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07

Agriculture and Forestry 1112-1400

Swiss Agriculture Pocket Statistics 2014 2014 International Year of Family Farming

Neuch창tel, 2014


GLOSSARY The terms listed in the glossary are indicated in the text with an asterisk (*). Gross value added (GVA) Gross value added is the increase in the value of goods resulting from the production process. In the National Accounts, the gross value added is obtained by subtracting the intermediate consumption from the output. Livestock unit (LSU) The livestock unit allows different types of livestock to be compared with one another. One LSU corresponds to the feed eaten and solid and liquid manure produced by a 650 kg cow. On this basis, conversion factors which depend on the age and sex of the animal are used (for example, a sheep which is more than 1 year old is equivalent to 0.17 LSU). Annual work unit (AWU) The annual work unit corresponds to the work of one full-time job over a year (based on 280 working days). Agriculture The term is used in a strict sense and does not include small production units. Utilised agricultural area (UAA) Area used for crop production, excluding summer pastures and woods. Farm All the workers, equipment and means of production used to produce agricultural products. On the basis of the FSO’s agriculture census, one farm corresponds to the following minimum standards: 1 hectare of UAA* or 30 ares under specialised cultivation or 10 ares of crops grown under protection or 8 sows or 80 fattening pigs or 300 poultry. Output The value of the goods and services produced for sale or for private final consumption (by producer households), for intermediate consumption on the farm (for example, forage for milk production) or for the production of fixed assets (plantations or livestock). Changes in stock are also taken into account.

NOTES Indices The indices are produced by dividing an ­annual figure by the figure for the reference year and multiplying it by 100. This enables completely different figures to be compared, provided that the same reference year is used (for example, 1996=100). Rounded figures Figures are rounded up or down, which means that when the figures are added together they may differ from the total. Sources FOEN: Federal Office for the Environment FSO:

Federal Statistical Office

FSVO: Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office SCA: Swiss Customs Administration SFU:

Swiss Farmers’ Union


CONTENTS For several years agriculture in Switzerland has been in a state of upheaval. The ­figures in this pocket statistics give an overview of the status and the changes in ­individual areas of Swiss agriculture. Context

Page   4

Changes in agriculture are closely linked with events in other ­ sectors of the economy, international trade, the policies of the Swiss C ­ onfederation and consumption. Structures

Page   9

The structures characterise the types of agriculture performed in ­Switzerland. Production, yields and income

Page 18

From food production to farm incomes: an overview of an economic sector in a state of upheaval. Social factors

Page 26

The specific working conditions in the agricultural industry influence the living conditions of the people working in this sector. Effects on the environment

Page 29

More than one third of the overall area of Switzerland is used for ­agriculture. As a result, agriculture has a major influence on the ­environment. International comparisons

Page 32

Agriculture in Switzerland compared with neighbouring countries. This year specifically on the subject of “family farming” (International Year of Family Farming 2014). Key figures at a glance

Page 34

Ten key figures which summarise current trends.

3


Context Land use1 Forest and woods

7.5% 12.4%

Unproductive areas (lakes, rivers, scrub vegetation, wetlands, rocks, scree, glaciers and perpetual snow)

31.3%

Agricultural areas Alpine agricultural areas Settlement and urban areas

23.4% 25.3%

1 Areas surveyed between 2004 and 2009 The total area of Switzerland is 41,285 km2.

Source: FSO – Swiss Land Use Statistics (NOAS04)

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Agricultural and alpine agricultural areas together make up more than one third of the total area of Switzerland and therefore have a significant influence on the landscape. Between 1985 and 2009, 1.1 m2 of agricultural area and alpine agricultural area disappeared per second. The agricultural area shrank by 5.4% (850 km2), equivalent to the size of the canton of Jura. While in the lowlands 80% of the former agricultural area changed to settlement and urban areas, most of the former agricultural alpine areas were grown over by shrubs and forests in the higher locations. Within the agricultural area, the category of “orchard, vineyard and horticulture areas” has declined the most in percentage terms. This is due to a more than 50% decline in field fruit trees (standard fruit trees). Agricultural areas 600

In thousands of hectares 1979/85

500

1992/97

400

2004/09

300 200 100 0

Alpine agricultural Meadows areas and pastures

Arable Orchard, vineyard land and horticulture areas

Source: FSO – Swiss Land Use Statistics (NOAS04)

4

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014


Gross value added (GVA*) of agriculture and the Swiss economy At current prices 180

Index 1990 = 100 CHF 560 billion

160

Gross value added of the entire economy

140

Gross value added of agriculture

120

2012 figures (provisional)

100 80

CHF 4 billion

60 40 1990

1995

2000

2005

2010 2012

Sources: FSO – National accounts, branch accounts for the primary sector

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Between 1990 and 2012, agriculture’s share in the gross value added* of the Swiss economy fell from 2.3% to 0.7%. Within the primary sector, agriculture’s share in the gross value added made up 92%. In 2012, the Swiss Confederation spent CHF 3.7 billion on the agricultural and food sectors. Of this amount, 78% was paid as direct payments and social contributions to the entitled farms. Federal expenditure on agriculture and food 5

In CHF billions Administration, implementation and monitoring

4

Improving the production base

3

Production and sales Direct payments and social measures

2 1 0

1990

1995

2000

Source: Federal Finance Administration

2005

2010 2012 © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

5


Farm workers 400

In thousands Non-family employees Family employees

300

200

100 Pursuant to the definition for farms applicable since 1996.

0 1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2012

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

In 2012, 162,000 persons worked in agriculture, less than half as many as in 1975. 55% of them worked part-time. 4 out of 5 employees in agriculture are family members. From 1987, agriculture and forestry was continually represented in the Swiss Parliament by between 22 and 27 members from the farming community. With the 2011 elections, their number fell to 18. Occupational breakdown of Members of National Council and Swiss Council of States, 2011 Political activity Consultant

22%

Trade and industry

30%

Professional associations and trade unions 10%

7% 7%

9% 7%

8%

Agriculture, forestry, breeding and keeping of animals Teaching and education Legal professions Others

Data based on information provided by Council Members Source: Parliamentary Services

6

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014


Self-sufficiency rate 120

%, by usable energy

Gross foodstuffs of animal origin

100

Net foodstuffs of animal origin2

80 60

Gross total foodstuffs

40

Net total foodstuffs2

20

Foodstuffs of plant origin

0

1990

1995

2000

2005

20081

2011

1

New calculation method since 2008 2 Excluding animal products manufactured from imported feed © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Source: SFU – Food balance

Over the last 20 years, 60% of food consumption (in terms of usable energy) could be covered by domestic production. Provision levels for animal products were highest, particularly for milk. In 2012, 18% of imports of agricultural products consisted of processed or un­­ processed fruit and vegetables. Drinks containing water were the most common exports (in the “drinks and alcoholic beverages” category) and coffee (in the “coffee, tea and spices” category). Imports and exports of the most important foodstuffs, 2012 In CHF millions Fruit, vegetables and their preparations Drinks and alcoholic liquids Meat, fish, crustaceans, molluscs and their prep. Cereals, prod. of the milling industry and their prep. Coffee, tea, spices Sugar, confectionary and cocoa Milk, eggs, honey Feed Fats and oils -2500 -2000 -1500 -1000 -500 Imports Source: SCA − Swiss foreign trade statistics

0

500 1000 1500 2000

Exports © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

7


Household expenditure, 2011 Proportion of gross household income Compulsory expenditure (taxes, social security contributions, basic health insurance)

16.7% 27.5%

Housing and energy Transport

12.6% 1.2%

Food and non-alcoholic beverages Entertainment, leisure and culture

5.5%

Restaurants and hotels

15.4%

6.4%

Alcoholic beverages and tobacco

6.8% 8.0%

Savings Other expenditure

Average number of persons per household: 2.2 © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Source: FSO – Household Budget Survey

In 2011, households spent roughly 12% of their budget, i.e. on average CHF 1200 per month on food. At approximately CHF 145 per month, meat was the largest expenditure item. In 2011, approximately 890 kg of food were consumed per person. 555 kg were from crop and 336 kg from animal production. Food consumption1, 2011 Milk and dairy prod. (not incl. butter) Fruit Vegetables Cereals Alcoholic beverages Meat Potatoes and starch Sugar and honey Oils, fats and butter Eggs Stimulants Pulses, nuts, chestnuts Fish and shellfish Oil seeds 0

50

100

150

200

250

300

kg of raw product per head 1 1

Does not represent quantities actually consumed as losses (e.g. unsold or spoilt food) are not recorded completely.

Source: SFU – Food balance

8

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014


Structures Farms and utilised agricultural area 200 180

Index 1996 = 100

Number of organic farms

5,900 organic farms

Utilised agricultural area* per farm

160

Number of farms*

140

18.6 hectares per farm

Figures from 2012

120 100

56,600 farms

80

60 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

The number of farms* continued to fall, from over 70,500 in 2000 to 56,600 in 2012. Compared with the previous year, 1000 farms closed down, which corresponds to 20 farms per week. Farms with fewer than 20 hectares of utilised agricultural area were particularly affected. Between 1996 and 2012, the average utilised area per farm increased by 5 hectares to 18.6 hectares, which corresponds to a surface area expansion of more than one third. Farms by size category 250

Index 1996 = 100

200 150

ha of utilised agricultural area* 50+ 20 – < 50 10 – < 20 0 – < 10

100 50 0 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

9


Size of farms, 2012 by district

Utilised agricultural area (UAA) per farm, in ha < 12.0

12.0 – 17.9

18.0 – 23.9

24.0 – 29.9

≥ 30.0

CH: 18.6 ha

© FSO, ThemaKart, Neuchâtel 2014

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

The size of the agricultural area used per farm notably depends on the topography, the land suitability or operational and economic reasons. Large farms with more than 40 hectares of utilised agricultural area were often located in Jura. Farms by size category and region, 2012 ha of utilised agricultural area*

Mountain region

0–<3

Hill region

3 – < 10 10 – < 20

Plain region

20 – < 50 0

5

10 15 20 Number of farms (in thousands)

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

10

25

30

50+ © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014


Organic farms by region 4000

Number of farms (in thousands)

3500

Mountain region

3000

Hill region

2500

Plain region

2000 1500 1000 500 0 1990

1995

2000

2005

2010 2012 © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

Up until 2005, farms converting to organic farming were mostly found in the ­mountain region. After this period, these farms also showed the sharpest decline in ­organic farming. In 2012, organic farms registered an increase in all regions compared with the previous two years. The majority of farms specialise in grazing livestock. This made up 60% of all farms in 2012. 4100 farms specialised in permanent crops such as vineyards and fruit ­cultivation. Farms by type of farming, 2012 1,8%

Specialist grazing livestock

4,0% 7,3%

Mixed crops - livestock Specialist field crops

7,5%

Specialist permanent crops Specialist granivores 1

19,6%

Specialist horticulture 59,8% 1

Mainly pig and poultry farming

Total farms = 56,575 Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

11


Numbers of livestock In thousands1, in May 2002

Cattle   of which cows Horses Sheep Goats Pigs Poultry 1

2007

1590 720 50 430 70 1560 7210

2012

1570 710 60 440 90 1570 8100

1560 710 60 420 90 1540 9880

Rounded

In 2012, the number of pigs was higher than in 1996, while sheep, beef cattle and cow numbers were lower. After 1996, poultry and goat numbers increased quite considerably. In 2006, due to the risk of bird flu, poultry numbers suffered a temporary decline from which they have since recovered.

Numbers of livestock 160

Index 1996 = 100

150 140 130 120

Chickens Goats Pigs Sheep Cows Cattle

110 100 90 80 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

12

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014


Cows numbers 800

In thousands Other cows Dairy cows

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011 2012 © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

In 2012, the number of cows fell by 14% from 1999. But in the same period of time, the number of “other cows”, which mainly include suckler cows, tripled. In 2012, one in every five agricultural holdings (12,400 farms) kept poultry. The ­increase in poultry since 1996 was particularly marked among broiler chickens. 90% of poultry was concentrated in fewer than 1100 farms. Poultry keeping 12 000

In thousands Other hens Laying and breeding hens

10 000

Broiler chickens

8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0

1996

1998

2000

2002

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012 © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

13


Use of utilised agricultural area, 2012 Excluding alpine areas 2.5% 2.9%

1.2% 2.3%

6.3%

Grassland Cereals Other arable land Potatoes, sugar and fodder beet

14.0%

Oilseeds Permanent crops 70.9%

Other utilised agricultural area

Total area = 1,051,000 ha © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

Between 2000 and 2012, the total utilised agricultural area decreased by 21,400 hectares. Grassland makes up 70.9% of the utilised agricultural area* ­(artificial and permanent meadows, pastures). In 2012, 22,700 farms* grew cereal crops. The area under cereals shrank by a quarter compared to 1996. Bread cereals are now grown over an area of 84,200 hectares and for feed cereals the figure is 62,700 hectares. Area under cereals 200

In thousands of hectares Other cereals Grain maize

160

Oats Barley

120

Wheat

80 40 0

1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

14

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014


Fruit plantation 7000

In hectares

Apples

6000

Pears

5000

Stone fruits

4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011 2012 © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

In 2012, 3900 farms had intensive orchards with a surface area of 7300 hectares. The cultivation of apples and pears has fallen since 1999. The stone fruit surface area increased over the same period which is mainly due to the expansion of apricot and cherry plantations. The area under vines has reached a plateau of between 12,500 and 13,500 hectares over the last twenty years, with the area used for white grapes decreasing to the benefit of red grapes. The number of farms with vineyards fell.

16 000 14 000

Hectares

12 000 10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 0 1996

2000 Vineyard area

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

2004

2008

10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 0 2012

Number of farms

Vineyards

Farms with vineyards © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

15


Canton figures, 2012 Farms

Jobs

Utilised agricultural area*

Cattle

Dairy cows

Pigs

In thousands

In thousands of hectares

In thousands

In thousands

In thousands

ZH

3 824

11.6

74

94

36

42

BE

11 505

33.9

190

317

125

272

LU

4 910

13.8

77

150

63

416

UR

622

1.6

7

12

4

3

SZ

1 694

4.3

24

44

17

24

OW

693

1.7

8

18

8

11

NW

484

1.3

6

12

5

11

GL

394

1.1

7

12

5

2

ZG

595

1.8

11

20

9

19

FR

3 033

8.8

76

134

51

82

SO

1 508

4.2

32

44

16

30

BL/BS

978

3.2

22

28

10

10

SH

605

1.8

16

16

3

21

AR

770

1.7

12

22

10

21

AI

513

1.1

7

14

6

25

SG

4 362

11.5

72

138

59

183

GR

2 538

6.7

55

72

17

6

AG

3 594

10.4

61

86

28

102

TG

2 832

8.7

50

74

39

195

TI

1 178

3.1

14

11

4

3

VD

3 945

13.2

109

112

34

42

VS

3 635

9.5

37

31

11

1

NE

877

2.3

32

42

15

9

GE

405

1.8

11

3

0

1

JU

1 081

3.0

40

59

16

14

56 575

162.0

1 051

1 565

591

1 544

Switzerland

ZH: Zurich, BE: Bern, LU: Lucerne, UR: Uri, SZ: Schwyz, OW: Obwalden, NW: Nidwalden, GL: Glarus, ZG: Zug, FR: Fribourg, SO: Solothurn, BS: Basel Stadt, BL: Basel Landschaft, SH: Schaffhausen, AR: Appenzell Ausserrhoden, AI: Appenzell Innerrhoden, SG: St. Gallen, GR: Graubünden, AG: Aargau, TG: Thurgau, TI: Ticino, VD: Vaud, VS: Valais, NE: Neuchâtel, GE: Geneva, JU: Jura Sources: FSO – Farm structure survey, Regional accounts for agriculture

16


Canton figures, 2012 (continued) Proportion of grassland in the UAA*

Proportion of organically managed UAA*

Output of agriculture

Subsidies 1

In %

In %

In CHF 2 per hectare

In CHF 2 per hectare

ZH

56

10

10 600

2 400

BE

74

10

8 700

3 000

LU

81

7

11 600

3 100

UR

98

13

5 500

3 700

SZ

93

11

6 500

3 300

OW

98

30

8 600

4 100

NW

98

15

7 800

3 600

GL

98

23

6 000

3 500

ZG

80

14

9 800

3 000

FR

69

5

9 300

2 800

SO

67

11

7 200

2 500

BL/BS

71

14

8 200

2 500

SH

33

4

9 000

2 400

AR

98

18

8 000

3 100

AI

97

4

9 500

3 300

SG

90

10

9 900

3 100

GR

94

57

4 500

3 800

AG

54

7

10 200

2 500

TG

61

10

15 800

2 700

TI

84

15

9 300

3 000

VD

45

4

10 200

2 600

VS

77

17

13 600

3 300

NE

85

5

6 500

2 500

GE

24

4

19 600

2 100

JU

73

11

5 400

2 700

Switzerland

71

12

9 500

2 900

Data according to regional accounts for agriculture. They are mainly comprised of direct payments. Rounded to the nearest hundred

1

2

17


Production, yields and income Animal production 1 In thousands of tonnes 2002

Meat  Cattle  Pigs  Sheep  Poultry Cow’s milk Chicken’s eggs

2007

2012

2

1 2 3

140 236 6 54 3932 37

133 242 5 60 3912 36

Gross domestic production Usable output, carcass weight Provisional

144 243 5 76 40823 45 Source: SFU – Animal production

In 2012, meat production declined by 3000 tonnes compared with the previous year. A noticeable increase was seen once again for poultry meat. In 2008, more than 4 billion kg of milk were produced for the first time. In subsequent years, further record quantities were recorded until 2012 when the milk produced decreased by almost 1% for the first time (provisional figures). In 2012, just over a third of the milk yield was used to make cheese. Butter manufacture also increased from 37,000 tonnes in 2000 to almost 51,000 tonnes in 2012. Excess amounts of butter were exported on the global market. Milk processing, 2012

5%

Cheese

3%

Fodder for animals

7%

Butter

9%

36%

Drinking milk Durable dairy goods Cream

12%

Yoghurt Other uses, weight loss 14%

Source: SFU – Milk statistics

18

14%

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014


Milking systems1, 2010 0.5%

2.0%

Milking with bucket milker Pipeline milking Milking in milk parlour

26.5%

Milking by hand

39.4%

Milking robots

31.5% 1

Several milking systems per farm possible

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey, complementary survey 2010

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

In 2010, the bucket milker (15,000) was most widespread, followed by pipeline milking (12,000) and milking parlours (10,000). 760 farms still milked their cows by hand. The amount of antibiotics sold in veterinary medicine has decreased since its high level in 2008. In 2012, a total of 57 tonnes were sold. This represents a decline of 8% compared with the previous year.

Antibiotics in veterinary medicine Sales volume 80

In tonnes of medication Others Tetracycline

60

Penicillin Sulfonamide

40 20 0

2006

2007

Sources: FSVO; Swissmedic

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012 © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

19


Crop production1 In thousands of tonnes 2002

Cereals Potatoes Sugar beet Vegetables Fruit and berries

2007

1089 526 1408 312 368

2012

1012 490 1573 313 401

2012: provisional

924 451 1673 396 313 Source: SFU – Crop production

Gross production minus losses in the field and on the farm

1

Plant yields are largely dependent on the weather. At the seed time of most arable crops (rapeseed, cereals) in 2012, unusually low temperatures with frost and frequent precipitation prevailed. This led in general to smaller harvests than in the peak year of 2011. Since 1990, the number of tractors increased by 13% to 135,000 vehicles in 2012, with a move towards heavier tractors. Approximately 1100 tractors, i.e. fewer than 1% were equipped with a particle filter. In addition, some 2500 combine harvesters were in use in 2010.

Agricultural tractors1 by total weight 140 000

Number of tractors over 10 t

120 000

from 5.001 to 10 t

100 000

from 2.501 to 5 t

80 000

from 1.501 to 2.5 t

60 000

up to 1.5 t

40 000 20 000 0 1

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010 2012

With green registration plates, including forestry tractors

Source: FSO – Road Motor Vehicle Statistics

20

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014


Output* 8000

In CHF million, at current basic prices Animal production Crop production

6000 4000 2000 0 1985

2012: provisional 2013: estimate

1989

1993

1997

2001

2005

2009

2013 © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Source: FSO – Economic accounts for agriculture

The total value of agricultural output in 2013 was estimated at around CHF 10 billion. Although agricultural production volumes only decreased slightly between 1990 and 2013 (-2%), their value shrank by 28%. This development is mainly due to falling prices. Between 1985 and 2012, the area for growing potatoes has more than halved. ­Parallel to this decline, the yield and output value fell too. The harvest was at a ­record low in 2013 and the estimated output at CHF 148 million was 18% less than in the previous year.

1000

300

800

250 200

600

150

400

100

200 0

CHF million

Thousand tonnes

Potatoe production and output*

50 1985

1990

1995

Production volume

2000

2005

2010

2013

0

Output (at current prices)

2012: provisional, 2013: estimate Source: FSO – Economic accounts for agriculture

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

21


Economic accounts for agriculture, 20131 At current prices A

Output

B

Gross value added

10 064 3 877

C

Net value added 1 816

D

Net value added 1 816

E

Net operating surplus/ Net mixed income 3 359

F

Net entrepreneurial 2 910 income 0

1

1 000

Intermediate consumption

2 061

Fixed capital consumption (depreciation)

2 912

2 000

6 187

Subsidies on production (direct payments) a) Compensation of employees (1 213) b) Taxes on production (155)

a) b)

449

Interest paid and rents paid – Interest received

3 000

4 000

5 000 6 000 CHF millions

7 000

8 000

9 000 10 000 11 000

Estimate

Source: FSO – Economic accounts for agriculture

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

The simplified structure of the economic accounts for agriculture is as follows: A) The total output* is the value of all the goods and services produced by agriculture (page 23). B) The gross value added* is obtained by subtracting the intermediate c ­ onsumption, in other words, the expenditure on all the goods and services used during the production process. C) Depreciation (fixed capital consumption) is subtracted from this to give the net ­value added. D) The subsidies (direct payments) are added as resource to the net value added. E) The net operating surplus or the net mixed income (for self-employment) is ­obtained by subtracting the taxes on production and the compensation of ­employees. F) To give the net entrepreneurial income of the agricultural sector, interest on debt and rent is then deducted. This allows self-employed people working in agriculture to pay their household expenses and income tax and to fund their pensions. This amount can be defined as the “remuneration for self-employed work and own capital”. 22


Details of output, 20131

7%

4%

14%

6%

9%

10% 5% 4% 3% 4%

13%

Vegetable and horticultural products

Milk

Forage plants

Pigs

Fruit and grapes Wine

Other animals and animal products

Cereals

Agricultural

Other vegetable

Non-agricultural secondary activities (not separable)

Cattle

21% 1

Total value = CHF 10.064 billion

Estimate

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Source: FSO – Economic accounts for agriculture

The total value of output of agriculture in 2013 was estimated at around CHF 10 billion. Dairy production made up more than 20% of this figure. 38% of intermediate consumption was spent on feed (including home-grown feed). Agricultural contractor services are increasingly mandated to carry out specialised procedures such as tillage, harvesting with special equipment, artificial insemination etc. The share of these costs in intermediate consumption rose from 6% (1990) to 11% (2013 estimate). Intermediate consumption in agriculture 7000

In CHF millions, at current prices

6000

Seeds, plants, fertiliser and plant protection products

5000

Energy

4000

Vet and medicines Feedstuffs

3000 2000

Maintenance of buildings and machinery

1000

Agricultural services

0

1990

2000

2010 2011 2012 2013

Other goods and services

2013: estimate Source: FSO – Economic accounts for agriculture

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

23


Output, income and subsidies in agriculture per work unit In CHF thousands per annual work unit (AWU)*, at current prices 140

Total output

120

Intermediate consumption, fixed capital consumption

100

Compensation of employees and net entrepreneurial income

80 60

Subsidies on production (direct payments)

40 20 0

2013: estimate

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2013 © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Source: FSO – Economic accounts for agriculture

Production costs continued to rise. Thanks to improvements in labour productivity and the introduction of direct payments, average compensation of labour in agriculture (at current prices) increased from the beginning of the 2000s. In 2013, feed cost CHF 2.4 billion, whereby CHF 1.6 billion was spent on its purchase. The trend towards increased buying of feed outside agriculture continued. Home-grown feed mainly comprises grass/hay and corn silage.

Feedstuffs costs 250

Volume index 1990 = 100 Feed bought from other agricultural units

200

Feed bought outside the sector

150

Feed produced and consumed on-farm

100 50 0 1990

2013: estimate

1994

1998

2002

2006

Source: FSO – Economic accounts for agriculture

24

2010

2013 © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014


Total income per farm 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

In CHF thousands, at current prices Non-farm income Agricultural income

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010 2012 © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Source: Agroscope – Farm Accountancy Data Network

The agricultural income per farm was CHF 56,000 in 2012. The average income per (full-time) family member was CHF 43,700. A farming household earned almost a third of its total income outside of agriculture. Up until 2008, food became increasingly expensive for consumers. Since this time, food has tended to become less expensive. Producer prices continued to fall. Especially between 2009 and 2012, falling milk prices, as well as lower returns on pigs for slaughter affected the evolution of the producer price index.

Price indices linked to agriculture 120

Index 1994 = 100 National consumer price index for food and non-alcoholic beverages

110

Purchase price index for means of agricultural production

100 90

Producer price index for agricultural products

80 70 1994

1998

2002

2006

Sources: FSO – Swiss Consumer Price Index; SFU

2010 2012 © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

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Social factors Education in crop production and livestock breeding, 2012 Federal vocational education certificates 0.9% 0.1%

1.8% 6.1%

Farmer Equine specialist

7.0%

Wine grower Vegetable grower Fruit grower Poultry breeder 84.0% Total: 976, of which 786 men, 190 women Without stockman/stockwoman, horse trainer

Source: FSO – Statistics on basic vocational education

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

In 2012, a total of 976 apprentices obtained a Federal VET diploma in crop production and livestock breeding. 820 apprentices received the Federal VET diploma in farming, 115 of whom were women. 280 fewer diplomas than in the previous year were thus awarded. However, 130 people successfully completed the Federal VET certificate in agriculture which was launched in 2011. Other training programmes are offered in areas such as wine technology, milk technology, food technology or farm machinery engineering. Education in agriculture Vocational qualifications 1600 1400

Number

Farmers with federal vocational education certificate

1200

Farmers with federal PET diploma

1000

Farmers with federal VET certificate

800 600 400 200 0 1985

Farmers with advanced diploma

1990

1995

2000

2005

Source: FSO – Statistics on basic vocational education

26

2010 2012

Federal farm household management certificate © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014


Farmers1 by age group 20%

2000 2005

15%

2012

10% 5% 0%

1

< 25 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–49 50–54 55–59 60–64 > 64 Age

As % of farmers whose age is known (approx. 90%)

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Between 2000 and 2012, the age pyramid of farmers has shifted to the right. In 2012, more than half of farms were managed by persons aged over 50. For 43% of farms that are managed by a person aged over 50, the succession within the family is likely. The larger the farm, the greater the likelihood that a family member will take over the running of the farm.

Farm taken over by family member, 2010 Responses of farmers aged over 50 by class of farm size ha of utilised agricultural area* Is it likely that a family member will take over the farm?

Total 30+

Yes

20 – < 30

No

10 – < 20

Uncertain

5 – < 10 0–<5 0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey, complementary survey 2010

100% © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

27


Hours worked by family members, 2010 200 000

In thousands of hours per year Outside the farm Linked to the farm

150 000

On the farm

100 000 50 000 0

Farm manager

Spouse

Other family members

Source: FSO – Farm structure survey, complementary survey 2010

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

In 2010, a manager worked on average 46 hours per week on the farm all year round. 5 hours of work linked to the farm and 7 hours outside were performed on average as well. The normal weekly hours worked by employees and self-employed persons who work full-time in agriculture and forestry are longer than the average of all economic sectors.

Self-employed1

Employees

Normal weekly working hours for full-time employed people, 2012

1

All economic branches Agriculture and forestry

All economic branches Agriculture and forestry 0

10

20

30 40 Hours per week

50

60

70

Including self-employed people and employees in their own company (joint stock company and limited-liability company).

Source: FSO – Swiss Labour Force Survey

28

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014


Effects on the environment Ecological compensation areas Areas eligible for subsidies1 140

In thousands of hectares

120

Mountain region

100

Hill region Plain region

80 60 40 20 0 1

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011 2012

The number of standard fruit trees is converted into units of area. One tree corresponds to one are.

Source: Federal Office for Agriculture

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

In 2012, around 126,000 hectares of ecological compensation areas were entitled to subsidies. Compared to the previous year, the surface increased by approx. 2000 hectares. Most of the ecological compensation areas are extensively managed grassland. Ecological compensation areas, 2012 Ecological compensation areas eligible for subsidies 2% 2%

Extensively managed grassland 6%

Less intensively managed grassland Standard fruit trees Meadows mown for animal fodder

18% 55%

Hedges, copses in fields and on river banks Wildflower strips and rotation strips

17% Extensively managed arable field margins < 1% Conservation headlands < 1% Total: 126,000 ha Source: Federal Office for Agriculture

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

29


Nitrogen balance of agricultural land, 20111 Amounts of nitrogen inputs and uptake from agricultural soil 300

Thousands of tonnes Atmospheric input Biological fixation Mineral fertilisers and compost

200 100

Farmyard manure

Nitrogen surplus = 89,000 tonnes

0

Nitrogen uptake of forage crops

-100

of other crops

-200 1

Input

Output

Balance

According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) method.

Source: FSO – Nitrogen balance

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Nitrogen inputs and their uptake by crop production led to a nitrogen surplus in the agricultural area (including alpine meadow) of 58 kg/hectare in 2011. Half of these inputs came from farmyard manure. Nitrogen can become a pollutant in the environment (as ammonia in the air or as nitrate in groundwater). Although water quality in Swiss lakes, rivers and streams has been constantly impro­ ving over recent years, in agricultural areas nitrate concentrations in groundwater still remain too high. Maximum nitrate concentration in groundwater, 2012

Proportion of measurement stations

According to land use in catchment areas 100%

< 10 mg/l

80%

10–25 mg/l

60%

25–40 mg/l

40%

> 40 mg/l

20% 0%

Arable land (93 measurement stations)

Grass and livestock farming (142)

Summer pasture All measurement land and stations, including unproductive settlements, areas (35) transport, forest (533)

The Swiss Federal Ordinance on protection of lakes and rivers requires concentrations of nitrate in groundwater to be at the most 25 milligrammes per litre. Source: FOEN – NAQUA National Groundwater Monitoring

30

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014


Greenhouse gas emissions1 CO2 equivalents in thousand tonnes

70 000

Households

60 000

Other economic sectors

50 000

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 1990 1 CO

1993

1996

1999

2002

2005

2008

2011

, CO2 of the biomass, N2O, CH4 and synthetic gases

2

Source: FSO – Environmental accounts

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

In 2011, agriculture was responsible for 11% of Switzerland’s greenhouse gas emissions. Over the past twenty years, the trend for all bird species that breed regularly in Switzerland is marginally positive. As part of the “Environmental Objectives for Agriculture” (2008), the Federal Offices for Environment and for Agriculture classified 46 “target species and indicator species”. Despite temporary growth in 2010 and 2011, their numbers have shown a negative trend since 1990.

Population of breeding birds 120

Index 1990 = 100 Birds breeding regularly (172 species)

110 100

Species characteristic of agricultural land (38 species)

90 80 70 60 50

1990

1993

1996

1999

2002

2005

2008

2012

Source: Swiss Ornithological Institute Sempach – Swiss Bird Index

®

Target species in “Environmental objectives in agriculture” (46 species) © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

31


International comparisons Farms, 2010 %, number of farms

Family farms

Poland Italy Hungary EU28 United Kingdom Denmark The Netherlands Austria Spain Germany Switzerland France

Group holdings, companies

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Source: Eurostat – Agricultural census 2010

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

Family farms have a very important role in Europe; in 2010, 97% of agricultural holdings in the EU28 countries came under this category. This figure was 88% in Switzerland as there were also many group holdings or companies that ran agricultural holdings. Two thirds of the utilised agricultural area in the EU28 countries was managed by family farms and a third by group holdings. Family farms managed 85% of the utilised agricultural area in Switzerland. Utilised agricultural area, 2010 %, UAA

Family farms

The Netherlands Denmark Italy Poland Austria Switzerland United Kingdom Spain EU28 Germany Hungary France

0%

Group holdings, companies

20%

40%

Source: Eurostat – Agricultural census 2010

32

60%

80%

100% © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014


2014 ear International of Year of g Family Farming Agricultural labour input, 2010 %, annual work units

Family employees

Poland Austria Italy EU28 Hungary Switzerland United Kingdom Germany Spain The Netherlands Denmark France

Non-family employees

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Source: Eurostat – Agricultural census 2010

© FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

On average in the EU28 countries, family members performed 78% of the agricultural work. Swiss farms employed proportionally more people from outside the family than on average in Europe. Family farms made up 71% of agricultural production (standard output) in the EU28 countries and 78% in Switzerland. Agricultural production, 2010 as % of standard output 1

Family farms

Austria Italy Poland Denmark United Kingdom The Netherlands Switzerland EU28 Germany Spain Hungary France

0%

Group holdings, companies

1

20%

40%

Source: Eurostat – Agricultural census 2010

60%

80%

The standard output is calculated on the average output per hectare or per livestock unit.

100% © FSO, Neuchâtel 2014

33


Key figures at a glance Trends of the past 10 years according to a selection of 10 key figures:

Key figure

Page

Trend1 2003–2012

Trend1 2011–2012

Social factors Annual labour income per farm

25

Normal weekly working hours

28

Economy Number of farms

9

Number of jobs

6

Gross value added

5

Producer price index

25

Environment Organic area

9

Ecological compensation areas

29

Nitrogen input2

30

Populations of breeding birds in agricultural areas

31

When the difference in the key figure average between 2003/2005 and 2010/2012 or between 2011 and 2012 is greater than +/-3%, we speak of an increase or decrease. Otherwise the indicator is indicated as stable. Trends for 2002–2011 and 2010–2011

1

2

34


Would you like more information? Visit our website: www.statistics.admin.ch Topic: Agriculture, forestry

Would you like to find out about our most recent publications? Subscribe to our newsmail: http://bfs.admin.internetgalerie.ch Additional information is also ­available from: www.foag.admin.ch (Federal Office for Agriculture) www.environment-switzerland.ch (Federal Office for the Environment) www.sbv-usp.ch (Swiss Farmers’ Union)

IMPRINT Publisher: Federal Statistical Office (FSO), Neuchâtel, ­Switzerland

Additional information: Telephone: +41 (0)58 467 24 39

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Ordering from the FSO:

Concept and editing: Sibylle Meyre, FSO

Fax: +41 (0)58 463 60 61

Layout and graphics: DIAM Section, Prepress / Print

© FSO 2014

Email: agrar@bfs.admin.ch Order number: 1112-1400 Telephone: +41 (0)58 463 60 60 Email: order@bfs.admin.ch

Translation: FSO Language Services Cover graphics: FSO; Concept: Netthoevel & Gaberthüel, Biel Photograph: © Florian Kohler, FSO

35



Swiss Agriculture. Pocket Statistics 2014