DIGITAL DESIGN + FABRICATION SM1, 2017 SHIFTING STARS Sezen Smrdelj 698662 Siavesh + Seminar 3
Insert a full bleed image of your project This can spread over the double spread page
1.0 Ideation 1.1 Object 1.2 Object + system analysis 1.2 Volume 1.3 Design proposal 1.4 Critical analysis 2.0 Design 2.1 Precedent research 2.2 Design proposal v.1 2.3 Design proposal v.2 2.4 Prototype + testing effects2.5 Critical analysis 3.0 Fabrication 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Prototype v.2 development 3.3 Prototype v.3 development 3.4 Reading responses 3.5 Prototype optimisation 3.6 Final digital model 3.7 Fabrication sequence 3.8 Assembly Drawing 3.9 Completed Second Skin (Initial) 3,10 Complete Second Skin (Final) 3.11 Critical analysis 4.0 Reflection. 5.0 Appendix 5.1 Credit 5.2 Bibliography
0.0INTRODUCTION | SECOND SKIN The brief requested a design utilising the body as a site for a “second skin” that acted in some way with one’s personal space. I interpreted this second skin as responding to an invasion of one’s personal space. Sommer’s (1969) definition of personal space, “an invisible boundary into which intruders may not come” was the exact approach that was taken in this project. Edward T. Hall’s study of ‘proxemics’ (1963) in which he defines a person’s intimate space, personal space, social space and public space was used to guide us in our interpretation of personal space invasion.
INTIMATE SPACE PERSONAL SPACE SOCIAL SPACE PUBLIC SPACE
1.0IDEATION | PANEL AND FOLD
Measured Drawings PLAN VIEW
Scale: 1:1 @ A4 PANEL
WASHER PIN JOINT
ELEVATION - CLOSED Scale: 1:2 @ A4
545 ELEVATION - OPEN Scale: 1:2 @ A4
all measurements in mm
Measuring and understanding the mirror and bracket system prior to drawing it echoed sentiments raised by Heath, Heath, and Jensen (2000). As stated, one must “observe every detail” of the object which entailed expanding and contracting the mechanism several times and watching its working parts. Photographs were not particularly useful in the case of measuring the mirror in that the correct perspective could not be achieved through the lens of a camera. Instead, an elevation can only be achieved by laying the object flat. In this case, the simplest method of measuring the object was to lay it on paper and trace its outline. One could then easily utilise the resulting outline by noting or drawing where members started and ended and measuring each working part. In order to best display the mechanism’s ability to expand and contract, these measurements were taken in both states (that is, open to its capacity, and closed) in order to understand and draw the object in these ways. Observing the object’s working parts to form its system led to a deeper understanding of the object and an ability to more closely analyse it. To 3D model the object’s panel and fold mechanism using Rhinoceros, measurements taken from the traced outline were used. I drew each different member in plan with measurements and coordinates, then extruded the objects to their correct thicknesses. Following this, I surfaced the shapes and planar curves that needed to be surfaced, ensuring holes in the object were not filled.
SECTION A:A Scale: 2:1 @ A4
Object and system
ELEVATION Scale: 1:2 @ A4
In analysing the object, I focussed on the panel and folding mechanism and disregarded the mirror component. The immediate striking aspect of the object is its materiality. Indeed, as Heath, Heath, and Jensen (2000) suggest, this object becomes animated in the light it is in; the stainless steel all components are made in attracts mesmerising highlights in any light and adds depth to the otherwise relatively flat object. When observing its working parts, it is difficult to deconstruct the mechanism in that the system it forms is a very cohesive whole.
The object consists of four integral components: the bracket, the end rods, the rectangular members and the bolts. The bracket, which attaches to a wall, connects to the end rod, which is bolted to the rectangular members, followed by another end rod. The rectangular members that cross over one another in a lattice-type pattern are fixed to each other by pin joints (the bolts) at each end and in the middle, allowing the mechanism to be opened and closed and sliding up and down the end rods.
A well-considered design process, according to Heath, Heath, and Jensen (2000) is one that creates an object that relates to users and is versatile to suit any environment. The mirror and folding mechanism as a whole seem to be well-designed in that it could literally become an extension of any environment. Its folding aspect allows for ease of use at whatever length necessary for the consumer and its robust materiality (stainless steel) ensures durability. In conclusion and in conjunction with the reading, the mirror features a strong consideration for the user experience.
Volume Sketch model
Design Proposal Second Skin
1STRUCTURE | MORPH | REGULAR
A structure that can morph or be shaped and changed based on oneâ€™s situation and evolving sense of personal space and its invasion.
2GEOMETRY | UNIFORM | SCALE
A form that utilises the interplay of triangles and their edges at different scales using origami to provide personal space for desired body segments.
3ADJUSTABLE | ENCOMPASSING | ORBIT
An all-encompassing orbit of the body that is pin-jointed to adjust at the userâ€™s whim for anywhere desired.
1.4CRITICAL ANALYSIS Panel and fold attracted me because of the interesting forms that are created when a material is folded. Although the chosen mirror was mostly an example of panels forming a system, I was able to explore utilising both panel and fold in my sketch model. My sketch model used the same pin joints as the mirror but also folded the material to create a more 3D form than the object itself. Although my sketch design was simplistic, I believe I successfully reconfigured the mirrorâ€™s folding system to create a more three-dimensional form. In 3D modelling the object in Rhinoceros, I found it very difficult to create some of the forms of the mirror, however, the task was invaluable for the skills it provided me with. My design proposal consisted of a design that was a literal representation of my sketch model on the body. I liked the idea of the design being able to expand and contract at the userâ€™s whim, however the form was too regular in accordance with a personâ€™s personal space changing over certain areas of the body and circumstance. The second proposal is different in the way that geometries could be sized for speciific areas of the body, however, logistically, this would be incredibly difficult if the idea of expanding and contracting is to be pursued. The third proposal is very similar to the first but explores irregular sizes of members to protect the space, however logistically again, this would not be viable for movement due to its pin joints.
TEAM: SEZEN SMRDELJ 698662 | SATISH MUTHUARUMUGAM 759624
The integral concepts we decided to pursue from module 1 included the method of using one’s arms in a way to protect one’s personal space, and the idea of a two-dimensional shape expanding into a three-dimensional form. From this, our preliminary sketch designs are imagined as an object that sits close against the body when the user is comfortable and their personal space is not being invaded, then fanning open in a way that requires arm movement from the user in order to form a circumference around the body. However, personal space does not “extend equally in all directions” (Sommer, 1969). Thus, this is a preliminary sketch design and the final design will not form an equal circumference around the entire body. Rather, it will be tailored to our personal space analysis that will document the sections of the body that require more protection and the other that will require less.
ENCOMPASSING | REGULAR | IMPENETRABLE | SHIFTING
This concept by GAIA depicts a very closed, opaque and thus, impenetrable surface around the user it occupies. The form, which expands from a flat shape due to its folds, is regular in the way that all of its members (folds) are the same dimension. The use of material makes the design appear uninviting to those viewing it and likely, unenjoyable for the user/s inside it. Despite this, its ability to shift from one state (closed) to the next (open) would ensure that a user is able to utilise it at their own discretion and as would sufficiently comfort them.
IMAGES: GAIA GROUP, YATZER.COM
The precedent is a concept relating closely to our second skin brief and specifically, closely to the design we aim to produce. Its placement on the body is central and similar to our idea of viewing the body holistically, rather than a single part, in protecting oneâ€™s personal space. Its material, however, does not elicit the emotional response that we are attempting to achieve. While the design of the precedent would likely protect oneâ€™s personal space because of this impenetrability due to its opacity, it is impractical for actual use. We would like to establish a design that allows one to communicate and socialise comfortably with others whilst keeping them at a distance so that personal space is not compromised. Thus, a translucent or transparent material would be fitting of our concept. Furthermore, the form itself is perfectly regular; a regular form in its definition is not compatible with our concept of personal space in that it extends differently over different sections of the body. Thus, altering the form to a more irregular one is more suitable for the brief.
Material testing This model is testing 0.6mm thick polypropylene as a possible material for our design. Itâ€™s translucency creates an interesting effect that could not be achieved through the use of paper and creates a more open and inviting feel. The material here has been scored lightly with a scalpel on one side and bent gently to avoid snapping (as the material has a tendency to do). The deformity when scoring the polypropylene on different sides at different parts creates an interesting form that we would like to explore further.
Design Proposal v.1
Our refined sketch model (below) utilises an origami folding system that is an example of a system that can deform in multiple ways and can be dimensioned in response to oneâ€™s needs. 4cm, 6cm and 8cm dimensions were used in the above three examples to test this folding technique for our particular needs. Although the visual quality of the smallest folds are interesting and striking, this size of fold was impractical. Thus, if this particular folding system were to be included in our further designs, perhaps the 6cm or 8cm folds would be more suitable for economical and aesthetic reasons.
Our first design proposal utilises an origami technique called â€˜magic ballâ€™ (as presented in our refined sketch model) to sit close against the body and as the arms of the user are extended out when feeling uncomfortable, to deform into a tube-like form that circles around the body. This design proposal utilises a single folding system (that is, one piece of material) for the entire form.
Design Proposal v.2
Our design development for v.2 required simplifying the folding system from v.1 due to its time-consuming nature. As we found, origami, although flexible in the literal sense, was rigid in its form and did not deform when stretched in certain ways as our design intended it to. As such, we researched methods in which one could fabricate a shape such as a hyperbolic paraboloid and make it into a developable surface. This folding system is an incredibly simple one in comparison to the magic ball origami and is simple to attach on its edges to other members of perhaps different sizes. The hyperbolic paraboloid shape was attractive to us due to its expanding and contracting quality when folded, allowing a material such as paper or card to be bent both ways where it naturally would not. This folding technique is still quite aesthetically pleasing and a fold that draws interest from viewers. We explored a possible design sitting under the arms of the user, with the form in its compact and more sharp-appearing form when the arms are relaxed beside the body, then flattened as the arms extend. This motion is in direct contrast to the method in V1 in which the origami sits flat against the userâ€™s body when the arms are relaxed, only to expand when the arms are extended.
In this design, angled folds are used to create an asymmetrical, irregular personal space. This shields the upper body and sections of the lower body. The arms are used as a tool to open and close the folds. Unlike v.1, we devised our own folding system in this development; this system utilises an irregular series of triangular folds, with each section of fold being supported by a structural system. In effect, the folded panels are supported by structural elements. The design can be folded with the userâ€™s hands and when it is released, a springing action unfolds the panels to an extent that covers more surface area.
This is a fold that is influenced by our precedent by GAIA and our sketch designs in that the form is created from a two-dimensional shape. As the torso is covered, a sense of personal space is achieved. This concept provides us with flexibility in design in that it does not utilise an origami type of folding that restricts us to a more regular shape. As desired, this design can be tailored to oneâ€™s personal spatial needs. Unlike our precedent, a design such as this would preferably utilise a translucent material in order to allow the user to fully communicate with others when wearing it, whilst keeping others at a comfortable distance. This decision is due to the emotional effect created in our precedent that elicits avoidance from viewers outside of the object.
Prototype Testing effects
The light effect in our prototype acts in a way to elicit an emotional response from outsiders in that the design does not intend to specifically push them away, but to protect personal space whilst still being able to communicate effectively.
Similar to the light effect, the effect the translucency creates is a more open and less claustrophobic experience for theuser as was observed in our precedent research. This allows the user to be comfortable and will not deter others from approaching, but only stop them from entering the space the design protects.
The movement effect works with our design concept of using oneâ€™s arms to create personal space as required. The motion of the arms will be used to produce the effected tested in the images below.
2.5CRITICAL ANALYSIS Module two forced us to make design decisions and assess the benefits and disadvantages of these decisions. Our precedent research on the GAIA project made us visualise the project on the body and realise that we did not like the impenetrability of the material used. Thus, we decided a translucent material would be more suitable for our design to maximise communicability during use. Ultimately, this lead to us choosing polypropylene as our material; this was due to a variety of reasons including its rigidity, translucency, and ability to be etched and folded as our designs required. However, polypropylene did us no favours when we attempted to fabricate a segment in our prototype. The material would snap when folded along etch lines due to its rigidity and the addition of stiff wire as a structural element made the prototype look unfinished. Furthermore, the prototype did not behave as we had hoped it would when designing the form; the material did have a â€˜snap-backâ€™ when opened, however the effect was not as obvious as we had hoped. However, this module truly aided us in the way of understanding material constraints that we could recognise in other materials (such as rigidity) further along in our design.
TEAM: SEZEN SMRDELJ 698662 | SATISH MUTHUARUMUGAM 759624
Following feedback in response to our presentation of our module two prototype, we would like to explore some revisions to our design. In order to shift the design from possibly appearing as a sleeping pod, our focus will be moved back to the method of utilising one’s arms as a tool for protecting personal space, as explored in modules one and two. Further, polpropylene as a material will need to be changed due to its tendency to snap when folded. Considering folding is an integral aspect of our design, the material is not well suited for our use. The material also lacks a certain lightness in its execution and can appear ‘clunky’, specifically when structural elemtns are added to it. We would also like an aspect of our design to include a more controlled light source that warns intruders in personal space away the closer that they approach. The social situation our design would be utilised in is public transport to protect a female introvert’s personal space being invaded.
Moving forward from module two, we attempted a number of experimental techniques to aid aspects of our design. In place of a material such as wire (as utilised in our module two prototype) as a structural element, we tested yarn as a joint between folded members in a technique named Japanese stab binding. Holes are measure on the material and yarn sewn between holes to create not only a strong and somewhat flexible joint, but also creating an appealing and customisable pattern. This technique however, was found to make the joints in the material too flexible to create the structure in form we desired. Fabric panels were also tested between rigid ones to create a composite material using perspex, yarn and canvas. Similarly, we found this method too flexible and required more strength between joints. Our form will be tested as a variation on the same folding system used in module two, but with no joints and thus, the use of a single material. Japanese stab binding
Fabric between rigid panels
Prototype v.2 development
6-pointed star, open position with tensioned nylon fishing line
6-pointed star, closed posiion with tensioned nylon fishing line
Prototype v.3 development
Our preliminary prototype was expanded from previous weeks with the use of laser-cutting and a new material, mountboard. The same folding system was utilised, however more forms were added to the design. Tension between forms became a crucial design aspect and nylon fishing line was used to achieve this in this prototype. Cutouts were added as a pattern in the form in this prototype in order to address the lack of permeability of paper and card in place of polypropylene. Although this system functions mostly as we hoped, it has some pitfalls. The scale by which we reduced the star shapes was much too low and thus, pieces did not function cohesively. As a result of this, the shape did not fold as well as if the inner stars were larger. Furthermore, the nylon fishing line was unable to be properly knotted in order to retain tension, whilst also making the shape too fragile to be moved at all.
Week 6 reading response Architecture in the Digital Age - Design + Manufacturing/ Branko Kolarevic, Spon Press, London c2003
Above: CNC cutting (Kolarevic, 2003)
Above: Laser-cut material, an example of two-dimensional fabrication
Kolarevic outlines four branches of digital fabrication processes. These are; Two-dimensional fabrication The most common technique of digital fabrication is CNC cutting using techniques such as laser-cutting or water jet. A moving cutting head traverses along axes, cutting along the digitally designated cutting zones. Subtractive fabrication Subtractive fabrication, as the name suggest, subtracts masses from solids as digitally prescribed in the design. The same process as two-dimensional fabrication mentioned above is applied, with the addition of the z-axis, to allow for three-dimensional cutting to occur. Additive fabrication Additive fabrication forms the desired form in incremental layers. Additive fabrication can be achieved through light, heat or chemicals. Formative fabrication Reshaping or deforming a shape to the desired form as designed digitally. This can be achieved through methods such as bending or melting metal. Digital fabrication is utilised in our design as outlined in the two-dimensional fabrication above. A two-dimensional material (in our case, mountboard) is cut using a laser-cutter moving along an x and y axis on our template-specified cutting zones. Two-dimensional fabrication effects our second skin in the way that we are creating a three-dimensional form from a two-dimensional material. In terms of achieving this, folding is a very effective strategy in that forms can be easily created from shapes. Furthermore, the process allows us to imagine our design in three-dimensions, using three-dimensional modelling software, then unroll it to fabricate it using two-dimensional means.
Week 7 reading response
Digital Fabrications: architectural + material techniques/Lisa Iwamoto. New York: Princeton Architectural Press c2009
Digital design and fabrication helps designers to imagine complex designs and test those design ideas easily. With the help of technology in the new era, it is possible to design and fabricate something which was impossible sometime in the past. In digital design and fabrication, Rhinoceros software and laser cutting are used similarly to design and fabricate said designs. The computerized process reduces the intermediate step between design and final production, thus making the process more efficient for designers. As it does for Frank Gehry, â€œmaking becomes Knowledge or intelligence creationâ€?, through this, designers are able to become more innovative (Iwamoto 2009). Folding is used as an integral part of our design. Folding transforms a flat surface into a three-dimensional one. Using digital software, three-dimensional designs are made and unrolled to a flat piece. These flat pieces are digitally cut using a laser cutter, which can then be folded into a complex three-dimensional shape. This is how digital technology is used from the design, to the fabrication stage of a design using a system of folding. Digitally fabricated two-dimensional template
With the use of a subtractive procedure like laser cutting (Kolarevic 2003), we were able to digitally design and fabricate our model by creating multiple prototypes, testing their effects, and changing the design if necessary. This technology helps us to test different materials and revise our designs as quickly as possible. We used Rhinoceros software in our project to design our 3D model, then unrolled the surface to laser cut. This software development stage is built through information modelling and parametric software. Then, using CNC, the idea has progressed directly from the design stage to the production stage (Lecture 8, Digital Fabrication). This enables us to test the physical material in a virtual environment by just folding the laser cut material. The images below show our process of how digital fabrication works with respect to our folding system. This helps us to physically fabricate a 1:1 scale model with simplicity, precision and time-effectively.
Folded three-dimensional form
Mountboard became our material of choice due to its structural capabilities. The material retains its shape when folded and is difficult to manipulate. This posed some benefits and some problems. Benefits included its strength in retaining shape, whilst our main problems were that it was difficult to achieve our desired movement effect because of this. We attached strings to each of the inner points of the stars and pulled at a central point in order to close the shapes. This action worked as we wanted when performed on a single star, however as more stars were added, the forms refused to close. To address this, we tested a method of wet-folding in which the material is folded to its desired state, then drenched with water and allowed to dry. When released, we found that the mountboard was not only much more flexible and easily manipulated than before, but it also retained a memory of its folded shape once opened. This technique was able to provide us the flexibility in an otherwise inflexible material, making it easier to open and close. In using mountboard in place of the polypropylene of our module two design, we lost the translucency of material allowing light to pass through. To achieve this transparency again, cut-outs were integrated into our design to further aid in the protection of personal space.
In our preliminary laser-cut prototype, our cut-outs were unplanned, however, we employed more control in our final design by decreasing the amount of holes as the size of the shapes decreased. This acts in a way that more light penetrates the shape closest to the body, warning intruders away. With less holes on the smallest pieces, less light is able to penetrate when personal space is not being invaded.
Prototype optimisation Our panel and fold design was optimised for fabrication in a number of ways. Our initial prototype featured stars gradually decreasing in size by half. During fabrication of this prototype, we found that the â€˜floatingâ€™ effect was not as apparent as desired due to the small size of the stars. The largest star gave us the desired effect of a more three-dimensional form whereas the smaller the stars became, the flatter the form also became. In order to combat this, we decided to decrease the dimensions of the stars much more gradually and thus, fabricate our final design with larger stars that nested together much more comfortably whilst giving us the three-dimensional effect that we required. We also optimised our design by changing our laser cutting pattern in order to combat the creasing we encountered when folding our material, mountboard (pictured, figure 2). This creasing occurred due to the several layers mountboard is comprised of and to avoid this, our new laser cut pattern featured less etched lines to allow for scoring by hand post-laser cutting (as pictured in figures 3 & 4). Valley folds were etched using the laser cutter and all mountain folds were hand-etched. Figure 2 (Left) Figure 3 (Immediately below) Figure 4 (Below)
In our preliminary laser cutting file, material usage was highly optimised. Due to the less gradual increments between the size of stars, all stars fit together on a single 600 x 900mm sheet of mountboard. Moving forward and as our design grew in size, we were no longer able to utilise the material as efficiently as before. However, we were still able to nest some stars on sheets of mountboard together. Our star design and its gradual increments were created for the laser cutting template primarily using the scale command in Rhinoceros. The design was copied, a reference line drawn to a specified measurement and the shape was then scaled to the desired size. This was repeated for each shape.
Final digital model Expanded
Final digital model Contracted
Laser cut design taped to mountboard upon collection
Remove circles from laser cut holes and etch rear of material
Fold mountboard in correspondenc
where mountain folds will occur
Wire LED lights in parallel
Join LED lights to mountboard using hot glue gun
Feed lights and wire through to next
ce with etched lines
t star and repeat
Fold mountboard to closed position and secure to flash under
Weave yarn through pattern at inner points of star and connect
water, then allow to dry
Sew arm bands and eyelet hooks to bands
Measure and feed string through eyelets
A - Laser-cut mountboard stars, etched and hand scored with scalpel to ease folding B - Adjustable elastic waistband, joining mountboard between cutout tabs in material C - Elastic shoulder, elbow and wrist bands with eyelet hooks attached D - Thread running through eyelet hooks connected to C E - Wired LED light placement between largest and smallest mountboard pieces
Second Skin Initial
Second Skin Final
3.11CRITICAL ANALYSIS Module three forced us to apply everything we had tested in a practical way by creating various physical prototypes that we then had to refine and optimise. We moved away from polypropylene as a material due to its tendency to snap when folded. This led us back to the possibility of using paper and cardboard materials for our folding system. Our v.2 prototype was essentially a scaled-down replica of the system we wanted to pursue and worked flawlessly when using ones hands to fold it. For this reason we decided to laser cut this design using mountboard, a thicker material for its structure. Mountboard had its advantages in the way that it did not deform when folded. This was crucial as the crux of our design was that the material needed to be folded. However, burn marks from the laser cutter were highly visible and the creasing on the surface that was not etched, created an unfinished look to our prototype. Furthermore, the design appeared bulky as a result of the mountboardâ€™s structure and inability to completely fold into itself. We also realised the design was not eliciting the emotional response that we had hoped it would; viewers were more drawn by the lights and interesting form rather than distancing themselves from it. Thus, we decided to modify the way in which we described the design intent. For all of these reasons, and due to feedback we received, we decided to refine our â€˜finalâ€™ second skin further after this module.
4.0REFLECTION Digital design and fabrication truly tested my capabilities as a designer and cemented the fact I already knew, that design is a long and arduous process. From module one, I acquired my interest in the folding system and was challenged to completely reconfigure an everyday object to suit a brief. In module two, we imagined a plethora of possible design ideas and were required to assess their strengths and weaknesses in responding to the brief. We found that our research in readings (including the Sommer reading) became invaluable in understanding the strengths and the weaknesses of an idea based on personal space. The material we used for our first prototype (polypropylene) seemed perfect during material testing, until applied to the design at a 1:1 scale. In module three, we were able to identify the issues with our first prototype to further develop the design and possibly resolve these issues. We modified our design in its placement on the body to more closely satisfy the brief and laser cut a different material, mountboard. Although mountboard possessed the structural capabilities that polypropylene didnâ€™t, it had its own issues and did not fold down as close to the body as required. Furthermore, the material tended to rip and crease in places, looking unfinished in its execution. Thus, we laser cut a new material again following module three. The new material, ivory card, was much thinner and thus, more flexible than mountboard, however, when folded it was strengthened and more rigid. Due to the thickness of this material, we were confident that our design would finally fold close against the body as we had hoped, however, the material lost its strength when folded repeatedly and the folding closed motion was lost. The other aspect we redesigned was the openings on the design to mimic transparency. In module three these openings were small holes which became very expensive to laser cut. In the refinement, these were changed to angled strips for two main reasons. First, this shape was more economical to be laser cut and second, the strips translate our intention to create more transparency for light closer to the body better than the holes did. In effect, the strips were easier to modify on each star. Ultimately, our design changed from deterring people from entering oneâ€™s personal space to attracting them with a unique shape and transparency, but not allowing them to get too close. Our motion also changed from the design folding into itself to lifting the design from under the arms to where the user desires. Due to this movement I am confident we had a well-considered design process, as according to Heath, Heath, & Jensen (2000) this creates an outcome that is versatile to suit the user in any environment. Our aim to create a design that was formed from a two-dimensional shape was also satisfied in our final design. Laser cutting was the best way to achieve this goal in that a flat sheet can be cut and etched to be folded to a designers whim. Laser cutting and digital modelling were invaluable tools throughout the entire design process and helped us to envision how a design would realistically fit the body. Furthermore, the modelling allowed us to test ideas and small variations of larger ideas in an economical and quick manner.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Hall, E.T. (1963). A System for the Notation of Proxemic Behaviour. American Anthropologist, 65(5), 1003-1026. Heath, A., Heath, D., & Jensen, A. (2000). 300 years of industrial design: function, form, technique 1700-2000. New York, USA: Watson-Guptill Iwamoto, L. (2009). Digital Fabrication: architectural and material techniques. New York, USA: Princeton Architectural Press Kolarevic, B. (2003). Architecture in the Digital Age - Design and Manufacturing. London: Spon Press. Sommer, R. (1969). Personal Space: the behavioural basis of design. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, c1969.