch

Published in German, French, Italian and English

Order number:

839-1200-05

As a PDF on the Internet www.transport-stat.admin.ch

Telephone:

032 713 60 60

Fax:

032 713 60 61

Email:

order@bfs.admin.ch

Editing and production:

Katharina Schnorr, Ferenc Biedermann, FSO

Cover graphics:

FSO; Concept: Netthoevel & Gaberthüel, Biel; Photograph: © Robert Kneschke – Fotolia.com

© FSO 2012



Mobility and Transport