Issuu on Google+

ON L

Y III 路 The Late Periods

IE W

Architecture of the Newars

II 路 The Malla Period

EV

Niels Gutschow

Architecture of the Newars

I 路 The Early Periods

PR

Niels Gutschow

Architecture of the Newars

R

Architecture of the Newars

Niels Gutschow Niels Gutschow

FO

Buchr眉cken / Schuber Vorderseite

A History of Building Typologies and Details in Nepal


Architecture of the Newars A History of Building Typologies and Details in Nepal Documentation Drawings by Bijay Basukala

FO

R

PR

EV

IE W

ON L

Y

Niels Gutschow

Volume I · Part I – III From 2 nd to the 14th -century

Nepal Architecture Archive / The Kathmandu Valley Preservation Tust – Francis Loeb Library, Harvard University

Serindia Publications, Chicago


ON L

Y

Niels Gutschow

EV

IE W

Architecture of the Newars PR

A History of Building Typologies and Details in Nepal

FO

R

Documentation Drawings by Bijay Basukala

Volume I · Part I – III From 2 nd to the 14th -century

Nepal Architecture Archive / The Kathmandu Valley Preservation Tust – Francis Loeb Library, Harvard University

Serindia Publications, Chicago


Architecture of the Newars A History of Building Typologies and Details in Nepal Documentation Drawings by Bijay Basukala

FO

R

PR

EV

IE W

ON L

Y

Niels Gutschow

Volume I · Part I – III From 2 nd to the 14th -century

Nepal Architecture Archive / The Kathmandu Valley Preservation Tust – Francis Loeb Library, Harvard University

Serindia Publications, Chicago


Niels Gutschow

LY

Nepal Architecture Archive / The Kathmandu Valley Preservation Tust – Francis Loeb Library, Harvard University

PR EV I

EW

ON

Architecture of the Newars A History of Building Typologies and Details in Nepal

FO R

Documentation Drawings by Bijay Basukala

Volume II · Part IV

The Malla Period · 16 th to 18th centuries

Serindia Publications, Chicago


Architecture of the Newars A History of Building Typologies and Details in Nepal Documentation Drawings by Bijay Basukala

FO

R

PR

EV

IE W

ON L

Y

Niels Gutschow

Volume I · Part I – III From 2 nd to the 14th -century

Nepal Architecture Archive / The Kathmandu Valley Preservation Tust – Francis Loeb Library, Harvard University

Serindia Publications, Chicago


LY

Niels Gutschow

PR EV I

EW

ON

Architecture of the Newars A History of Building Typologies and Details in Nepal

FO R

Documentation Drawings by Bijay Basukala

Volume III · Part V – VII

The Śāha Period 1768 – 1950 until today

Nepal Architecture Archive / The Kathmandu Valley Preservation Tust – Francis Loeb Library, Harvard University

Serindia Publications, Chicago


Architecture of the Newars A History of Building Typologies and Details in Nepal Documentation Drawings by Bijay Basukala

FO

R

PR

EV

IE W

ON L

Y

Niels Gutschow

Volume I · Part I – III From 2 nd to the 14th -century

Nepal Architecture Archive / The Kathmandu Valley Preservation Tust – Francis Loeb Library, Harvard University

Serindia Publications, Chicago


A

Krishna Prasad Shrestha – Bishnu Prasad Shrestha – Nutan Sharma – Sukra Sagar Shrestha – Shaphala Amatya – Surendra Joshi – Ganesh Man, Anil and Bijay Basukala

6 Foreword 11 Introduction: An overview over previous studies

Documentation 400 Two- and triple tiered temples with an inner ambulatory 447 Two-tiered temples with an ambulatory 461 Two- and triple-tiered temples with an outer ambulatory 493 Tiered temples on a rectangular plan 505 Cāpaḥs, sattals, maṇḍapas and towers

Part I – The Setting 35 The Valley of Kathmandu

Designed by Jürg Roth, Paris and Reto Mettler, Langnau Printed by Vögeli AG, Langnau, Switzerland Binding by Grollimund, Reinach, Switzerland Type Adobe Garamond Newar Paper Lessebo 1.3 Natural, FSC and PEFC certificated, CO² neutral

Part II – The Early Period, 2nd to 9th centuries 179 Kushan sculpture – 2nd to 5th centuries 180 Architectural fragments. pillars and struts 186 The Jokhang of Lhasa 195 Caityas of the Licchavi period (6th – 8th c.)

Part III – The Transitional Period, 10th to 15th centuries 217 Introduction 219 Buddhist temples 221 Monasteries (bãhãs and bahīs) 224 Hindu temples 226 The evolution of architectural elements 234 Step-wells 235 Documentation

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gutschow, Niels. Architecture of the Newars : a history of building typologies and details in Nepal / by Niels Gutschow ; documentation drawings by Bijay Basukala. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Summary: «A detailed study and documentation of the architecture of the Newars, the ethnic inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Includes a history of the architecture, building typologies, and detailed measured drawings.»--Publisher›s description. ISBN 978-1-932476-54-5 (set : hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Architecture, Newari--Nepal--Kathmandu Valley--History. 2. Vernacular architecture-Nepal--Kathmandu Valley--History. I. Basukala, Bijay. II. Title. NA1510.8.N42K3735 2011 720.95496--dc23 2011030901

Volume II

FO

R

Editors: Malcolm Green, Heidelberg and Philip Pierce, Kathmandu Desktop publishing: Jarosław Polamarczuk, Wrocław Reproductions: Via Nova, Stanislaw Kłimek, Wrocław

77 Bhaktapur 105 Patan 125 Kathmandu, 135 Small towns and settlements on the Kathmandu Valley 154 Nuvākoṭ, 167 Gorkhā 172 The Newar house

710 Bahīs – monasteries with a non-tantric (exoteric) tradition 729 Bãhãs – monasteries with a tantric (esoteric) tradition 771 Branch monasteries (kacãbãhã) Volume III

Part V – The Śāha Period (1768 – 1950) 791 Introduction 795 Palaces

IE W

© 2011 Niels Gutschow and Serindia Publications All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced in whole or in any part, in any form without permission from the publishers. ISBN 978-1-932476-54-5

The urban context of Newar architecture

Part IV – The Malla Period (16th to 18th centuries) 279 Introduction 281 Palaces 281 Bhaktapur 306 Patan 331 Kathmandu 351 Tiered temples 365 Typology 375 Structural elements of the tiered temple 394 The roof

Śikhara temples Domed and tiered temples in brick and stone Houses (dyaḥchen) for movable gods and secret deities Monastic institutions of śaivas, the maṭh Platforms and arcaded buildings Water Architecture Buddhist votive buildings (caityas, maṇḍalas) Buddhist monasteries (bahā, bahī, kacãbahā)

795 815 843 851 855

The palaces of Nuvãkoṭ The palaces of Gorkhã The palaces of Bahãdur Śãha and Bhīmsen Thãpã The palaces of Jaṅga Bahãdur Rãṇã The palaces of the Śāṃśer Rãṇãs

EV

Serindia Publications, Inc. PO Box 10335 Chicago, IL 606610 USA info@serindia.com www.serindia.com

515 595 571 591 625 665 679 707

Relief and geology The Newars The emergence of a sacred landscape Buddhist layers of sanctification Place and Territory Sound and void – the God of Music

PR

First published in 2011 by Serindia Publications

35 36 38 47 61 69 75

Y

Volume I

ON L

Dedicated to my companions in our search for Newar architecture, 1970-2011

869 873 916 923 939

The emergence of engineering Tiered and domed Temples Sattal buildings Buddhist votive Buildings (caityas) Urban domestic architecture

Part VI – Urban Planning and Modern Architecture 963 Introduction 965 The beginning of Town Planning 973 Modern architecture 981 Conservation: a weak branch of architecture Part VII – Architecture as a Stage for Transcultural Flows 985 Thoughts about the nature of transcultural flows 989 Of wisdom-bearers, angels, dragons and serpents 989 Aerial spirits (vidyãdharas and gandharvas) 994 Winged spirits in Newar architecture 1003 The dragon 1015 The baluster column 1025 Bibliography 1031 Index

Contents


The Kathmandu Valley 35

Part I The Setting

FO R

Y

PR

EV

The contrast between the wooded backdrop of mountains with summits between 2,000 and 2,500 metres punctuating the rim of the Valley and the broad, flat Valley bottom at a level of some 1,300 metres produces a striking landscape. If the watershed is taken as the basis for geographical delimitation, the Valley covers some 650 square kilometres111 in area, which is much less than the Valley of Kashmir. The Valley bottom owes its genesis to the draining of a Pleistocene lake, or rather to a series of swamps of varying water levels which are easily identifiable today as successive terraces. The draining cannot be dated, but it can be said that the basin is a Tertiary valley system covered by fluvial and lacustrine sediments. Isoclinal valleys of the preQuaternary landscape, which tower up to 150 metres above the bottom of the basin, extend as narrow east-west-oriented basement ridges far out into the extant bottom. The most striking of these bars formed by pre-Devonian rocks is the limestone ridge of Kīrtipur, which extends from the western edge of the Valley almost to its centre and gradually disappears beneath recent sedimentation and rock debris to the east of the Bāgmatī river. A similar, though much shorter basement rib is the ridge of Svayambhū Hill, which likewise consists of limestone. The hilly area of Paśupatināth and Gokarṇa in the northern section of the Valley consists of phyllites and slates. From the eastern edge a broad

ON L

Relief and Geology110

basement spur extends to Caṅgunārāyaṇ, separating the sub-basin of Sankhu. The formation of the lake or swamps can be explained tectonically. The upheaval of the southern range of the Himālaya, the Mahabharat Lekh, had blocked all the rivers. The three chief rivers, the Karnali in the west, and the Narayani and the Koshi in the east, were able to breach the barrier at geologically weak points. Likewise, the Bāgmatī river found a weak point. The upheaval of the southern range is still in progress. Since the lake dried up about 200,000 years ago, the range has been raised by at least 20 metres. This can be seen by the bedding of the deposits which slope upwards towards the south.112 The continuation of tectonic movements regularly results in seismic activity. Earthquakes used to and still devastate the urban centres of the Valley at least once in a century. The sediments of the Kathmandu Valley reach a level of 1,360 metres at the southern edge of the Valley bottom and 1,380 metres in the north.113 The attached map illustrates the extent of the sediments through which the ridges of Kīrtipur and Svayambhū Hill emerge. The only river that drains the Valley is the Bāgmatī, which originates from the Śivapuri mountain in the north and breaks through the Mahabharat range in an impressive antecedent transection valley. The river cuts into the sediment filling of the basin, exposing the total profile from boulder beds to the most recent alluvial fan deposit. All source rivers of the Bāgmatī flow centripetally toward the centre of the basin. The basement ridges are not circumvented, but rather transected in narrow ravine-like valleys at three places that are guarded by temples housing powerful deities, Gokarṇeśvara, Paśupatināth and Jalavināyaka (at Cobhār).

IE W

The Valley of Kathmandu The geological, topographical and cultural frame for an emerging sacred landscape

35

Opposite Boulders in the bed of the river Bāgmatī Photograph Ursula Schulz-Dornburg, March 1993


FO R

PR

EV

IE W

ON L

Y

The Kathmandu Valley 37

dynasty: an area which the treaty of Sagauli in 1816 squeezed into a rigid frame of borders. The Nepalese state itself adopted this usage only at the beginning of the twentieth century, and only in 1930 did the Rāṇā bureaucracy designate the administrative language as Nepālī. The fact that the Newars are divided by caste, religion, locality, and dialect makes the question of Newar ethnicity a highly complex one, about which no full agreement can be reached. The term ‘Newar’ is only attested from the midseventeenth century. At that time it referred to members of the politically dominant groups, the leaders of the people of Nepal, who spoke nepāl-bhāṣā, “the language of Nepāl.” It is possible to assume as Gellner argues that ‘Newar’, as a

group label, derived from the name of the language. Nevārī is a Tibeto-Burman language, but this is a fact Newar intellectuals have learnt only recently. For the whole of its known history Nevārī has been within the socio-linguistic ambit of North India, taking from Indo-European languages vast numbers of loan words, and even grammatical features. Sanskrit is the scriptural and liturgical language of both Hinduism and Buddhism. The 200 extant inscriptions of the Licchavi period are written in pure Sanskrit, but the analysis of the place-names mentioned shows that the early inhabitants spoke Nevārī.118 Some 200 non-Sanskrit words have been found in ancient inscriptions, toponyms of mountains or hills (morphemic finals in nominal com-

37

Bhaktapur, two Bhailaḥnāyaḥ, farmers by caste, who are the caretakers (nāyaḥ) of Bhairava. This powerful deity is often addressed as the nāyah, the chief deity of the town. On the occasion of the New Year Festival (Bisketjātrā) they wear white turbans or red caps and are fully clad in white when they accompany the deity on his ritual journey. Left Bishnu Lal Cukan (1923–1995), Right Pancha Lal Cukan (1921–2003) Photographs 11 April 1987


EV

IE W

ON L

Y

The urban context: Bhaktapur 77

Bhaktapur

FO R

PR

Historical background The history of a couple of settlements along the ridge that runs parallel to the river Hanumante begins with three inscriptions, of which two date from 595 CE. Bernhard Kölver176 and Sudarshan Raj Tiwari177 have tried to delineate spatial units that constituted three independent settlements (grāma) on the present territory of Bhaktapur. Kölver regarded present-day units of urban space with common funerary processional routes as evidence of how the borders of neighbouring settlements were defined. More than two hundred years later the name Bhaktapur surfaces in a document for the first time. We do not know what topographical unit corresponded to it. Although this scant evidence confirms the early existence of settlements, a 19th-century chronicle reports the foundation of a city named Bhaktapur by one Ānandadeva only in the middle of the 12th century. Moreover, this king is said to have founded seven settlements east of Bhaktapur and to have installed the Navadurgā deities “to ensure security and protection.”178

For whatever reasons, the chronicle has the legendary foundation of an urban centre with “12,000 houses” being constructed upon the advice of a goddess from Kāśī (Benares). We know neither the extent of the topographical unit that comprised this city and the kingdom’s hinterland with its seven settlements, nor why to this Ānandadeva is ascribed a cosmogonic act, the establishment of a kingdom, a city and a palace. Even the 14th-century chronicle, which was compiled in Bhaktapur itself during the rule of Jayasthitirājamalla (1382–1395), describes Ānandadeva’s accomplishments, such as building and consecrating a city including the Tripura palace with its seven pinnacles. Referring to this chronicle, Kamal Prakash Malla suggested that “as a bridegroom brought from outside, and then groomed and inducted into the politics, society and culture of the Nepal Valley, Sthitirājamalla had to understand the country, and culture of the Nepal Valley”179, and, one might add, to construct a proper background for his rule over the entire Valley, which became known as Nepāl Maṇḍala. The queen was the granddaughter of Harasiṃha, who in the wake of the Muslim threat fled his Mithila kingdom in 1326 to establish a new

77

Bhaktapur View of the city from the south, with an intact skyline of tiled roofs. The roof of the Nyātapvala and Bhairava temples emerge among the three-storeyed houses. Behind the towering temple lies the ridge of Caṅgu against the snow-capped mountains of Gosainkuṇḍa and Langtang. The tiered tower of Nyātapvala temple (built in 1702) is the seat of King Bhūpatīndra’s personal deity. Photo W. Kröger, January 1992


1

2

3

4

0

ON L

Y

92 The urban context: Bhaktapur

5 100 M

FO R

PR

EV

IE W

Bhaktapur Section, scale 1:1000, through the 500metre-long principal ritual axis, starting with the five-tiered Nyātapvala temple at Taumādhi square to Bisinkhel on the other side of the Hanumante river. 1 Nyātapvala temple, 2 Bhairava temple, 3 A gate building leading to the entrance of the Bhairava temple, 4 Tilmādhdva Nārāyaṇa temple, 5 Gaḥhiti square, 6 Laykve square, 7 Pvaḥtvāḥ, the quarter of sweepers and fishermen, 8 Yaḥsinkhel, the large square for the erection of the New Year’s pole, 9 Cyasilin Maṇḍap, once a tripletiered temple, the temporary abode of Bhairava on New Year’s Eve, 10 Yaḥsin, the New Year’s pole, 11 A one-storeyed temple, seat (pīṭh) of the non-iconic representation of Vaiṣṇavī, the fourth of the Mother Goddesses, but also identified with Bhadrakālī, the consort of Bhairava, 12 The Hanumante river, 13 A small temple with a wall picture depicting Smāśānabhairava, 14 Kvathusubya temple containing the seat of an ancestral deity (dugudyaḥ), 15 Bisinkhel including its Bhīmsen temple. Drawing by M. Wunder, April 1974

92

6

Plan of the ritual axis, leading from the Darbār square to the cremation grounds across the Hanumante river 1 Palace, 2 Nyātapvala temple, 3 Bhairava temple, 4 Bhailaḥsattal, 5 Narsingha temple, 6 Cyasilinmaṇḍapa, the temporary abode of Bhairava on New Year’s Eve, a Bhairava’s temporary god-house (dyaḥchen) on the three days preceeding New Year, b Bhadrakālī’s temporary abode during three days preceding New Year’s Day, c The mound in the pit of which the New Year’s pole is erected, d The non-iconic shrine (pīṭha) of Bhadrakālī/ Vaiṣṇavī.


The Early Period – 2 nd to 9 th Century 179

Part II The Early Period 2nd – 9th Century is unclothed except for a scarf across the chest and upper body consists of a flat necklace folded across the chest and a torque-like thick necklace at the neck, armlets on the upper arm and two bracelets on the left wrist. The ears are adorned with heavy spiral earrings. The head bears an unusual turban or cap; in one place we can see traces of braiding that suggest a turban. The features of the face are somewhat eroded, but are clear enough to show a wide, relatively flat face, with wide, open eyes and fleshy lips. The figure is barefoot.”284 The exact reading of the inscription remains a subject of debate, but Tamod and Alsop have convincingly suggested that the sculpture indeed represents King Jayavarman, who had it made of pale sandstone. The fact that in 1965 a torso in the same style and of the same material was found in close proximity suggests the former existence of a gallery of royal statuary, a citrasala. The inscription, some 42 centimetres long, is written in Kushan Brahmi script comparable to Kushan epigraphy found elsewhere, and can be read as follows: saṃvat a 7 grīpa d[i]vapka mahārajasya jayavarm[m]a[ṇaḥ] = [In] the [Śaka] year 107 [185 CE], [on] the 4th [lunar] day of the 7th fortnight of the summer [season], of the great King Jayavarman).285 Maligaon was certainly the site of the ancient capital of Licchavi Nepal, but the dynasty name “Licchavi” occurring for the first time in an early 6th century inscription. Some scholars argue that the Varman clan were not Licchavis. It will be up to future research to determine the political and dynastic identity of Jayavarman. But without doubt it can be said that “the culture this king ruled over was strongly allied to the great Kushan empire then on the wane in India.”286

FO R

IE W

PR

EV

No architectural fragment of the earliest period of history has so far been located. But Lain Singh Bangdel had identified some 40 sculptures which, on stylistic grounds, have been associated with the Kushan dynasty, which ruled over much of North India and the Hindukush from Baktria down to Mathura and Sarnath. Kanishka, the greatest king of that dynasty, assumed the title mahārāja rājādhirāja devaputra (“the great king, the king above all other kings, son of the god”). His son even assumed the title kaisara, reflecting the title of the Roman king who ruled over Mesopotamia in the early 2nd century CE. Craftsmen from Mathura must have reached Nepal around, and left an indelible mark. A number of rather small sculptures depicting mother goddesses has been identified by art historians as reflecting the Kushan style. The scene changed dramatically in early May 1992 with the discovery of a life-size sculpture of a monarch, named Jayavarman in an inscription on the pedestal. The description by Kashinath Tamod and Ian Alsop reads as follows: “The figure is shown in a firm stance, fully frontal, with feet equally spaced and planted without any dṛhanchement, or turning of the body. The left arm is held akimbo at the hip, with the hand held as a fist against the body; the right arm, which was broken off and has been restored, is held with the forearm raised against the upper arm, as if holding something at shoulder height; as the right hand is missing, it is impossible to be sure of its exact position. This disposition of the two arms is typical of Kushan sculpture. The lower body, from the waist down, is clothed in a dhoti with a central gathering falling straight between the legs. The waist is secured by a belt with ribbons hanging down over the figure’s right side. The upper body

ON L

Y

Kushan sculpture – 2nd to 5th century

179

Opposite King Jayavarman, dated the equivalent of 185 CE, sandstone, height 171 cm, recovered in four large pieces in May 1992 in Maligaon (east of Kathmandu), since 1998 exhibited at the National Museum in Chauni.

The inscription, some 42 cm long, is written in Kushan Brahmi script comparable to Kushan epigraphy found elsewhere, and can be read as follows: saṃvat a 7 grīpa d[i]vapka mahārajasya jayavarm[m]a[ṇaḥ] = [In] the [Shaka] year 107 [185 CE], [on] the 4th [lunar] day of the 7th fortnight of the summer [season], of the great King Jayavarman).


The Early Period – 2 nd to 9 th Century 185

PR

EV

IE W

ON L

Y

Bhaktapur Stone column at Bisinkhel, beyond Chupinghāṭ, south of the main cremation ground The bottom of the 6th- to 8th-century column is set 21 cm into the ground and fixed to a concrete foundation. The provenance of this column remains unknown. The column measures 250 cm in length, the square shaft being 24 by 24 cm, and its base 29.2 cm tall. The frame of the squatting figure (see detail, scale 1:2) measures 19.6 by 15.8 cm. The base recedes in three steps and projects with almost identical steps to form a roof-like top with upswept corners. The squatting figure supports the structure with his left hand and right elbow, while resting his right hand on his knee. The slightly bent head, the drapery of the dress and the bands below the knee are widely-found features on figures below the spouts in step-wells, suggesting well-defined prototypes. In this case the figure is set in a clear-cut frame without the otherwise common rock motifs (Slusser 1982, vol. II, Pl. 306). The pedestal-like base supports a vase of plenty (kalaśa). Large leaves with lotus flowers emerge from the vase in four directions, covering its outline to the bottom line. Rising from the centre of the vase a lotus stem rises amid cloud foliage, recalling the presence of the primeval waters. Reinforcing such associations, a fully opened lotus flower rises on top of the spiraliform curl of foliage, which is flanked by miniature versions of this motif. The column becomes circular via a short octagonal transition. The short circular section of the column is defined by a band of foliage at the bottom and on the top. Above another octagonal and square section follows a circular register of myrobalan fruits (Skt. āmalaka) of the type invariably found crowning a north Indian temple. Above another square section of the column come lotus leaves, both opening upwards as well as inverted. Drawing A. Basukala, June 1999

FO R

Top Detail of a similar column at Tulāchen, unearthed in the 1990s near the tiered platform of the Jagannāth temple. Locally known as gaṇa, attendants of Śiva or Devī, these loadbearing figures are shaped after the prototypes from Gandhara, representing Atlas, a Titan condemned by Zeus to support the heavens upon his shoulders. Photograph November 1999

185


188 The Early Period – 2 nd to 9 th Century

The Jokhang in Lhasa Left The bottom end of the left colonnette of the main gate to the temple

EV

IE W

ON L

Y

Right The bottom of the left-hand colonnette (Nev. toraṇthan) of the door of the Jobo Rinpoche shrine The frontal niche houses what is a probably a Bodhisattva, much the same way as the dvārapāla of Gupta-period temples did. The curled lotus foliage on the side is of a peculiar design, foreign to the Licchavi stylistic vocabulary. Photographs August 2005

Kathmandu (Itumbāhā and Yetkhabāhā) and Patan (and Ukubāhā, Sasunani) date to the 9th- to 12th-century, but these have been invariably incorporated into courtyard structures that date to the 16th-, or more often, to the 17th-century. We must assume, however, that these structures were rooted in a long tradition which lasted until 1752, when the Caturbrahmāmahāvihāra was reshaped in Bhaktapur. In Nepal, even the temples housing the royal deities were based on single-bayed, square courtyard buildings, as exemplified by the plan of the Mūcuka, the main courtyard of the palace complex in Bhaktapur. This was probably laid out in the 15th century, when King Yakṣamalla is said to have established his palace at the present site on the northern periphery of the city. The present shape of this courtyard incorporates architectural fragments such as windows of the early 17th century along with changes to the plan from the late 17th century. Isolated from its annexes, the plan of the square building, about one-third smaller than the Jokhang in Lhasa, is based on a single-bay of 2.80 metres in dimension, the maximum measurement in Newar architecture until the end of the 18th-century. The span of the Jokhang chambers measures more than 4 metres, necessitating specifications for the ceiling joints which were never aimed at in Nepal before AngloIndian building standards entered the country at the end of the 18th century. The most important feature of the Mūcuka’s plan is the deviation from a square room at the corners, in order to retain traces of the nandyāvarta diagram and its revolving wing pattern.306

FO R

PR

The four wings with their arcades facing in towards the courtyard are designed in such a way that on each side the circumambulatory walkway of the arcade ends bluntly at the outer wall. In the plan, the resulting pattern is what in ancient manuscripts is labelled as nandyāvarta, literally a “whirl of happiness.”304 Ancient texts like the Mānasāra had proposed the nandyāvarta diagram as one of eight possible ones for the establishment of villages or towns305, a notion reflected hundreds of years later in an architectural guidebook, the Kriyāsa¿graha. Dated to 1213, the sole manuscript of this text, the National Archives in Kathmandu, advises planning a Buddhist monastery on the basis of the nandyāvarta diagram. The resulting pattern produces a sense of motion, the entire structure revolving around an invisible centre. To sum up, the orientation of the single-bayed structure, the linearity of the east-west axis and the notion of cyclic time are inscribed into a square so as to produce a highly complex figure. No Licchavi structure has survived in Nepal itself. The earliest wooden fragments from Buddhist monasteries in

188

The door frames of the Jokhang By analyzing the free-standing post and the door frames of the entrance of the Jokhang and the main shrine, the door frames of the flanking Amitābha and Maitreya shrines on the ground floor and the Dharma King Meditation Cave and Padmasambhava shrines on the first floor level, together with the door frames of the northern and southern wings, we arrive at a complex picture of what may have been stages of the site’s evolution. Major stylistic differences indicate that the original structure continued to be reshaped until the 11th-century. The entrances of the main, and flanking shrines of both levels are certainly the product of carpenters from the Nepal


The Early Period – 2 nd to 9 th Century 197

ON L IE W

FO R

PR

EV

Of the large caityas that according to the 14th-century chronicle, the Gopālarājavaṃśāvalī, were established in or around the 5th century the Svayambhūcaitya (siṅgu-vihāra-caityabhaṭṭārika), the Bodhnāthcaitya (khāsaucaitya) and the Dharmadevacaitya presumably only the last of these retains roughly its original shape. As the other two were repeatedly restored and considerably altered and even unearthed from 13th to 16th-century, they will be presented in the second volume, in the chapter on Malla period caityas. In case of the Dharmadevacaitya, the dome is of squat proportions with a cube, that covers more than half of the dome’s diameter placed on an almost flat top. The horizontal layers of the cosmic parasol were transformed into steps of dressed stone, encompassing the central post, the yaḥsin (or yaṣṭi) though it is not known when. The stepped shape of the finial is unique and occurs otherwise only at the nearby Bodhnāthcaitya which was restored at the beginning of the 16th century. The five niches with triple-tiered roofing are engaged to the dome and supported by a low drum. These probably date back to the restoration of the caitya by King Pratāpamalla in 1656. That was the time when, after a long gap, the erection of caityas again became popular, with Licchavicaityas undergoing relocation, in the case of Cabahil to serve as finials for the five niches. Pratāpamalla also renewed the central shaft. Sheets of silver, copper and gold was recovered on the occasion of the renewal of the shaft in 2003, located just below the shaft. Inscribed verses suggest the dating to the mid 17th century. At that time two pieces of chap wood were joined together to form the shaft. In 1843 the top of the shaft was replaced by two pieces of hardwood (sāl), measuring 106 and 89 centimetres. For the replacement of the entire shaft in 2003, three pieces were joined with an entire length of 12.87 metres. While dismantling the cube (harmikā) on top of the dome, 399 votive caityas (of which one was of crystal, one of stone, one of blue stone and one of gilt metal) as well as many sculptures and seals came to light. Most remarkable, bricks were found inscribed “Cārumati thūpa” and “Cā(vā)ti(dha)ndo”, referring to the daughter of the Mauryan Emperor Aśoka, to whom many stūpas were attrib-

Y

Traces of Licchavi details on large caityas

197

Cahabil, elevation east and top view of the Dharmadevacaitya, scale 1:200 This is probably the only large caitya which retains the dome in its 5 th-or 6 th-century shape. Established by Dharmadeva in the middle of the 5 th-century, it underwent later restorations in 1656 by Pratāpamalla and in 1717 by Mahindrasiṃhamalla. By that time the niches must have long been reshaped, with small fragments from Licchavicaityas serving as finials. The finial, with its thirteen step-like tiers and the āmalaka ring may merely date back to a 19 th-century renewal. Only the decorated plaques on the low drum profile below the niches of the Tathāgatas can be identified as part of the original Licchavi configuration. In 2003 the entire finial was renewed: the central wooden shaft, measuring 42 feet and joined from three pieces, was removed. It rested above the level of the drum, 5.26 m from the top of the dome. The new shaft is again joined by three pieces which were enclosed in a box of steel. Finds of inscribed bricks and hundreds of votive caityas point to a major restoration in the early 11 th-century. Drawing B. Basukala, 1992


The Malla Period 279

Part IV The Malla Period 15th to 18th century east to the Triśuli river in the west. His six sons first ruled jointly, but soon the territory was split up between three brothers. Weakening central power enabled the mahāpatras of Patan to rule independently, as Lords of Maṇigal (maṇiglādhipati). By 1619, when Siddhinarasi���ha usurped the throne in Patan and his brother Lakṣmīnarasiṃha followed his father in Kathmandu, three separate city states emerged, ruled by Malla kings. For more than a hundred years to come these three little “kingdoms” were constantly entangled in strife and competition. This specific rivalry was not exclusively a political matter, but very much a cultural one. With larger and higher temples of innovative design, along with elaborate rituals, each kingdom aimed at surpassing the neighbouring two. King Siddhinarasiṃha and his son Śrīnivāsa who ruled Patan from 1619 to 1684 took the lead in transforming their palace and building temples of unprecedented design. King Pratāpa followed from 1641 to 1674 in Kathmandu and in Bhaktapur King Jitāmitra and his son Bhūpatīndra from 1673 to 1722. Within these one hundred years the urban culture of the Newars reached an apogee, with hundreds of temples being built and Buddhist monasteries reshaped. The three small kingdoms kept fighting with neighbouring principalities, but were wise enough to conclude treaties with the emerging hill principality in the west, centred around Gorkhā. But this could not prevent their eventual disastrous defeat. Pṛthivīnārāyaṇ Śāha conquered Kathmandu in 1768 and Bhaktapur in the following year. The new dynasty established its seat at Kathmandu, the Mallas ceased to exist.

FO R

IE W

PR

EV

Historical background The term “malla” does not identify a people and does not refer to a dynasty. Similar to “ṭhakurī ”, it is rather a title that was adopted by the kings as a suffix to their names, literally “the wrestler”, or “victor”. The first king was Arimalla, who in 1200 added the new title to his name. But not until Sthitirājamalla ascended the throne of Bhaktapur in 1382 to establish a dynasty did all of the rulers lay claim to the title – up until the end of the three kingdoms of the Kathmandu Valley in 1769. Sthitimalla (alias Jayasthitimalla) was probably called from Mithilā in the south-east of present Nepal in 1354 as husband of the eight-year-old granddaughter of Devaladevī. She was the wife of Harisiṃha, the last king of Mithilā, who on his flight from a Muslim invasion died in 1326 before reaching Bhaktapur. There, finally, the queen and her son sought refuge. “Ruthless in his usurpation of the throne”, Sthitimalla “gave Nepal a stability it had not known for centuries”, as Mary Slusser put it.342 Although till the early 15th century petty kingdoms on the periphery such as Pharping and Banepa (Bhoṭarājya) questioned Bhaktapur’s power, Sthitimalla succeded in establishing a central rule at his Yuthunimam palace, which Newar scholars locate at the present quarter of Tulāchen. His grandson Yakṣamalla enjoyed a long reign of 54 years until he died in 1482. The nobles of Patan, the mahāpātras, resisted the central rule to a certain extent but Banepa was eventually conquered. For the first time in many centuries Yakṣmalla’s rule extended beyond the narrow confines of the Valley – Nepal Maṇḍala – from the Sunkośi river in the

ON L

Y

Introduction

279

Opposite Bhaktapur, Mūcuka, south wing Watercolour by Henry Ambrose Oldfield, ca. 1855, inscribed “Moolchok in the Bhadgaon Durbar” Source: Royal Geographical Society, S0019888


FO R

PR

EV

IE W

ON L

Y

Palaces 285

0

5

10 M

285

Bhaktapur, the “Palace of Fifty-Five Windows”, section and elevation of the cornice above the ground floor and reconstruction of the second floor’s projecting balcony Drawings B. Basukala, September 1992 Elevation south, drawing B. K. Tiwari, March 1996 Source: B. K. Tiwari 1999, plate 7


Buddhist Monasteries 707

Top Seven of the ten elders of Itumbāhā, standing with their ceremonial robes and caps in front of the Hall of Mirrors (Sisamahal) at Nasalcuka of Kathmandu’s Hanumānḍhokā Palace. They have just been initiated into the office of elder in preparation for the ordination ceremony.

Buddhist monasteries (bāhā, bahī)

ON L IE W

FO R

PR

EV

In his 2005 article on the restoration of Itumbāhā, Alexander von Rospatt of Berkeley University outlined the background of Newar monastic institutions.572 The following account largely paraphrases his short text without identifying actual quotations of it. Placing Newar Buddhism into a historical context, Rospatt states that Newar Buddhism is the tradition native to the Valley of Kathmandu, that is, the historical “Nepāl”. Early on, he writes, Nepal was drawn into the fold of South Asian religion and civilisation and has, in this sense, virtually always been part of the subcontinent. This is borne out by recent archaeological finds of monumental Kushan-style stone statues (see p. 178) dating from the 2nd century CE. The Kushans and, in particular, the great King Kaniṣka, who ruled in the 2nd century from Mathura, favoured Buddhism and did much to further its spread to the north, obviously as far as the Valley. The archaeologist Giovanni Verardi is of the opinion that eventually finds dating back even to the Mauryas, who ruled from 323 to 187 BCE, will surface. Till now, the presumed Mauryan connection only survives in a legend that tells us that the great King Aśoka married his daughter Cārumatī to a local nobleman, who founded the Cārumatīvihāra. A monastery with this name exists still today at Cabahil, demonstrating the strong roots of the legend. Regardless of such earlier developments, Buddhism in the Valley has a history of at least eighteen hundred years. Newar Buddhism may thus be regarded, as Rospatt claims, as the oldest Buddhist tradition to have persisted uninterruptedly until the present. Because of its peripheral location, the Valley was raided by Muslim troops only once and as the shrines were not destroyed, monastic traditions remained alive. Newar Buddhism has preserved many autochthonous religious practices, but it clearly belongs to the larger world of Indian Buddhism. Newars preserved the Indian Buddhist literature and authored their own works in Sanskrit, which in turn were translated into Tibetan and incorporated into the Tanjur. The rhetorical question “Can there be Buddhism without monks?”573, put forward in 1973 by the anthropologist

Y

A short introduction to Newar Buddhism571 and the development of monastic institutions

Michael Allen with pointed reference to Newar Buddhism, lacked proper understanding, for in the modern world new types of Buddhism blur the monk-layman divide. But the anthropologist David Gellner has insisted that within the Newar context Buddhism cannot exist without monks, “and

707

Bottom Gyanaratna Shakya on the day of his ordination into the saṅgha of Itumbāhā, standing on the lotus stone in front of the doorway of the shrine (kvāpāchen) of the guardian deity in the west wing of the quadrangle. He holds two insignia of a monk, a begging bowl and a staff ending in a sceptre (vajra) at the upper end. Photographs P. Shakya, 4 February 2001


PR

EV

IE W

23.3 CM

ON L

Y

724 Buddhist Monasteries

FO R

Patan, Ibābahī, lintel end right of the principal doorway, measuring 23.3 x 106 cm, scale appr. 1:2 A pair of male and female wisdom bearers (vidhyadhāra/vidyadhārī) occupy the large part of the lintel, playing a string instrument and cymbals. Richly adorned with large earrings, a crown of lotus leaves, two necklaces and two garlands, bangles on the wrists, the lower arms and the upper arms, ankles and lower legs, the body of the male spirit appears with flexed legs. The female spirit is about one-third smaller

and equally richly adorned. She remains airborne without touching the body of her partner. A little higher up follows another spirit, wielding unidentified instruments, possibly a kind of clappers. The entire configuration is immersed in foliage and lotus scrolls. In the shape of four large scrolls with a diameter of 12 cm, cloud foliage becomes the dominant motif. Drawing B. Basukala, February 2011

724


Palaces 791

Part V

FO R

PR

EV

Historical background The surrender of the three kingdoms of the Valley in 1768 (Kathmandu) and 1769 (Bhaktapur) was described by Ludwig Stiller as an “anti-climax.” Historically more important was “the system of government”604 introduced by Pṛthivīnārāyaṇ Śāha, who ruled through military governors. Detrimental to unified rule was, however, the factionalism that began after the death of Pṛthivī’s successor Pratāp Singh in 1777. His brother Bahādur Singh ruled as regent in place of the infant King Raṇa Bahādur Śāha and added more territory to the newly emerging kingdom of Nepal, in most cases through the voluntary submission of petty kings who were granted the right to rule and collect taxes. Forced into exile at Betiya, the eccentric King Raṇa Bahādur Śāha took over, but resorted to Vārāṇasī to lead the life of an ascetic at the age of 22 in 1799. He left the country to be ruled by a regent in place of his infant son. This delicate situation gave rise to a new structure that led to the rise of powerful prime ministers, who eventually seized absolute power. The first of the two most influential ones in the 19th century was Bhīmsen Thāpā, who joined Raṇa Bahādur in the initiation ritual (vratabandha) in 1785 at the refashioned palace at Gorkhā, and who acted as the king’s personal secretary in Vārāṇasī. Upon the death of Raṇa Bahādur in 1806, Bhīmsen Thāpā gained control of the country with the support of Raṇa Bahādur’s widowed Queen Lalitatripurasundarī for a long period of 31 years. Nepal not only lost a war with China in 1792 but also the Anglo-British war in 1816, and had to allow the British to set up a “resi-

dent” who would watch what Stiller called “a Byzantine power structure.”605 The British resident commented ironically, “that the royal authority of Nepal at that time was shared by Mr. Nepal, Master Nepal, and Mrs. Nepal.”606 Mr. Nepal was Rajendra Bikram (1813-81), who was enthroned at the age of three and dethroned in 1847, to be replaced by his eighteen-year-old son Surendra. Bhīmsen Thāpā was the first Master Nepal who established his power by executing his rivals and filling posts with his trusted men and relatives. After his fall in 1839, several prime ministers followed suit until Mathbar Singh, a nephew of Bhīmsen Thāpā was called from Lahore to fill the vacuum of power in 1843. He had the leading figures of the rivalling Pandeys and Basnets executed before he himself was ruthlessly killed by his nephew Jaṅga Bahādur Kunwar. It was this young, 29 year-old commander of the army who, with the help of his brothers, killed almost all the members of the nobility and the high-ranking officers in the course of the so-called Koṭ Massacre on 14th September 1846. The following day Queen Lakṣmīdevī (at that time “Mrs. Nepal”) appointed him as Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief (ruling till 1877). Ten years later he became Śrī Tin Mahārāja, King of Kaski and Lamjung, a title by which the Rāṇā prime ministers were subsequently known. On the same day, he prepared a roll of succession, “giving birth to such a political ethos in the Darbar where conspirational politics, cliques and intrigues were the rule rather than the exception.”607 After his return from Europe in 1850, he called a council to draw up laws which four years later were codified in a document called Muluki Ain in an attempt to regulate every aspect of social and religious life in Nepal.

IE W

Introduction

ON L

Y

The Śāha Period 1769 to 1950

791

General Babar Śaṃśer Rāṇā and his five sons, ca. 1935 on a terrace at his palace Babar (1888-1960) was the second of nine sons of Candra Śaṃśer (18631929, Prime Minister 1901-1929). His palace was built by his father in 1913 and presented to him in 1928. Since 1957 it houses the Roads Department. The perfectly symmetrical arrangement of the father and his sons in crescent form mirrors the design of the palaces and in a certain way the autocratic rule of the Rāṇās, which lasted for 103 years. The picture was carefully designed right down to the way the caps are worn – on the left turned down to the right ear, on the right turned down to the left ear. Even the colour of the shoes adds to the symmetry, and matches the way the right leg crossing the left leg by four sons balances the posture of those on the left side. To soften the symmetry, the shutter on the left side remains closed while the shutter on the right is open, overlapped by the shutters of the central opening, which is occupied by the proud father in standing position. Babar was sent by Padma Śaṃśer (the only legitimate son of his father’s younger brother Bhīm Śaṃśer and prime minister 1945-48) on a good will mission to the United States in 1946, following which diplomatic relations were established. His eldest son Mrigendra (second from left) was a “pseudo-reformist” who in 1948 was appointed as chairman of a University Planning Council and Director General of Education by his father’s elder brother Mohan Śaṃśer (prime minister 1948-1951). After 1951 he had a term as minister of education. Source: Collection of the author


792 Palaces

PR

EV

IE W

ON L

Y

Kathmandu “Sri Tribhubana – Chandra Military Hospital 1925 AD. To the glory of Sri Pashupatinath and to the memory of those brave sons of the Kingdom of Nepal who fell in the Great War 1914-19 (sic) AD” Above an arched basement, columns with Ionic capitals face Tuṇḍhikhel Square. The pediment on the median risalit bears a marching Gurkha soldier, above the dedicatory inscription that refers to King Tribhuvāna and Prime Minister Candra Śaṃśer Rāṇā. In a unique variation, tiled awnings protect the walls from rainwater. Photograph Martin Hürlimann, end of April, 1927 Source: Fotostiftung Schweiz, Winterthur

FO R

A decisive change occurred in 1885 when the Śaṃśers killed their uncle Raṇoddīp Singh Rāṇā to establish a new line of succession. Bīr Śaṃśer (1885-1901) first took up residence at the Tallo Nārāyaṇhiti Darbār, which the Royal family also moved to in the early 1880s. He even forced King Pṛthivī Bīr Bikram to marry two of his daughters from his Newar wife. Bīr not only became the most prolific builder of Nepalese history, but also introduced administrative reforms, re-dividing the entire country into districts headed by the army. His successor, Candra Śaṃśer “the tyrant” (1901-1929), who visited England in 1908, tightened the night curfew and enforced control of movement: Nobody could leave or enter the Valley without a permit. The Anglo-Nepal Friendship Treaty of 1923 turned the British Residency into a Legation, but not before 1934 did the next Prime Minister, Juddha Śaṃśer (1929-45) succeed in establishing a Nepalese Legation in London. Candra’s social reforms won him praise as he abolished the practice of sati (self-immolation by wid-

792

ows) in 1920 and outlawed slavery in 1924, and, oddly enough, paid compensation from the temple treasury. Nepal remained “virtually like a protectorate of the British.”608 Ambassadors were exchanged with the United States in 1948 but not before 1950 did a Nepal-United Kingdom Treaty respect each other’s independence. In the meantime anti-Rāṇā movements gained ground, international pressure caused Mohan Śaṃśer to allow King Tribhuvan to be flown to India from whence he triumphantly returned to Nepal on 16th February 1951. In an address to the nation he “annulled the hereditary rights and other powers given to the Rāṇā Prime Ministers by his great-grandfather.”609 The “Delhi Compromise” aimed at a constitutional monarchy in which the king acted under the advice of ministers who represented the Rāṇās and the Nepali Congress in equal part. The most powerful bond between Nepal and the world had been through the recruitment of Nepalese soldiers. In the beginning, dissident Nepali troops joined the Punjab


Architecture as the Stage for Transcultural Flows 985

Part VII Architecture as the Stage for Transcultural Flows

FO R

Y

PR

EV

The encounter of Newar architecture with “influences” from the South as well as the North has been a dynamic process from at least the 5th century on, in which the urban culture of the Kathmandu Valley has not only been a recipient. Viewed in a transcultural perspective, the urban culture of the Newars occupies a space of transition. It borrows and domesticates from what it both connects and separates, the Gangetic plains and the Tibetan plateau. Its geographical remoteness, which allowed Buddhism to flourish without interruption, never led to a cultural isolation. The material continuity of the geographically confined and at times competing kingdoms of the Valley has always served as a multidirectional and multivalent treasure-house of ideas, forms, specialised skills and expertise. Almost every structural or decorative detail of Newar architecture is made up of elements that travelled a long way to be transformed into a particular shape, which in a long process became unmistakably identifiable as Newar. Harking back to a common set of symbols of almost universally valid cosmological and cosmogonic associations, such details are based on the ideas of mountain and vertical axis, of water and rain, sun and moon. The present, comprehensive overview of Newar architecture makes a variety of details from all periods accessible for the first time. This allows us to identify phases in the acceptance of motifs, structural elements and also objects and practices which were new and foreign, but were regarded as viable and powerful by principals and their craftsmen. The

ON L

A multivalent perspective

domestication of the foreign was and continued to be based throughout history on a general willingness to accept elements from other cultural spheres.734 Influence, derivations, transformation, amalgamation, impregnation or assimilation – all these terms try to describe the process of a transcultural flow of architectural details, iconographical programmes, scale and proportions. This flow often transcends the encounter of neighbouring regions with their various architectural traditions, which for both sides are perceived as “foreign.” With reference to transculturality, architecture is not seen as a product in a static environment but a dynamic process. The craftsman is no longer an actor in a circumscribed realm – in this case a single Valley – but in a zone of contact with fluent, flexible borders.735 To speak of an “influence” would “deprive both ends of a cultural production, the passing and the receiving entity, of their autonomy”736, as the art historian Hans Belting recently maintained. Such cultural production is a never-ending process: under certain cultural conditions – be it landscape, natural resources, and religion – the grammar of architecture is constantly extended. The vocabulary of symbols and motifs that roved and still roves all about Central and South Asia always tended to be incorporated or assimilated in a complex process of newly emerging forms. The present chapter intends to illustrate in a short overview how aerial or celestial creatures – generally associated with water – inhabited and still inhabit a vast transcultural space, in which myths travelled in all directions. Common to all myths are hybrid creatures associated with water, which combine various bodily elements in an effort to create an ambiguity. This ambiguity made it probably easier to translate and incorporate certain aspects of such hybrid

IE W

Thoughts about the nature of transcultural flows

985

Opposite A Gupta-period (5 th century) wisdombearer (vidyādhara) in terracotta from an unidentified place in Uttar Pradesh Set against an arched frame, the benevolent aerial spirit is depicted with his legs flexed back from the knees, carrying a flower garland. Source: Musée Guimet, Paris


Architecture as the Stage for Transcultural Flows 989

Of wisdom-bearers, celestial musicians, angels, dragons and serpents

ON L IE W

PR

EV

The background, Gupta-period prototypes In the context of the early Buddhist monuments at Bhārhut, Sanchi and Amarāvatī, beneficial aerial spirits populated stone reliefs. As “bearers of wisdom” (vidyādhara), they appeared either in human form and without wings, or in a hybrid form with the upper half of the body in human form, the lower half like that of a bird. On the northern tympanum of the Great Stūpa of Sanchi, dated to the 1st century CE, such bird-men can be seen equipped with long wings, carrying garlands and facing the object of veneration, a stūpa. A century later, such spirits appear flying on top of the halo of Buddha images, one leg almost stretched and the other flexed in such a way that the knee reaches the height of the navel.745 Similar and contemporary reliefs of the Sātavāhana dynasty at Nasik present flying garland bearers with both legs flexed backwards from the knees. Later Gupta-period, 5th-century panels present the wisdom-bearers carrying auspicious offerings in cups, their outer lower legs flexed in such a way that they appear parallel to the body. Fluttering shawls entwine their bodies.

Y

Aerial spirits (vidyādharas and gandharvas)

FO R

The arrival of Gupta-period wisdom-bearers in Nepal – the early period As a convincing prototype of those types of wisdom-bearers that made their early entry into Nepal, we shall look at a 5th century, Gupta-period fragment in terracotta, which depicts an aerial spirit holding a garland of braided flowers. In the 6th or early 7th century, such flying spirits first appeared in Nepal on two panels in low relief, fixed to the drum of a large caitya in Kathmandu (see p. 198). On these panels, the wisdombearers are flying almost horizontally, with their legs flexed to an extreme, and holding offerings in their raised hands. Pairs of lions, geese, snake-virgins, composite creatures such as winged and horned lions and hybrid forms of wisdom-bearers, half human, half bird, are seen guarding the niches of many caityas of the Licchavi period (6th to 8th centuries). Surprisingly, flying human figures depicted without wings are conspicuously absent.

The flying, human-bodied vidyādhara survived solely on a few fragments in stone, on lintel ends and on the supporting blocks below aedicules with small window openings – all of them datable to the late Licchavi or early Transitional period. One of these fragments, salvaged from an esoteric shrine building at Sulima (see p. 263) has been radiocarbon tested, suggesting a late 10th century origin.746 Similar bearers of wisdom, invariably with large earrings, a turban-like hairstyle and a diadem above the forehead quite literally bear the architectural frame of aedicules or miniature windows. This

989

From a Book of Iconography, Nepal, ca. 1575-1600, Los Angeles County Museum of Art (height 8 cm, length 20.3 cm) The tracing of four folios depict a celestial spirit (gandharva, inscribed jalamānuṣa = the aquatic man), an aquatic creature (makara), the sun-bird Garuḍa and a dragon (inscribed gadyasa in an earlier version of the manuscript). Common is the foliated tail of the four creatures, which indicates the shower of rain in the form of lotus vine descending from the atmosphere. Source: Gautama V. Vajracharya, “Threefold Intimacy: The Recent Discovery of an Outstanding Nepalese Portrait Painting”, in: Orientations, April 2003, p. 41


Architecture as the Stage for Transcultural Flows 1017

Baluster columns in comparison, from left to right:

FO R

PR

EV

IE W

ON L

Y

Column of the pronaos of the Temple of Khons, at Thebes Drawing E. Prisse

1017

The Tomb of the cardinals d’Amboise in Rouen, completed in 1525. Detail of the frame of a niche housing “virginitas”: the engaged colonnette has a bulb-like base and acanthus-leaves at the bottom of the fluted column and on the capital. Drawing J. de Mérindol Source: Jules Gailhabaud’s Denkmäler der Baukunst, Vol. I, Leipzig 1852, plates CVII, 2 and Vol. IV, LXXVIII, 2.1. Base and capital of a baluster column from the Gopal Bhawan of Dig, built by Suraj Mal of Bharatpur in 1763 Photographs 11 November 1978 Elevation of the Gopal Bhawan in Dig, drawing by Oscar Reuther, November 1912 Source: Oscar Reuther, Indische Paläste und Wohnhäuser, Berlin 1929.


ON L

Niels Gutschow

IE W

Architecture of the Newars NEPAL ARCHITECTURE ARCHIVE

EV

Architecture of the Newars by Niels Gutschow presents the entire history of architecture in the A History Building Typologies and Valley of of Kathmandu and its neighbours over a period of 1500 years – right Details up to the present. in Nepal

FO

R

PR

It is a rare tribute to an urban culture which has preserved fascinating lifestyles to this very day. Gutschow first travelled to Nepal in 1962, returning in 1970 after reading architecture, and has constantly worked since then on the connections between ritual and the city. Since 1980 he has worked with measured drawings to identify the various building typologies, which are documented in three volumes with 862 photos and 939 drawings. Gutschow was born in 1941 in Hamburg, and currently lives in Absteinach, Germany and Bhaktapur, Nepal. He is an honorary professor at the University of Heidelberg, South Asia Institute.

www.serindia.com

Niels Gutschow Architecture of the Newars

Y

Schuber Rückseite / Rücken


Architecture of the Newars A History of Building Typologies and Details in Nepal (3-volume Set) by Niels Gutschow 9.75 x 10.5 in (25 x 26.5 cm) 1030 pages 862 b/w photographs and 939 drawings Available November 2011 You can order this book from: www.serindia.com Email: info@serindia.com


Architecture of the Newars (3 Volumes)