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Chapter 3/Interactions 2 Business and Money Banking on Poor Women loan

money borrowed from a bank, and has to be paid back

explore

to discuss or think about something carefully

advertise

to make something known in order to sell it

psychology

study of the mind and how it influences behavior

consume

to use time and energy, consumption

consumerism

too much attention is given to buying

brain

the organ inside your head that controls how you think, feel, and move

analyze

to examine or think about something carefully, in order to understand it

distinction

a clear difference between two similar things

prosper

to be or become successful, especially financially, prosperity

prosperous

successful, usually by earning a lot of money

poverty

the condition of being poor

lack

shortage

scholar

a person who has done advanced study in a special field

brainstorm

to develop ideas and think of ways of solving problems

to state

to formally say, mention, announce

bank on

to depend on something happening or someone doing something [= count on]

escape

the act of getting away from a place, or a dangerous or bad situation

violence

extreme force

imagine

to form a picture or idea in your mind

to lift

to move something or someone upwards into the air, raise

interview

a meeting in which someone is asked questions about themselves

condition

term, requirement

character

a combination of qualities such as courage, loyalty, and honesty

honest

someone who is honest always tells the truth and does not cheat or steal

capacity

someone's ability to do something

collateral

property or other goods that you promise to give someone if you cannot pay back the money they lend you [= security] -1-


valuable

worth a lot of money

situation

case, condition

approve

to officially accept a plan, proposal etc

associated

related, connected

microlending

lending small amounts of money

to found

establish

join

to become a member of an organization, society, or group

regularly

at the same time each day, week, month etc

rule

law, regulation

advice

an opinion you give someone about what they should do

member

a person or country that belongs to a group or organization

peer

people who are the same age

pressure

an attempt to persuade someone by using influence, arguments, or threats

success

when you achieve what you want or intend [≠ failure]

sewing machine

a machine for stitching cloth or clothes together

repayment

when you pay back money that you have borrowed

amazing

so surprising you can hardly believe it

unfortunately

used when you are mentioning a fact that you wish were not true, sadly

effective

successful or achieving the results that you want

anonymous

unknown by name

subsidiary

secondary, connected with, but less important than something else

primary

most important [= main]

eradicate

to completely get rid of something such as a disease or a social problem

worthless

has no value, importance, or use [≠ valuable]

access

the right to enter a place, use something, see someone etc

demonstrate

to show or prove something clearly

respect

admiration for someone or something that you believe has good ideas or qualities

entire

whole, all

fund

an organization that collects money to help people who are ill, old etc

to fund

to provide money for an activity, organization, event etc

initiative

the power or opportunity to gain an advantage: to take the initiative

unlike

completely different from a particular person or thing -2-


grant

an amount of money given to someone, especially by the government, for a particular purpose

ills (plural)

problems and difficulties

solution

a way of solving a problem or dealing with a difficult situation [↪ solve]

for instance

for example

victim

someone who suffers because of something bad that happens

abuse

cruel or violent treatment of someone

literacy

the ability to read and write

method

way, approach, strategy

cooperate

work together

cooperative

willing to cooperate [= helpful]

to plow money

knowledge

to use money that you have earned from a business to make the business bigger and more successful the information, skills, and understanding that you have gained through learning or experience

differ

to be different from something in some way

mostly

mainly

excerpt

a short piece taken from a book, poem, piece of music etc

irony

the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning

express

to tell or show what you are feeling or thinking by using words

to finance

to provide money, especially a lot of money, to pay for something [= fund]

confirm

prove, demonstrate

mistaken

a mistaken idea etc is not correct

brand

a type of product made by a particular company, that has a particular name or design to damage something so badly that it no longer exists or cannot be used or

destroy

repaired [↪ destruction]

destructive

causing damage to people or things

identical

exactly the same, or very similar

increasingly

more and more all the time

recent

having happened or started only a short time ago

persuade

convince, to make someone believe something -3-


weakness

lack of strength, power, or influence

to target

to direct advertising, criticism or a product at someone

dissatisfaction

a feeling of not being pleased or satisfied

fear

the feeling you get when you are afraid

offend

to make someone angry by doing or saying something that they think is rude

offensive

very rude or insulting and likely to upset people

breath

the air that you send out of your lungs when you breathe

mouthwash

hygiene

a liquid used to make your mouth smell fresh or to get rid of infection in your mouth the practice of keeping yourself and the things around you clean in order to prevent diseases, dental hygiene

dental floss

a type of thin thread that you use for cleaning between your teeth

mint

a small plant with green leaves that have a fresh smell and taste

outweigh

to be more important or valuable than something else

logic

a way of thinking about something that seems correct and reasonable

take advantage

desire

to use a particular situation to do or get what you want the idea that you have of yourself, especially of your abilities, character, and appearance a strong hope or wish

attractive

good-looking, pleasant to look at

exciting

making you happy and interested

handsome

good-looking, attractive

adventurous

not afraid of taking risks or trying new things

irrational

not based on clear thought or reason [= unreasonable]

reasonably

using good judgment

model

someone whose job is to show clothes, hair styles etc at fashion shows

addicted

unable to stop taking a harmful substance, especially a drug

remain

to continue to be in the same state or condition

popularity

create

when something is liked, enjoyed or supported by many people a machine usually with wheels and an engine, which is used for transporting people or goods cause, produce, make

commercial

an advertisement on television or radio

commute

to regularly travel a long distance to get to work

gridlock

a situation in which streets in a city are so full of cars that they cannot move

self-image

vehicle

-4-


well-organized

arranged or ordered well and carefully

sneakers

a type of light soft shoe with a rubber sole (=bottom), used for sports

scent

a pleasant smell that something has [= fragrance]

volunteer

someone who does a job willingly without being paid

floral

made of flowers

prophecy

pill

a statement that something will happen in the future, prediction if a statement or belief about what will happen in the future is self-fulfilling, it becomes true because you expect it to be true and so behave in a way that will make it happen a small solid piece of medicine that you swallow whole

independent

not influenced or controlled in any way by other people

compulsion

a strong and unreasonable desire to do something

compel

to force someone to do something

realize

to know and understand something

reduce

to make something smaller or less in size, amount, or price

ingredient

a food that is used with other foods in the preparation of a particular dish

synthetic

produced by combining different artificial substances

detergent

a liquid or powder used for washing clothes, dishes etc

to harm

to damage something (to harm the environment), physically hurt

harmful

enormous

causing or likely to cause harm a group of people who share the same ideas or beliefs and who work together to achieve a particular aim very big in size or in amount [= huge]

due to

because of

emphasize

stress

in favor of

support, approval, or agreement for something such as a plan, idea, or system

throughout

in every part of a particular area, place etc

manipulate

to control something or someone to your advantage, often unfairly or dishonestly

thought

something that you think of, remember, or realize [= idea]

self-fulfilling prophecy

movement

-5-


Chapter 3 business and money vocab