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Chapter 7 / Interactions 2 Language and Communication to determine

decide

communicate

to share information with others by speaking, writing, moving your body or using other signals

closely

very carefully - to watch someone closely

recent

happening or starting from a short time ago

to shape

to make something have a particular shape or form

to wonder

to ask yourself questions or express a desire to know about something

finding

the information that someone has discovered as a result of their study, work etc

to shed light on

to make something easier to understand, by providing new or better information, explain

species

a group of animals or plants whose members are similar and can breed together to produce young animals or plants

pheromone

a chemical that is produced by people's and animals' bodies and is thought to influence the behavior of other people or animals

odor

smell

attract

to make someone or something move towards another thing: Leftover food attracts flies.

mate

the sexual partner of an animal, someone you work with, do an activity with, or share something with

warning

something that makes you aware of a possible danger or problem

warn

to tell someone that something bad or dangerous may happen

territory

the area that an animal, bird etc regards as its own and will defend against other animals


2

bit

a small piece of something

wipe

to rub a surface with something in order to remove dirt, liquid etc

trail

a long line or a series of marks that have been left by someone or something

gesture

a movement of part of your body, especially your hands or head, to show what you mean or how you feel

to wag

(especially of a tail or finger) to move from side to side or up and down, especially quickly and repeatedly

rear

at or near the back of something, especially a vehicle [≠ front]

in the wild

in natural and free conditions, not kept or controlled by people

primate

a member of the most developed and intelligent group of mammals, including humans, monkeys and apes

upright

straight up or vertical

swagger

to walk proudly, swinging your shoulders in a way that shows you are very confident

swing

to move forward and backward

grin

a wide smile

tension

a nervous worried feeling that makes it impossible for you to relax, the feeling that exists when people or countries do not trust each other

tense

feeling worried, uncomfortable, and unable to relax

stressful

worrying

reassure

to make someone feel calmer and less worried or frightened about a problem or situation

vocalize

to make a sound or sounds with your voice


3

rebound

to bounce back after hitting a hard surface

bounce

to move up or away after hitting a surface

echo

a sound that is heard after it has been reflected off a surface such as a wall

click

to make a short hard sound, or make something produce this sound whales make clicking noises

encounter

meet • bump into/run into, experience

prey

an animal, bird etc that is hunted and eaten by another animal - predator

identify

to recognize someone or something

pod

a group of sea animals, such as whales or dolphins, that swim together

population

all the people or animals of a particular type or group who live in one country, area or place

prairie

a wide open area of fairly flat land in North America

chatter

a series of short high sounds made by some birds or monkeys, informal talk

colony

a group of animals, insects or plants of the same type that live together

to record

write down, register

observe

to watch carefully

event

anything that happens, especially something important or unusual

utilize

to use something for a particular purpose

claim

to state that something is true, even though it has not been proved

to alert

to officially warn someone about a problem or danger so that they are ready to deal with it


4

to spot

to notice someone or something, especially when they are difficult to see or recognize

creature

a living thing

coyote

a small wild dog that lives in North West America and Mexico

distinguish

differentiate

gender

the physical and/or social condition of being male or female

symbol

a letter, number, or sign that represents a sound, an amount, a chemical substance etc, signal ability

capacity mammal

any animal of which the female gives birth to babies, not eggs, and feeds them on milk from her own body

prove

to show that something is true by providing facts, information etc

command

order

evidence

facts, information, documents etc that prove something is true, proof

demonstrate

to show that you have a particular ability, quality, or feeling

organ

a part of the body of an animal or plant which performs a particular job

subject

a person or animal that is used in a test or experiment

deaf

unable to hear, either completely or partly

pick something up to learn something by watching or listening to other people outdoors

outside, not in a building (+ outdoors)

to coin

to invent a new word or expression, especially one that many people start to use

argue

to state, giving clear reasons, that something is true

acquire

to gain knowledge or learn a skill


5

monster

any imaginary frightening creature

to focus

concentrate

journal

a serious magazine about a specialist subject

identical

exactly the same, or very similar

linguist

someone who studies foreign languages

pregnancy

having a baby developing inside the womb

continuum

a scale of related things on which each one is only slightly different from the one before

memorize

to learn something so that you will remember it exactly

previously

before now, formerly

obtain

to get something, acquire

to fit

to suit

category

a group of people or things that are all of the same type

stereotype

a belief or idea of what a particular type of person or thing is like

verbal

spoken rather than written

to exchange

to give something to someone and receive something from him

gain

to obtain something that is useful

status

an official position, especially in a social group

root

the cause or origin

startling

surprising

conclusion

the final part of something


6

alert

quick to see, understand and act in a particular situation, watchful, vigilant

character

personality

behavior

conduct, how one behaves

nurture

the education and care that you are given as a child, and the way it affects your later development and attitudes

context

the situation within which something exists or happens

take apart

to separate something into its different parts

involve

include

task

job

task oriented

giving a lot of time, effort, or attention to a certain task

interactive

involving talking and working together

self-fulfilling prophecy something that you cause to happen by saying and expecting that it will fulfill

to do something that expected or hoped for

prophecy

a statement that something will happen in the future, prediction, forecast

conclude

to reach a conclusion

assume

to accept something to be true without question or proof, believe

assumption

something that you think is true although you have no definite proof

proven

tested and shown to be true or good, or shown to exist

accurate

correct and true in every detail

converse

to have a conversation with someone


7

hug

embrace

tend

to be likely to behave in a particular way

fearful

frightened, scared

apparent

clear, obvious

simplify

to make something less complicated and therefore easier to do or understand

responsive

reacting quickly, in a positive way

willingly

voluntarily

keep in mind

remember

to morph

change, to develop a new appearance or change into something else, or to make something do this begins to develop

to germinate purist

someone who believes that something should be done in the correct or traditional way

bemoan

to complain or say that you are disappointed about something

degrade

to make a situation or the condition of something worse

degradation

the process by which something changes to a worse condition

meanwhile

while something else is happening

commit

to do something wrong or illegal

genocide

the deliberate murder of a whole group or race of people, ethnic cleansing

take somewhere by storm merge

to take a sudden and complete control

to combine, or to join things together to form one thing


8

hybrid

something that consists of or comes from a mixture of two or more other things

keep somebody on their toes

to make sure that someone is ready for anything that might happen, stay alert

maintain

to make something continue in the same way

to creep

to move in a quiet, careful way, especially to

lash out

to suddenly speak angrily to someone or criticize someone angrily

launch

to start something, usually something big or important

effort

physical or mental activity needed to achieve something

preserve

to keep something as it is

a mess

a situation that is full of problems:

to conduct

carry out

to cut a deal

make a business deal

accelerate

speed up, go faster

assimilate

take into, absorb

eradicate

get rid of, abolish

to halt

stop, prevent something from continuing

unavoidable

impossible to avoid, inevitable


Chapter 7 interactions 2 language and communication