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Candidate Field Manual Authored by: Seth Lynn, Douglas Palmer, Eric Melancon

Copyright Š 2009-2011 Veterans Campaign, All Rights Reserved


Chapter 1: Getting Your Campaign Off the Ground…………………………………………………………..1 Establishing Your Reasons to Run……………………………………………………………………………2 Getting Active in Your Community…………………………………………………………………………..3 List of Veterans Organizations and Associations……………………………………………………….4 Sample List of Other Organizations………………………………………………………………………….5 Learning about the Issues that Affect Your Constituency……………………………………………6 Seed Money and Personal Sacrifice………………………………………………………………………….7 Assessing Your Viability as a Candidate……………………………………………………………………8 The Role of “Sacrificial Lambs”………………………………………………………………………………. 9 Knowing What It Takes to Run Successfully in Your District…………………………………… 10 Veterans As Voters………………………………………………………………………………………………..11 Build Relationships with Deeds, Pledges and MAC Participation………………………………12 Power Dynamics of Party Organizations………………………………………………………………….13 Building Your Campaign Staff………………………………………………………………………………..14 Explaining the Military’s Role………………………………………………………………………………..16 Explaining Officer Duties………………………………………………………………………………………17 Explaining Enlisted Duties…………………………………………………………………………………….19 People in the Military……………………………………………………………………………………………20 Knowing the Election Laws……………………………………………………………………………………21 Choosing a Location for Your Campaign HQ…………………………………………………………..22 Using Technology in Your Campaign……………………………………………………………………..23

Chapter 2: Crafting Your Campaign Message……………………………………………………….28 Running for Office as a Veteran……………………………………………………………………………..29 Bulletproofing Your Service Record……………………………………………………………………….30 Relating Federal Issues to Local Districts………………………………………………………………..31 Veterans Affairs……………………………………………………………………………………………………32 Assisting Veterans………………………………………………………………………………………………..33 Developing Message Charts…………………………………………………………………………………..34 Department of Defense Restrictions………………………………………………………………………36 Staying on Message………………………………………………………………………………………………37 Speaking to Veterans……………………………………………………………………………………………38 Announcing Your Candidacy…………………………………………………………………………………40 Working with the Press…………………………………………………………………………………………41 Preparing for Negative Advertisements…………………………………………………………………. 42 Endorsements, Editorial Boards, and Questionnaires………………………………………………43

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Debates and Candidate Forums……………………………………………………………………………..45

Chapter 3: Financing Your Campaign……………..49 The Importance of Money……………………………………………………………………………………..50 Finding the Right Campaign Treasurer………………………………………………………………….. 51 Building a Donor List……………………………………………………………………………………………52 A Veteran’s Unique Fundraising Advantage…………………………………………………………….53 Setting Meaningful Goals and Targets…………………………………………………………………… 54 Types of Fundraising---Call Time…………………………………………………………………………..55 Sample Call Sheet…………………………………………………………………………………………………56 Making the “HARD ASK” During Fundraising Calls…………………………………………………57 Sample Fundraising Script…………………………………………………………………………………….58 Tips for Making the “HARD ASK” …………………………………………………………………………59 Types of Fundraising---Finance Committee……………………………………………………………61 Types of Fundraising---Direct Mail………………………………………………………………………..62 Types of Fundraising---Fundraising Events…………………………………………………………… 63 Other Types of Fundraising…………………………………………………………………………………..66 Political Action Committees, PACs…………………………………………………………………………67 PACs, VoteVets.org………………………………………………………………………………………………68 PACs, Vets for Freedom………………………………………………………………………………………..69 Planning Backwards……………………………………………………………………………………………..70 Staying in Control of Campaign Expenditures………………………………………………………….71

Chapter 4: Taking Your Campaign into the Home Stretch………………………………………………………….75 How Field Operations Win Campaigns…………………………………………………………………..76 The Role of the Field Director………………………………………………………………………………..77 Calculating Your Field Strategy……………………………………………………………………………..78 Managing Time and Going Door-to-Door……………………………………………………………….80 Phone Banking, Not a Substitute for Door-to-Door………………………………………………… 82 Volunteers for Your Campaign………………………………………………………………………………83 The Role of the Volunteer Coordinator…………………………………………………………………..84 Working with Coordinated Campaigns…………………………………………………………………..85 Visibility: Yard Signs, Festivals, Parades, Football Games……………………………………….86 Political Rallies…………………………………………………………………………………………………….87 Persuading and Motivating Voters with Direct Mail………………………………………………..88 Getting Out The Vote (GOTV) ………………………………………………………………………………89 Election Day…………………………………………………………………………………………………………91

Chapter 5: Avoiding Legal Pitfalls:………………….95 Campaigning as a Veteran…………………………………………………………………………………….96 When Can I Run? ………………………………………………………………………………………………..99 You’ve Made It! ………………………………………………………………………………………………….108

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Epilogue: After the Election………………………….113 Hope for the Best……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 114 Prepare for the Worst…………………………………………………………………………………………..115

Glossary………………………………………………………116 Appendix A: D.O.D. Directive 13344.10………….126 Appendix B: Elected Veteran Database………….140 Appendix C: National Veteran PACs…………………………………………………………..173

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A Message from Veterans Campaign’s Executive Director Firstly, thank you for your service to our country and your interest in continuing your service as an elected official. As Americans, we live in the greatest, most resilient and enduring democracy in the history of mankind. However, if you’re like most Americans you probably believe that our elected officials have some room for improvement. According to a recent Gallup poll, only 11 percent of Americans had confidence in the 111th Congress, making it the least trusted institution in the United States and the least trusted Congress ever recorded. The American political selection process, for all its merits, does not always favor candidates who are selfless, courageous, or willing to set aside their differences to do what is best for the country. Yet there is a group of leaders who exemplify these exact virtues. For years, our soldiers, sailors, airmen, and Marines have continuously and unfailingly done what America has asked of them, even when doing so has placed them in imminent danger. These are the types of men and women we need in elected office. Polls consistently demonstrate that Americans are more confident in the military than in any other institution, and yet the number of veterans in Congress has declined after every election for over 30 years. In 1980, there were three times as many veterans in the House and Senate as there are today, and America’s confidence in Congress was three times higher. Veterans tend to make better leaders than campaigners. They generally lack a fundraising base, community roots, and political experience, and they must convey their qualifications to voters who are increasingly unfamiliar with the military. Opening this book is the first step in your journey to elected office. I hope that it helps you overcome the challenges of campaigning and enables you to fulfill your potential, continue your commitment to serving our country, and take your place among a new Greatest Generation of elected officials.

Seth McCormick Lynn Executive Director Veterans Campaign

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Preface “When we assumed the soldier, we did not lay aside the citizen.” -George Washington As citizens in a two-century democratic experiment, many men and women have followed a higher calling by seeking elected political leadership roles to serve their communities, states, and the nation. Another group of individuals defended their country and its interests in times of conflict and peace by taking up arms. Sometimes we see these spheres meet: individuals who return to civilian life and want to continue their service in political life. Where these two groups intersect form a distinctive tradition of returned military veterans who go on to enter political service in their communities after retiring their uniforms and returning to civilian life. There are valuable precedents in this tradition in local, state, and federal politics. While this custom is as old as the nation, contemporary politics differ from those of yesteryear and there have been dramatic changes to the types of veterans who emerge in electoral politics. These changing patterns stem from many forces, but principally result from changes in elections and differences in the types of wars in which the U.S. has been involved. What I want to express most of all in this short introduction is to dispel the conception that military service is something simply positive in elections—an unsophisticated tide that floats all veteran boats. The reality is that military service was and is a complicated part of American elections, with different eras, different wars, different sorts of elections, and different types of veterans each contributing to a complex pattern. You might be a young(ish) veteran contemplating a first run at a local election in your community, and perhaps a discussion of presidential elections seems too far removed from your current goals to be relevant. However, by looking to past elections, especially at the top of the ticket, perhaps we may perceive patterns of how individuals’ past service in the armed forces shaped the nomination and election of past presidents. After all, whether you are that individual contemplating a first run in a local race or working in a campaign seeking to elect a veteran, there are shared dynamics to how and why military service appears in election campaigns. And, even more importantly, candidate biography and how voters perceive candidates are part of all levels of our elections. The intersection of past military service and the American electoral sphere starts at the beginning of the republic with George Washington, whom all agreed would serve as the fledgling country’s first chief executive. He served the British in his younger years and then gained the political legitimacy to be the first president by leading the revolutionary military effort to forge a new nation. Certainly many, though not all, of the founding fathers served in their state’s militia units during the Revolution. James Monroe, for example, was shot during his gallant service at the Battle of Trenton when he fought under Washington’s command during the revolution. When the waning Federalists put Charles Cotesworth Pinckney on the ballot in 1804 and 1808, it was partially based on his stature earned fighting with Washington. However, it would not be until the 1820s that another man besides Washington would gain the national recognition for a presidential run in war. In a pattern that will recur, some elections pivot directly on one or both candidates’ war record, while others feature men for whom military service is not politically relevant.

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The next generation of statesmen and politicians entered political life around the War of 1812 and the sporadic Indian conflicts. The most notable of the men who forged a political career out of military service was the hero of New Orleans, Andrew Jackson. Before he lost to John Quincy Adams in 1824 only to take the White House four years later and start the Democratic Party as an enduring electoral force, Jackson was a general most famous for beating the British at the Battle of New Orleans in 1815. Jackson became an archetype for parties’ nomination strategies in the years that followed. William Henry Harrison, “Old Tippecanoe,” brought little to his two attempts to win the White House in 1836 and 1840 other than the public’s knowledge of his military victory against Tecumseh’s forces in 1811 at the Battle of Tippecanoe. Looking at presidential elections during the antebellum period reveals many other political aspirants with notable service, such as Zachary Taylor, the hero of Buena Vista with extensive service in the Indian wars; Lewis Cass, who was a general under Harrison at the Battle of the Thames; Winfield Scott, the US Army’s longest serving general involved in most of America’s martial conflicts in more than half of the 18th century; Franklin Pierce, another politically minded general who served under Scott during the MexicanAmerican War; and John Frémont, an explorer and military man with a checkered but well-known military career. With changes in the military institutions and with a new and much larger war, the next era differed from the antebellum period. The Civil War created a new generation of politicians, though only men who had served in the Union ranks were politically eligible for high office. While Abraham Lincoln himself had spent bucolic time without action during the Black Hawk War of 1832, the presidential elections that followed the Civil War featured many of its Union generals with heavy combat experience. The new Republican Party nominated Ulysses Grant, the man who ultimately won the war for the Union, twice in 1868 and 1872. Rutherford Hayes, James Garfield, and Benjamin Harrison were also Republican nominees from the end of Reconstruction, each having worn stars in the Civil War on the Union side. President William McKinley also served in the Civil War, under Rutherford Hayes’s command in an Ohio regiment. The only man nominated by the Republicans during this period without Civil War service, congressional leader James Blaine, lost in 1884. The Democrats nominated largely nonveterans, excepting Winfield Scott Hancock, hero of Gettysburg, in 1880. We cannot conclude that wearing the Union’s blue uniform was necessary to be eligible for high office, but Republicans nominating famous Civil War veterans clearly helped their “waving the bloody shirt” strategy of reminding voters which party had sought secession. After the Civil War generation of politicians receded from view at the end of the nineteenth century, presidential politics went through a period without veterans. Theodore Roosevelt, well known as a “Rough Rider” in 1898 during the SpanishAmerican War, had already entered political life before the onset of war and worked assiduously to be part of the war’s action. He became governor of New York only months after the battle, and national Republican Party elites chose him as McKinley’s running mate in the 1900 presidential election. But Roosevelt is the exception at the start of his era. His war, the Spanish-American War, may have signaled America’s entry into global prominence, but it did not generate legions of veterans to enter politics back home. From his presidency until Harry Truman’s squeaker in 1948, neither party nominated a man for the presidency with any military service background.

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World War II mobilized a nation generally and more than half of able-bodied men of that generation served in uniform during that epic conflict. Those large numbers of men, whom Tom Brokaw famously termed the “greatest generation,” returned home triumphantly and built postwar America. This energy framed many facets of life, including politics. The need for so many troops during war made military service virtually ubiquitous among men in civic life. If military service seemed absent from biographies of the men in presidential politics before the war, it is difficult to find men without war experience after. Of the men obtaining a major party nomination for the presidency between 1952 and 1988, only a two lacked any military service experience, Adlai Stevenson and Hubert Humphrey. While the preponderance of postwar candidates were veterans, the correlation between war service and election winning is difficult to see. Dwight Eisenhower served unremarkably during WWI after his graduation from West Point in 1915, but achieved national recognition for commanding Allied forces to victory during WWII. His great prominence was sufficiently large that both parties courted him as a candidate. John Kennedy’s famous story of heroism following the ramming and sinking of PT-109 was an explicit part of his campaign biography in his US House, Senate, and presidential runs. Richard Nixon was a naval supply officer, Barry Goldwater a spectacular pilot who flew important supply routes and was promoted to major general in the new USAF after the war. Lyndon Johnson was technically a naval reservist, though he had already been elected to Congress before the war. George McGovern, the Democrats’ nominee in 1972, flew dangerous B-24 missions out of Italy and earned the Distinguished Flying Cross. Gerald Ford served in the Navy as an officer during the war serving in the Pacific. Jimmy Carter was born too late for WWII, graduating from Annapolis in 1946 and becoming a submarine captain during the Cold War. Ronald Reagan’s spent time during WWII as an officer making training and public relations films in the Army. George H. W. Bush was a highly decorated torpedo bomber pilot in the Navy during WWII, shot down by the Japanese in 1944. Bob Dole was an Army infantryman during the Italian invasion, his shoulder shattered by enemy machine gun fire in 1945. The generation who served during or immediately after World War II would yield the floor to the Baby Boomers, eventually giving way to the next generation of politicians with presidential aspirations. This next cohort comprised some who served in noncombat roles during the Cold War and others involved in active hostilities during Vietnam. Michael Dukakis was in Korea for a short Army stint after the war. Al Gore enlisted in the Army during Vietnam after he graduated from Harvard and spent some noncombat time there. John Kerry and John McCain were both involved in active hostilities during the Vietnam War. Kerry was a Navy “swift boat” commander with combat experience operating in Vietnam, whose military credentials became controversial during the 2004 presidential election. Another Navy veteran, McCain served as an aviator. Air defenses brought him down over Hanoi and became a prisoner of war under grueling conditions for more than five years. Two other men demonstrate what is likely to be the future pattern in presidential politics: no military experience. Barack Obama and Bill Clinton did not serve in uniform, though for Clinton the era in which he was a young adult made his lack of service much more politically problematic. Clinton saw a political life ahead at an early age and realized that if his antiwar stance included explicitly dodging the draft, his political legitimacy might be compromised. He attempted to defer his eligibility by

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stating an intent to join ROTC, putting the matter off to effectively end his draft eligibility. Nonetheless, his actions in the sixties dogged him during the 1992 primaries and general election, when he frequently suffered the label “draft dodger.” Another candidate facing controversy on the question of military service was George W. Bush. He was a pilot in the Texas Air National Guard during the Vietnam War, but questions arose during both of his successful attempts to win the White House on two fronts. First, some criticized Bush for enjoying sufficient political pull in his family to get him into a Guard unit that was unlikely to rotate into war service. Second, he allowed his flight status to lapse and some suggest he was AWOL after he transferred to an Alabama unit to work on a Republican’s senate run there. His “mission accomplished” carrier landing event in 2003 after the end of active hostilities in Iraq reopened some of these questions among his critics. In short, examining the question of military service in presidential elections after the departure of the World War II generation from center stage reveals that its political value is complicated. Its power to propel candidates to victory even during the time when men shared the experience is questionable. While his efforts to rescue his PT-109 crewmen during the war did not guarantee Kennedy’s election victory in the very close 1960 election against Nixon, neither can we conclude that McGovern’s service in the dangerous skies above wartime Germany boosted his low chances against Nixon in 1972. Even if it is difficult to quantify advantage a military record might have for a candidate, the role it plays in presidential elections has gotten even more complicated since 1992. Clinton’s lack of service and allegations of “draft dodging,” the claims that George W. Bush enjoyed preferential treatment to get routed into a stateside posting, and the “Swift Boat Veterans for Truth” advertising in 2004 that undercut John Kerry’s credibility as a veteran candidate each represent a reminder that military service is more than a simple electoral boon for some men of the Vietnam generation. Looking beyond presidential elections, another way to see how the most recent wave of veterans has influenced politics in the past few cycles is to consider congressional elections. It varies year to year, but many candidates seeking a seat in the House of Representatives come with military service. The number used to be much higher when World War II veterans dominated the political scene in the second half of the twentieth century, but since 2000, roughly forty per cent of contested US House races had at least one veteran on the ballot. Regarding results, the last decade of House elections do not reveal an unequivocal veteran candidate advantage. Rather, the role that past military service plays in these elections works through the quality of the candidate, national trends, local issues, and other forces in different ways. Since Washington, veterans enter presidential politics as well as state and local races with diverse military service records. Decorated heroes of many battles as well as supply clerks have all made the leap from military life to civilian life to political life. Different kinds of service influence the way that a candidate can highlight his or her service in their campaign. An examination of the military biographies of election winners and losers for the past decade reveals stunning variation in both the military records themselves as well as how campaigns and campaign managers frame them. Some candidates make their experience in the armed forces a central pillar in their candidacy while others include but a small blurb in the “Meet the candidate” section of their website near their hometown and college. Some candidate website biographies include only shots in camouflage with banners waving, while others make only passing

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reference to time in uniform. Among presidential candidates, some decided to make conscious, deliberate use of military service as a biographic tool, such as Kennedy. Others, like his predecessor Eisenhower, did not employ explicit electioneering on the point because of the name recognition. If anything, the 1952 campaign against Adlai Stevenson (who lacked military service) downplayed Eisenhower’s service record to assuage any fears of a “military presidency.” With this short look at presidential and congressional elections and the way that military service factors in here, what can we conclude about its efficacy? It would be easy for a peacetime motor pool private to overplay his or her hand if the campaign were against a decorated combat veteran, other things being equal. An election between an honorably discharged war veteran and someone with no service record might favor the vet, other things being equal. But as anyone involved with elections in America knows, the problem is that other things are never equal. A DD-214 is not an ironclad guarantee to winning office. If military service were an unequivocal asset for those seeking political office, our state legislatures, city councils, and federal congress would comprise a lot more men and women with a service record. As many observers have noted, the proportion of congress members with military service is dramatically lower than it was twenty years ago. For as many high-profile veterans that edged out contenders without military service, there are candidates on Election Night who came up short despite a sterling military record. Many forces influence election outcomes in our democracy, many of which are outside the candidates’ control. Perceptions about the economy, views of the incumbent in office, the partisan composition of the district, and sometime national political winds will blow into local races. The reason why there are fewer veterans in politics overall, however, stems also from the end of conscription in 1973 and how an all-volunteer force has allowed many on a track for a future life in politics to forego time in the armed forces. It could be that past military service was more salient in America’s past than it is today. Yet, despite the fact that research shows that a “veteran election advantage” to be ephemeral at best and contingent on forces within and outside of candidates’ control, it is good for all of us that veterans participate in American politics. Elections are only the door into policy-making circles, but a necessary gauntlet to run in order to drive the political change candidates seek. Military service for the men and women of today was a voluntary act—the last conscript joined in 1973. Veterans considering public service today have already demonstrated a willingness to accept sacrifice for a common good, something sorely lacking in contemporary local and federal politics. Veterans embody a patriotic spirit above parties and issues. Veterans, largely speaking, bring more to the table as potential leaders in our polity, even if past military service isn’t a requirement for politics. With experience in a large government agency, respect for merit, a strong sense of honor and tradition, exposure to Americans from all parts of our society, reverence for camaraderie and experience with pushing as an individual to be part of a larger team effort, veterans are the right person for the job. While veterans share many qualities, their political views are not monolithic. It is a number in flux, but approximately 12-13 per cent of the vote-eligible population has military service. You will meet fellow veterans in your canvassing, during your blockwalking, hear from them in your polls, and see them at your events. It may be tempting to expect that they agree with you on the issues that motivated you to run for office. However, do not presume that because they shared the martial experience with you, they also share your party, ideology, or positions on the issues of the day. The military in

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which you served recruits men and women from all walks of American life. From different regions, different economic conditions, from cities and farm towns, the four branches bring people in from many elements of our society—we should not expect veterans to share political views. While polling evidence demonstrates that veterans tend to divide along party and issues in about the same way those without military service do, the larger point is that military service can be a nonpartisan qualification to demonstrate competence when framed well. It is not a shared politics or set of issues positions that binds you to other veterans, but willingness to bear sacrifices in order to participate in our electoral democracy. Your military service can be an asset on the campaign trail, but remember that how you frame your service is critical to voter perceptions of your candidacy. We know that candidates’ military service has played a changing role in American elections since our first generation of leaders. But even as the number of veterans wanes, the value of a service record will continue to be relevant in the twenty-first century. In the present environment of asymmetrical and long wars against nebulous enemies, today’s armed forces enjoy higher esteem from the public than any other part of our government. They hold more respect in Americans’ eyes than big businesses, the church, or the media. Wielded with care, your military credentials can prepare you well for not only the campaign trail but also public life. Jeremy M. Teigen, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Political Science Ramapo College

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Introduction We began writing this manual with one question in mind: What do Military Veterans who are running for political office need to know about campaigning? This manual is intended to provide you, the candidate, with an informed perspective on political campaigning before you begin your campaign. This field manual provides a snapshot of what makes a strong campaign and provides tips on how you can become a more effective candidate for public office. The Candidate Field Manual is intended to teach you about campaigning as a whole, before you even begin. Chapter 1, “Getting Your Campaign Off the Ground,” provides advice on developing roots in your community and understanding the issues that affect your constituents. It also details how you should build an effective campaign staff. Chapter 2, “Crafting Your Campaign Message,” is about how to deliver your message to the voters. Chapter 3, “Financing your Campaign,” offers guidance on the difficult, but essential, world of fundraising—helping you build donor lists, understanding ‘call time’, and providing tips for making the “hard ask.” Chapter 4, “Taking your Campaign into the Home Stretch,” helps you organize the final months of your campaign: getting out the vote, field operations, and visibility in the community. There are three basic principles that this manual emphasizes: Hire Staff You Can Trust: A candidate should always know what the campaign is doing, but micromanagement can destroy a campaign. You are the candidate and you must be able trust the staff you hired to do their jobs. If you are unable to trust your staff, then you will lose focus of your two primary responsibilities as a candidate: asking for votes and raising money. You cannot afford to waste time: hire the right staff and don’t be afraid to fire bad staff. Stay on message: This is essential in any campaign. Once you develop a strong message that resonates with voters (ideally, a message supported with positive polling data), you should stick to it. Framing your responses to questions is important to controlling the public debate. Voters need to understand what you care about to make an informed decision, and having message discipline is key. Raise money: Finally, it comes as no surprise that raising money is vital to a campaign. This manual will provide you with the steps to build a professional and effective fundraising operation. It is never too early to begin developing a good network of potential donors and practicing your donor pitch. If you are successful in doing these things, you are much more likely to have a wellorganized campaign that can win on Election Day. Veterans Campaign wishes you the best of luck on your electoral ambitions. We hope that this field manual will provide you with the tools to bring you and your campaign to victory on Election Day.

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Chapter 1: Getting Your Campaign Off the Ground

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Getting Your Campaign Off the Ground Establishing Your Reason to Run The first question that you will be asked when you announce your candidacy will be: Why are you running for office? Though it seems like an easy enough question, some of the most ambitious and politically savvy people will often have a very difficult time answering it coherently. This is not the point at which you need to have a ready-made, crafted message. Instead, the answer must come as a product of your own experiences, your own vision of public service, and your own ideals, beliefs, and attitudes. Anything you say or your campaign says to the public from here on out should reflect your experiences, your vision, and your beliefs. This is the point at which you decide that the best way to accomplish your goals for the community in which you live is to run for a specific elected office. The Veterans Campaign encourages each of you to think of running for elected office as an extension of your commitment to service of your country. The men and women in our Armed Forces are given skills during their time of service that can make them excellent public officials. However, having experience in the military is not enough to win a campaign, and even if you have all the money in the world, and the best-trained staff with the best message, it is still not enough. The lynchpin of the campaign is the candidate. Your reason for running for office must be compelling enough to convince donors to give money, motivate volunteers to work without pay, and sway undecided voters to pull the lever next to your name on Election Day. In the section on “Getting Your Campaign Off the Ground,� we will cover some of the basic things you should do before announcing your candidacy, but it all begins and ends with you and your reason to run.

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Getting Your Campaign Off the Ground Getting Active in Your Community Former Speaker of the House, Tip O’Neill said it best, “All politics is local.” We are a representative democracy, and the only way for you to know how best to represent your community is to become actively involved in it. Each community has its own specific character, but most communities throughout our country share common characteristics. The best way to gain support for your candidacy is to interact with the community before you tell them you are running for office. Name recognition is a key element to building a strong campaign, and if your neighbors and leaders in the community know who you are before you announce, they will be much more inclined to help your candidacy when you officially declare. As a Veteran, one of the easiest ways to network yourself into your community is through local veterans’ associations. The men and women in these organizations are typically well organized and well connected on a grassroots level, and they can make an excellent foundation for campaign support. Other organizations, such as the Rotary Club, the Knights of Columbus, the Sierra Club, Chambers of Commerce, etc. have local chapters in many towns across America. Getting involved in such groups is another excellent and important way to show your interest in helping the community and getting to know your neighbors. Your local faith community can also be a means of connecting with your constituency. Local civic, service, and cultural organizations are also effective venues in which you can get active in your community. A list of different organizations can be found on the next two pages. It is a good idea to start thinking now about what organizations back home you would like to join so that you can learn more about the people in your community and the issues that affect them. It is never too early to join such groups, but if you wait too long, sometimes you can join too late. No one likes to associate with disingenuous people. If you join an organization and introduce yourself by saying, “I’m a running for ____(elected office)”, it will often come across as insulting and people will think you are taking advantage of their organization. The key is to work with groups that you genuinely believe in and that work for causes you genuinely care about. Getting active in organizations that you care about and that work on issues or promote ideas that you believe in is the first step in introducing yourself as a respectable and prominent figure in the community.

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Getting Your Campaign Off the Ground List of Veterans Organizations and Associations African American PTSD Association Air Force Sergeants Association American Defenders of Bataan and Corregidor American Ex-Prisoners of War American GI Forum of the United States American Gold Star Mothers American Legion American War Mothers AMVETS Armed Forces Services Corporation Army and Navy Union, USA Association of the US Army Blinded Veterans Association Blue Star Mothers of America. Catholic War Veterans, USA Congressional Medal of Honor Society Disabled American Veterans Fleet Reserve Association Gold Star Wives of America Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America Italian American War Veterans Association Jewish War Veterans of the USA Korean War Veterans Association Legion of Valor of the USA Marine Corps League Marine Corps Law Enforcement Foundation Military Chaplains Association of the USA Military Officers Association of America Military Order of the Purple Heart of the USA Military Order of the World Wars National Assoc. for Black Veterans National Assoc. of County Veterans Service Officers National Assoc. of State Directors of Veterans Affairs National Veterans Legal Services Program National Veterans Organization of America Navy Club of the United States of America Navy League Navy Mutual Aid Association Non Commissioned Officers Association Paralyzed Veterans of America Pearl Harbor Survivors Association Polish Legion of American Veterans, USA Reserve Officers Association Students Veterans of America Swords to Plowshares: Veterans Rights Org/ The Retired Enlisted Association United States Submarine Veterans Veterans Assistance Foundation Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States

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www.aaptsdassn.org/ www.hqafsa.org/ www.dg-adbc.org/ www.axpow.org/ www.agifusa.org/ www.goldstarmoms.com/ www.legion.org/ www.americanwarmoms.org/awm/ www.amvets.org/ www.afsc-usa.com/ www.armynavy.net www.ausa.org/ www.bva.org/ www.bluestarmothers.org www.cwv.org/ www.cmohs.org/ www.dav.org/ www.fra.org/ www.goldstarwives.org/ www.iava.org/ www.itamvets.org/ www.jwv.org/ www.kwva.org/ www.legionofvalor.com/ www.mcleague.org/ www.me-lef.org/ mca-usa.org/ www.moaa.org/ www.purpleheart.org/ www.militaryorder.net/ www.nabvets.com/ www.nacvso.org/ www.nasdva.net/ www.nvlsp.org/ www.nvo.org/ www.navyclubusa.org/ www.navyleague.org/ www.navymutual.org/ www.ncoausa.org/ www.pva.org/ www.pearlharborsurvivor.net/ www.plav.org/ www.roa.org/ www.studentveterans.org www.swords-to-plowshares.org/ www.trea.org/ www.ussvi.org/ www.veteransassistance.org/ www.vfw.org/


Getting Your Campaign Off the Ground Sample List of Other Organizations “I refuse to join any club that would have me as a member.” - Groucho Marx, American Comedian Some of these organizations have national affiliations, while others are purely local and dependent upon the towns or city: American Association of Retired Persons American Cancer Society American Civil Liberties Union American Heart Association American Red Cross Area Councils Big Buddy Programs Boy Scouts Boys & Girls Club Business Associations Chambers of Commerce City Clubs Civic Associations College Alumni Associations Community Improvement Associations Concerned Citizens Coalitions Cub Scouts Cultural Society Eagle Scouts Economic Development Associations Faith-Based Organizations Food Banks 4-H Freemasons Friends of the Lake Friends of the Library Friends of the Museum Friends of the Park Future Farmers of America Garden Clubs Genealogy Clubs Girl Scouts Habitat for Humanity High School Alumni Associations High School Booster Clubs Historical Societies Home Owners Associations Humane Society Jaycees Junior Woman's Club Knights of Columbus

Labor Unions League of Women Voters Literacy Council Little League Organizations Livestock Club Merchants’ Associations Ministerial Alliance Museum Clubs NAACP National Rifle Association National Wildlife Federation Neighborhood Associations Neighborhood Watch Non-Profit Organizations Nursing Home Associations Optimist Club Parent Teacher Associations Park and Recreation Associations Press Clubs and Associations Professional Organizations Philanthropic Organizations Religious Organizations Rotary Club Salvation Army Shriners Sierra Club Small Business Associations Tenant Councils The Lion's Club Volunteer Fire Departments Woodmen of the World YMCA YWCA

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Getting Your Campaign Off the Ground Learning about the Issues that Affect Your Constituency “There go my people. I must find out where they are going, so I can lead them” -

Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin, 19th Century French Politician

Once you have a greater understanding of the people in your community, a greater understanding of the issues affecting them will naturally follow. Even though it’s your name on the ballot, your name on billboards, your name on signs, t-shirts, television ads, and direct mail pieces, the campaign is not about you. It’s about the voters, and the issues they care about. Voters are interested in the schools their children attend, the roads they drive on, the hospitals in which they receive care, the police and firefighters upon which they rely, the prescription drugs they need to stay healthy, the factories in which they work, and the fields they plow. They care about how you will help them make their lives better and not about your personal story. “Be sincere. If you don't know or care deeply about the issues, then don't run. Serving in Washington is the last thing I want to do personally. It's a "duty calls" situation, not an opportunity for personal advancement.” -

Bill Conner, USAF (Ret.), Candidate for U.S. House of Representatives (OH-7)

Knowing the issues of your community is essential to establishing your message and communicating to voters your reason for running for office. You should highlight the issues that both you and the voters care about. You need to give them a reason to vote for you, and that reason should coincide with your decision to run for office.

For example, if you are running for office because you want to encourage world leaders to broker peace in the Middle East, it is going to be very difficult to convince your constituents to vote for you if the top issues they care about are crime in the inner city, public transportation, and failing schools. This does not mean you have to compromise your beliefs just to run for office. On the contrary, you should never take a policy position that you do not believe in. Instead, you should do more to highlight the issues that both you and your constituency care about, so that you can speak effectively and honestly about it.

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Getting Your Campaign Off the Ground The Role of “Sacrificial Lambs” “Look around the table. If you don’t see a sucker, get up, because you’re the sucker.” -Amarillo Slim, Professional Poker Player Often times, the county or state political party chair has an obligation to find candidates to run for every election on the ballot. However, re-election statistics for incumbents are staggering at all levels of government. As a result, many political chairpersons recruit candidates knowing full well they will lose on Election Day. These are the so-called, “Sacrificial Lambs.” Candidates in these positions often receive no contact or support from the state party, will often not get funding from large donors and PACs, and will often struggle financially just to make it across the finish line on Election Day. If you discover that you are a sacrificial lamb, be prepared to lose the election and a great deal of your personal assets. Targeted Campaigns are those in which the state and local parties invest heavily to win. These candidates have often proven themselves as able fundraisers possessing political savvy and good name recognition in the district. Moreover, these campaigns are often vying for an open-seat, a seat with a politically unfavorable incumbent, or a district with competing tendencies due to close demographics—that is, in the last election the voters may have elected a Republican for Congress but voted for a Democrat for Senate. Nearing Election Day, these campaigns have access to a great deal of resources for fundraising and field operations that will turn out the vote effectively. Here are the steps to help you make an informed decision about running: 1. If you are asked to run for a potentially ‘targeted’ race, the state or local party has probably conducted a poll in your district. These are base-line polls that help parties gain an understanding of how voters would react to a candidate with your background and how a ‘generic’ Democrat/Republican would fair. 2. Is the election for an open-seat? If so, then it may be a targeted race. 3. Is the incumbent involved in scandal or is politically unpopular? If not, then this may be a ‘sacrificial lamb’ campaign. 4. Ask how much the party is willing to commit financially to the campaign. 5. Ask for the Democrat-Republican voting percentages for the district. 6. Think critically about your own abilities and realities. Can you win?

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Getting Your Campaign Off the Ground Building your Campaign Staff “If you fail to plan, you plan to fail…” -Ralph Waldo Emerson, American Poet Building a campaign organization starts with you, but it is important to realize that no campaign can be won alone. Depending on the size of the district in which you are running, the size of your staff will vary. For local offices or state assembly seats, you may not have many paid staff members at all; however, state wide elections can have an army of paid staff if fundraising allows. Looking back at how previous elections in your district were managed can be a good way to measure how to build a staff for your campaign, but what is more important is ensuring you have all the resources you require at any given point in the campaign. Campaign structures vary based upon needs, but hiring a Campaign Manager is more than likely your first priority. This person will be there with you from start to finish, and will learn more about you than you may expect (or want). Trust is essential when hiring your manager, so it is important to find someone who will work for you because of who you are and what you stand for, not because of how much you are paying them. In state representative races, larger mayoral and city council races, and federal level races, your Campaign Manager should be a professional campaign operative. However, some of the best workers on campaigns will work on a volunteer basis. These are the folks who honestly believe in your candidacy as a cause, and are willing to sacrifice their time and energy to get you elected. Always show appreciation for their work and their effort whenever you can, as it will go a long way toward maintaining morale among your staff. Finding a person to fill each staff position will be too difficult to do on your own, so don’t bother. That is what your Campaign Manager is for. Your manager should be a person to whom you feel comfortable delegating most of the day-to-day responsibilities of your campaign; this will include hiring and firing privileges. One example of a campaign structure is outlined on the next page. This structure may or may not be appropriate for smaller campaigns, and several job descriptions can be consolidated to meet the needs of your campaign. What is important is that there is someone to pick up each of these responsibilities. In the glossary, there are brief descriptions of the duties associated with all job titles.

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Campaign Chair

Candidate

Regional Field Coordinators

Driver/Personal Assistant

Campaign Scheduler

Candidate’s Family

Election Code Compliance

Election Day Coordinator

Campaign Manager

Policy Director/ Consultant

Treasurer

Election Day Poll Monitors

Donors

Communications Director

Media Consultant

Fundraising Interns

Field Director

Press Secretary Direct Mail Consultant

Finance Director

Press Interns

Pollster Poll Watchers & Canvassers

Volunteers and Supporters

Volunteer Coordinator

Office Managers

Advance/Event Coordinator

Operations Director

Webmaster

Legal Team Director

Tracker

Opposition Researcher

Legend Hiring & firing privileges Full Time – Salary Can be paid or unpaid Normally under contract Can be paid or unpaid on Election Day Unpaid


Getting Your Campaign Off The Ground Explaining the Military’s Role

The Truman National Security Project

“The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States…” – U.S. Constitution Art II, Sect 2, Clause 1 It all starts with “We the People.” Our Constitution grants authority to the President as the Commander in Chief. He and other civilian leaders decide policy. The U.S. military advises and executes policy. The U.S. military includes these service branches: Army: Large scale and long term ground operations. Navy: Naval security, transport, and force projection. Air Force: Air, space, and cyber operations. Marine Corps: Rapid naval deployment, ground operations, and embassy duty. Coast Guard: Near shore operations. It’s been in the Department of Homeland Security since 2002, but it can be mobilized to serve under the Navy. In 1947, President Harry Truman, an Army veteran of WWI, created the Department of Defense. The DoD unifies the military under one chain of command. The President directs the Secretary of Defense who leads the DoD. The DoD includes these groupings: 1. 3 Service Departments: These include the Army, Navy, and Air Force. Each is led by a civilian Secretary. They prepare forces for deployments. They are not in the operational chain of command. The Marine Corps is within the Navy. 2. 10 Combatant Commands: There are 6 regional and 4 functional combatant commands. They combine deployed forces from all services. They are led by Combatant Commanders who direct operations everywhere in the world. 3. Joint Chiefs of Staff: These are the highest ranking Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine officers. Led by the Chairman, they help advise and coordinate military strategies. They are not in the operational chain of command. In 2007, Reserve and National Guard forces comprised 28% of U.S. military forces in Iraq. Reserve forces are federally led, funded, and supervised. Reservists serve a minimum of 39 days of military duty every year (one weekend a month and two weeks a year) and augment the active duty military when necessary. Since Vietnam, military jobs have been divided so that the U.S. is not able to conduct war without its Reserves. Only the Army and Air Force have National Guard components. These are under the command of state governors, and they principally operate within the United States. However, the President still has the power to federalize them for national needs.

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Getting Your Campaign Off The Ground Explaining Officer Duties

The Truman National Security Project

“I, _______, do solemnly swear that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic...” - A Shared Phrase in Oaths for Officer Commissioning and Oaths of Enlistment Officers comprise 16% of the total force (15% commissioned officers and 1% warrant officers). Officers are called “sir” or “ma’am” by those they outrank. By those of equal or greater rank, they are called by their ranks and last names. Their rank insignias often shine in gold or silver. Commissioned officers come primarily from college ROTC programs, service academies, and Officer Candidate School. Officer Candidate School students often include college graduates with no ROTC experience and enlisted service members transitioning to become officers. Commissioned officers are decision-makers. They are responsible for leading units ranging from 20 to more than 20,000. Nearly all hold undergraduate degrees. Their salaries range from about $30,000 (Lieutenants) to around $150,000 (Generals). Here are some sample officer ranks and roles: General [Navy Admiral] (Up to 4 Silver Stars): Generals are like CEO’s. They are responsible for thousands of people and billions of dollars of equipment. Generals interact with politicians and make major decisions within their commands. Colonel [Navy Captain] (Silver Eagle Holding Arrows): Colonels are like Vice Presidents. Under Generals and depending on their assignment, they can command thousands of troops and have a significant impact upon policy. Lieutenant Colonel [Navy Commander] (Silver Oak Leaf): Lieutenant Colonels are very important for leading operations. They can command hundreds of troops or hold important policy staff jobs in the offices of senior leaders. Major [Navy Lieutenant Commander] (Gold Oak Leaf): Majors are in the middle of the officer ranks. For many officers, this rank is a plateau. Majors can command larger units and assist superiors with policy. They also run most staff operations, from logistics to combat plans. In the Navy, they may command ships. Captain [Navy Lieutenant] (Two Connected Silver Bars): They function as a middle-management. They may command groups of up to 100 or 200 service members. 1st Lieutenant [Navy Lieutenant Junior Grade] (Single Silver Bar): 1st Lieutenants know how things operate. They may command platoons.

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Marc Mackenzie is a graduate of The George

Washington Law School. While there, he was a member of The George Washington Law Review and served as a Dean's Fellow during the 2009-2010 academic year. Prior to law school, Marc worked as a web developer and search engine marketer. He earned his Bachelors in Business Management Economics from University of California Santa Cruz in 2006.

Nancy Bocskor, the author of “Go Fish:

How to Catch (and Keep) Contributors: A Practical Guide to Fundraising,” is a professor at George Washington University’s Graduate School of Political Management where she teaches both online and “live” fundraising courses. Tagged as a “Democracy Coach” by a major German newspaper, she teaches citizens in the United States and internationally how to communicate with passion to affect change in their communities. Nancy served on the board of the Women’s Campaign School at Yale for seven years, where she chaired the school’s Curriculum Committee for five years. She is on the board for Running Start, an organization that encourages young women to run for office, and PoliticsUnder30.org, an organization at George Washington University’s Graduate School of Political Management that prepares young leaders for public service. Most recently, Nancy received the 2010 the Distinguish Alumni Award at Otterbein University in Westerville, Ohio for “her passion to affect change in national and international communities, training and consulting with the nation's and world's political leaders, and commitment to educate others, particularly women, around the world.”

Tyson Belanger studies international relations as a Ph.D.

candidate in political science at Harvard University. His dissertation investigates how states, especially democracies, use positive inducements to improve their interstate war outcomes. Before attending Harvard, Tyson served as a Marine for six years and deployed overseas five times, three times to Iraq. Tyson earned his undergraduate degree from Yale University, where he served as student body president. Tyson has visited 50 U.S. states, 2 U.S. territories, and 81 countries.

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Rob Diamond is a Senior Vice President at Realty Capital

International LLC—a global real estate investment banking and advisory firm. Before his career in finance, Robert served for seven years as an officer in the United States Navy. A Surface Warfare Officer by training, he was stationed onboard the guided missile destroyer USS BULKELEY (DDG-84) and completed deployments in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. He served as the aide to the Navy's Chief of Legislative Affairs in the Pentagon, and as a naval liaison officer to the U.S. House of Representatives. Robert serves as a Vice-Chair of the Democratic National Committee’s Veterans and Military Families Council, where he is responsible for promoting the President’s agenda across the national Veterans community. He was the New York State Chair of Veterans for Obama during the 2008 campaign. Robert is a Security Fellow and Member of the Board of Principals with the Truman National Security Project, the progressive national security leadership institute. He serves as the Regional Director of the Truman Project’s New York City chapter. An active member of numerous Veterans organizations, Robert speaks and publishes regularly on veterans, military and national security issues. His work has appeared in The New York Times, The Washington Post, NBC.com, The Huffington Post, Defense News, The Philadelphia Inquirer, and The New York Daily News. A native of New York City, he holds a B.S. from the United States Naval Academy. He is married to the former Victoria Jennings, also of New York City.

Seth McCormick Lynn

currently serves as the Veterans Campaign’s Executive Director, managing the day-to-day operations of the organization. Prior to founding Veterans Campaign, Seth served as an Amphibious Assault Vehicle Officer in the Marine Corps. Seth deployed to Kuwait, Iraq, and Japan, and also participated in the Indonesian tsunami relief effort. Before leaving active duty in 2008, Seth spent two years overseeing a Marine Corps Reserve in Tampa, Florida, and spent two summers studying intensive Arabic at Middlebury College. Seth graduated from the United State Naval Academy in 2002 with a degree in Political Science, and recently earned a Master’s in Public Affairs at the Woodrow-Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. He is a member of the Marine Corps Reserve.

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Wade Zirkle is the founding principal of

German River Management, LLC, in Woodstock, Virginia. Wade previously worked on a series of grassroots political campaigns, including managing Delegate Todd Gilbert’s first campaign for Virginia House of Delegates in 2005 and 2009, and as Senator John McCain’s state chairman for college GOTV operations in the bruising 2000 South Carolina GOP Presidential Primary. Currently, Wade currently serves as legislative aide to Virginia Delegate Todd Gilbert (15th House District), and he is the Managing Partner of Zirkle Family Farms, LLC. After graduating from college in 2000, Wade served for five years as an Infantry Officer in the U.S. Marine Corps. He served as a Light Armored Vehicle Platoon Commander in the historic U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 with Regimental Combat Team One (RCT-1). In 2004, he returned to Iraq as a Rifle Platoon Commander and fought in the First Battle for Fallujah. Wade has been personally decorated twice for valor and is also a recipient of the Purple Heart. Wade was the founder and first executive director of Vets for Freedom, which today is America’s largest Iraq and Afghanistan veterans political action organization. To date, Vets for Freedom has raised and spent over $11 Million in support of federal candidates who have shown unwavering resolve for U.S. military campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan. Veterans Campaign Contributors:

Alex Bukac is a recent graduate of Occidental College in Los Angeles, CA. A member of the class of 2011, Alex graduated with a B.A. in Political Science and an emphasis in Psychology. While at Occidental, Alex was awarded distinction for his senior thesis critiquing the 2010 Supreme Court decision, Citizens United v. Federal Elections Commission. Currently, Alex works as the Deputy Chief of Staff for Veterans Campaign. He plans to attend law school in the fall of 2012, and hopes to practice public interest and advocacy law.

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Glenn Gray is native of San

Diego, California, and a graduate from Occidental College in Los Angeles where he majored in history and graduated with distinction. While at Oxy, Glenn was a four year starter on the varsity baseball team and served as Team Captain his senior season. Prior to Veterans Campaign, he interned with the National Security Archive in Washington, DC and with Neighborhood Legal Services of Los Angeles County in their Self-Help Clinic at the Pasadena courthouse. Glenn is applying for admission into law school and hopes to enroll in the fall of 2012.

Hannah Martins is a junior studying English and

Linguistics at Princeton University. As an army ROTC cadet in Princeton's own Tiger Battalion, she is pursuing an active duty commission and looks forward to serving her country upon graduation. Hannah won the Daily Princetonian R.W. Apple award for her work as a senior news writer and layout designer for that newspaper. When she's not in the newsroom, the armory, the gym, or the Cap and Gown Club, she enjoys hiking, reading and knitting poorly.

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The Candidate's Field Manual Preview  

A veteran's guide to running for office

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