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Analysis of Context, Structure, Literary Forms, Genre (A) English Version (NASB)

Greek

*went into Capernaum; and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach. 22 They were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. 23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, 24 saying, “What [business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!” 25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be quiet, and come out of him!” 26 Throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 27 They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.” 28 Immediately the news about Him spread everywhere into all the surrounding district of Galilee.

21 Kai« ei˙sporeu/ontai ei˙ß Kafarnaou/m: kai« eujqu\ß toi√ß sa¿bbasin ei˙selqw»n ei˙ß th\n sunagwgh\n e˙di÷dasken. 22 kai« e˙xeplh/ssonto e˙pi« thØv didachØv aujtouv: h™n ga»r dida¿skwn aujtou\ß wJß e˙xousi÷an e¶cwn kai« oujc wJß oi˚ grammatei√ß.

21 They

Mark 1:23 Kai« eujqu\ß h™n e˙n thØv sunagwghØv aujtw◊n a‡nqrwpoß e˙n pneu/mati aÓkaqa¿rtwˆ kai« aÓne÷kraxen 24 le÷gwn: ti÷ hJmi√n kai« soi÷, Δ∆Ihsouv Nazarhne÷; h™lqeß aÓpole÷sai hJma◊ß; oi•da¿ se ti÷ß ei•, oJ a‚gioß touv qeouv. 25 kai« e˙peti÷mhsen aujtwˆ◊ oJ Δ∆Ihsouvß le÷gwn: fimw¿qhti kai« e¶xelqe e˙x aujtouv. 26 kai« spara¿xan aujto\n to\ pneuvma to\ aÓka¿qarton kai« fwnhvsan fwnhØv mega¿lhØ e˙xhvlqen e˙x aujtouv. 27 kai« e˙qambh/qhsan a‚panteß w‚ste suzhtei√n pro\ß e˚autou\ß le÷gontaß: ti÷ e˙stin touvto; didach\ kainh\ katΔ∆ e˙xousi÷an: kai« toi√ß pneu/masi toi√ß aÓkaqa¿rtoiß e˙pita¿ssei, kai« uJpakou/ousin aujtwˆ◊. 28 kai« e˙xhvlqen hJ aÓkoh\ aujtouv eujqu\ß pantacouv ei˙ß o¢lhn th\n peri÷cwron thvß Galilai÷aß.


Forms/Genre Literary Form

• Miracle story

Structure Surrounding

Preceding Insightful Material That Prepares Us for Mark 1:21-28 • Jesus’ baptism (1:9-11); He is empowered by and thrown into the wilderness by the Holy Spirit (1:13-14). Being anointed with the Spirit, he is

o 1) tempted (1:13-14), o 2) God’s kingly agent who proclaims the gospel (1:14-15) o 3) calls fishermen to follow him and become fishers of men (1:16-20). 

Unlike the other Evangelists, Mark gives no indication of previous interaction between Jesus and the fisherman. So, what drew them to Jesus? His authority? New teaching (proclamation of the gospel?)?

Following Insightful Material That Helps Inform Mark 1:21-28 • In the following pericopes we find that Jesus regularly

o heals those who are ill o exorcizes those who had unclean spirits/demons (see the summary statement in 1:3334).  Did not come just to do these things (1:35-39) o travels to synagogues in the Galilee area (1:39) o had people following him (i.e., his fame was growing; cf. 1:45)

Immediate Structural Relationships: Structural Relationship RECURRENCE (immediately [Gk euthuspromounced ‘you-th-us ])

Verse(s) “They

1:21: *went into Capernaum; and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach.” 1:28: “Immediately the news

Interpretive Questions What is the primary meaning of eujqu\ß? How do the individual occurrences relate to and illumine one another? Why this recurrence? What are the implications?


RECURRENCE (teach and cognates)

RECURRENCE (amazement)

RECURRENCE (authority)

RECURRENCE (synagogue)

about Him spread everywhere into all the surrounding district of Galilee.” 1:21: They *went into Capernaum; and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach. 1:22 [2x]: They were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. 1:22: They were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. 1:27: They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.” 1:22: They were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. 1:27: They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.” 1:21: They *went into Capernaum; and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach.

What is the primary meaning of teach(ing)? How do the individual occurrences relate to and illumine one another? Why this recurrence? What are the implications?

What is the primary meaning of

amazement (and its cognates)? How do the individual occurrences relate to and illumine one another? Why this recurrence? What are the implications?

What is the primary meaning of e˙xousi÷an (and its cognates)? How do the individual occurrences relate to and illumine one another? Why this recurrence? What are the implications?

What is the primary meaning of synagogue? How do the individual occurrences relate to and illumine one another? Why this recurrence? What are the implications?


RECURRENCE (unclean spirit(s))

1:23: Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, 1:23: Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, 1:26: Throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him.

RECURRENCE (cried out)

1:27: They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.” 1:23: Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, 1:26: Throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him.

CONTRAST Jesus (new) teaching (with authority) and scribal teaching

1:22: They were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.

COMPARISON/CONTRAST? Jesus’ exorcism

1:25: And Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be quiet, and come out of him!” 26 Throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him.

What is the primary meaning of unclean spirit(s)? How do the individual occurrences relate to and illumine one another? Why this recurrence? What are the implications?

What is the primary meaning of

aÓne÷kraxen and fwnhvsan? How do the individual occurrences relate to and illumine one another? Why this recurrence? What are the implications?

What major differences are here emphasized by the writer? What is the precise and specific meaning of each of these differences, and why did he deal with them as he did? What are the implications? What major differences are here emphasized by the writer? What is the precise and specific meaning of each of these differences, and why did he deal with them as he did? What are the implications? OR What are the major points of similarity here? What is the precise


RECURRENCE OF INTERROGATION

COMPARISON/CONTRAST? (Jesus’ speaking and the unclean spirit)

1:24 saying, “What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!”   1:27: They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.”

1:23-24 (unclean spirit) 1:25 (Jesus) 1:26 (unclean spirit) 23 Just

then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, 24 saying, “What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!” 25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be quiet, and come out of him!” 26 Throwing him into

and specific meaning of each? Why did the writer stress these similarities, and why did he deal with them as he did? What are the implications? What is the primary meaning of this recurring questioning? How do the individual occurrences relate to and illumine one another? Why this recurrence? What are the implications? QuestionAnswer What is the meaning of this question? How does the answer address this question, and what is the full and precise meaning of this answer? Why did this writer include this interrogation? What are the implications?

ProblemSolution What is the meaning of the problem presented here? How is this problem solved? What are the major elements involved in the movement from problem to solution, and what is the meaning of each? Why did the writer include this interrogation? What are the implications? What major differences are here emphasized by the writer? What is the precise and specific meaning of each of these differences, and why did he deal with them as he did? What are the implications? OR What are the major points of similarity here? What is the precise and specific meaning of each? Why did the writer stress these similarities, and why did he deal with them as he did? What are the implications?


COMPARISON/CONTRAST? (implicit—uncleanness of the situationSabbath in a synagogue vs. unclean spirit)

CAUSATION

convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 21 They *went into Capernaum; and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach. 22 They were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. 23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, 24 saying, “What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!” 25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be quiet, and come out of him!” 26 Throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 1:25-27: 25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be quiet, and come out of him!” 26 Throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 27 They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.”

What major differences are here emphasized by the writer? What is the precise and specific meaning of each of these differences, and why did he deal with them as he did? What are the implications? OR What are the major points of similarity here? What is the precise and specific meaning of each? Why did the writer stress these similarities, and why did he deal with them as he did? What are the implications?

How does Jesus’ exorcism/teaching/authority produce this effect? What are the major elements involved in this movement from cause to effect, and what is the meaning of each? Why did the writer include this causation? What are the implications?


Summary: The literary form of Mark 1:21-28 is a miracle story. Situated in between the initial call narrative of the two sets of brothers (1:16-20) and subsequent pericopes elaborating upon Jesus’ healing (sickness, demon-possessed) ministry (1:29-45), 1:21-28 contains a number of structural relationships (see above) that are important for interpretation.

Bibliography Accordance Bible Software. Bauer, David R. and Robert A. Traina, Inductive Bible Study. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2010. Long, Fredrick. In Step With God’s Word: A Gradual Pastoral Exegetics for the New Testament. 2010.


Language English Version (NASB)

Greek

*went into Capernaum; and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach. 22 They were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. 23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, 24 saying, “What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!” 25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be quiet, and come out of him!” 26 Throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 27 They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.” 28 Immediately the news about Him spread everywhere into all the surrounding district of Galilee.

21 Kai« ei˙sporeu/ontai ei˙ß Kafarnaou/m: kai« eujqu\ß toi√ß sa¿bbasin ei˙selqw»n ei˙ß th\n sunagwgh\n e˙di÷dasken. 22 kai« e˙xeplh/ssonto e˙pi« thØv didachØv aujtouv: h™n ga»r dida¿skwn aujtou\ß wJß e˙xousi÷an e¶cwn kai« oujc wJß oi˚ grammatei√ß.

21 They

Mark 1:23 Kai« eujqu\ß h™n e˙n thØv sunagwghØv aujtw◊n a‡nqrwpoß e˙n pneu/mati aÓkaqa¿rtwˆ kai« aÓne÷kraxen 24 le÷gwn: ti÷ hJmi√n kai« soi÷, Δ∆Ihsouv Nazarhne÷; h™lqeß aÓpole÷sai hJma◊ß; oi•da¿ se ti÷ß ei•, oJ a‚gioß touv qeouv. 25 kai« e˙peti÷mhsen aujtwˆ◊ oJ Δ∆Ihsouvß le÷gwn: fimw¿qhti kai« e¶xelqe e˙x aujtouv. 26 kai« spara¿xan aujto\n to\ pneuvma to\ aÓka¿qarton kai« fwnhvsan fwnhØv mega¿lhØ e˙xhvlqen e˙x aujtouv. 27 kai« e˙qambh/qhsan a‚panteß w‚ste suzhtei√n pro\ß e˚autou\ß le÷gontaß: ti÷ e˙stin touvto; didach\ kainh\ katΔ∆ e˙xousi÷an: kai« toi√ß pneu/masi toi√ß aÓkaqa¿rtoiß e˙pita¿ssei, kai« uJpakou/ousin aujtwˆ◊. 28 kai« e˙xhvlqen hJ aÓkoh\ aujtouv eujqu\ß pantacouv ei˙ß o¢lhn th\n peri÷cwron thvß Galilai÷aß.


Grammar Conjunctions Verse

Function

Significance

22 kai« e˙xeplh/ssonto e˙pi« thØv didachØv aujtouv: h™n ga»r dida¿skwn aujtou\ß wJß e˙xousi÷an e¶cwn kai« oujc wJß oi˚ grammatei√ß.

This coordinating conjunction is functioning either in an explanatory or causal (answering why?) fashion.

The significance of ga»r is that it is explaining why those in the synagogue were amazed at Jesus’ teaching, namely, because he taught as one having authority unlike the scribes.

Either as a coordinating conjunction (inferential) or as a subordinating conjunction (result).

This conjunction highlights that the debate was the result of the exorcism that just took place. It further elaborates the sort of teaching that Jesus is doing.

22 They

were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. 27 kai« e˙qambh/qhsan a‚panteß w‚ste suzhtei√n pro\ß e˚autou\ß le÷gontaß: ti÷ e˙stin touvto; didach\ kainh\ katΔ∆ e˙xousi÷an: kai« toi√ß pneu/masi toi√ß aÓkaqa¿rtoiß e˙pita¿ssei, kai« uJpakou/ousin aujtwˆ◊. 27 They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.”

Pronouns Verse 1:24 le÷gwn: ti÷ hJmi√n kai« soi÷, Δ∆Ihsouv Nazarhne÷; h™lqeß aÓpole÷sai hJma◊ß; oi•da¿ se ti÷ß ei•, oJ a‚gioß touv qeouv. 24 saying,

“What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!”

Significance The interrogative pronoun ti÷ can mean ‘why?’ or ‘what?’ ti÷ß means who? what? or why? There is most likely an idiom here (What to us and to you, Jesus of Nazareth?). The man possessed by the evil spirit is emphasizing Jesus’ identity. Additionally, the se is not needed since it is already implied in the verb ei•. “I know who YOU are…”


Verbs Verse

Parsing

1:24 aÓpole÷sai

Aorist Active Infinitive

1:25 fimw¿qhti kai« e¶xelqe

Aorist Passive Imperative Aorist Active Imperative

1:27 suzhtei√n

Present Active Infintive

e˙pita¿ssei and uJpakou/ousin

Present Active Indicative

Significance The question posed by the man with an evil-spirit contains an aorist active infinitive that is probably functioning adverbially more specifically as a purpose/result. Jesus’ rebuke contains two commands: 1) be quiet (‘shut up’) and 2) come out of him. Paired with the conjunction w‚ste, an infinitive generally expresses result (and sometime purpose).1 The actions/teaching of Jesus result in arguing/questioning. Notice that these are present active, that is, this is Jesus actively commanding the unclean spirits and they are actively obeying him.

                                                                                                              Daniel B. Wallace. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996), 591-93. 1


Word Study e˙xousi÷an (exz-oo-SEE-on )

Lemma

Parsing

e˙xousi÷a (1:22, 27)

Fem Acc Sing

Lexicons Thayer2

Louw and Nida

1. power of choice, liberty of doing as one pleases; leave e˙xousi÷ah, aß f: the right to judge on the basis of or permission: having the potential to evaluate — ‘right, freedom of choice, freedom of action, power to 2. physical and mental power; the ability or strength evaluate.’ Ble÷pete de« mh/ pwß hJ e˙xousi÷a uJmw◊n with which one is endued, which he either possesses or au¢th pro/skomma ge÷nhtai toi√ß aÓsqene÷sin ‘but exercises: Matt. 9:8; Acts 8:19; Rev. 9:3,19; 13:2,4; see to it that your freedom of choice does not 18:1; followed by an infinitive of the thing to be become a cause of offense to those who are weak done, Mark 3:15; Luke 12:5; John 1:12; Rev. 9:10; (in the faith)’ 1Cor 8:9. 11:6; 13:5; followed by tou with the infinitive Luke 37.13 e˙xousi÷ae, aß f: a state of control over 10:19; hauteœ estin heœ exousia tou skotous, this is the someone or something — ‘control.’ Kai« praqe«n power that darkness exerts, Luke 22:53; poiein e˙n thvØ shvØ e˙xousi÷aˆ uJphvrcen ‘and after it was exousian to exert power, give exhibitions of sold, (the money from the sale) remained under power, Rev. 13:12; en exousia einai, to be possessed of power and influence, Luke 4:32; also your control’ Ac 5:4. exousian echein (both expressions refer to the [p. 474] ability and weight which Jesus exhibited in his teaching) Matt. 7:29; (Mark 1:22); kat} exousian 37.35 e˙xousi÷aa, aß f: the right to control or powerfully, Mark 1:27; also en exousia, Luke 4:36. govern over — ‘authority to rule, right to control.’ I¶sqi e˙xousi÷an e¶cwn e˙pa¿nw de÷ka 3. the power of authority (influence) and of right: ; po/lewn ‘go with the authority to rule over ten delegated authority (German Vollmacht, authorization): para tinos, with the genitive of the cities’ Lk 19:17. person by whom the authority is given, or received, Acts 9:14; 26:10, 12 (R G). 4. the power of rule or government (the power of him whose will and commands must be submitted to by others and obeyed (generally translated authority)); a. universally: Matt. 28:18; Jude 1:25; Rev. 12:10; 17:13; lambanein, exousian

37.36 e˙xousi÷ab, aß f: the domain or sphere over which one has authority to control or rule — ‘jurisdiction.’ Soi« dw¿sw th\n e˙xousi÷an tau/thn a’pasan ‘I will give to you all of this jurisdiction’ Lk 4:6; e˙pignou\ß o¢ti e˙k thvß e˙xousi÷aß Hrw¿ˆdou e˙sti÷n ‘learning that he was from the jurisdiction of Herod’ Lk 23:7. In translating e˙xousi÷ab in the sense of ‘jurisdiction,’ it is often possible simply

                                                                                                              This lexicon is somewhat outdated. I used Thayer because it was on my Accordance and thus quicker; however, I do have electronic access to BDAG now and obviously know that it is the preferred standard lexicon. 2


hoœs basileus, Rev. 17:12; eimi hupo exousian, I am under authority, Matt. 8:9; with tassomenos added, (Matt. 8:9 L WH brackets); Luke 7:8; exousia tinos, the genitive of the object, authority (to be exercised) over, as toœn pneumatoœn toœn akathartoœn, Mark 6:7; with hoœste ekballein auta added, Matt. 10:1; exousian paseœs sarkos, authority over all mankind, John 17:2 (paseœs sarkos kureian, Bel and the Dragon, verse 5); (the genitive of the subject, tou Satana, Acts 26:18); epi tina, power over one, so as to be able to subdue, drive out, destroy, Rev. 6:8; epi ta daimonia, Luke 9:1; or to hold submissive to one’s will, Rev. 13:7; epi tas pleœgas, the power to inflict plagues and to put an end to them, Rev. 16:9; epi toœn ethnoœn, over the heathen nations, Rev. 2:26; epi tinos, to destroy one, Rev. 20:6; echein exousian epi tou puros, to preside, have control, over fire, to hold it subject to his will, Rev. 14:18; epi toœn hudatoœn, Rev. 11:6; epanoœ tinos exousian echein, to be ruler over a thing, Luke 19:17. B. specifically, a. of the power of judicial decision; exousian echein with an infinitive of the thing decided: stauroœsai and apolusai tina, John 19:10; followed by kata tinos, the power of deciding against one, John 19:11; paradounai tina ... teœ exousia tou heœgemonos, Luke 20:20. B. of authority to manage domestic affairs: Mark 13:34. C. metonymically, a. a thing subject to authority or rule: Luke 4:6; jurisdiction: ek teœs exousias Heœdoœrou estin, Luke 23:7 (1 Macc. 6:11 (cf. Ps. 113:2 (Ps. 114:2); Isa. 39:2)). B. one who possesses authority; (cf. the Latin use of honestates, dignitates, auctoritates (so the English authorities, dignities, etc.) in reference to persons); aa. A ruler, human magistrate (Dionysius Halicarnassus 8, 44; 11, 32): Rom. 13:1-3; plural: Luke 12:11; Rom. 13:1; Titus 3:1. Bb. The leading and more powerful among created beings superior to man, spiritual potentates; used in the plural of a certain class of angels (see archeœ, dunamis, thronos, kurioteœs): Col. 1:16; 1 Pet. 3:22 (cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. ii., p. 226f; (Lightfoot on Colossians, the passage cited)); with en tois epouraniois added, Eph. 3:10; pasa exousia, 1

to use terms such as ‘territory’ or ‘land’ or even ‘peoples,’ as in the case of Lk 4:6. 37.37 e˙xousi÷ac, aß f: a means or instrument by which authority is marked or symbolized — ‘symbol of authority, symbol of subjection to authority.’ hJ gunh\ e˙xousi÷an e¶cein e˙pi« thvß kefalhvß ‘a woman should have on her head a symbol of authority (over her)’ 1Cor 11:10. [p. 477] This passage, however, is subject to a number of different interpretations, as commentaries clearly indicate. 37.38 e˙xousi÷ad, aß f: one who has the authority to rule or govern — ‘an authority, ruler.’ O¢tan de« ei˙sfe÷rwsin uJma◊ß e˙pi« … ta»ß e˙xousi÷aß, mh\ merimnh/shte ‘when they bring you (to be tried) before … the authorities, do not be worried’ Lk 12:11. 76.12 e˙xousi÷af, aß f: the power to do something, with or without an added implication of authority — ‘power.’ hJ ga»r e˙xousi÷a tw◊n iºppwn e˙n tw◊ˆ sto/mati aujtw◊n e˙stin kai« e˙n tai√ß oujrai√ß aujtw◊n ‘the power of the horses is in their mouths and in their tails’ Re 9:19; e¶cein e˙xousi÷an e˙kba¿llein ta» daimo/nia ‘to have the power to drive out demons’ Mk 3:15. It is also possible to understand e˙xousi÷a in Mk 3:15 as meaning ‘authority,’ and in a number of instances it is difficult to determine whether the focus is upon the power which an individual has or a granted authority to do something which naturally implies strength or power (see 37.35–37.38). [p. 682]


Cor. 15:24; Eph. 1:21; Col. 2:10; used also of demons: in the plural, Eph. 6:12; Col. 2:15; collectively (cf. Lob. Ad Phryn., p. 469), heœ exousia tou aeros (see aeœr), Eph. 2:2; tou skotous, Col. 1:13 (others refer this to 4 a. (or c. a.) above (cf. Luke 22:53 in 2), and regard skotos as personified; see skotos, b.). d. a sign of the husband’s authority over his wife, i.e. the veil with which propriety required a woman to cover herself, 1 Cor. 11:10 (as basileia is used by Diodorus 1, 47 for the sign of regal power, i.e. a crown). (Synonym: see dunamis, at the end. On the infinitive after exousia, and exousia echein cf. Buttmann, 260 (223f).)*

e˙xousi÷an in Context Grammatical Function

Modification: Nuanced/Defined?

Surrounding Structure

e˙xousi÷an is an accusative noun. It is the object of the preposition katΔ∆ in 1:27; in 1:22 it is the object of participle e¶cwn. Its forward placement in 1:22 may be emphatic.

There is no specific nuance or definition given in the immediate context (see surrounding structure).

Structurally, e˙xousi÷an is directly related to Jesus’ teaching (1:22, 27); in 1:22 Jesus’ teaching is contrasted with the scribes because ostensibly he is one who has e˙xousi÷an (1:22). 1:27 is the result of 1:26, where we find the exclamation that Jesus’ teaching is new. One must ask what katΔ∆ e˙xousi÷an is modifying: ‘teaching’ or ‘commands.’ (See commentary work.) The dialogue between to Jesus and the man with an unclean spirit places Jesus’ identity as a central point of interest. His ‘authority’ is related to his identity.


Summary: e˙xousi÷an in Mark 1:21-28 The most probable meaning of e˙xousi÷an is ‘authority.’ Within Mark 1:21-28 it appears to be directly related to Jesus vis-à-vis his teaching (in contrast to the scribes) and his identity. It is something he ‘has’ as well as something he demonstrates through his teaching AND his rebuking of unclean spirits. Questions arise, however. Where does Jesus derive his authority? If it is related to his teaching, how is it different than the scribes? (E.g, is his teaching with regard to unclean spirits different?). What/who does he have authority over? A broader analysis might help one answer some of these questions, not just with the occurrences of e˙xousi÷an throughout Mark’s Gospel, but also how it is affected by the preceding material (e.g., 1:9-14 may play a major role in answering the where and what/who question) leading up to 1:21-28 and the material following (see Mark 3). Additionally, Jesus’ teaching and interaction with unclean spirits may be crucial in specifying our understanding of his e˙xousi÷an.

Bibliography Accordance Bible Software. Long, Fredrick. In Step With God’s Word: A Gradual Pastoral Exegetics for the New Testament. 2010. Louw, Johannes P. and Eugene A. Nida. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains, 2 vols. New York: UBS, 1988. Thayer, Joseph Henry. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1889. Wallace, Daniel B. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996.


History of Interpretation & Social Milieu (A) English Version (NASB)

Greek

*went into Capernaum; and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach. 22 They were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. 23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, 24 saying, “What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!” 25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be quiet, and come out of him!” 26 Throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 27 They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.” 28 Immediately the news about Him spread everywhere into all the surrounding district of Galilee.

21 Kai« ei˙sporeu/ontai ei˙ß Kafarnaou/m: kai« eujqu\ß toi√ß sa¿bbasin ei˙selqw»n ei˙ß th\n sunagwgh\n e˙di÷dasken. 22 kai« e˙xeplh/ssonto e˙pi« thØv didachØv aujtouv: h™n ga»r dida¿skwn aujtou\ß wJß e˙xousi÷an e¶cwn kai« oujc wJß oi˚ grammatei√ß.

21 They

Mark 1:23 Kai« eujqu\ß h™n e˙n thØv sunagwghØv aujtw◊n a‡nqrwpoß e˙n pneu/mati aÓkaqa¿rtwˆ kai« aÓne÷kraxen 24 le÷gwn: ti÷ hJmi√n kai« soi÷, Δ∆Ihsouv Nazarhne÷; h™lqeß aÓpole÷sai hJma◊ß; oi•da¿ se ti÷ß ei•, oJ a‚gioß touv qeouv. 25 kai« e˙peti÷mhsen aujtwˆ◊ oJ Δ∆Ihsouvß le÷gwn: fimw¿qhti kai« e¶xelqe e˙x aujtouv. 26 kai« spara¿xan aujto\n to\ pneuvma to\ aÓka¿qarton kai« fwnhvsan fwnhØv mega¿lhØ e˙xhvlqen e˙x aujtouv. 27 kai« e˙qambh/qhsan a‚panteß w‚ste suzhtei√n pro\ß e˚autou\ß le÷gontaß: ti÷ e˙stin touvto; didach\ kainh\ katΔ∆ e˙xousi÷an: kai« toi√ß pneu/masi toi√ß aÓkaqa¿rtoiß e˙pita¿ssei, kai« uJpakou/ousin aujtwˆ◊. 28 kai« e˙xhvlqen hJ aÓkoh\ aujtouv eujqu\ß pantacouv ei˙ß o¢lhn th\n peri÷cwron thvß Galilai÷aß.


Focal Points Questions • • • • •

In what ways is Jesus’ teaching different than the scribes? Why was the crowd astonished? What sort of authority does Jesus possess? What is an unclean spirit doing in a sacred space on a holy day? Why does Jesus command the unclean spirit to be quiet about his identity?

Problems • A modern problem/constraint on this passage could deal with miracles. This is •

the first miracle presented in Mark’s Gospel. Is Jesus prohibiting the unclean spirit from identifying him?

Emphases • The transition from 1:16-20 to 1:21-28 is best understood vis-à-vis Jesus’ authority. o 1:16-20Jesus calls his disciples to follow him, thus demonstrating his authority over them. o 1:21-28Jesus’ disciples witness his authority over unclean spirits by watching him call out an unclean spirit from a man in the synagogue. • Battle: kingdom of God vs. Satan’s minions o Exorcism o ‘Magical’ context (similarities/differences)? • Jesus teaching o New o Contrasts the scribes


Commentary Overview: Joel Marcus

Ben Witherington III

Craig Keener

-“In Mark 1:16-20 Jesus has called four men to abandon their day-to-day pursuits and follow him into battle in the eschatological war that was inaugurated in 1:13 by his one-on-one combat with Satan. These same four disciples now become witnesses to the first extensively reported encounter in that war, a powerful exorcism” (190).

-Verses 16-20=Jesus exhibiting his authority over his disciples-Verses 21-28=Jesus exhibiting his authority of his word in exorcism and teaching -One of Mark’s goals is presenting Jesus as an authority figure. -Εξουσια can mean either authority or power • Authority better term used in Mark’s Gospel

“The account of the fishermen demonstrates the claims Jesus’ authority makes on his followers’ lives, but the verses that follow it demonstrate his authority over evil spirits (cf. 1:12-13). The only recorded exorcist in the Old Testament was David (1 Sam 16:23). Although wandering demons appear frequently in Jewish literature, the only demons that appear in the Gospels (except Satan—Mk 1:13) are in people they possess (or, as a second choice, in pigs—5:12). The place that Jesus encounters his first demon may shock Mark’s readers: it is in a religious institution” (137).

-“…the whole mission of the Markan Jesus is encapsulated in the implicit affirmative response to the demon’s question, “Have you come to destroy us?” (1:24). It is not surprising, therefore, that later in the Gospel the unpardonable sin will be identified as misinterpretation of Jesus’ exorcisms (3:28-30)” (190). 1:22 and 1:28 are redactional. • “As in many Markan passages, then, Mark’s hand is most evident at the beginning and the end” (191). Pericope has 3 sections: 1) setting (1:21-22) 2) confrontation between the demon and Jesus (1:23-26) 3) crowd’s praise of Jesus (1:27-28) • “The first and third sections focus on the crowd’s reaction to Jesus, whereas the second highlights the struggle between the two supernatural antagonists. In the first section

-Capernaum is a fishing town located on the northwest side of the Sea of Galilee • Mark presents Capernaum as Jesus’ headquarters for operation • Both Peter and James’ families lived there • Jesus was a regular visitor of the first four disciples (1:16-20) Twofold emphasis: Jesus as teacher and Jesus as exorcist • Content of teaching not mentioned just that it was in contrast with the external authorities “The worship of Jesus’ day seems to have centered on prayer, the reading of Scripture, a sermon which exposited the text, and benedictions. If the Scriptures were read in Hebrew, there may have been summary translations in Aramaic (the reading of a targum?) or possibly even in Greek” (87-88).


the theme is Jesus’ teaching, and in the second it is his exorcistic power; the third section brings these two themes together by having the crowd praise Jesus for both” (191). “Jesus’ advent is responsible for the demonic attack, just as the Spirit is the real instigator of the struggle between Jesus and Satan in 1:12-13. For Mark’s community, which feels itself to be the focus of the hatred of the whole world because of its preaching of the good news about Jesus (13:9-13), this feature of the initial exorcism would function as a reassurance that the world’s reaction of convulsive hatred does not invalidate the community’s claim that its preaching imparts God’s eschatological message. On the contrary, it substantiates it; the violence of the response testifies to the force of the shock wave that has rocked the cosmos in the word of Jesus, just as the persecution and hatred prophesied in chapter 13 will prove that ‘it is not you who speak but the Holy Spirit’ (13:11)”

“What actually made a place a religious assembly was not the building or its shape but rather whether a quorum of ten Jewish males was present. It needs to be emphasized that the worship service was not led by clergy but rather by laypersons, perhaps especially those who had some expertise in the Scriptures, namely, the scribes. This may be why Jesus’ teaching is here compared to that of the scribes. Jesus was able to teach in various synagogues precisely because it was a time before the dominance of ordained rabbis” (88). Quoting Ched Myers: “In one sentence Mark moves Jesus from the symbolic margins to the heart of the provincial Jewish social order: synagogue (sacred space) on a sabbath (sacred time)” (88). Compare and Contrast with Luke’s opening story of Jesus in the synagogue: Mark’s account was much more favorable and thus his ministry in Galilee was presented as such, whereas Luke highlights the difficulties.

1:21 They *went into Capernaum; and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach.

Joel Marcus

Craig Keener

Capernaum=hometown for the four disciples Plural “they” probably redactional to connect 1:16-20 with this passage. • Why? To show that Jesus constantly “lived in community with a band of followers” (191) Jesus’ ‘amazing charismatic power’ is demonstrated by his teaching. The passage does not say that he was invited to teach.

Synagogues=community centers; places to study and pray • Visiting teachers would often be invited to lecture, ‘especially on the Sabbath.’ o Most people probably sat on mats on the floor (137).

1:22 22 They

scribes.

were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the


Joel Marcus

Ben Witherington III

-“The word for ‘authority,’ here, exousia, denotes “ ‘ability to perform an action’ to the extent that there are no hindrances in the way” (Foerster, “Exestin,” 560-62); it is therefore often applied to kings (e.g. Dan 4:31, 37; 1 Macc 6:11; Rev 17:1213), including the diving king (e.g., Dan 4:27, 31; Philo Cherubim 27; cf. Matt 28:18)” (191). • The crowd’s reaction testifies to the inbreaking of the kingdom of God (1:15) • Exousia, moreover, is particularly associated with God’s reassertion of his royal authority in the end-time; it is therefore no accident that it appear most frequently in the eschatologically oriented books of Daniel in the Old Testament and Revelation in the New” (191). • Authority contrasted with the scribes Mark’s view: human teaching by the scribes nullifies God’s commandment (7:8-9), “and such a preference for the human will over the divine will places them, in Mark’s dualistic universe, on the side of Satan (cf. 8:33; see Ambrozic, “New Teaching,” 115-21). It is no accident, then, that the contrast between Jesus and the scribes is immediately followed by an exorcism, which demonstrates Jesus’ authority in an even more astonishing fashion” (192).

-Astonished at Jesus’ innate teaching as opposed to his derived authority. -Emphasis on manner not matter. -scribes authority based on their learning, oral traditions, etc. -Jesus’ authority resembles more of a prophet -scribes are linked closely with Jesus’ authority throughout Mark’s Gospel (1:22; 2:6, 10; 3:15, 22; 11:2729, 33) • Jesus was a threat to the scribes (page 90)

Craig Keener Synagogue services: • Generally conducted by priests or local scribes “Most teachers would try to expound the law (normally from their Scripture reading) by explaining the proper way to translate and apply it or by appealing to their traditions. Jesus’ teaching went quite a bit further than this kind of exposition” (137).

1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit; and he cried out,

Joel Marcus “The suddenness of the manifestation [of the unclean spirit] underlines the impression that supernatural forces are at work” (192). man with unclean spirit • Could be an idiom o Literal understanding could

Ben Witherington III

Craig Keener

The man should not have entered since he was ritually impure. • Could be viewed, then, as a ‘deliberate provocation’ (90)

Demons were often called unclean spirits (e.g., Jubilees 10:1) • tended to be associated with magic • invoking names was a way a magician would try to subdue opposing


highlight that the unclean spirit has ‘swallowed up’ the man’s personality and thus their identity is fused together. Horrifying picture

spiritual forces demons could have access to supernatural knowledge

1:24 saying, “What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!”

Joel Marcus In Mark’s Gospel evil spirits are attracted to Jesus (5:6). “Have you come to destroy us” • magical formula trying to gain control over Jesus (192-93) “Holy One of God” • this identification comports with an eschatological context understanding that ‘holy’ and related words are often found in eschatological and apocalyptic texts • “In the OT itself the Messiah is never called a “holy one,” but Aaron, the prototypical priest, is termed “the holy one of the Lord” (Ps 106:16). One fragmentary Qumran text, 1Q30, appears to speak of the “the holy Messiah”; this may be a reference to a sect’s expected priestly Messiah, who for them is more important than the Davidic Messiah; cf. T. Levi 18:6-12, in which the eschatological high priest is

Ben Witherington III “The unclean spirit will be confronted and challenged by its opposite—the Holy One of God” (90). “Notice that Jesus’ focus is on teaching and his teaching is interrupted, and only then does he respond by healing the possessed man” (90). • Pattern in Mark’s Gospel: o Healings are a response to a pressing need, “not as a program Jesus set out to follow” (90). “It is not accidental that Mark presents an exorcism as the first miracle in this Gospel. He wishes to make evident that Jesus has come to destroy the powers of darkness. His ministry involves waging war on these powers” (90). The spirit is trying to gain control by using a naming ritual. It was a defense used that required correctly naming or rehearsing the title to gain control of the confrontation. “What to me and to you” • See Judg. 11:12; 2 Sam 16:10; 19:22; 1 Kings 17:18 “…it is a paradox that Jesus encounters evil not merely on the Sabbath but in the

Craig Keener Holy One of God • probably means ‘God’s righthand agent’ • demons would recognize their inability to harm those who were near to God


a holy being who, in the end-time, and through the Holy Spirit, will have authority over Beliar (=Satan), the king of evil spirits, and will grant the same authority to his “children” (cf. Mark 3:15). Perhaps, therefore, some of the priestly associations of “holy one” carry over to Mark” (188). • Possibly an echo to 2 Kgs 4:9 Elisha is referred to as a “holy man of God” (189).

synagogue right at the beginning of his ministry. The demon seems to be suggesting that by his teaching there, Jesus has invaded the territory of this spirit” (90-91). Battle is with “us” (come to destroy US) “Here, as elsewhere in Mark, only God, or supernatural beings, or humans who have received revelation from above know who Jesus really is” (91). • Humans in Mark’s Gospel call Jesus o Teacher (9:17) o Son of David (10:47-48) o Master (10:51) o Good sir • Demons o Holy One of God o Son of God (3:11) o Son of the Most High God (5:7) Mark does not see possession as another disease since he makes a distinction between the demon-possessed and those who are sick.

1:25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be quiet, and come out of him!”

Joel Marcus

Ben Witherington III

Craig Keener

Rebuke • recently published Aramaic and Hebrew incantation texts suggest that it can almost be viewed as a synonym ‘to exorcise’ • term could have a mythic background invoking the primordial battle by which God “rebuked” the “demonic power of the sea and thereby created the world” (194). o In an apocalyptic worldview the end time corresponds with the beginning time In the OT and later Jewish texts there is

Jesus’ rebuke is a way to take control over the demon. • PGM IX.4, 9 demonstrates this was a normal way to start an exorcism coupled with the command to come out (cf. PGM IV.1234, 1245, 3013). • Jesus does not use incantations, physical manipulation, or an appeal to a deity…thus, not presented as a magician

Exorcists usually had two main methods (generally part of elaborate incantations) of exorcising demons: 1) “revolting or scaring the demon out (e.g., by putting a smelly root up the possessed person’s nose in the hope that the demon would not be able to stand it); 2) invoking the name of a higher spirit to get rid of the lower one”


an idea where God will rebuke chaotic evil that ranged against his people and himself with the result of ushering in a ‘new age’ (194)

Not sure if this silence should be viewed as part of the messianic motif (91).

1:26 Throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him.

Joel Marcus -The demon’s submission is not quiet by any stretch of the imagination; it violently protests. -The departure of the unclean spirit validates that Jesus is the ‘holy one of God’ who “manages by God’s eschatological power to accomplish the miracle of separating the sacred from the profane and sinful, the man made in the image of God from the unclean old-age spirit that has devoured him” (194).

1:27 They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.”

Joel Marcus “What is this?” • compare/contrast with 4:41 response drives home the point that Jesus’ new teaching is an employment of militaristic language of someone commanding and obeying (194).

Ben Witherington III Astonishment should not be confused as having faith in Mark’s Gospel. The strong reactions from the beginning and the end of this pericope suggests that there is a ‘disruption of the assumed order of things’ (92). Jesus constantly filled people with awe, wonder, and fear (1.27; 2.12; 4.41; 5.15, 20, 33, 36, 42; 6.50, 51; 9.6, 15, 32; 10.24, 32 (twice); 11.18; 12.17; 15.5, 44; 16.5ff) (92). 27b •

read as “What is this new teaching with authority. He even commanded the unclean spirits..” or “What is this? A new teaching with authority he even commanded…” o Most take ‘Authority’ as modifying teaching o Maybe Mark is intending that like the teaching, the exorcism was “also a powerful happening” (93).

Focus: christological not pedagogical.

Craig Keener The people are amazed with Jesus’ effectiveness by not using either of these methods (see above). “Jewish tradition praised teachers who could draw special insights from the law and sometimes attributed miracleworking powers to popular teachers; but Jesus seems to earn a category by himself (‘new teaching’)” (138).


1:28 Immediately the news about Him spread everywhere into all the surrounding district of Galilee.

Joel Marcus The instantaneous spread of Jesus’ fame corresponds with the “suddenness of God’s anticipated action at the end of the age” (195).

Craig Keener “Galilee’s villages were close together, and close connections among them would allow word to spread rapidly” (138).

Bibliography Accordance Bible Software. Keener, Craig. The IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1993. Marcus, Joel. Mark, vol 1 (AB, rev.). New York: Doubleday, 2000. Witherington, Ben, III. The Gospel of Mark: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001.


Intertextual Relationships (A) English Version (NASB)

Greek

*went into Capernaum; and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach. 22 They were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. 23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, 24 saying, “What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!” 25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be quiet, and come out of him!” 26 Throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 27 They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.” 28 Immediately the news about Him spread everywhere into all the surrounding district of Galilee.

21 Kai« ei˙sporeu/ontai ei˙ß Kafarnaou/m: kai« eujqu\ß toi√ß sa¿bbasin ei˙selqw»n ei˙ß th\n sunagwgh\n e˙di÷dasken. 22 kai« e˙xeplh/ssonto e˙pi« thØv didachØv aujtouv: h™n ga»r dida¿skwn aujtou\ß wJß e˙xousi÷an e¶cwn kai« oujc wJß oi˚ grammatei√ß.

21 They

Mark 1:23 Kai« eujqu\ß h™n e˙n thØv sunagwghØv aujtw◊n a‡nqrwpoß e˙n pneu/mati aÓkaqa¿rtwˆ kai« aÓne÷kraxen 24 le÷gwn: ti÷ hJmi√n kai« soi÷, Δ∆Ihsouv Nazarhne÷; h™lqeß aÓpole÷sai hJma◊ß; oi•da¿ se ti÷ß ei•, oJ a‚gioß touv qeouv. 25 kai« e˙peti÷mhsen aujtwˆ◊ oJ Δ∆Ihsouvß le÷gwn: fimw¿qhti kai« e¶xelqe e˙x aujtouv. 26 kai« spara¿xan aujto\n to\ pneuvma to\ aÓka¿qarton kai« fwnhvsan fwnhØv mega¿lhØ e˙xhvlqen e˙x aujtouv. 27 kai« e˙qambh/qhsan a‚panteß w‚ste suzhtei√n pro\ß e˚autou\ß le÷gontaß: ti÷ e˙stin touvto; didach\ kainh\ katΔ∆ e˙xousi÷an: kai« toi√ß pneu/masi toi√ß aÓkaqa¿rtoiß e˙pita¿ssei, kai« uJpakou/ousin aujtwˆ◊. 28 kai« e˙xhvlqen hJ aÓkoh\ aujtouv eujqu\ß pantacouv ei˙ß o¢lhn th\n peri÷cwron thvß Galilai÷aß.


Identification Allusion Verse 24 saying,

“What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are— the Holy One of God!”

CITATION Allusion Echo oJ a‚gioß touv qeouv the Holy One of God

Reference(s) Psalm 106:16 [105:16 LXX] (NA27) kai« parw¿rgisan Mwushvn e˙n thvØ parembolhvØ kai« Aarwn to\n a‚gion kuri÷ou: When they became envious of Moses in the camp, And of Aaron, the holy one of the LORD,

Embedded Interpretation

Observation

Context

The man with the unclean spirit appears to be trying to overpower Jesus by identifying him, or claiming his title. Though it appears that the unclean spirit has correctly identified Jesus, in the end the spirit is cast out by Jesus’ authoritative command. Jesus, therefore, is ‘the holy one of God.’ Is he the “one who has come to destroy us?” Apparently he has come to destroy the unclean spirits/demons.

The wording is not exact • Accusative case as opposed to the nominative (Mark 1:24) • kuri÷ou (Lord) instead of qeouv; also Lord does not have an article modifying it. • Vorlage/different source?

This psalm begins by praising God for his works and loving-kindness (106:15). Then it recounts how the people of Israel have committed iniquities against God just like their fathers. Nevertheless God saved them (vv. 812) from the one who hated them (v 10). (The Exodus story could be understood as God defeating evil/chaos--similarly to the creation account). God’s power (th\n dunastei÷an) is mentioned in 106:8. The wilderness is mentioned in verse 14 (see Mark 1:12-13). In the wilderness, the people forgot God’s work and tested him resulting in a disease. They were envious of Moses and Aaron ‘the holy one of the Lord’ (v. 16). Later on in v. 39, the psalmist recounts how the Israelites became ‘unclean’ in their practices (i.e., idolatry).

Verse

CITATION Allusion

Reference(s)


Echo 24 saying,

“What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are— the Holy One of God!”

oJ a‚gioß touv qeouv the Holy One of God

Dan 9:20 LXX (Accordance Bible Software) kai« e¶ti e˙mouv lalouvntoß kai« proseucome÷nou kai« e˙xagoreu/ontoß ta»ß aJmarti÷aß mou kai« ta»ß aJmarti÷aß touv laouv mou Israhl kai« rJiptouvntoß to\n e¶leo/n mou e˙nanti÷on kuri÷ou touv qeouv mou peri« touv o¡rouß touv aJgi÷ou touv qeouv mou 20 Now

while I was speaking and praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the LORD my God in behalf of the holy mountain of my God, (NASB)

Embedded Interpretation The man with the unclean spirit appears to be trying to overpower Jesus by identifying him, or claiming his title. Though it appears that the unclean spirit has correctly identified Jesus, in the end the spirit is cast out by Jesus’ authoritative command. Jesus, therefore, is ‘the holy one of God.’ Is he the “one who has come to destroy us?” Apparently he has come to destroy the unclean spirits/demons.

Verse 24 saying,

“What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are— the Holy One of God!”

Observation The wording is not exact: • touv aJgi÷ou is found in the genitive case in Dan 9:20 instead of nominative (oJ a‚gioß). o Neuter instead of masculine Mountain instead of a person

Context In the context of Daniel 9, Daniel is praying for the Lord to spare Jerusalem from his wrath. As he was presenting his supplication “in behalf of the holy mountain of my God” Gabriel came and ministered to him telling him that the desolation of Jerusalem will not be 70 years (9:2), but later. The Messiah (‘anointed one’) is brought up as well as an end to sin and atonement of iniquity (see 9:24-27).

CITATION Allusion Echo

Reference(s)

oJ a‚gioß touv qeouv

2 Kings 4:9 [LXX] (Joel Marcus)

the Holy One of God

kai« ei•pen hJ gunh\ pro\ß to\n a‡ndra aujthvß Δ∆Idou\ dh\ e¶gnwn o¢ti a‡nqrwpoß touv qeouv a’gioß ou∞toß diaporeu/etai e˙fΔ∆ hJma◊ß dia» panto/ß: 9 She

said to her husband, “Behold


now, I perceive that this is a holy man of God passing by us continually.

Embedded Interpretation

Observation

Context

The man with the unclean spirit appears to be trying to overpower Jesus by identifying him, or claiming his title. Though it appears that the unclean spirit has correctly identified Jesus, in the end the spirit is cast out by Jesus’ authoritative command. Jesus, therefore, is ‘the holy one of God.’ Is he the “one who has come to destroy us?” Apparently he has come to destroy the unclean spirits/demons.

Not exact wording: • Holy man of God as opposed to holy one of God

This account involves Elisha being recognized as a ‘holy man of God’ by a woman who in turn provides him with a place to rest and eat. Thankful of her hospitality, Elisha blesses her and foretells the barren woman and her old husband would have a son.

Summary After viewing the allusion’s potential referential points of origin, one must ask this: is Jesus being compared to Aaron (Psalm 106:16), Elisha (2 Kings 4:9) or the mountain of God (Rev 9:20), i.e. Jerusalem (the Temple?)? More time should be dedicated to investigating how Jesus is potentially being compared to any of these three options in Mark’s Gospel.

Bibliography Accordance Bible Software. Marcus, Joel. Mark, vol 1 (AB, rev.). New York: Doubleday, 2000.


Evaluation & Application (A) English Version (NASB)

Greek

*went into Capernaum; and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach. 22 They were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes. 23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit; and he cried out, 24 saying, “What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!” 25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be quiet, and come out of him!” 26 Throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him. 27 They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.” 28 Immediately the news about Him spread everywhere into all the surrounding district of Galilee.

21 Kai« ei˙sporeu/ontai ei˙ß Kafarnaou/m: kai« eujqu\ß toi√ß sa¿bbasin ei˙selqw»n ei˙ß th\n sunagwgh\n e˙di÷dasken. 22 kai« e˙xeplh/ssonto e˙pi« thØv didachØv aujtouv: h™n ga»r dida¿skwn aujtou\ß wJß e˙xousi÷an e¶cwn kai« oujc wJß oi˚ grammatei√ß.

21 They

Mark 1:23 Kai« eujqu\ß h™n e˙n thØv sunagwghØv aujtw◊n a‡nqrwpoß e˙n pneu/mati aÓkaqa¿rtwˆ kai« aÓne÷kraxen 24 le÷gwn: ti÷ hJmi√n kai« soi÷, Δ∆Ihsouv Nazarhne÷; h™lqeß aÓpole÷sai hJma◊ß; oi•da¿ se ti÷ß ei•, oJ a‚gioß touv qeouv. 25 kai« e˙peti÷mhsen aujtwˆ◊ oJ Δ∆Ihsouvß le÷gwn: fimw¿qhti kai« e¶xelqe e˙x aujtouv. 26 kai« spara¿xan aujto\n to\ pneuvma to\ aÓka¿qarton kai« fwnhvsan fwnhØv mega¿lhØ e˙xhvlqen e˙x aujtouv. 27 kai« e˙qambh/qhsan a‚panteß w‚ste suzhtei√n pro\ß e˚autou\ß le÷gontaß: ti÷ e˙stin touvto; didach\ kainh\ katΔ∆ e˙xousi÷an: kai« toi√ß pneu/masi toi√ß aÓkaqa¿rtoiß e˙pita¿ssei, kai« uJpakou/ousin aujtwˆ◊. 28 kai« e˙xhvlqen hJ aÓkoh\ aujtouv eujqu\ß pantacouv ei˙ß o¢lhn th\n peri÷cwron thvß Galilai÷aß.


Evaluation 1:21 They *went into Capernaum; and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach.

Principle/Truth

Transcultural Or Situation-Bound?

Jesus taught on the Sabbath in synagogues.

This was not an unusual thing for Jesus (see Mark 1:39; Luke 4). He also healed in the synagogues on the Sabbath (3:1-6).

Capernaum was considered a home base for Jesus and the disciples (see HistofInterp).

This was a norm for Jesus (see the first half of Mark’s Gospel).

Evaluating Contemporary Culture Many Christians don’t teach on the Sabbath (Friday evening to Saturday evening). On the other hand, contemporary Jews probably do.

The synagogue was a place where nonprofessionals would teach.

Application/Appropriation Relationships HOUSEHOLD OF FAITH Family of God Do we have a place where we corporately meet with people in order to be taught by Jesus? -small groups


Evaluation 1:22

Principle/Truth

They were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having The crowd was authority, and not amazed at Jesus’ teaching. It was as the scribes. different than the scribes. Jesus taught as one having authority.

Transcultural Or Situation-Bound?

Evaluating Contemporary Culture

Jesus as an authoritative teacher is not unique to this context, nor only to this time: (see the following: Matt. 4:23; 5:2, 19; 7:29; 9:35; 11:1; 13:54; 15:9; 21:23; 22:16; 26:55; 28:15; 28:20

A lot of times our culture (and Christian subculture) are only amazed by certain aspects of Jesus’ teaching, i.e., selectivity.

Mark 2:13; 4:1; 6:2, 6, 30, 34; 7:7; 8:31; 9:31; 10:1; 11:17; 12:14; 14:49

The scribes’ authority was often derived from tradition. So too, we often gravitate towards particular traditions that may be in tension with what is actually present in the biblical text.

Luke 4:15, 31; 5:3, 17; 6:6; 11:1; 12:12; 13:22, 26; 19:47; 20:1, 21; 21:37; 23:5 John 6:59; 7:14, 28, 35; 8:2, 20, 28; 9:34; 14:26; 18:20). Particularly important is Matthew 28:18-20 where Jesus announces that all authority on heaven and earth are his and then commands his disciples to go and make disciples.

Application/Appropriation Relationships HOUSEHOLD OF FAITH God God regularly amazes people with His character and actions (see HistofInterp). Do we try to emulate his character and actions?

Self Self-examination: Does Jesus’ teaching amaze us? If not, why?

Family of God Has the Church expressed the kind of amazement about the authority of Jesus and his teaching? In what ways are those manifested? Do we share that amazement with others including our family, friends, community, city, country and global neighbors?


Evaluation 1:23

Principle/Truth

Transcultural Or SituationBound?

Evaluating Contemporary Culture

-A man with an unclean spirit entered into what was an alleged clean zone.

There are probably other instances in which this sort of thing occurs. To broaden the situation, one could think of something unclean invading a clean area, even with the purpose of leading God’s people astray (Mark 13:22)

Though the synagogue should probably not be viewed as analogous to a church, I’m sure there have probably been occasions of similar nature happen in a church.

-the unclean spirit could be understood as entrapping the person’s personality.

Other exorcistic stories found in the Gospels probably contain similar features.

Many contemporary skeptics would probably say that this man is suffering from some sort of disease or a chemical imbalance.

Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit; and he cried out,

Application/Appropriation Relationships HOUSEHOLD OF FAITH Self

Family of God

This may beg the question, “Can one within the household of faith be possessed by an evil spirit?” Ostensibly since the Holy Spirit dwells in the heart of the believer (Rom 8:9). Sins, however, kept unchecked can overrun a person.

Can God’s people attract unclean spirits? Can unclean spirits infiltrate a building where God’s people are located?

     


Evaluation 1:24 saying, “What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!”

Principle/Truth

Transcultural Or SituationBound?

Evaluating Contemporary Culture

-The evil spirit is trying to defeat Jesus through a naming ritual.

-This is not situational. We also see that Jesus is tempted by Satan in the wilderness (cf. 1:12-13 and parallels)

Many in contemporary culture might try to explain this away in a scientific/psychological fashion. On the other hand, many movies and TV shows have picked up how terrifying demon possession is to capture.

-Jesus is correctly identified as ‘the Holy One of God’

-Though this phrase is unique to the synoptic accounts, Jesus is uniquely God’s Son.

-Jesus has come to wipe out evil, i.e., destroy Satan and his minions.

-See Revelation 2021; 1 Cor. 15.

Application/Appropriation Relationships HOUSEHOLD OF FAITH God God’s identity is extremely important. Knowing Jesus and his character are quintessential in following him.      

Self Do we ever try to control God, to place Him under our subjection, make Him out to be who we want him to be? Do we correctly identify Jesus? Do we know who he is and what he has/is doing? Do we scream it?

Family of God 


Evaluation 1:25-26

Principle/Truth

And Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be quiet, and come out of him!” 26 Throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him.

Transcultural Or Situation-Bound?

Evaluating Contemporary Culture

-Jesus rebukes the unclean spirit, commanding him to be quiet and come out of the man.

Jesus quiets other demonpossessed people and tells them to get out of town.

See above.

-The unclean spirit departs with a scream.

Application/Appropriation Relationships HOUSEHOLD OF FAITH Self Like the unclean spirit, do we obey Jesus’ command to be quiet and do what he demands of us?    

Evaluation 1:27

Principle/Truth

They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.”

-see above on authority

Transcultural Or SituationBound? -above

Evaluating Contemporary Culture -above

-the new teaching is with authority especially in commanding unclean spirits to obey him.

Application/Appropriation Relationships HOUSEHOLD OF FAITH God Recognizing Jesus’ authority is a great thing. But, as you can see from the verse, it can also consist of argumentative dialogue.

Self Do we subject ourselves to God?

Family of God Are exorcisms to be emulated? (see 3:14)


Evaluation 1:28

Principle/Truth

Transcultural Or SituationBound?

Immediately the news about Him spread everywhere into all the surrounding district of Galilee. -News spread quickly after Jesus’ new teaching and exorcism are witnessed at the synagogue.

-This is all over the Gospels (see Mark 1:45).

Evaluating Contemporary Culture Our culture is more eager to spread catastrophic news as opposed to eucatastrophic news.

Application/Appropriation Relationships HOUSEHOLD OF FAITH God

Self

FAMILY & FRIENDS

Family of God

Family

Friends

-Do we spread the news of Jesus’ teaching and healings? Is it something that we are so excited that we have to share it with our family and neighbors?    This applies to the whole geographic spectrum

GEOGRAPHICAL Community

City

Country

Bibliography Long, Fredrick. In Step With God’s Word: A Gradual Pastoral Exegetics for the New Testament. 2010.

Globally


Illustrations, Examples, Stories, Explanations, & Analogies (A) Connecting to Our World 1:21

Principle/Truth

They *went into Capernaum; and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and began to teach.

Jesus taught on the Sabbath in synagogues. Capernaum was considered a home base for Jesus and the disciples (see HistofInterp). The synagogue was a place where non-professionals would teach.

SENSORY-AESTHETIC TEXTURE Auditory (hearing)

Visual (sight)

-Teaching involves hearing

-One could envision Jesus hurriedly (‘immediately’) going to teach in the synagogue. -Seeing a place where people come to learn.

RHETORICAL APPEAL Logos (reason)

Ethos (ethical character)

Generally, wherever there is teaching, there is reasoning taking place.

Teaching from the Bible entails ethical living.

IDEA(S) EVOKING IMAGES Jesus just calls his disciples and then immediately they go to the synagogue. Quick pace.

Communicating to Our Audience SOCIAL MEDIA Internet An interesting RCM telling of this story: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EabPb0ZVyLE

Youtube


Connecting to Our World 1:22

Principle/Truth

They were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.

The crowd was amazed at Jesus’ teaching. It was different than the scribes. Jesus taught as one having authority.

SENSORY-AESTHETIC TEXTURE Auditory (hearing)

Visual (sight)

See v. 21

Most people sat down while listening to the one teaching.

RHETORICAL APPEAL Logos (reason)

Pathos (feeling)

Jesus’ teaching/reasoning is different than the scribes producing amazement

Ethos (ethical character)

Amazement usually have feelings accompanying it.

See v. 21

IDEA(S) EVOKING IMAGES I can imagine Jesus stepping into the scene and teaching with everyone being shocked and awed by what he is saying. When a good teacher presents material that is mind-blowing, often that is the response.    

Connecting to Our World 1:23 Just then there was a man in their synagogue with an unclean spirit; and he cried out,

Principle/Truth -A man with an unclean spirit entered into what was an alleged clean zone. -the unclean spirit could be understood as entrapping the person’s personality.

SENSORY-AESTHETIC TEXTURE Auditory (hearing) ‘Crying out’

Visual (sight) Someone crying out generally has a particular expression on their face; in this case, probably a horrifying one

RHETORICAL APPEAL Pathos (feeling) The people in the synagogue are probably shocked, scared, unsettled, nervous, etc. The hairs on the back of their neck may be standing up

Ethos (ethical character) Unclean is invading into a space that is supposed to be clean (holy)


IDEA(S) EVOKING IMAGES See below; considering showing a clip from a movie OR ask people to imagine what it was like when they have seen a movie or heard someone recount a time of exorcism.

Communicating to Our Audience SOCIAL MEDIA Movies

TV

Plenty of movies have captured the horrifying picture of a demon-possessed person:

American Horror: A recent TV show on FX that is very popular has dabbed into the realm of demon-possessed people and exorcisms (viewer discretion advised)

The Exorcism The Exorcism of Emily Rose  

Connecting to Our World 1:24

Principle/Truth

saying, “What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!”

-The evil spirit is trying to defeat Jesus through a naming ritual. -Jesus is correctly identified as ‘the Holy One of God’ -Jesus has come to wipe out evil, i.e., destroy Satan and his minions.

SENSORY-AESTHETIC TEXTURE Auditory (hearing)

Visual (sight)

I would imagine that the voice coming from this person is not human sounding. The volume coming from this unclean spirit is probably increasing. Emphasis may be placed on “the Holy One of God”

Visually, I imagine if this were captured in a movie, then there would be zooming in between the demonpossessed man and Jesus. This is a faceoff.

RHETORICAL APPEAL Logos (reason) The unclean spirit is trying to use a magical formula to take control over Jesus. The demon-possessed man correctly identifies Jesus’ identity.

Pathos (feeling) See above verse

Ethos (ethical character) This is ethical. The unclean realm trying to overtake the holy realm. Jesus=the Holy One of God Depending on how one understands this phrase, it is nevertheless ethical (see Intertextuality)


IDEA(S) EVOKING IMAGES Battle scene. A battle of words. Like Jesus’ battle with Satan in the temptation scenes, the unclean spirit here is quoting Scripture for its own purpose. If the unclean spirits know Scripture well enough to spit it at Jesus in an attempt to overpower him, then we must be on defense with Scripture in our hearts. However, Jesus ultimate weapon is the Holy Spirit who we also have with/in us.

Communicating to Our Audience SOCIAL MEDIA Movies

TV

above

above

Connecting to Our World 1:25-26

Principle/Truth

And Jesus rebuked him, saying, “Be quiet, and come out of him!” 26 Throwing him into convulsions, the unclean spirit cried out with a loud voice and came out of him.

-Jesus rebukes the unclean spirit, commanding him to be quiet and come out of the man. -The unclean spirit departs with a scream.

SENSORY-AESTHETIC TEXTURE Auditory (hearing)

Visual (sight)

Rebuke: often a rebuke is passionate. Could Jesus be screaming back at the unclean spirit? Could the audience be covering their ears because of how loud the scream is? The Greek says that the unclean spirit fwnhvsan fwnhØv mega¿lhØ (shouted/voiced with a loud/large voice). Phonetically in Englishphone mega

Sensory (touch)

Visually Convulsions disturbing

RHETORICAL APPEAL Pathos (feeling) See above

IDEA(S) EVOKING IMAGES The Greek says that the unclean spirit fwnhvsan fwnhØv mega¿lhØ (shouted/voiced with a loud/large voice). Phonetically in Englishphone mega. Maybe consider having a megaphone at hand and have someone scream when reading this part of the passage. Jesus easily wins this battle. Not only that he doesn’t play by the typical rules. He commanded at it happened. Maybe this could conjure up militaristic ideas of someone of high rank giving orders.

Communicating to Our Audience SOCIAL MEDIA Music ‘Screamo’ music might encapsulate some of this idea of screaming at the top of one’s lungs in a creepy way.


Connecting to Our World 1:27

Principle/Truth

They were all amazed, so that they debated among themselves, saying, “What is this? A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him.”

-see above on authority -the new teaching is with authority especially in commanding unclean spirits to obey him.

SENSORY-AESTHETIC TEXTURE Visual (sight) The people at the synagogue are debating with one another. They are shocked and are searching for ways to explain what happened.

RHETORICAL APPEAL Logos (reason)

Pathos (feeling)

There is a ‘new’ thing about Jesus’ teaching, though the specific content is not given. He has authority unlike the scribes. The unclean spirits listen to him, maybe not the scribes.

Amazement: see above Authority: conjures up different emotions to different people. However, in this passage it is some that elicits amazement.

Ethos (ethical character) The focus of this passage seems to be primarily about WHO Jesus is. His identity as the ‘Holy One of God’ is the focus.

IDEA(S) EVOKING IMAGES A crowd of people in amazement exclaiming what just happened. Some are arguing with one another. “What in the world just happened? How did he do that? What is so different about him? Who is he?”

Communicating to Our Audience SOCIAL MEDIA Movies

TV

Many movies that have been coming out over the past decade have been comic book movies. Audiences love heroes who do the unthinkable and save the day; though, these movies are more Gnostic in nature, where the theme of the movie is that one just has to reach deep within oneself to be great.        

Discussions about people on TV are generally on how talented an athlete is or what is the latest details on a celebrity.


Connecting to Our World 1:28

Principle/Truth

Immediately the news about Him spread everywhere into all the surrounding district of Galilee.

-News spread quickly after Jesus’ new teaching and exorcism are witnessed at the synagogue.

SENSORY-AESTHETIC TEXTURE Auditory (hearing)

Visual (sight)

News is spreading about Jesus. A reputation of being able to exorcise demons and teach with authority is being told all over Galilee.

One can imagine everyone going back home after this account and telling their family, who in turns tells their neighbor, etc.

RHETORICAL APPEAL Logos (reason)

Pathos (feeling)

See above

See above

Ethos (ethical character) See above

IDEA(S) EVOKING IMAGES In a small town, word gets around fast. “Did you hear what Jesus did yesterday at the synagogue????!!” The living legend’s fame is spreading around.

Communicating to Our Audience SOCIAL MEDIA News

TV

Our world tends to quickly disseminate bad news as opposed to good news. When have you seen a news special on an exorcism?

ESPN show 30/30: Bo Jackson. He is portrayed as a living legend. There are all sorts of tales about him when he grew up. Eye witnesses tell the reporters what they have seen firsthand in amazement.

Bibliography Long, Fredrick. In Step With God’s Word: A Gradual Pastoral Exegetics for the New Testament. 2010. Youtube

Package A: Mark 1:21-28  

Example of Package A

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