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IAW: Chapter 7

Comparing & Contrasting

Revision Paragraph Writing Rules 1. Simple Sentence: A simple sentence is a sentence that has only one subject-verb pair. Subject

Verb

For example: The Harry Potter films are magnificent. Possible formulas: SV (i.e. 1 subject & 1 verb)/SSV/SVV/SSVV 

SVSV= not a simple sentence but a compound sentence.

* Remember: Subject and verb should agree at all times: My brothers is nice fellas = Wrong My brothers are nice fellas= Correct A sentence ALWAYS has a subject + a verb If one of the two is missing, it is called a fragment. Check your work (peer review) to make sure you don’t have any fragments in your paragraph. Insert Verb Here

E.g. English people… always in a hurry= wrong (no verb) … Is very difficult to see the stars from here=wrong (no subject) Insert Subject Here

a. Make sure you apply the rules of capitalisation in English (refer to p. 7-8 of your IAW book). b. When you use time order signals (see p.25 IAW), make sure you know where or when to use a comma. Then, now, and soon usually do not require one. E.g. Then, we tried to fix his bicycle= wrong Then we tried to fix his bicycle= correct * Time order phrases generally do require a comma: E.g. At last, it came to light that he did commit the crime.

COSHP Semester 2, 2013/14


IAW: Chapter 7

Comparing & Contrasting

2. Compound Sentence: A compound sentence contains 2 simple sentences (i.e. 2 subject-verb combinations) joined/connected by a coordinating conjunction (CC). S

V

V

S

S S S E.g. Yesterday we went to Jeddah, but we didn’t go to Mecca. CC S

3. Coordinating Conjunctions: FANBOYS

For

And

But

Nor

Or

Yet

So

* Only use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in compound sentences. In a simple sentence no comma is needed: E.g. We ate dinner and then played cricket. No 2nd subject Here

= No Comma Needed

Examples when used in comparison sentences: Both Amsterdam and Brussels have overcrowded City Centre’s. Comparison Signal

S S

S S

V S

= S

Simple Sentence = S No Comma Needed

COSHP Semester 2, 2013/14


IAW: Chapter 7

Comparing & Contrasting

* Paris is a centre of fashion and culture, and Milan is too. S S

V S

CC S

S S

CC

V S

SVSV= Compound Sentence (Two subject-verb pairs) !Comma Needed!

* One subject verb pair/combination: S

V

V S

Teacher Serge and his friends walked across the cornice and discussed the English 111 Quiz.

Punctuation Rules 1. Commas:

Rule 1 To avoid confusion, use commas to separate words and word groups with a series of three or more. 1

2

3

ďƒ 

Example: My ÂŁ10 million estate is to be split among my husband, daughter, son, and nephew. Omitting the comma after son would indicate that the son and nephew would have to split one-third of the estate.

Rule 2 Use a comma to separate two adjectives when the word and can be inserted between them. Examples: He is a strong, healthy man. We stayed at an expensive summer resort. You would not say expensive and summer resort, so no comma.

Rule 3a Use a comma to separate the day of the month from the year and after the year. Example: Kathleen met her husband on December 5, 2003, in Mill Valley, California.

COSHP Semester 2, 2013/14


IAW: Chapter 7

Comparing & Contrasting

Rule 3b If any part of the date is omitted, leave out the comma. Example: They met in December 2003 in Mill Valley.

Rule 4 Use a comma after phrases of more than three words that begin a sentence. If the phrase has fewer than three words, the comma is optional. Examples: To apply for this job, you must have previous experience. On February 14 many couples give each other candy or flowers. OR On February 14, many couples give each other candy or flowers.

Rule 5 Use a comma to separate two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction--and, or, but, for, nor. You can omit the comma if the clauses are both short. CC Examples: I have painted the entire house, but he is still working on sanding the doors. I paint and he writes. C1 Short

C2 Short

= no need for comma

*If the subject does not appear in front of the second verb, do not use a comma. Example: He thought quickly but still did not answer correctly.

= Simple Sentence

*Rule 6 Use commas to introduce or interrupt direct quotations shorter than three lines. Examples: He actually said, "I do not care." "Why," I asked, "do you always forget to do it?"

COSHP Semester 2, 2013/14


IAW: Chapter 7

Comparing & Contrasting

Rule 7 A comma splice is an error caused by joining two independent clauses with only a comma instead of separating the clauses with a conjunction, a semicolon, or a period. A run-on sentence, which is incorrect, is created by joining two strong clauses without any punctuation. Incorrect: Time flies when we are having fun, we are always having fun. (Comma splice) Time flies when we are having fun we are always having fun. (Run-on sentence)

Correct: Time flies when we are having fun; we are always having fun. OR Time flies when we are having fun, and we are always having fun. OR Time flies when we are having fun. We are always having fun.

2. Comparison Signals 1. Sentence Connectors a. Similarly/Likewise -Used at the beginning of a sentence: E.g. Riyadh is the capital of Saudi Arabia. Likewise, Brussels is the capital of Belgium. E.g. Birds are thought-provoking animals. Similarly, reptiles are inspiring creatures too.

b. Also - Used in the middle or at the end of a sentence: Example: Ahmed is an excellent student. Mohammad is also a brilliant apprentice. Middle

Ahmad is an excellent student. Mohammad is a brilliant apprentice also. End

c. Too - Usually at the end of a sentence: Example: Rayan is very tired today. Meshal is, too. With or without Comma = Correct

Example (with coordinating conjunction and): Rayan is very tired today, and Meshal is too.

* The combination and‌too is a coordinating conjunction.

COSHP Semester 2, 2013/14


IAW: Chapter 7

Comparing & Contrasting

2. Subordinating Conjunctions d. As & just as (subordinating word) - Begins a dependent clause: Example: Riyadh is flourishing and massive, as/just as Jeddah is.

* Remember, use a comma before as/just as

3. Others e. Similar/equal/ the same (act like adjectives) - Describe Nouns Example: An I-Pad and a Galaxy Tab have similar/equal/ the same features. * describing: -features-

f. Similar to/ equal to/ (just) like/the same as (act like prepositions) - Used in front of Nouns Example: Like Riyadh, Jeddah has a major traffic problem. Bef. Noun

& Riyadh’s traffic problems are similar to/ (just) like/ the same as/ equal to Jeddah’s. Before Noun

g. Equally (adverb) - Describes an adjective Example: Riyadh and Jeddah are equally congested.

4. Paired Conjunctions h. both…and/not only…also - Always used together (i.e. paired) * No commas needed Example: Both Mohammad and Ridha have excellent marks for their English 111 writing component. =

Both followed by Noun

And followed by Noun

=

-Rules of Parallelism-

Riyadh and Jeddah are not only exciting but also riveting. Not only followed by Noun

COSHP Semester 2, 2013/14

But also followed by Noun

=

-Rules of Parallelism-


Handout revision111