THE CLASH OF GENERATIONS
Clash? Born in 1926, 88-year-old economist Bohdan Hawrylyshyn was the 44th St. Gallen Symposiumâ€™s oldest participant. Chinese Leader of Tomorrow Miao Xu, 22, was the youngest. Together, they represent dramatic contrasts, but also the possibility for people many generations apart to come together and build a better future.
Photo: Caroline Marti
Dear Reader, It will take you about 3 hours to read this whole Magazine. It takes about 30 seconds to flip through it and scan the photos. It takes another 30 seconds to comprehend the headlines. It takes just a moment to shut the issue and forget about it. It’s a choice you have to make. But sometimes it takes a lifetime to see if the choice was right. “Blessed are those, who learn their lesson from the mistakes of others” some say. The symposium is a perfect place to learn from others, to define problems and discuss solutions. We tried to follow this structure in this Magazine. Understand what a generation means, find the key problems created by the clash of generations and finally learn more about the search for positive solutions. If you have just a short while to spend with this Magazine, grow up with our stories. Be born in China as a product of that country’s One Child Policy (p. 44). Become young and use social media to fight for your right to follow whoever you want (p. 32). Then, day by day, slowly discover how perspectives change with time, as they have for Robert Zoellick (p. 54). And finally, thanks to Aubrey de Grey, perhaps you will live long past the age of 100 – and have a great time doing it (p. 58). The St. Gallen Symposium is not only about participating but about experiencing. The same goes for the Magazine you are holding in your hands. On behalf of the whole 44th International Students’ Committee, we would like to sincerely thank you for your participation and support and wish you some pleasant hours reading our Magazine. Enjoy!
STEFANO L. SAEGER
EDITOR IN CHIEF
MAGAZINE PROJECT MANAGER
Table of Contents
Photo: Caroline Marti
Listen Up: Economist Laurence Kotlikoff argues today’s youth aren’t fighting hard enough against their elders. Merle Gries pushes back.
Out of Control: Click Here to Save (the World)
Talking ‘bout My: Generation
Future of Information: End of the Book?
Unhappy Legacy: Thanks, Mom and Dad!
No More Gatekeepers: “Publishing is a lousy
Act Like Grown-Ups: Battle Royale
What a Difference: GeoNerations
living, but a great life.” 28
Clash of Resources: Who Blames Whom?
Clash of Ideas: Suits vs. Streets
Tweet Tweet: You Can Follow Erdogan, but Erdogan Won’t Follow You
Quiz: Who Said It?
Members Only: Welcome to the Club
Freedom, Russian-Style: Crimean Nightmare Dream
Photo: Fan Shi San
Lonely Lives: Leader of Tomorrow Fan Shi San’s composite photographs document a generation of Chinese children raised without siblings. Nora Jakob explores his concept.
Grumpy Till the End: “Things ain’t what
New Intergenerational Contract: Please Sign Here!
they used to be.”
Defeating Aging: Having Sex. Forever.
Killing Fields: Lost: A Generation
Sidebar: Seniors in Japan Challenge the Youth
Family Planning: Just the One of Us
Grey Nation: Too Old to Vote?
Making Do: What is the Problem?
Creating Opportunities: Off on the Right Foot
Generation Internship: Give a Little, Get a Lot
Family Business: All Aboard
Family (De-)Construction: Parental Units
Catch Me if You Can: Born in the Matrix
Back to the ‘30s?: Leaving the Right Behind
Gender Gap: Setting an Example
Clash of Characters: Are You an Idealist or a Realist?
Burning Questions: A Little ‘Chilli’ Can Make a Big Difference
Climb the Hill: The Game of Life
Letter to Myself: Expectations, and Regrets
Photo: Caroline Marti
Forever Young: Aubrey de Grey advocates an end to aging. But will immortality come with complications? Joris Bellwinkel asks the scientist to defend his vision.
On the Piazza: Share or Beware
Urbanisation and Transport: Is a Train
People: Topic Leaders
the Car of Tomorrow?
Programme: Work Sessions
Rural/Urban Divide: City Folk
Programme: Plenary Sessions
Behind the Scenes:
Empowering Women: Wearable Art
St. Gallen Foundation for International Studies
for a Wireless World
Benefactors: Circle of Benefactors
Young & Privileged: Luxury Problems
ISC-Team: The Right Choice
Phone Service: Leap-Frogging into the Future
Magazine Team: Story Time
Heeding Cassandra: â€œWorld economies need
an overhaul.â€? 86
Generation Z: Brave New World
Talking ‘bout My ...
When talking about the “Clash of Generations,” one could easily argue that there is no such thing as a generation, that it is an artificial way to cluster people. Yet, there’s a kernel of truth to the concept. Do we not enjoy meeting people who understand what a Walkman is, or remember their first time watching “Dallas”? These shared experiences help shape what Western sociologists call a “cohort”. People in the same cohort share a common denominator – whether it is a crucial political event, an idol or a gadget that shaped their time. Let’s take a closer look at the generations that made up the majority of the participants at this year’s symposium (based on the “Strauss-Howe generational theory”): Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y.
Generation Baby Boomers born 1946-1964
Photos: Provided by companies
Ms BB Cliché was born during the post-war baby boom. She is too young to have any personal memory of World War II, but old enough to enjoy the economic highs of her time. To rebel against her respectable middle-class parents and protest the on-going war in Vietnam, she enters the “Flower Power Movement,” experiences sexual freedom, self-fulfilment and takes drugs. She cruises around in her colourful Volkswagen Beetle listening to “The Beatles” – the soundtrack of her youth.
Generation X born 1965-1981 Mr X Stereotype grows up in an economically and socially more difficult time than his parents due to the end of the Bretton Woods system in 1971 and the oil crisis in 1973. As his parents got divorced when he was still very young, he becomes a â€œlatchkey kid,â€? waiting alone after school for his mom to come home from work. His growing isolation leads him into punk and grunge music. Witnessing the Cold War coming to an end peacefully, he starts to gain new hope for the future of his generation.
Generation Y born 1982-2004
Photos: Provided by companies
Ms Y Image is brought up in the digital age, never knowing a world without computers and cell phones. To her, the internet is just another way to interact. Social networks, including Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, work as outlets for her distinct narcissism. Her selfcentredness is a consequence of the relatively rich and peaceful environment she enjoys. Yet, she faces other threats, such as transnational terrorism, climate change and youth unemployment due to the financial crises in the United States and Europe.
Thanks, Mom and Dad! Whether it’s the economic crisis, the financial crisis or the debt crisis, a term that was originally meant to describe an extremely critical and mostly limited period of time is becoming the new normal. Should we be worried? ANNA-MARIA KRAMER
Public Debt Around the World Public debt compared to 2011 GDP, in %
more than 100 % 75.1 to 100 % 50.1 to 75 % 25 to 50 % less than 25 %
54 is a number to remember. It indicates the world’s accumulated public debt: $54 trillion in the year 2011, according to the International Monetary Fund. And it’s growing. Every day. Worldwide. In his keynote speech on the very first day of the symposium, Didier Burkhalter, president of the Swiss Confederation, stressed the importance of intergenerational dialogue for national cohesion. In his opinion, there’s no clash, just a challenge we must all face together. “And the greater the challenge the better the opportunity,” he says. To Wolfgang Gründinger, the spokesman of the “Foundation for the Rights of Future Generations,” this kind of talk
is unrealistic drivel. In fact, the German Leader of Tomorrow thinks that nowadays, society creates conflicts between cohorts, as it lacks any kind of future conscience. “Think about environmental pollution, global warming and the waste of resources that our parents have left behind. It seems as if they never thought of us,” he complains. Indeed, reality seems to draw a different picture than the one Burkhalter presents. Besides environmental issues and the growing public debt, Generation Y and future generations are threatened by extreme poverty, fatal diseases and on-going wars – dangers that Burkhalter’s generation should be familiar with.
Data sources: Compiled from IMF, World Economic Outlook Database 04/2011, with additional data from IMF & EUROSTAT. Map created by Benjamin D. Hennig, Sasi Research Group, University of Sheffield
It seems as if today’s youth are inheriting endless crises. “The social contract is overstretched,” says Axel Weber, Chairman of the Board of Directors at UBS AG and former President of the German Bundesbank. In his opinion, demographic change and youth unemployment are the biggest problems. “A significant increase of the retirement age is inevitable,” he says. To Lady Barbara Judge, chair of the UK Pension Protection Fund, the only solution to this dilemma is: “Save more, work longer, expect less!” With predictions like that from the Leaders of Today, it seems as if we have more than enough reasons to worry. u
“The American Dream is becoming a nightmare.” — Laurence J. Kotlikoff
Act Like Grown-Ups
Battle Royale “We are at war with our children, and we are winning,” says Boston University economist Laurence Kotlikoff. Kotlikoff is known for such controversial, punchy sound bites. So, fire at will! In our exclusive Q&A, we asked him some inconvenient questions. MERLE GRIES (INTERVIEW), CAROLINE MARTI (PHOTO)
Does the value of a human being decrease or increase with age? The peak is around 52 and then gradually decreases. That’s why we should allow wages to be flexible. If somebody becomes less productive we should pay them less. Is there a clash between generations? Younger people look at the old ones and see their parents. Older people look at younger ones and see strangers, they don’t see their own children. So they ex-
Prof. Laurence Kotlikoff (born in 1951) is William Fairfield Warren Professor of Economics of Boston University. Among other things, he worked as a consultant to different international organisations such as the International Monetary Fund, is an active columnist and author of several books. His latest, ”Clash of Generations,” deals with the burden the older generation bequeaths to the younger ones.
propriate the inheritance of the young for decades – in my country, in the Western European countries, in China and Japan, it’s all done without the young people knowing about it. But you grow up in a world with obligations and the state will surely claim them. It’s not a clash. It’s a war. What do you mean by war? I mean a war not fought with tanks but with environmental pollution, fiscal gaps and the ever-greater consumption by the elderly, all at the cost of national savings. Once, we cherished the “American Dream” that our kids would have better lives. Well, the American Dream is becoming a nightmare, for the US and for every country in the world. It is a foreseeable catastrophe, yet we’re not taking steps to prevent it. That’s tragic and irresponsible. So what is the solution? We don’t act like grown-ups. Grown-ups take care of their children. We don’t. We do care about our children, but not about anybody else’s. But your children are just somebody else’s children to somebody else. We are trying to get
free rides on the shoulders of somebody else’s children. We need to reduce the growth of entitlements for old people. I don’t think if you tell older people how broken the country is and how they have bankrupted their children, they would like this to continue. And why should they be interested? We should also appeal to the self-interest of the 60-, 55-, 45-year-old people, because these are all cowards who will still get hurt. Speaking of fiscal gaps: The costs of rebuilding the system are tremendous. Do you think we should tear the whole system down and start fresh? Our political system is generally inadequate. To move from a politics of expropriating our children for our own benefit, we have to show what this war is going to cost. We have to fight with information. But politicians have been hiding the truth for decades for fear of losing the votes of old people. If the numbers are there in black and white, we’ll see the damage – and maybe can get a fresh start.
«Give the politicians’ jobs to economists – they are good at fixing stuff.»
But there are so many older people who vote selfishly and won’t make changes at the cost of their own comfort. Is a dictatorship of the youth a solution? Maybe they should get twice as many votes as older people. Allow them to vote on the behalf of unborn generations. How many votes should someone born in 20 years get? Someone asked today: “Should we keep older people from voting?” The answer from the audience was “no”. My answer is “yes”. At what age should you be given just half a vote? I would say 35. In America we have an American Association for Retired People. We need an Association for Young People. Then they would outnumber the retirees and finally they would get some generation equity. Another thing is wage inequality. It is the ultimate source of wealth inequality. CEOs get big wages for putting people out of work. We should sacrifice our wages to get more people into work because the fiscal gap is exploding. And that’s it? That’s enough? No. Fire the politicians. They make a total mess out of things. They’re destroying their countries. Would you let 500 people who are not engineers try to build a bridge over Lake Constance? No. What will happen? It will collapse. Because they have no idea. They are not engineers. Give the politicians’ jobs to economists – they are good at fixing stuff. u
Do you know that you are in a war with your children? Scott Young: I completely disagree with the premise of the question. Are we at war? No. Do we have responsibilities? Yes. Being reductive is not helpful. Kotlikoff is not helpful. It’s not a bipolar issue. Simplifying it is not helpful at all. Kyle Hill: It is inappropriate to put it this way. Society has seen enough wars, even in our generation. Calling it a war reduces the chance of a consensusbased approach to understanding and solving the issue. Do you know what your inheritance is from the older generations? K.H.: Our inheritance is financial, and it is huge. Debts are going to be our biggest problems. S.Y.: For me, the environmental issue is a bigger problem. You can fix the financial problems. We have tools for that. But this is harder to reverse. There
Photo: Andrew Curry
With Kotlikoff throwing down the gauntlet, we confronted two Leaders of Tomorrow with his questions. Scott Young (right), a fellow at the International Relations and Digital Technology Project in Toronto, and Teach for Canada Executive Director Kyle Hill (left) accepted the challenge.
are short-term solutions, but changing the course of long-term environmental issues is challenging. If you’re talking about things that are too important to fail? The environment is too important to fail. Do you know how much time is left? S.Y.: Kotlikoff overstates things. It’s not a ticking time bomb, it’s not a nuclear countdown. But the longer we are in denial, the harder it will be to make smart decisions. Things are still fixable. If there were a financial catastrophe like the bankruptcy of the US – we would still be here. We’re not going anywhere. We would recover. Maybe we have to burn ourselves to learn the lesson. Kotlikoff foreshadows the future as a total mess. Is it? K.H.: Well, we all live in society. We are affected by interest rates, pension deposits and financial instability. We
feel the effects of economic and demographic challenges. Kotlikoff is framing the intergenerational challenge as the fundamental challenge of our times. I wouldn’t say that. I would call it a medium-size challenge that needs to be addressed. Kotlikoff says your generation doesn’t care. S.Y.: It is insulting to assume we don’t care! Where was Kotlikoff when Occupy Wall Street happened? Where was he when we had the protests on behalf of the environment? Has he looked at any global summit recently? We wouldn’t be here at the St. Gallen Symposium if we didn’t care. For him to suggest otherwise – it pisses me off. u
What a Difference
GeoNerations Can we really think about a generation just in terms of time? The numbers make it clear: We should speak of GeoNerations. It’s important to keep in mind groups may share the same era, but inherit different problems. ANNA SIATKA
6.7 82 77
52 46 2.8
LIFE EXPECTANCY (at birth, in years)
FERTILITY RATE (total)
“All countries are now in a state of demographic transition which began with the decline of mortality rates (especially child mortality) in the 19th century thanks to the progress of medicine. Sweden reflects the typically high European high level of this indicator. Mexico and China are also on a decent level. However, in African countries, the lack of modern medical care causes low life expectancy.”
“This indicator depends largely on culture. China is a particular example: Because of the government’s “One Child” policy, we can see a very low birth rate. On the other hand, we have Africa, where due to high infant mortality, women still give birth to a higher number of children. Fertility rate should amount to about 2,1 - 2,2 children per woman to make the population replace the previous generation (as is the case in Mexico). Developed countries, such as Sweden, have below-replacement levels. Decline of fertility also shows modernisation.”
Quality of life can be described by using simple indicators, like life expectancy, school enrolment in tertiary education, GDP per capita and fertility rate. Our Leaders of Today and Tomorrow come from every corner of the globe,
which is why we decided to choose four countries that represent different levels of development. We then asked Prof. Anatoly Vishnevsky, the Director of the Institute of Demography at the National Research University in Moscow, to com-
ment on this data and explain the differences that shape GeoNerations. Have a look and check out the degrees of demographic progress in Mexico, Sweden, Nigeria and China (Source: World Bank). u
1985 2012 * own calculations ** 2005 is the latest available index
Source: Worldbank, own calculations.
SCHOOL ENROLMENT, TERTIARY (in %)
GDP PER CAPITA (in current US$)
“Enrolment in tertiary education depends on people’s financial resources, the number of children and social awareness of how important education is. That is why Sweden represents the highest level of this index. Although in Mexico and China the fertility rate is low, the financial resources allow a relatively small group to go on to higher education. In turn, Nigerian families are not able to educate their many children because of low incomes and traditions. This index has changed over the 27 years meaningfully in Sweden, which has seen an increase of 43%.”
“Gross domestic product reflects the increase or decrease in the country’s development. Sweden belongs to the group of developed countries, and has one of the highest GDPs per capita in the world, while Mexico, China and Nigeria are considered developing countries. As this index is counted per individual, the fertility rate matters. Reducing fertility would contribute to development and increase per capita GDP in Africa. Parents who have many children are not able to educate all of them, and education really matters.”
Out of Control
Click Here to Save (the World) The temptation of the digital age is to solve world problems by clicking a button, downloading an app or building a device. Belarus’ Evgeny Morozov, now living in the US, is a contributing editor at The New Republic and former Leader of Tomorrow. He suggests that these technologies have a profound, disruptive impact on society and politics. NORA JAKOB & JULIA KRAMER (INTERVIEW), CAROLINE MARTI (PHOTOS)
People usually characterise you as a technology sceptic. How would you describe yourself? “When you are described as a technology sceptic, people assume that your main interest is technology and its effects. But I do not actually think that my main problem is with technology. And when people say that you are a technology sceptic or a technology optimist, they expect you to have a religious outlook that will preserve your faith no matter what empirical evidence says. I think that is inaccurate. If you ask what my attitude towards technology is, I would call it agnostic.” What do you mean by that? I don’t think technology is good, or bad, or evil. Much more interesting is how certain technologies are useful for particular political projects. Some of those projects might be emancipatory, some might be rather progressive or some might have to do with economic trends.
These projects do not come up with a theory of technology after considering all possible evidence. Instead it is just: “Technology is good for society.” And I think this meta-debate is actually not very useful and I would strongly urge us to abandon it. So, when people characterise me as technological sceptic, that derives from their perspective on that debate. And I am not interested in that debate, so I also refuse their label. My view of technology is not important. It is about how technology fits in the broader political project. Are you controlled by technology? No. And I do not think that is the right way to talk about life. Am I dependent on technology? Well, I sleep in a bed, and not on the grass, so in that sense I am controlled by it. The reason why I am supposed to participate in new sorts of technologies is mostly a reflection of the political and economic systems I am part of.
“If you ask what my attitude towards technology is, I would call it agnostic.” — Evgeny Morozov
People who still think that technology is something with its own course, its own logic, its own rationale, would say that “technology is doing things.” I think that this is a very inaccurate way to talk about power structures that actually determine our lives. What about the influence of “Silicon Valley” on our daily life? It depends on how much causal power you want to contribute to technology. Silicon Valley is a bunch of companies. It is not a bunch of cables. Are you asking if we are controlled by companies? Yes, we are. And it is not just Silicon Valley, but also banks and other companies. But I would really not advise approaching this question from the perspective of technology as a separate, autonomous force that is changing our life. Definitely not: The tech companies are the ones doing certain things to our society. These tech companies make us believe that we are in the middle of a digital revolution… I refuse the idea that we are living in some kind of a digital revolution, for the simple reason that nothing we are now experiencing is the result of decisions and forces that happened four decades ago when they invented the Internet.
We should not assume that some rupture happened in how we live and that suddenly the world overturned and became a different one. Silicon Valley can call it whatever it wants, but it is up to us whether we want to believe in it. How is technology related to politics today? There is a new mode of governance that is enabled by the fact that much of our environment has sensors and connectivity built in. Because of the introduction of all these various social incentives, it has become possible to solve problems in completely new ways. You can “gamify” situations, you can introduce some kind of tracking for a quantified self, or you can introduce smart technology that recognises the user. All of these changes have enabled problem solvers to address problems like climate change or health by proposing the introduction of smart technologies. Can you give an example of this? Smart devices are able to generate feedback of understanding what you do with your device and then, somehow steer your behaviour. For example: Imagine a smart trashcan that has a camera connected to the Internet. Every time you open or close the trashcan, the trashcan
Anti-solutionist: Morozov argues the issue at hand is not the technology, but how it’s used.
takes a picture of what you throw away. These pictures are uploaded to the internet and analysed by an environmental behaviour analysis company. You become part of a network that can distribute the knowledge about your trash, for example through Facebook. The idea is that new types of motivations suddenly guide people’s behaviour in a way that was not possible before. Earlier, you needed to convince individuals to behave in an environmentally sound way through media. Now you can bypass the need to explain to people why recycling is a good moral undertaking. Because when your trash photos are automatically uploaded on Facebook, you’ll need to recycle to impress your friends. These are social incentives. Don’t you think that is a good development? The question must be asked: What kinds of assumptions about responsibility, justice, and distribution of blame are built into many of these systems? Should we solve a problem like climate change by getting individuals a smart meter, or should we do it by regulating big energy companies instead? Those are two different methodologies. My fear is that as we got too excited about technology and the ability to track individuals and their behaviours, we will fall into a pattern where we remotely solve problems at the easiest possible level, which is by changing individual behaviour instead of focussing on structural forces that are responsible for many of the problems we have to deal with. So nowadays, politicians try to solve problems using short term, technological solutions such as apps or algorithms? Yes. That is what I call solutionism. The fact that they can associate themselves with Silicon Valley is seen as a something that adds to their image. But beyond that, there are a lot of technology companies who are increasingly taking on the role that previously was held by
What will the future look like? We have to realise that we are not operating in a kind of abstract environment, where everything is neutral and equal and we can build perfect systems and there are no other incentives that distort how the systems are implemented. The reality is that algorithmic systems are tied to companies building some of the sensors or databases, and their agendas are not usually the agendas of the public sector or the public themselves. We end up in an environment where we understand less and less how they govern our everyday life.” Who should address these problems? “That’s a tough one. It depends on how cynical you are about the current players. If you are very cynical about the state, then I wouldn’t count on the state doing anything. People should at least try to go beyond the technocratic efficiency that many of the systems are built on and point out that there are different tools and mechanisms for problem solving. That is already an important step. But the existing relationship between the information-heavy, feedback-intensive solutions and the way in which they are married to other political agendas has not yet been analysed and critiqued. Journalists, for example, simply do not do that. It would be great if they would look deep inside a smart trash can, instead of reviewing the latest start-up. But since journalism isn’t doing this job, maybe the Leaders of Tomorrow should address these questions.” u
Evgeny Morozov was born in Belarus in 1984. He attended the American University in Bulgaria with a scholarship from the American philanthropist George Soros. Now he is pursuing a Ph.D. in the history of science from Harvard University, while working as a contributing editor at The New Republic. He wrote “The Net Delusion – The Dark Side of Internet Freedom” (2010) and “To Save Everything, Click Here” (2013). He is also a former Leader of Tomorrow of the St. Gallen Symposium.
“Constructive criticism” Evgeny Morozov is controversial: Some people think that Silicon Valley in particular needs critics like him. Others criticise him for his difficult writing style and his lack of nuance. Brian Behlendorf is an important figure in the open-source software movement. He was, for example, the first developer of the Apache Web Server, one of the most popular web server software on the internet. He is also on the board of the Mozilla Foundation. Behlendorf knows Morozov from several meetings, and he is cautious in his critique. “He has the freedom and the luxury to say some very important things. And I don’t think the cyber-industry is critical enough of its own messages,” Behlendorf says. “I think sometimes he gets a little personal with his criticism, and I think this can make it a challenge for people who are engaged in the situation.”
Photo: Caroline Marti
the government, NGOs and civil society. Google tries to solve problems with drones, or we are fighting poverty with mobile phones, and so forth. That is a radical shift in problem solving, from the public sector to the private sector. This shift has not been fully analysed, understood and critiqued, and I think it is very important that we do that.
Ad hominem: Brian Behlendorf is a Morozov critic.
Behlendorf says Morozov is better at pointing out problems than providing solutions. “I am an optimist, but I am also a constructivist. I think, if you say access is bad, I also expect you to say ‘and therefore you should do’ … what? It is not enough for a critic to criticise everything. You have to talk about what gives you hope, or what path people should take. I don’t think that he comes up with solutions. That’s not what he is known for.” u JULIA KRAMER
Future of Information
End of the Book? IGA MALISZEWSKA
All the wisdom of the world gathered and stored in one place. You enter the room, pick up the right book and you know. You can take the book with you, but how many copies can you carry this way? If you want to use the information you have to memorise it. Not the easiest solution, right? In the 8th century, when the library of St. Gallen was founded, the monks hoped to gather all the knowledge of humankind on dusty shelves full of books. At that time, only those with special intellectual abilities – like literacy – would be able to use the knowledge. Memorising required effort but was unique and therefore valued. Today, you can take the whole library of St. Gallen – indeed, all the libraries, bookstores and archives of the world, all the information ever published and all the news that will never be published, opinions that were never said out loud, thoughts of great minds (and some not so great) – and carry it all in the palm of your hand or in front of your eyes. You don’t have to know. You just have to browse. But evolution is unforgiving. Will our children and grandchildren carry their brains in their pockets? u
1993 Analog media (paper, film, tape, records) Digital media (Flash drives, hard disks, servers, DVD/BluRay)
Illustration: Alexandra Stark, Michel M端ller Source: Washington Post, Estimate BCG (own illustration)
Estimate Photo: Courtesy Stiftsbibliothek St. Gallen
No More Gatekeepers
â€œPublishing is a lousy living, but a great life.â€? The award-winning Canadian science fiction author Robert J. Sawyer discusses the future of the printed word, publishing in general and why we still need iconic writers.
Photo: Caroline Marti
Robert J. Sawyer has published 21 novels. Born in Ottawa, he is an advocate of Canadian authors and often deals with the societal implications of technology in his writing.
In the US television series FlashForward, based on a script you wrote, humanity has a collective vision showing them what the world will look like in six months. What’s your vision concerning the traditional book market in six years? What’s happening now is that the generation of the Leaders of Tomorrow, who are very comfortable reading on screens, don’t want to wait and have a physical dead-tree product made. Clearly, the future of publishing is electronic. Clearly, in six years, the majority of book publishing will be in the form of ebooks, not in the form of printed books. Why do you think printed books are still necessary and important? There are some kinds of books that are still better in print. Everything heavily illustrated is still better done in print. And despite all the attempts to find easy ways to handle footnoting and end-noting in textbooks or books that have lots of citations, there still is nothing as convenient as glancing at the page, seeing that there is a footnote and just lowering your eyes to read it. Do you think writers will still be able to make a living? The answer is: Maybe. What has changed dramatically is the way in which writers are compensated. When I write a book, my publisher gives me tens of thousand of dollars before I’ve written the first word, more when I finish the book and more when the book is released. So before anyone has bought a copy, I have been well compensated for writing the book. With e-book-publishing it is different: If the author chooses to self-publish the e-book, which is becoming the dominant paradigm, there is no money upfront. Your book might sell 100,000 copies and it might sell 50 copies and you invested that whole year of your life not knowing what, if any, money you are going to make in the end. So it becomes a more entrepreneurial profession from the writer’s point of view. You’re risk-
ing more but the rewards are greater. As long as you’re willing to take the risk upfront to produce the book without any guarantee, the actual reward per copy is about four times higher than what you would get if you were publishing traditionally. You’ve suggested looking at how the digital revolution changed the music market. What can writers learn from that? Bands can go on tour and sell T-shirts and merchandise. We don’t have that as authors. The jackpot for authors still is when their work is adapted for film and television. That’s where the real big payoff is. It doesn’t happen a lot, and I’ve been lucky enough to have it happen with FlashForward. That’s the one route that we get still well compensated for. It seems like writing, whether journalism or literary, is not considered a craft worth paying for anymore. Does the amount of free text on the internet make people forget about the effort involved in the research and writing process? Yes. Those who are self-publishing have railed against the gatekeepers in traditional publishing. This handful of editors in any given field have been the tastemakers, the ones who decided what gets published and what doesn’t get published. What the self-publishing revolution has done is democratise literature. Now it’s the readers out there who decide what gets read and who doesn’t get read. In principle, that position is valid, in practise there is such a profusion of material available online that it is questionable how a reader should choose what to read. It turns out that without branding, without a platform to build your audience on, most self-published authors do very poorly. The idea that you just throw it out there and let the vast world decide sounds really good in theory but in practice, the vast world will never discover you. The big barrier is what we call discoverabil-
ity in publishing. How you get found by potential readers? That was the service the traditional publishing industry provided and that is no longer the dominant paradigm. Content on the internet has to adapt to the short attention span of users. Does that change the character of online content? Yes. There is even a higher level of that phenomenon: I used to be considered prolific because I do a novel a year. That is not considered prolific for a self-publishing author online. Their audience expects new material perhaps every 90 days. The reality is that complex, ambitious, well-researched work can’t be produced every 90 days. I was very efficient and good at it getting it done in a year. Others need three or four. Some even need ten years. Those authors are being squeezed out by the online-marketplace in favour of authors who constantly remind their potential audience that they exist by producing new material. The scary part about the audience’s short attention span is not that they’ll be bored after three or four pages. It’s that if you don’t have something new for them every few months, they will lose interest in you and find somebody else who will feed their habit more expeditiously. That’s the difficulty. So why even write today? There was a great Canadian publisher named Dennis Johnson who used to say “Publishing is a lousy living, but a great life.” I think that sums it up perfectly. The economic rewards are surely not certain, but there is no better way to make your living than being able to passionately express your ideas to a receptive audience. Although there are other professions that have that, there are few that have international reach. I’m read all over the world and it pleases me enormously that things that are of great importance to me and that I’ve expressed passionately are part of conversations all over the world. u
Clash of Resources
Who Blames Whom? “We should not burden our children with our debt,” politicians and industry leaders say. But that’s not only a matter of cutting spending. The world is running out of natural resources, leaving the next generation empty-handed. Why is it so hard to build a sustainable future? And who is to blame? We asked two experts to weigh in. JORIS BELLWINKEL
«Maybe we just have to lower our standards of living.»
«We still build faster than we build smart.»
Leader of Tomorrow Geoffroy Dolphin wrote an essay about what he calls the “Ecological Ponzi Scheme.” “The level of consumption and living standards that we and previous generations have been able to achieve, has been permitted by the accumulation of financial and ecological debt. Generations are behaving optimally, but this behaviour is unbounded, the current constraints are poorly defined. And so some systems are exploited beyond what is biologically sustainable. It ought to be the case that a more reasonable amount of debt should be passed on to future generations. That might mean a lower level of living standards, different ways of living. It’s theoretically extremely difficult to solve the environmental problems. There hasn’t been sufficient progress for humankind to limit the impact of the destructive change that we have set in motion. Citizens in this system are mostly short-term thinking or have short-term concerns, and while I’m not a supporter of autocratic regimes, I do think there’s a role and a duty for representatives to be more forward-looking. It’s part of the job to make people think about longterm issues, and they’re not doing that right now. Within the next fifty years, we won’t see much fundamental change. We will see incremental change, but that won’t be enough for us to stop burning all the oil. Without some breakthrough technological change, we actually might reach a point where we burn all fossil fuels.” ◆
Peggy Liu is the founder of JUCCCE, an organisation that wants to be a catalyst for transformative change in the greening of China. “Sustainability is a very complex issue because it crosses so many borders. JUCCCE wants to bring together all stakeholders, create a safe place for dialogue, and find out how each of those stakeholders can have their own incentive for working together. For example, when we worked on a project on sustainable agriculture, we found out that nutritionists weren’t talking to sustainable agriculture experts even though they shared the same goals, such as ‘eat less meat.’ It’s because they speak in a different language, they don’t have the same mentality, so they can’t explain to each other why they should work together. Government intervention is necessary for a green future because you need government for almost anything infrastructure-related. I think that, at the moment, there are a lot of efforts to go green. China is quadrupling its subway system, they’ve build the largest high-speed-rail in the world and 30% of all new buildings have to be green by 2020. But I don’t think it’s going fast enough. We still build faster than we build smart. What we lack is international collaboration that doesn’t point fingers at China, but comes here and helps. Instead of aid, we need technology and knowledge. Otherwise it will be too late.” u
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Photo: Caroline Marti
Suits vs. Streets
Friday, 18:06 – Symposium Auditorium
The 800-seat auditorium is full. Host Pranjal Sharma, consulting editor at India’s Businessworld magazine, promises “It’s the biggest of the panel discussions.” The official topic is the global economic outlook – but the focus is on Ivan Glasenberg, CEO of Glencore Xstrata. It takes some time for the discussion to really get going, with a lot of basic talk in the beginning. Glasenberg is terse, at first. Concerning the role of Africa as a rising continent, he says sim-
ply: “We need Africa’s resources.” Later on, he adds: “Natural resources are not going to be there forever. When they’re there, a country must take them.” The audience is restless, waiting impatiently for Glasenberg to address Glencore’s reputation for mistreating employees. But the elusive CEO does not seem to be very interested in talking about Glencore’s business ethics. Three questions are passed over at first. “You are here to defend yourself, so defend yourself if
there is something to defend!” one audience member finally demands. Sharma tries to move things along as tension grows. Finally, Glasenberg makes a sort of closing argument. “If we don’t build the big mines in Africa, China will have to. When the governments took over the mines, nobody said anything. When Glencore took them over, the NGOs were suddenly there. It’s all an NGO-created issue. And it isn’t true.” u TOBIAS KREUTZER
Photo: Andrew Curry
Friday, 18:06 – St. Gallen Bahnhofplatz
Around 60 people, young and old, are gathered around a red tent set up next to St. Gallen’s central train station. Reggae music plays. Uniformed police are waiting at a distance, curious, but quietly observing the people. A huge poster depicting Che Guevara reads “Opposing war, exploitation and oppression”. A few minutes after 6 pm, the music stops, and the demonstration begins. Three speakers in a row read prepared statements to the crowd. They criticise
the symposium’s concept. “Is it really a unique thing that young wannabemanager suck up to current CEOs?” one asks. But first and foremost, they are angry about the appearance of Ivan Glasenberg and the work of Glencore. “The costs of exploitation are borne by very poor countries. How can he lie in bed at night and be responsible for Glencore?” Here, too, the symposium is a target. “How can you give someone like this a
platform?” the man at the microphone asks of the conference taking place up the hill. After each of the three speeches, the people applaud and cheer. After about 40 minutes, the protest ends, and the reggae music is switched on again. The organisers invite the crowd to attend the “Volksküche”, a weekly social gathering with food: “Unfortunately, we don’t have limousines – we’ll have to walk!” u MANUEL HECKEL
You Can Follow Erdogan, but Erdogan Won’t Follow You.
TOBIAS KREUTZER & JORIS BELLWINKEL
On March 21, 2014, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan officially blocked Turkey’s access to Twitter. The previous day, he had announced that “Twitter and such things” would be uprooted by his government “no matter what the international community is going to say.” On March 27, the video platform YouTube was blocked in Turkey, too. Two
weeks after the Twitter ban, Turkey’s constitutional court declared the ban illegal and against the country’s laws on freedom of expression. A furious Erdogan stated that he had to put the decision of the court to practice, but that he would not respect it. It was not the first time the Turkish president tangled with institutions in his own country. In June
2013, he ordered the arrests of dozens of lawyers involved in the protests on Taksim Square in the end of May. We met Leader of Tomorrow Burcu Ozdemir for a virtual interview on Twitter to find out more. If @RT_Erdogan’s Twitter profile is any guide, there’s no need to worry he was following along. u
Who Said it? MERLE GRIES
“The philosophy of the school room in one generation will be the philosophy of government in the next.”
Ulysses S. Grant
“Each generation imagines itself to be more intelligent than the one that went before it, and wiser than the one that comes after it.”
“Older men declare war. But it is youth that must fight and die.”
“At the age of six I wanted to be a cook. At seven I wanted to be Napoleon. And my ambition has been growing steadily ever since.”
“The first sign of maturity is the discovery that the volume knob also turns to the left.”
Jerry M. Wright
Abraham Lincoln George Orwell Herbert Hoover Salvador Dali Jerry M. Wright
Welcome to the Club Loads and loads of organisations pretend to be the right institutions to manage our world. Membership is eagerly sought, and easily withheld. The younger generation thinks differently – sometimes. MANUEL HECKEL
If states were people, some of them would carry fat wallets. Partly because of all their money, of course, but mainly because of the dozens of membership cards each nation needs. There’s the United Nations, European Union, WTO, of course, but there are also lesser-known clubs like ASEAN, the East African Community, or even the World Tourism Organisation. More exclusive clubs like the G8 – which recently became the G7 once again, thanks to a dust-up in Ukraine you might have read about – are probably the equivalent of the black American Express Card. It’s easy to be proud of these memberships, and easy to brag about them. But in most cases, membership isn’t earned, it’s inherited, unquestioningly passed along from one generation to another without taking into account qualifications or achievements. And that seems like an outdated concept for younger generations. A few decades ago, things were different. “Never have states been more powerful than in the middle of the 20th century,” Niall Ferguson said in his symposium keynote. “Everything suited the state, everything could be controlled. The empire or state could make the young people do everything – even literally walking into machine gun fire.” Nowadays, though, the increased net-
working possibilities of digital communications make it easier for almost anyone to collaborate and challenge existing systems: “Hi, how are you?” “Not good, let’s organise a protest!” A simple exchange of text messages is all it takes, Ferguson says. Back to the laboratory A much more modern way of revolutionary thinking can be found in the symposium’s Tomorrow Laboratory (TOM-LAB). The symposium itself is far from being a democratic event – its handpicked participants may come from all over the world, but they’re all part of the global elite. Nevertheless, the members of the first-ever TOM-LAB tried to challenge existing concepts and organisations. Nine young Leaders of Tomorrow from nine different countries spent most of the week before the symposium touring Switzerland, visiting institutions and trying to find common ground for the future. “It was the willingness to give up your assumptions that made the initiative so worthy,” says TOM-LAB team member Scott Young. “It is about young people connecting and coming up with good ideas, regardless of where they come from.” TOM-LAB members came from countries like Ghana, Finland, New Zealand and Chile, countries which don’t share
much more than being medium-sized economies. To their surprise, they all agreed when it came to the importance of innovation, education and governance. They all agreed on the benefits of states, and they all agreed useless barriers like the limited mobility of labour had to go. “Somebody who has been entrenched in an international organisation for 45 years might have a difficult time grasping our ideas immediately,” Young says. The next stop is somewhere on the windy Piazza of the symposium. Fleur Brading is not easy to catch. She is constantly engaged in discussions and interviews. Her mission is to advertise the UK-based initiative “Towards a More Inclusive Capitalism.” She does not find too many opponents here in St. Gallen. The initiative underlines the importance of education, nurturing smaller businesses and reforming the management of a system which came under heavy pressure after the financial crisis. It is about incremental changes more than big ones. “You already may have a very enlightened CEO, but if he does not have the investor base, he has no possibility to change anything,” Brading says. It’s about keeping the membership cards in the wallet, but trying to reform the clubs you are in – a very pragmatic approach.
Membership application Now, he is part of a government negotiating membership in an important international club of states: The European Union. Being a member brings the benefits of discussions in an established framework, where the players know their roles and the ground rules are clear. “It’s critical at a supranational level to make sure that the debates are happening at the right level with the right facts.” It is not easy to find common ground for the next generation. Perhaps it’s too soon to throw out those fat wallets. But some of them can probably stand to lose a few membership cards. Tomorrow’s leaders prefer to access their social networks, where their reputations are measured by the quality of their ideas rather than nationality or wealth. And that seems easier to carry around. u
Photo: Caroline Marti, Illustration: Alexandra Stark
The last meeting is in the symposium’s media center, in the almost clinical atmosphere of a small conference room. Lazar Krstić has two mobile phones which are constantly ringing. He is 30 years old and the minister of finance of the Republic of Serbia. Previously, he worked for a global consulting firm. He’s a believer in the power of institutions. “Organisations are critical for capacity-building as well as setting up internal processes,” he says. “And membership motivates people.”
Crimean Nightmare Dream Imagine you went to sleep in one country and woke up in another. It sounds like a strange dream, but it’s hard reality for two million people in Crimea. Kateryna Zavgorodnya, 24-year-old student of medical science who lives in Simferopol, is one of them. How has her life changed? AS TOLD TO ANNA SIATKA
Crimea hasn’t really changed. We have only been a part of Russia for two months. You must know that the population of Crimea consists of 80 percent ethnic Russians. My family is also mixed: My mother is Ukrainian and my father is Russian. We never saw these two nations and cultures as divided into different parts, so it is a great pity for us that such a situation occurred with Crimea and Ukraine. I can notice that speaking Russian is not well seen by some Ukrainians and freedom in this field is important. Now, in Crimea we can easily speak Ukrainian, Russian and Tatar. Before the annexation, we had had a referendum. All my friends, co-workers,
relatives and parents took part. The attendance seemed to be much higher than during any other voting I can remember. After this referendum, people had one month to choose if they wanted to get a Russian passport or keep their Ukrainian citizenship. Thinking about safety For the moment, I have decided to keep my Ukrainian passport but if it is necessary, of course I will change it. I would like to do an exchange in European laboratories, as there is higher level of science and research in Europe, so the Ukrainian passport is better for me. Most Crimeans don’t think about the pros or cons of having different
passports, such as travelling to Schengen Area. They think about safety. And they really feel safer in the Russian Federation. In our everyday life, nothing has changed but emotionally, I’m really sad and it is a shame that such a situation with Ukraine and Crimea took place. We are afraid of a civil war between the Eastern and Western part, and also Crimea. I think a lot about it and discuss it with my friends. But we really don’t know what to do. The situation is really complicated. Crimeans had been really frightened of the nationalist movements in Kiev, we had heard things like “Let’s kill Russians and Crimeans.” After the annexation, we can feel more stability.
Photo: Andrew Curry
Kateryna Zavgorodnya: «For the moment, I have decided to keep my Ukrainian passport but if it is necessary, of course I will change it.»
Personally, I can’t see any solutions, because nobody wants to have a dialogue. I also have to admit that in my opinion, the news given by Ukraine and the West is often distorted, whereas the Russian media are reliable. Moving on up I have friends in Ukraine who hate Russia. We even had arguments, because they didn’t want to listen to my point of view as a resident of that place. They were just aggressive, radical. I am sorry that our friendship suffers. It’s a pity, because I am a very tolerant person and eager to create a peaceful atmosphere. And, as you know from history, we actually have one culture, one religion and
our languages are very similar. For me, in this aspect, Russia seems to be more tolerant, more multicultural. Also the living standards are a bit better in Russia. For example, I used to receive an internship scholarship from the Ukrainian government that was 150 euro per month. I have just got the one for April from Russia: It is 300 euro, and they told us it is going to be increased every month. The Russian education system is more developed as well. Our level of medicine at the Crimean University falls about 10 years behind the level of Moscow State University or Saint Petersburg State University, so we still have a lot to improve. u
Kateryna Zavgorodnya is a Master student of medical sciences at the Crimea State Medical University, and specialises in psychophysiology of emotion. She is one of the Leaders of Tomorrow at the 44th St. Gallen Symposium.
Grumpy Till the End
“Things ain’t what they used to be” The intergenerational contract has been broken, argues historian Niall Ferguson. As today’s young people are left with the debts of their parents and grandparents, how can we restore the compact?
MARK O’BRIEN (TEXT), CAROLINE MARTI (PHOTOS)
Niall Ferguson is a bruiser. He doesn’t smile; instead he merely narrows his eyes, cut into a hard, square face of Glasgow iron, and stares. When he delivers the symposium’s closing keynote address, he prowls around the symposium stage like a street fighter picking his next scuffle. And when he takes a seat with me in a plain interview room, he descends with hands pressed down on his thighs like a rugby prop heading into a scrum. This is the well-rehearsed part Ferguson, 50, has played for well over a decade as a popular historian. He became a polarising figure for his bestselling books and earnest TV programmes about how the British Empire was actually a force for good in the world, or how America ought to spread liberal democracy to the darkest corners of the globe. Yet his latest work, “The Great Degeneration,” strikes a more fatalistic note, warning about the decline of the West from its former glory. The rule of law has been replaced by the rule of lawyers,
he argues; people expect their problems to be solved by the state; and the burden of paying for it all is being heaped on the next generation. “Things ain’t what they used to be,” seems to be Ferguson’s thesis. So I wonder, is he just becoming a grumpy old man? “Well, I’m becoming an old man, but I can’t stop that,” he says disarmingly. “I was a grumpy young man – I’ll be grumpy till the end.” But he says there is a continuity in the new book from his earlier work, which cast the 20th century as “the descent of the West.” Ideological warrior Ferguson finds it difficult to say when that descent began. “There’s no easy answer, like ‘it was the ‘60s, the standard grumpy old man answer,” he says. He says he doesn’t in fact think it was the 1960s when the institutions of the West began to degenerate, but then proceeds to boldly state that the roots of today’s clash of generations belong back there. “Our great problem is the 1968 mania,
the perception that there was something cool about that. I’ve never understood why it was cool for students to adopt Maoist positions in elite Western universities during the violence of the Cultural Revolution.” An unapologetic student Thatcherite in the 1980s at Oxford, he still has the political confidence of someone who came of age at a time when two ideologies were locked in a fight to the death. He famously said at a BBC lecture two years ago that if young Americans knew what was good for them, they’d all back the Tea Party. He describes the Occupy Wall Street movement, meanwhile, as “a bunch of students who want to relive 1968 because it looked cool when they saw it on TV.”
«The aesthetic of generational revolt is an attractive one, but in reality, the norm is generational conformity.»
Niall Ferguson was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1964. He is the Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History at Harvard University and is a fellow at Jesus College, Oxford, and Stanford University, as well as visiting professor at the New College of Humanities. He has authored several popular history books, presented television series, and was an advisor to John McCainâ€™s US presidential campaign in 2008.
And Ferguson doesn’t think young people have grown out of it. “There is not much sign in the US of them moving towards entitlement reform, which they all ought to be in favour of,” he says. “They can’t possibly want to sustain Social Security and Medicare in their current form, because they’d be signing up for massively higher taxes during their own lives.” “Periodically, democracies try to use the fiscal system to achieve equality and it never works. After World War II, taxes went up in Britain to the point where marginal tax rates on investment income were above 100% – you actually lost money on investing. Landowners had to sell to the National Trust or some American investor. We disincentivised success, and it was a total failure. There must be a massive collective amnesia for anyone to want to run this experiment again.”
«We disincentivised success, and it was a total failure. There must be a massive collective amnesia for anyone to want to run this experiment again.» But he doesn’t place blame squarely on the young generation today. “The pattern of Western history, until recently, was that generation one would make decisions beneficial to generations two and three,” Ferguson says. “Politicians acted for posterity: Look at their speeches until the 1940s, and you see policy justified for its benefits to future generations.” He continues: “Something changed recently that we associate with the baby boomers that took posterity out of the speeches – politicians stopped saying we were doing this for our grandchildren, and instead we started doing this for the living, enfranchised voters.” Ferguson argues that we have witnessed a breakdown of a Burkean contract between the generations. “There are periods in which there is a kind of generational revolt, but they’re not by any means regular 30-year events. You have to go back to the 1860s to find any kind of parallel with the 1960s and ‘70s. From the 1900s, what’s remarkable about university students is their conservatism. It’s easy to get them to fight in foreign wars because they weren’t engaged in a generational clash with their leaders.” He concludes with characteristic self-assurance, albeit now out for a consensus rather than a clash: “The aesthetic of generational revolt is an attractive one, but in reality, the norm is generational conformity.” u
Lost: A Generation How does a country cope with the organised slaughter of a whole generation? What are the consequences? And – as harsh as it sounds – is it a chance to start fresh?
Two million dead in four years: A third of the Cambodian population was killed between 1975 and 1979 by the Khmer Rouge regime. Soon, the slaughter escaped even the Khmer Rouge’s control. Pol Pot’s dream of a total economic transition into the “ideal communistic society” led Cambodia full steam back into the Stone Age. How does a country change when all the intellectuals are dead and only farmers and the illiterate are left? What happens when a generation goes missing? Anatoly Vishnevsky, Director of the Institute of Demography of the State University – Higher School of Economics in Moscow, named one consequence. “The clash of generations is less,” he says. This is brutal, but true: There is nobody to clash with. There are no ideas to fight against, no role models to follow or to despise. Nearly everyone who could give guidance is dead or deeply traumatised. It was a new start for this country, not only in terms of economics but in general. At the same time, schools had to be rebuilt, expectations about the future had to be shifted. Cambodia had a chance to completely change. Everything was possible. Today, Cambodia’s crime rate is on the decline. Tourists are also returning
Source: United Nations - Department of Economic and Social Affairs – Population Division
Population by age in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge genocide left a gaping demographic hole.
to the country and inflation remains low. Foreign aid is flowing, and there is impressive 7% growth in GDP. The situation is not as positive as it may appear. Approximately one-third of the population live on less than $1.25 per day, and 37 percent of children are malnourished. More than 50% of the country’s population is under 25 years old. One of Cam-
bodia’s core economic challenges is how it can create a stable business environment. And then there’s the emotional harm. Nobody was able to save Cambodia’s cultural heritage. Can you imagine what it is like to have no grandparents or even parents to tell you a bedtime story, nobody to remember an ancient fairytale? u
Just the One of Us NORA JAKOB
Fan Shi San: “I started ‘Two of Us – a Portrait of the Single Child’ five years ago. For this set, I photographed people who grew up as only children together with their imaginary alter-ego – like a mirror, where these people can see themselves again. The absence of brothers and sisters left a deep imprint on my generation’s identity, creating feelings of loneliness and something unnatural.”
Photo: Fan Shi San
Photo: Caroline Marti
Fan Shi San, 31, was a Leader of Tomorrow at the 44th St. Gallen Symposium. He was born and raised in China’s Sichuan province. He studied art at the University of Shanghai, where he still lives and works as a freelance photographer.
Fan Shi San was born in China’s “post ‘80s generation,” and grew up as an only child. The one-child policy in China restricts the number of children a Han Chinese couple can have. Most of the children born after 1980 in China grew up without siblings. Recently, the Chinese National People’s Congress realised that this rule is a huge problem for society and eased the one-child policy. In his series “Two of Us,” the photographer – born in 1983 – tells the story of a generation, but also his own. “Through my pictures, I am searching within myself, and for a link between me and the environment. I found myself, for example, in Taoism,” he said. Fan was born and raised in Sichuan, a province in the south of China. He began drawing at an early age, and his parents enroled him in a traditional painting class at the age of seven. In contrast to many children at the same age, he says, he wasn’t raised as a little king. In his youth, he often felt an “inner confusion” – a feeling that something was missing. When he was younger, he never thought about the fact that there were just only children around him because it seemed so normal. But after a while, he became confused. “My parents wanted to have another child, but it was forbidden. We even wanted to adopt a baby who was found on our doorstep. But that, too, was still forbidden, and the little baby was sent to an orphanage.” “To be an only child is unnatural, but you are made to think it’s correct, because it looks so normal. But it isn’t,” the photographer says. “I felt that my body was like a home for two people – and sometimes, like this other ‘person’ was having a dialogue with ‘the other self’ inside me.” This feeling was the impetus for him to shoot these pictures. He recognised that he wasn’t alone. Such feelings were a common story around him. “I’m not trying to make a judgment on the policy or if feelings of loneliness are good or not. I wish people would start to think about it more and maybe, they will understand that my generation has to face problems, which are hard to solve,” says Fan. u
What is the Problem? They are young, they are bored, they are frustrated. In Greece, Portugal and Spain, every second young person is unemployed. Even as the financial crisis slowly comes under control, the situation stays the same. Some blame the system, some blame the unemployed youth. But all in all, it’s about making choices, and being in the right place at the right time.
ANNA SIATKA & MERLE GRIES
“The biggest issue of the EU is the youth unemployment rate,” says Mario Greco, Group CEO of Assicurazioni Generali. The number of young people without jobs in southern Europe proves him right. The self-regulated free market seems to fail in this case: Years after the most recent financial crisis hit, the unemployment rate remains frozen at an incredibly high level. So what is the problem? There is no good answer to this question, or rather, there are a whole variety of factors that put the young generation at a disadvantage in the labour market. In this changing environment, young people need to make compromises, pragmatic choices and adapt quicker than ever. To become leaders, they first need to shape their own tomorrow. We reached beyond the symposium to find four struggling young Europeans searching for solutions to common problems. u
WRONG COUNTRY! Rocio Cid González, 28 Civil Engineer, Spain Problem: Some say that engineers don’t suffer from unemployment. But in my coun try, it’s not the case. Although studied civil eng ineering , I could not find a job in Spain – not even an internship. Many of my friends still live with their parents. They don’t have jobs eith er. If they are lucky, they work as waiters. Solution: I got a job in Norway with a German company. I didn’t want to go further north than Germany, but it was the only opp ortunity. Afterwards, the company extended my contract in Germany. I’d like to return hom e, but now it’s impossible. I’m here to gain expe rience and later get a good job in Spain, whe re my family and friends are. It’s getting better, slowly. The country needs time.
WRONG LANGUAGE! Alicia Noverques, 27 Journalist, Spain
WRONG EDUCATION! Celso Pereira, 25 ks and Communication Networ gal Telecom Specialist, Portu do not choose profesProblem: Many people m and would provide the sions that are needed d an rs che tuguese tea a good job. I know Por or lab the demand on nurses who are not in employment. un m fro fer market and suf jor in communication Solution: I decided to ma unications. IT profesnetworks and telecomm hnicians are almost alsionals and other tec job after two months of ways needed and I got a g it is worth investigatin searching. I think that n. sio choose your profes the market before you ether it makes sense to I’m also wondering wh o ps, people should als go to university. Perha ers ls and become plumb choose practical schoo or car mechanics.
Problem: The truth is that my job search was quite short because I realised that to work as a journalist in Spain, first I had to learn perfect English. The level of teaching lang uages in my country is low: That’s why many peo ple are not able to communicate in foreign lang uages. Still, English is fundamental. Solution: I’m working as an au pair in England. My main goal is to improve my know ledge of languages, specifically English, that are basic for any jobs – especially in journali sm. That’s why I decided to gain new knowledg e and become more competitive and I hop e to get a job in Spain later on.
WRONG GOVERNMENT! Georgios Kyriakidis, 20 High school graduate, Greece Problem: I didn’t apply for any jobs . There are none. In Greece, 69 % of people under 25 are unemployed. If you brib e someone or if you happen to be the son of someone important, you have a chan ce to get a job before you finish scho ol. If not, you end up working at McDonald’s. If the government continues like this , there’s a great chance of a complete destruct ion of the economic system. Solution: I decided to continue my studies in Germany. The same com pany where I did my apprenticeship hired me, thanks to my skills – not because I brib ed them. The rules are clear. Here I have a chan ce to develop. I have a future.
Give a Little, Get a Lot Companies and interns both suffer from the ongoing trend of offering and doing unpaid internships. If good work is not rewarded, professionalism in companies will fade and the academic degree will decrease in value. TOBIAS KREUTZER
The average university graduate completes four to five internships during or after his studies. Many of them are unpaid. And yet the idea that internships provide a foot in the door, and that good interns get offered jobs afterwards, is outdated. Neither interns nor employers expect it to be like this, yet the internship has somehow become obligatory for the CV. Companies know that, and most of them take advantage. Behind the mask of giving valuable insights into routines and processes of the company, often the real reason for hiring interns is that they are cheap labour. Mario Greco, Group Chief Executive Officer of Assicurazioni Generali, knows that this kind of company policy can result in short-term work offered to desperate young people. “We should force companies to hire young people permanently,” he says. Companies often men-
tion the valuable experience gained during the internship to justify poor salaries. But how many new experiences can an internship still deliver after six months? Where does the routine begin, the point were only the salary distinguishes the intern from the regular employee? Internships and short-term contracts are results of the same policy of saving money now instead of investing in future potential. Grateful, to a point No intern expects to be paid like a skilled employee, and most of them are grateful for the experiences they get offered. But in fact, most internships are only open to students or even university graduates who have to come up with money for rent and other costs and are not supported by their parents anymore. Since students usually share their houses
with somebody, those costs are not very high. Still, they have to be paid somehow, which makes unpaid fulltime internships a problem that has to be discussed. In different European countries, there have been campaigns against the exploitation of young people. In Poland, there is a campaign which aims to convey “quality internships” to young people. Their motto is “check it before you take it.” According to Intern Aware, a similar campaign in England which considers unpaid internships illegal, this critical investigation of the offered placement is something young people often neglect today. The pressure of the market forces them to take unpaid internships and “by asking people to work without pay, employers exclude those with talent, ambition and drive who cannot afford to work for free,” according to Intern Aware’s website.
In the end, both sides suffer: Students undersell themselves, while employers hire people who would not have the job if their work was paid. But what does a CV full of internships for the internship’s sake really say about the person behind it? The danger of a generation which is collecting internships like stamps in an album is high. Sam Johnson, founder and director of the Student Volunteer Army and one of this year’s Leaders of Tomorrow, is of the same opinion. “You should learn something about the direction you want to go into. Collecting internships is somehow stupid,” he says. “Useful, practical experience, on the other hand, is important. I actually prefer it over only an academic degree.” Johnson started the Student Volunteer Army in 2010, when an earthquake hit his New Zealand hometown of Christchurch, to help people who were
affected by the catastrophe and clean up the streets together. Stefan Schulte, senior director of Research and Development at CSL Behring AG, considers this kind of commitment to something even more important than lots of internships on the CV. “I did not do many internships. Social commitment and studying abroad have always been more important to me,” he says. Schulte stresses that he has a more scientific background and that it of course depends on the line of business, but that he would always employ a skilled graduate, even one without any internships. In Germany, a new bill would set a minimum wage of 8,50 euros per hour, for internships lasting longer than six months. Companies argue that they will not be able to pay interns that much, and that they therefore cannot offer
the placements anymore. In the end, this kind of natural selection might be the solution to the problem. If there are fewer internships available, students will probably do fewer of them. The internships which survive will be paid and guarantee a certain quality. Employers will again appreciate the academic degree of a student and his two or three internships for their original purpose: As an additional qualification which gives proof of the students’ interest in the job and some basic experience the company can count on. u
Parental Units “First comes love, then comes marriage, then comes baby in a baby carriage?” Many people were raised in the belief that this playground ditty describes the normal – indeed, the only – way of living as a family. But what’s “normal”? NORA JAKOB
We are living in a society, where nearly every family constellation is possible. Nuclear families made up of husband, wife and child(ren), but there are also new forms like single mommies and daddies, same sex couples with or without children and also remarried couples. A variety of new arrangements have emerged, giving rise to a broader and evolving definition of what a family is. By the 1990s, the term “family” included also the normative family, which is a flexible sociological concept encompassing “agreed upon societal rules and expectations specifying appropriate and inappropriate ways to behave in a particular society.” According to this normative definition, married couples with children, non-married, separated, or divorced couples with children and single parents and their children are included in the term “family.” Also important is what is unsaid: The children don’t have to be necessarily biologically related to those couples or persons.
According to a recent survey of American youth, nearly half of those under age 30 find the growing variety of family arrangements to be a good thing. And they accept that more people live together without getting married and the increasing number of gay and lesbian couples raising children much more easily than their older counterparts. It turns out that children can be raised by same-sex couples as good as in other families. Research shows that the most important things are financial and familial stability and strength. Watching parents work together to solve problems, delegate household responsibilities and support each other is really important. Anatoly Vishnevsky, Director of the Institute of Demography at the National Research University of Moscow, describes this general change: “Family modernisation is an important aspect of general modernisation,” he says. When it comes to Russia specifically, “the rapid destruction of the peasant
family in the late 1920s, as well as mass rural-urban migration, resulted in a break with the traditional family and its demographic behaviour and in an accelerated demographic transition,” he wrote in an essay focussing on the changes in Russia. In his opinion, this process is still not completed, “the fundamental functions of the family – its way of life, rhythm of formation, family roles, relationships, and morality – have entered a period of renewal.” In many societies, this renewal takes the shape of a deconstruction. Nowadays, a nuclear family is as likely as a single parent family, an extended family, childless family or a stepfamily. In the end, there is no right or wrong answer, what the best type of family structure is. Much more important is love and support for one another. Families need to do what is best for them, and that can be achieved in almost any sort of family unit. u
Illustration: Alexandra Stark, Sandra Loser
Coach Day care Godfather
Social clubs Stepmother
Godmother Sports clubs
Male partner of father
Female partner of mother
Grandparents Uncle Nurse
Family constellations: Once, children were raised by their biological parents. In todayâ€™s society, the family unit is far more complicated and colourful.
Back to the ‘30s?
Leaving the Right Behind Racism and the rise of right-wing parties are old problems that come up with surprising regularity in Europe. As this Magazine goes to print, election campaigns for European Parliament are in full swing – and even if lasting electoral success for the far right is not guaranteed, it is possible that there will be a strong coalition of right-wing parties when the results come in. NORA JAKOB
Right-wing, populist parties like the “National Front” (FN) in France, the “Alternative for Germany” in Germany and the “Partij voor de Vrijheid” in the Netherlands were all quite successful in their last national elections, or have at least gained a sizable following. They are also running for office in Europe-wide elections, and that is dangerous. They all share strong views on the EU, immigration and national sovereignty. And all these parties create – in different ways – an anti-foreigner atmosphere. What impact could they have on Europe’s future? One of the possible scenarios was seen recently in Switzerland. In February, Swiss voters decided to bring back strict quotas for immigration from European Union countries. Although Switzerland is not a member of the EU, its immigration policy is based on free movement of citizens to
and from the EU, with some exceptions, as well as allowing in a restricted number of non-EU citizens. After the vote, Swiss television reported that the result calls into question bilateral accords with the EU and could irk multinational companies. Others say it could exacerbate a shortage of skilled workers in Switzerland that’s now filled with foreign professionals. Swiss experts are pessimistic about the vote’s implications for the country’s future – and by extension, for Europe’s. “We are wealthy, and in the future there will be tougher distribution battles. Namely, our model of prosperity is not sustainable. We must understand that the dissatisfaction of young people has nothing to do with the rebellion in 1968. That was an affluent youth, but today, the young people really have problems such as youth unemployment. And the
prospects are worse,” says Christoph Frei, a professor at the School of Economics and Political Science at the University of St. Gallen. “This dissatisfaction, associated with poor employment prospects can be expressed in the support for right-wing parties.” Anti-European populism, anti-immigrant feelings and antipathy towards Islam evoke memories of the 1930s. “We should not forget,” European Commission head José Manuel Barroso said recently, “that in Europe, not so many decades ago, we had very, very worrying developments of xenophobia and racism and intolerance.” Those clouds loom again on the horizon. “The socio-political and economic pressure on Europe and the European Union increases and the dark side will be more visible. We can see the problems for example in the ‘banlieues’
Christoph Frei, born in 1960, is professor for Political Science at the University of St. Gallen. Before his academic career, he acted as a personal assistant to the former Swiss Federal Councillor, Kurt Furgler. He graduated from University of St. Gallen in 1985 and obtained a Ph.D. summa cum laude in 1993.
in Paris, and tensions like this will increase,” says Frei. The rise of the right, then, takes place because of our wealth and the fear that we lose it because of immigration. But the crisis of the euro-zone is not a full explanation; it is more a contemporary form of “Euroscepticism”. In 2007, 52% of the public said they had a positive image of the EU; by 2013, that share had collapsed to 30 percent. “The European Union is a project of unworldly elites, which only a few understand,” says Frei. Euroscepticism has two different sources. First, the sense that integration weakens the nation-state, and second, that the EU and its bodies are undemocratic bureaucracies. It is true that some anti-EU parties are toxic, but fascism could be the wrong model, argues Catherine Fieschi, director of Counterpoint, a British think-
tank. “Most of Europe’s populist parties either have no roots in the far right or have made a conscious and open effort to distance themselves from such antecedents,” she argued in a recent Economist article. A better question is how far these parties can use popular dissatisfaction to reshape Europe’s political debate, and whether they can use that influence to win real power.” In late May, more than 400 million Europeans across the 28-member European Union will elect 751 deputies to the European Parliament. Much depends on their votes. u
Clash of Characters
Are You an Idealist Robert Zoellick has seen many conflicts in his life and worked with all sorts of people – whether it was under Bush 41 and 43, or during his time as head of the ANNA-MARIA KRAMER
People say “If you’re not an idealist in your 20s, you have no heart. But if you’re not a realist in your 50s, you have no brain!” Would you agree? I don’t think that there’s such a fine line between the two. I grew up in the ‘50s and ‘60s, and was never drawn to the radical left. Instead, I’ve always had the perspective of trying to understand other people’s points of view. It’s important for people to have ideals all their life, but it’s also important for them to have a realistic sense about how the world operates and how to accomplish those ideals.
Photos: Caroline Marti
Was 20-year-old Robert Zoellick an idealist, then? I know the theme is “The Clash of Generations.” But I’m rather a person who tries to find mutual interests, as opposed to clashes. The answer of a pure diplomat… Well, if you try to accomplish things while recognising differences, you must find common ground. I grew up in the American Midwest. My family is a middle class family. We were fortunate so I
had a sense of purpose – perhaps another word for ideals. So it was rather purpose that took me in the area of public service. What is your advice for youngsters who try to take the same path? Probably the most important observation I could share is the importance of picking your boss. What do you mean? Young graduates might think the boss picks them, but in reality, you learn a lot from your boss. It doesn’t mean you have to want to imitate your boss. It doesn’t mean you have to admire everything about your boss. But learning from leaders and executives is very important. Who was the boss that taught you most? The most important was James Baker, with whom I worked beginning in 1985. He was Secretary of State during George H. W. Bush’s administration.
or a Realist? World Bank. His international expertise is often in demand. But to what extent did these years in public service change his own view of the world?
…and therefore was in charge during the end of the Cold War. He was a very good boss. He didn’t care where you were from. He focused on results and delivery. That was my tendency anyway. Looking back at your career, what were probably the most disenchanting moments in your life? I was a long-distance runner in high school. I trained very hard, but didn’t have the talent to compete at the highest level. I used to get injured. That was obviously dispiriting. Then, I almost died when I was 17, because my appendix burst and I didn’t have it operated on for almost two days. And then there are the professional setbacks. If you don’t have setbacks, though, you’re probably not trying very hard. Which setbacks do you mean? Going back to the Cold War, most historians said that President Bush senior did a very good job internationally. But the economy fell into a brief recession. At the very end of this period, in 1992, you
could tell that the economy was coming back. But poor President Bush: In the minds of the voters, he had done things for the world but not enough for the United States. Here, after a very successful four years, he was kicked out of office. So at age 39, I was out of work. But that didn’t last long. You were Deputy Secretary of State under George W. Bush and finally became president of the World Bank in 2007. To what extent did these years of working in the public sector change your view of the world? Of course, if you’re a sensible person, you learn from experience. And of course, circumstances change. When I was starting out there wasn’t an internet yet. There was the Cold War. On the one hand, you have to change and adapt. At the same time, there’s probably a core consistency in my belief system that never changed: Trying to understand other people. u
New Intergenerational Contract
Please Sign Here! Given the social and economic challenges the world is facing, generations should not clash, but collaborate. Therefore, a new agreement between generations is needed. JULIA KRAMER
In his 1790 treatise “Reflections on the Revolution in France,” the Irish politician and philosopher Edmund Burke famously criticised Rousseau’s notion of society as a contract between the sovereign and the people. According to Burke, the state is “a partnership not only between those who are living, but between those who are living, those who are dead, and those who are to be born.” During the 44th St. Gallen Symposium, 224 years after Burke’s book was published, it’s clear that this “intergenerational contract” has been breached. Both Leaders of Today and Leaders of Tomorrow addressed problems stemming from this broken contract, like youth unemployment or the growing population of retirees. To overcome these issues, they agreed, the “partnership” between generations must be restored. “If we carry on with the present economic model, you end up with a relatively small generational cohort of people working a lot and paying very high taxes to support a much larger cohort who retired too early,” says Niall Ferguson, Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History at Harvard University. “This is one of the reasons why it is super-ur-
gent that intergenerational contracts be restored. Otherwise there are going to be very negative consequences. Especially for the young generation in developed countries.” Short-term solutions Set Ying Ting, a doctoral student in engineering at the National University of Singapore and the third-place finisher in this year’s St. Gallen Wings of Excellence Award, is one of the representatives of this young generation. In his essay, he underlines the need for a new intergenerational contract. “Worldwide, a lot of such contracts have failed,” Set writes. “The unequal distribution of wealth and rising house prices in Singapore are only one example that we young people are being let down by the previous generations.” Ferguson and Set emphasise that contracts are failing because today’s politicians focus on short-term solutions. “There was a time when politicians were talking about policies in terms of the impact on their kids,” says Ferguson. “All the politicians talk about today are today’s voters.” Set refers to an old Asian proverb that “a generation plants the trees in whose shade another
generation rests.” This means that everybody needs to try to extend the legacy from previous generations and pass it down to the successive generations. What should a new intergenerational contract contain? Set suggests a shift in focus from gross domestic production (GDP) to productivity growth, investing in human capital development, and rethinking environment degradation. Ferguson stresses the importance of raising the retirement age, improving access to the labour market as well as improving education. To solve the social and economic problems the world is facing, actions speak louder than words. Set believes that both generations have a responsibility. “Everybody needs to realise that you are always dependent on the next generation, so be the change you want to see,” he says. According to Ferguson, Burke’s principles need a revival. But he also argues that young people must take initiative: “They need to understand how they are being screwed, and by understanding that, they need to start making a much clearer critique of the current status quo.” u
“Inclusive of diverse point s of view, focussing on yo uth perspectives and takes global point of view.” a ZEENAT RAHMAN (US), SPEC IAL ADVISER ON GLOBAL YOU TH ISSUES TO THE SECRETA U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STAT RY OF STATE, JOHN F. KERRY, E
“The right for people who want to work to do so as long as they are able, in order to ensure their healt h, happiness and wellbein g.” LADY BARBARA JUDGE (US/ GB) , CHAIR, UK PENSION PRO TECTION FUND
“Making social security sys tems resilient to demogra phic change, in particular aging and increasing depe ndency ratios, is a key priori ty.” AXEL WEBER (DE), CHAIRM AN OF THE BOARD OF DIRE
CTORS, UBS AG
“Investing in infrastructu re that will make the next generation resilient. The climate is changing, the pla net is changing, and it wi ll only get worse. All infrastructure should be fle xible and adaptive, and thi s generation owes it to the next generation to invest in this infrastructure.’ PEGGY LIU (CN ), CO-FOUNDER & CHAIRPE
“Governing in the long-term interests of communities, countries and the welfare of the planet. Recognising the importance of diversity in leadership, and making way for younger leaders to enjoy leadership experienc e and opportunity today (as well as diversity of gend er, background, culture an d experience). ELIZABETH SHAW (AU), EXE CUTIVE DIRECTO R, UNITED NATIONS ASSO
CIATION OF AUSTRALIA
“One of the central tenets of intergenerational contra cts is the idea of sustainability. Sustainability can be interpreted through va rious lenses such as environ mental, financial and energ y sustainability.” MAHARSHI VYA S (IN), MASTER STUDENT
IN ECONOMICS, BIRLA INST ITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIE
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“People don’t like to think about getting old and getting sick. They pretend it’s not going to happen, until it does.” — Aubrey de Grey
Having Sex. Forever. Aubrey de Grey wants to rid the world of aging, so that people can live forever. That may sound like the plot of a science-fiction movie, but de Grey doesn’t like sciencefiction movies. “They are a pain in the ass and make my life much harder.” We find out why. JORIS BELLWINKEL (TEXT), CAROLINE MARTI (PHOTOS)
Almost every week, Aubrey de Grey gives a speech to an audience somewhere in the world. He walks to the stage, makes a few small jokes, and then tells his listeners about his quest to extent human life by ridding the world of age-related diseases. Over the years, he has become a seasoned speaker. He’s mildly provocative and sometimes ironic, but always sharp and convincing. He is now the most familiar face on the conference circuit on the topic of regenerative medicine. This is partly due to his speaking qualities, and partly due to his characteristic, waist-length beard.
Aubrey de Grey is founder of the SENS Research Foundation, founded in 2009. The foundation is aimed at treating all age-related disease. He elaborates in detail on the topic of regenerative medicine in his book «Ending Aging» (2007).
The best way to understand de Grey’s vision is to understand his definition of aging: “The life-long accumulation of damage to the tissues, cells, and molecules of the body that occurs as an intrinsic side-effect of the body’s normal operation.” A human body can tolerate some damage, but too much causes diseases. While you cannot eliminate aging from the body entirely, de Grey is convinced that there are ways for medicine to intervene. He proposes regenerative medicine, a process of replacing or regenerating human cells and eliminating all deadly cellular processes along the way. If aging is eventually defeated and people no longer get sick, lives will get much, much longer. “Which one of you wants to live forever?” BBC HARDtalk presenter Stephen Sackur asks the audience during his investigative interview with de Grey at the St. Gallen Symposium. Only a few hands go up. Then de Grey turns to the audience and asks:
“But who wants to get Alzheimer’s? Hands please!” Not one hand goes up. “There’s no curing Alzheimer or cancer or cardiovascular disease without curing aging,” de Grey says triumphantly. “You should get that.” It all sounds like a science-fiction movie, but de Grey didn’t find his ideas in one of those. “They are a pain in the ass and make my life much harder,” he says. “Certainly, these movies entrench the misconceptions people have. The movies that are made are movies that are made to sell, and those movies pander to people’s preconceptions.” And de Grey doesn’t like the preconceptions of most people. The public he usually stands in front of is not really that interested in the scientific processes behind regenerative therapy. They care more about the moral implications and the societal impact of his research. So they ask questions about overpopulation, about clashing generations, about dictators living forever, about people who want to commit suicide, about God and about nature. De Grey is always prepared and has an answer for each of them. “It’s been a very long time since I got a question that I
haven’t heard before. My answers have been getting a bit more aggressive over the years, a bit more impatient, but I’ve always seen it as part of the job,” he says. De Grey has turned from researcher to part-time philosopher. Making an impact And he’s a success. At the end of the interview with Sackur, de Grey again turns to the audience. “I’d like to know how many of you now want to live forever,” he asks. Almost half of the audience raises their hands this time. Did he expect this to happen? “Oh, I was pretty pleased actually,” he says. “I often make less of an impact than that. Of course, most of the time we don’t have votes at the beginning and end, so it’s hard to tell, but maybe I could make this a standard thing.” De Grey is noticing a shift in the general attitude towards regenerative therapy. “Definitely things are getting easier. Not nearly quick enough, but the whole tone of this conversation is now very different than it was ten years ago,” the Oxford-educated researcher says. “Back then you couldn’t really have these discussions. People called me con-
Seniors in Japan Challenge the Youth We wonder about the societal consequences of extreme longevity. But in Japan, that future is now. SUSANNA NÉMETH
troversial, a maverick. Now people ask you questions with an expectation that you actually will be able to teach them something.” Still, most people don’t seem to like thinking about living forever. “There are a lot of things that people don’t like to think about. People don’t like to think about getting old and getting sick either,” de Grey says. “They pretend it’s not going to happen, until it does.” But will people only accept it when the actual therapy is on the market? “I think it will happen before that. I think it will come at the moment when there is really decisive, unequivocal proof of concept in the laboratory. If we are able to take mice that are already in middle age and we rejuvenate them well enough that they will double their age, people will know that it’s only a matter of time,” de Grey says. “After that, my job will be done, all the ethical debate will go away and there will be no shortage of money. Then I’ll retreat to glorious obscurity and never do another interview.” Regenerative therapy doesn’t sound cheap. But it doesn’t discourage de Grey. “From the point of the government, this technology will actually be a negative
Japan is the most rapidly aging society in the world. With 25% of the population already of retiring age, the society’s spending on pensions is very high. Perhaps that’s as it should be: “There are good things that the older generations have given the younger generations. We have had peace for more than 60 years, growth and high employment,” says Kuniko Inoguchi, a member of the House of Councillors in the National Diet of Japan and a Leader of Today at this year’s symposium. At the same time, the hierarchical system in Japan makes it dif-
ficult for younger people to get a job. And, although the unemployment rate in general is only 3%, the young are more likely to be unemployed than their elders. Yet, according to Inoguchi, young people are more innovative and better educated than the old. “In order to keep growing, we have to give young people a chance,” she says. She also stresses the importance of having a society where women are encouraged to work. So what can Japan do to avoid the current situation in Europe, where many young people are unemployed?
cost. It will not only prevent people from being sick, it will also provide these people with a way to contribute wealth to the society as they carry on working,” he points out. “So these medicines will pay for themselves really quickly. It will be economically suicidal for any country to not give this medicine for free to anyone old enough to need it.” Wishful thinking, or naïve? De Grey says longevity will also impact the labour market. “Work will be a whole different concept by then, due to automation,” he says. “Most people probably won’t work at all. They will just be having sex.” While that may sound great, even sex is probably going to get boring after a thousand years. If you can extend lives for unlimited time, should you not also be able to end lives at any time? Surprisingly, de Grey doesn’t expect more freedom to employ euthanasia. “Euthanasia won’t be any more common. Now, the only time when it’s considered is when someone is terminally ill, and the whole point here is to stop getting terminally ill,” he says. What de Grey doesn’t understand is
Inoguchi says that one way of reducing unemployment would be to reform the agricultural sector to make it more attractive for young job seekers. Since agriculture is very labour intensive, it would absorb some of the problem. Other labour intensive sectors include childcare and old age homes, one growth industry in aging societies like Europe and Japan. There are major challenges along that road, though. One big challenge is to bridge the gap between where employment opportunities exist and where young people want to work. There are
why a person, being in physically good shape, would want to die at a certain point in life, or die at all. In his vision, people want to live as long as possible, even if this means living forever. He also thinks that people won’t want to have more children when they live longer, that people in powerful positions won’t stay in the same job forever, and that regenerative therapy won’t be misused by dictators. You could call his assumptions wishful thinking – or a bit naïve. His lack of reflection seems problematic. De Grey is now 51. He’s probably too old to profit from the regenerative research he promotes. But he’s not doing it for himself, or for one individual, he says. He is doing it for everybody. “I’m definitely driven by humanitarian motives. This technology will happen, the only question is: How much faster will it happen because of my efforts? Every single day that I bring forward the defeat of aging is a hundred thousand lives. So that’s whole hell of a lot.” u
stereotypes in society about what jobs are “real jobs”. To get people to work on farms instead of, for example, in banks would mean changing the mindset of the young generation. Riyo Yoshioka, a senior associate at the Human Rights Watch in Asia, and a Leader of Tomorrow, does not consider the increasing amount of older people in Japan to be a problem. It is just a situation to be dealt with. If both the younger and older generations open their minds and listen to each other, she suggests, they will come up with solutions.
To spend resources in more efficient ways would be one way to tackle the problem. She believes that other countries can learn from Japan if they face the same generational issues Japan does right now. “The older generation has an obligation to share what they learnt, and we, the young generation, have the obligation to bring in new ideas and be more entrepreneurial,” Yoshioka says. “If we can find a way to incorporate their knowledge and ideas, we can build a new Japan together.” u
Too Old to Vote? In the developed world, we are facing a rising tide of old people. Will younger people be swamped by the needs of their elders? MERLE GRIES
Over 60 years old
from 20 to 60
1950 1970 Illustration: Michel Müller, Source: Eurostat.
1990 2010 2030 2050
According to Eurostat, in the 1950s, 20% of the European population of voting age (over 20 years old) was older than 60. In 2050, almost half of the electorate will be over 60.
I love my grandmother: She is a very strong-minded, lovely lady in her late eighties who speaks out for her rights. But I definitely don’t want her to decide things for me, a 29 year old. Because, to be honest, she has no idea what life is like today. It is probably easier for Aubrey de Grey to find a cure for aging or cancer (see “Having Sex. Forever.”, page 58), than for me to explain this “internet everyone keeps talking about” to her. In 2050, nearly every second person who is allowed to vote in Europe will be over 60 (see graph, above). That is a glar-
ing number. But what does that mean? We will be ruled by people over 60, with laws written by people over 60 for people over 60. Why? Because voting is legal starting at the age of 18, but possible till death. “Stop protecting the rights of old people!” says Mario Greco, Group CEO of Assicurazioni Generali. I certainly agree. But when it comes to solutions, it gets complicated. We, the young, want to have more of a say, but the numbers keep us quiet. So the question is: Are we able to create any mechanisms to
protect the young minority? Is forbidding old people from voting a solution? Should we try to create a dictatorship of the young? Finding a fix will not only be difficult but will take a long time. Too long for me, maybe: In 2050, I’ll be over 60, too. And then – look out! – I will certainly not let the young upstarts, who don’t know anything about life, spoil the world! PS: Please don’t tell my granny about this article. u
Off on the Right Foot Bethlehem Alemu has turned a small Ethiopian shoe manufacturer into a well-known global brand. That’s an inspiring, exhausting, important job.
Bethlehem Alemu once visited her father in his office. She saw him working hard, without his efforts being recognised. She knew she wanted a different life. “If people put their talent and power into something, they should benefit,” she says. As a successful Ethiopian entrepreneur, Alemu is now walking along the right path. She is working in a traditional business – but the brand of her company makes the difference. soleRebels, founded ten years ago with a couple of thousand dollars and five family members as employees, produces shoes. The soles are made out of old tires, the design of the shoes is pleasing. The product is not unique: There are quite a few such manufacturers in Africa. But soleRebels sells its products to 55 countries across the world. And Alemu, its founder and managing director, was named one of Africa’s most successful women by Forbes Magazine in 2012. Her company was called the African answer to brands like Nike or Reebok. “You need vision, you need guts
and you need foresight to do what she has done,” says Leslie Maasdoorp, president at Bank of America Merrill Lynch for Southern Africa, who led the Work Session with Alemu at the symposium. Alemu is responsible for the concept and the story behind soleRebels. Her company is based on a very clever and well-thought-out combination of traditional handcraft and modern management. And she is very aware of how important her story is to the company’s success. Only a few speakers had more interview requests during the St. Gallen Symposium than Alemu. As far as possible, she agreed to all of them – and to all the requests of the photographers who tried to shoot pictures from the craziest angles, trying to show the sole of her shoes as well as Alemu herself. Telling her story over and over, she creates more awareness for African businesses. But beside that, she makes soleRebels more prominent – and sells shoes. u
Photo: Caroline Marti
Bethlehem Alemu was born in 1980 in a rural community in Ethiopia’s capital of Addis Ababa, where she still resides. She completed a degree in accounting and then founded soleRebels in 2004. Since then, she has been recognised by different organisations and global conferences.
All Aboard Family businesses are the backbone of economies all over the globe. Passing power from one generation to another is a challenge, for parent and child. In the end, it’s about communication – and the certainty that it is going to be tricky. MANUEL HECKEL
Ren Li is still optimistic. His 16-year-old daughter does not show too much interest in Hangzhou China Arts Industrial Corporation, the company he built from scratch, but his 11-year-old son does: “He is asking a lot of questions about running a company,” Li proudly reports. In a couple of years, Li hopes, he will be able and willing to take over – though that’s still a long way off. There’s an old Chinese saying: “Wealth does not last three generations.” Mr. Li hopes that his family will prove that conventional wisdom wrong and his furniture company will last for a long time. Passing power from one generation to another is a relatively new pheno-
menon in China, where lots of privatelyowned companies were founded in the 1980s, or even later. Today, however, China is not so different from any other economy in the world, where familyrun businesses often play a pivotal role. “A lot of owners are passionate about their company. They know that changes are inevitable, but they are often afraid that changes will happen too fast,” says Crystal Jiang, managing partner of Dongling Family Offices in Hong Kong and Shanghai. She sees a lot of successions coming up in the years to come – and a lot of children who aren’t ready. “They might have the right education, but they do not have the right mindset,” she says. “And
if the kids share different value propositions than their parents, it might get dangerous for the company.” But there is evidence that awareness of this problem is already there: Classes on the right way to deal with a family business are very popular in China right now. Regardless of education and mindset, passing on power is still a fragile process. “Communication is key,” says Marcel Megerle. He is a consultant to family businesses, especially in Germany. Any conflict between a boss and a deputy is, in this constellation, always a fight between mothers and fathers, sons and daughters. Inherently, there’s a lot of potential for emotional pain and bitterness in
the family. In China, Jiang met a client’s child at a business meeting. He desperately wants to be a violinist – but for the sake of the family, he follows in his father’s footsteps, probably heading for a lifetime of unhappiness. Avoid feeling useless In the long-term, openness pays off. “Only a few parents are courageous enough to explain that not all of their children are adequate for every job in the company,” says Lencke Wischhusen, president of Die Jungen Unternehmer – BJU (German Association of Young Entrepreneurs). “But this is necessary for the company – and for the children.”
A set date for succession can help foster decision-making and make leadership changes obvious for other employees. A written contract or a family committee can help enforce these plans. “It might be difficult, but you are forced to deal with this topic early enough,” says Lencke Wischhusen. For decades, the company has been the baby of the old entrepreneur – it’s hard for him to trust his successors, especially if he once changed their diapers. Megerle sometimes suggests the parent take on new tasks – like investing in start-ups – to avoid feeling useless and bored and trying to interfere with his son or daughter. Li, who was a guest at the symposium, wants to run his company for another
few years. But he’s prepared two options: If his children don’t want to take over, he’s going to go public with the company and might install external management. But he is going to keep a majority share, just in case. “I want my children to come back and take over,” he says. “But I want them to come back when they really like it!” u
Catch Me if You Can
Born in the Matrix Hi there! I’m an article about new business models and the potential clash of cultures between hot, exciting new digital start-ups and established bricks-andmortar institutions. I’m not here, on these old-fashioned dead trees. I’m on the internet. Scan my code ... and enter the Matrix! MANUEL HECKEL
or visit symp.sg/matrix
Setting an Example Did you see lots of women at the symposium? There were plenty, at least among the Leaders of Tomorrow. But the gender balance among the Leaders of Today is still affected by the values of yesterday. These values changed within one lifetime. Susan Herman’s lifetime.
Photo: Caroline Marti
Susan Herman has been president of the American Civil Liberties Union since 2008, after having served on the ACLU National Board of Directors for twenty years. She is also professor of law at Brooklyn Law School and author of the book “Taking Liberties: The War on Terror and the Erosion of American Democracy.”
A look back at her career is helpful to explain why American constitutional law scholar Susan Herman is a success. When she was growing up, the American feminist movement was in its “Second Wave” phase, focussing on sexuality, family, the workplace, reproductive rights, de facto inequalities, and official legal inequalities. Although Herman grew up believing that she could accomplish anything, even as a young girl there were some obstacles in her way. When she was a young girl, one day she went to the library to borrow a book. She didn’t know that the book she wanted was from a shelf with books only for boys. The librarian didn’t allow her to take the book out. Herman left unhappy and astonished, and told the whole story to her mother when she got home. Her mother was a tough person, and in the end, her daughter was allowed to read the book. After a while, the library decided to stop dividing boys’ and girls’ books. After graduating from high school, Susan Herman decided to go to Barnard College in New York City and received a B.A. in philosophy. Afterwards, she received a law degree from New York
University School of Law. Her alma mater was one of the women’s colleges providing an education for women at a time when other US universities admitted only men for undergraduate study. Since October 2008, Susan Herman has been the president of the American Civil Liberties Union. She also teaches courses in Constitutional Law and Criminal Procedure and seminars on Law and Literature and Terrorism and Civil Liberties at Brooklyn Law School. Looking back, Herman says she succeeded by being tough. Colleagues who treated her differently because she was a woman only made the mistake once. “I am not your secretary,” she responded if someone asked her to make a copy or bring them coffee. “If I bring you coffee now, you will get me one the next time.” She was eventually accepted, but she also knows that it is sometimes difficult for young women. “Nevertheless, young women have to do what they want. And they should ignore it when people try to tell them that they can’t do something because of their gender,” Herman says. “They can – even if it is hard sometimes.” u
(A Little ‘Chilli’ Can Make a Big Difference) A kanthari is a little chilli that grows wild in every backyard in the Indian state Kerala. It is a very strong plant, extremely spicy and it has medical values. It is a symbol for those people who do not accept the status quo and have no fear to bring spice in society. When Sabriye Tenberken and Paul Kronenberg named their international leadership training centre for social change makers after this spice, kanthari became also a new name for social leaders. JULIA KRAMER (INTERVIEW), CAROLINE MARTI (PHOTO)
Please tell me about kanthari’s campus in India. Sabriye Tenberken: “The kanthari campus is located beside Vellayani Lake in Kerala State in the south of India. It is on a lush green, surrounded by many palm-, mango-, papaya- and jack-fruit trees, colourful flowers, beautiful tropical birds, crickets and frogs.” Paul Kronenberg: “The campus is designed and constructed in a low-cost and environmentally friendly way. It was named the second greenest campus in India. I was a little sad about this. I did not want it to be first, but rather number 10,000. In order to make an environmental impact, many more ecofriendly campuses around the world are required. First, you called kanthari the International Institute of Social Entrepreneurship. Is it not about social entrepreneurship anymore? P.K.: A social entrepreneur is somebody who makes money and is not anti-social. This is meaningful, but not enough. We
want to make the world a better place by transforming concepts and changing the mindset of society. This can be done through business, but also through art, technology, environmental initiatives, or schools. S.T.: Mohandas Gandhi and Nelson Mandela were never social entrepreneurs in the ‘business sense’ of the word, but they were kantharis. They created ethical social change. All the talk about social entrepreneurship somehow leaves many ways of creating social change behind. What kinds of people attend your leadership programme? S.T.: People from the margins of society who have overcome significant life challenges – for instance, vision impairment, disability, war, or poverty.” P.K.: They are affected by social ills but have an existential need, an inner drive and a lot of passion to make a change. On top of that, they need to have had a moment in their life when they said: “Stop, something has to change!”
S.T.: We call that moment a “pinching point.” That is a real identifier for us. You are social change makers yourself, what was your “pinching point”? S.T.: I became fully blind at the age of twelve, so I needed to transform the concept of blindness to something that I could live with and embrace. I stopped seeing blindness as a disability, but as a possibility.” P.K.: I am not blind, but I was excluded from society as well because I had no skin on my back for six years. [Kronenberg suffered from a skin disease in his youth. – ed.] Then people do not want to deal with you anymore. Sabriye and I both had to deal with a lot of unjust behaviour. That is what you want to stand up against. What makes a leader a real kanthari? S.T.: Challenging the status quo, not being everybody’s darling, questioning, fire in the belly and being a problem solver. P.K.: Someone who is transparent,
Photo: Caroline Marti
authentic, and not thinking about his image. That is very important. It is not about you, it is about what you do. S.T.: Look at the strong business leaders and ask whether they are ethical or not. I cannot say whether Steve Jobs was ethical, but he was half a kanthari because he was challenging the status quo. The really successful people are not swimming with the stream. But the true kantharis are ethical as well. At the symposium, there are lots of Leaders of Today and Leaders of Tomorrow. Do they have anything in common with kantharis? S.T.: We met a few, and a few of them were kantharis. But I was a bit sad, because most of their comments were very mainstream and conventional. They seemed designed to please, not challenge. I do not yet feel the fire, the constructive anger that I hoped to see. I think they are too nice. I asked myself the question: Can such nice people change the world? And can they? S.T.: I am not sure. People that are poking and asking uncomfortable questions, and are doing things that are normally not done – they are the ones who change the world.
How do you realise the power of these kantharis? S.T.: Participants in our programme come from different countries, with different visions and different educational levels. In the 7-month project, we focus on their ideas. They set up their project in a virtual world, but we also teach them to create the own tools to solve their own problems, for instance by doing an internship. P.K.: We see kanthari as a global springboard for social visionaries. When they graduate, they receive a little startup financing to make sure their project can start. Our success is measured in the amount of people that start projects. What are the biggest challenges you face? P.K.: In the long run, the financial part is always a challenge. Even though we do not need that much money and we get media attention, it is hard to find sponsors. S.T.: Another challenge is finding the right participants. They are somewhere out there, but they need to know that we exist. Maybe they are not connected to the internet, maybe they never had a person who believed in their dreams. The course is free when they get there. They only have to buy their tickets.
Sabriye Tenberken (1970) is from Germany and studied Tibetology and Central Asian Studies at Bonn University. She developed Tibetan Braille and started the first school for the blind in Tibet. Together with the Dutch social engineer Paul Kronenberg (1968), she founded Braille Without Borders. From working with the blind, they wanted to serve other marginalised communities and founded kanthari in 2009. Both Tenberken and Kronenberg have received many awards for their work. Tenberken is the author of the book “My Path Leads to Tibet”, and both of them starred in the documentary “Blindsight”.
Do they have the money for a ticket to India? S.T.: Mostly no, but it makes a huge difference when participants pay their own ticket because they already have had to become creative fundraisers. Some of them sold their cows, another one made a big show in the church. And once they come, with their ticket in their hand, they value the course much more because they have earned it. What is your ambition? S.T.: To empower as many people as possible. I would love to see that kanthari becomes a well-known term that stands for a new type of leadership. A new type of leader that is less interested in power and more in things that cross borders. P.K.: Since 2009, 98 people from 35 countries have attended kanthari, and over 60 projects are up and running, so we are on the right track. Of course, the ultimate goal is that we do not need kantharis anymore because everybody is acting in the right way. But that is utopia. We probably need some more kantharis in the years to come, so we want to set up a second campus in Africa. u
Climb the Hill You are relaxed from your sabbatical and work faster. Your next roll counts double.
The Game of Life
You worked so hard, you need vacation. Wait 2 rounds.
Your boss feels threatened by your ambition. Go to 1.
Things are getting serious. Try to find an office instead of working in a bar all the time. Wait for 1 round.
Enjoy beers & bratwurst. Pause 1 round.
You get promoted. Go to 4.
You are the lucky one! For you itâ€™s not a long way to the top! Go to 2.
7 Attending the St. Gallen Symposium means thinking about your career. What are your ambitions? What kind of job do you prefer? And how do you want to reach your goals? The St. Gallen career game might give you a hand.
You have a new colleague that wants to take your place. You need time to defend yourself. Wait for 1 round
You kissed your boss during a network drink. Now you are on the front page. Go back to 3.
While waiting for the bus, you got a cool job offer. But you missed the bus. Wait one round, the next roll counts double.
You take care of your soul. That takes time. Wait for 2 rounds.
FINISH Your company gets bought, you get a new boss. Go to 8.
You won a scholarship. Go 2 stairs up.
Update your LinkedIn profile, pause 1 round.
You choose to volunteer and therefore work less. Pause for 1 round.
You organise a charity dinner. Go back to 9 and send the invitations.
Youâ€™ve met someone nice during a business trip. Roll again.
5 18 17
The crowd believed in your start-up and they funded you. Roll again.
As a freelancer, filling in your tax form takes some time. Wait for 1 round.
Your feet hurt, but a nice St. Gallen student gives you a lift. Go to 12.
First round: You arrive in St. Gallen at the train station. Roll the die to find out where your career will start. you can choose your starting point. you can choose your starting point. start down the steep stairs. (green)
start at the marketplace (light blue)
6 5 You are inspired and have a great idea for a new product. Go to 7.
start at the monastery after two rounds doing mindfulness. (blue)
You did an overpriced career test without any result. Go back to 5.
go directly to the university by limousine. Your dream job is in the pocket. Climb the hill: Roll the die to see how many steps to move up. Follow the directions if you land on a special stair. Good luck, and may you be a big success!
Letter to Myself
Expectations, and Regrets Every young generation seems to want it all: To do things differently, and do them better than the one before. What would you say to your future self if you could send a message fifty years down the line? And how would they reply? Here’s what Mark O’Brien, age 24, has to say to himself at 74 ...
Mark O’Brien To: Mark O’Brien Dear Mr. O’Brien,
admit, I can’t imagine becoming ed you made it this far. I have to on holding out so long – I’m amaz tions th ratula Cong ay! birthd 70 y the pub and sucking boiled in Happ other men your age, cradling pints e doing it right. Don’t be like all the evenings sitting in silence in a an old man. I just hope that you’r your d spen Don’t cting your children to look after you. expe and die you until days the weekends getting sweets, idling away ed loving years ago. Don’t pass your hing bad TV with a woman you stopp watc e loung rban subu g stiflin existence. Don’t harbour dark and a bleak little house and a bleak little on the lake just to get away from drunk at the football or fishing out ess of life better. Be your own man. or his father. Do this whole busin regrets. Don’t be like your father,
s are there for me. You d of me, but I don’t know which glorie world and its abundant glories ahea the got I’ve says yone I think about Ever ent. ry mom I’m 24 now. about the future in every spare solita like every other old bloke; I think never being tied t abou port, probably think a lot about the past g friends and acquaintances at every continent to continent, about havin a wife you only or out, bail to adventure, about travelling from kids with man – not constrained, n I meet you I want you to be a free exhale about working to sighs down to anything or anyone. Whe not , lived welllife a t to tell abou to be lonely. I want you to have tales settled for because you didn’t want ding. a boring 9-to-5 job for years unen if you’ve out trying. I want it all for us – and be successful, be powerful – or burn rich, Be ious. notor be ed, mber Be famous, be reme to see any reason why. failed to get it, then I’ll find it hard Best of luck, Mark
Dear Mark, I remember you; thank you for remembering me, and thinking of me today. I’m still here, no tha nks to you. All the pints of lag er you drank and the cigarettes you smoke d didn’t do me any favou rs , back in the day when you were living the high lif e as a young man almost co nvinced of your own immortality. Apologies if I’m disappo inting you with what I hav e to report back to you. Perhaps it’s better you learn these lessons fo r yourself, but I only want to help you and not preach at you. What do you mean about “being my own man”, doing great and glo rious things? What do you mean when you command “Don’t be like your fathe r”? Don’t you remember wha t they did for you, how they made you, how they helped you? You wanted to be your own man, with no commitments, no one to loo k after, no one to be ac co unt able to. How exactly did you hope to achieve that? You wanted fame and ric hes and power and glory, but you never knew how or even why, did you? You never had a route sketch ed out or a set of small attainable goals on your “to do” list. You knew wha t you wanted in ten years’ time, but you didn’t know what you wanted from one da y to the next. Don’t tell me about the business of life when you didn’t get that’s not how life works. You got married to some one you accidentally fell for. You had kids. The first one was, let’s say, a surprise - but a ple as ant one. You always wanted to get everything right, to be the best, to do things differently - but you learned by making it up as you went along, jus t like your father and his father. Your kids and you r livelihood were your re sponsibilities, and you rose up to them. I reme mber well your youthful se lfconfidence, and the insecurities it betrayed - trust me, you’d be amaz ed how well you did. But now you expect me to have lived up to your wild juvenile expectations. Do you expect me to be world-famous for some thi ng, wealthy and powerfu and legendary? I’m just l a man. I’ve done some ba d thi ngs, but a lot of good things. You wanted it all. Mark, we have it all - we have family, friends, lov stories, some tears but e, many more laughs. We hav e all the riches and power and success any man nee ds. You did well. Thank you fo r sticking with it.
Yours sincerely, Mr. O’Brien
On the Piazza
Share or Beware A few words can make all the difference in life. We headed down to the Piazza and asked Leaders of Today and Tomorrow for the best (thumbs up) or worst (thumbs down) advice they ever got. MERLE GRIES & SUSANNA NÉMETH
ate to differenti than others «Try harder yourself.» of the iminary Jury Lee (KR), Prel d You-Cheong llence Awar ings of Exce St . Gallen W
r.» ities broke d commod o o g or a ni e Se b d nt an «You would , Vice-Preside York skes (US) d Press, New Michael Ore e Associate Th , or it Ed Managing
«Be aware of negative first impressions.» Timothy McDonald (US), MBA Student, Fuqua School of Business, Duke University
«Be true to y comprom ourself and don’t ise your Heather principle Pfitzenm s.» aie
r (US), Dir Leaders Pr ector You ogram, Th ng e Heritag e Founda tion
ent Lucy Antrobus (GB), Business Developm Manager, IMI plc
«Career comes before family» Karl Nowak (DE), Robert Bosch GmbH
ge e coura with th e c n » a r. t uero ircums f a conq nstein every c smile o te «Meet e o h N t ), d H n ro a er (DE/C of a he Elsaess llen hläpferie St . Ga Akadem
.» erism onsum udent in c n o .D. st own “Cut d omo (ZW), Ph e Institute of
t i Nk dies radua Melus nt Stu The G lopme e nities, v a e m D u h l and ationa Intern
Stefan Windberger (AT), NEOS, The New Austria
«If you are the smar room, y ou are in test person in Scott Co the the wro lvin (NZ ng room ), Maste .» rs politi stud cs, Univ
ent in la w and Melbou rne
Photos: Andrew Curry
«Keep taking risks and don’t give up.» Max Bruner (US), President and Chief Executive Officer, Mavrx Inc.
«When, if not now? Who, if not us?»
Urbanisation and Transport
Is a Train the Car of Tomorrow? Urbanisation is happening faster than ever before. In the world’s megacities, personal vehicles will soon be a thing of the past. Hopefully. JORIS BELLWINKEL
Right next to my house in the suburbs of Amsterdam is a subway station. Every seven minutes, a train departs that will bring me right to the city centre in less than fifteen minutes. At night, when the metro stops running, there are buses, cabs, bikes and a lot of people who will drive me home for just a small amount of money. I don’t own a car. I don’t even have a driver’s license. That’s not moral principle. (I don’t have many moral principles.) It’s just that I really don’t need a car. I’m not the only one. Not one of my fellow students owns a car. My girlfriend doesn’t own a car. Of my ten best friends, only half of them have a driver’s license. They all live in the socalled non-car mode. They don’t need a car as a status symbol, they don’t need a car for vacations and they don’t need a car to go to work. My generation is leaving their parents’ homes in villages and small towns to live in cities, where cars are expensive and impractical. Already,
more than half of the world’s population lives in cities. By 2050, that number will be almost 70%. The total amount of kilometers travelled in urban environments is expected to triple by then. City of the future The urbanisation in the western world is changing the old ways of transport. “The urban trend will push us towards a very drastically different mobility. We see it in the cities of today, the age at which people get a driver’s license is increasing by a year almost every year,” Shai Agassi, founder of the now-defunct Better Place electric-car company, tells me. “Japanese people don’t get a driver’s license anymore. They have no use for it. Especially if they live in Tokyo, they don’t buy a car. They have no place to park.” The European Commission envisages “a profound shift in transport patterns of passengers,” reducing the number of cars in cities to zero. It’s a hugely am-
bitious plan. But the city of the future won’t look like the city of today. “What if the shared community is pushing people to not own a car? And what if goods are transported automatically? And if I don’t have a doctor but I’m just constantly monitored?” Agassi asks. “All these things we couldn’t imagine before. In cities it’s going to be the norm.” More options, more efficient Peggy Liu, founder of JUCCCE, an organisation for the greening of China, argues that choice will define the cities of the future. “If you look at San Francisco or New York, young people are choosing to live in the urban centres, where they don’t need a car. And then they use Uber or Zipcar and bikeshare or Citibike, or they just walk,” Liu says. “It’s all about having options, having freedom.” The more options you have, the more individual choices you can make, and the more efficient your transport will be, says Liu.
Getting around: China is building 170 new mass-transit systems to smoothly move its mushrooming urban population. (Above, a Stockholm subway station.)
It all sounds great, but it’s not the whole story. Current global trends indicate that more people will choose to use private motorised transport. While car use in developed economies seems to have been decoupled from economic growth, rising wealth and growing population in the emerging markets still drives up the demand for cars. And more cars mean more greenhouse gas emissions, more traffic congestion, more oil needed and more road accidents. However, the rapid pace of urbanisation in these countries [see, “City Folk,” p. 78] also makes it possible to leapfrog outdated technology and lay down a blue-print for flexible and sustainable infrastructure. Modern megacities are the pioneers of transformation: They have to deal with enormous amounts of consumed energy, waste and traffic streams. To be successful, they will have to adapt. The megacities of the future have to have an extensive public-transport sys-
tem to manage their enormous growth. And so they are simply building it. “Ten years ago, they decided in China that they had to have a car industry, but that was before they decided that green was actually important,” Liu says. “We are building 170 new mass transit systems. That’s more than Europe built in its entire history, combined. In China, each city with one million people or more will have a subway system. It’s just the norm. There are zero reasons why you won’t have a subway system.” Agassi sees such infrastructure as anathema to the car-based lifestyle. “Imagine a corridor of megacities. Now, would you want to buy a car in that kind of environment? No, you want a train that takes you with 500 kilometers an hour from one end to the other,” he says. Dutch bike For now, Amsterdam is still the exception in car-free transport, ranking third place on the list of best mobility
systems in the world (according to the Arthur D. Little Urban Mobility Index), just after Stockholm and Hong Kong. Elsewhere, car-sharing is not yet a mass market phenomenon, and a lot of cities don’t have a clear picture of how their mobility systems should look in the future. But hopefully this is about to change. Cities are not about cars, cities are about people. People working, shopping, eating and living – and doing it all together. Ten years from now, I’ll probably still live in a city. And I will still probably not have my driver’s license. u
City Folk Economic development causes changes in the way countries are organised: Big cities have attractive job opportunities and better public services, while rural areas struggle to keep up. In Indonesia, centralisation of power in the capital several decades ago caused divisions in the country which are still noticeable. ANNA SIATKA
Photo: Andrew Curry
In 1968, Indonesia’s New Order dictatorship established Jakarta as the main city of the 18,307 island archipelago. Although the country became a democracy 16 years ago, the impact of old structures is still noticeable. “The previous government focussed all the development in Jakarta and made progress in the rest of the country impossible,” says Atiatul Huda, analyst at the Secretariat of the vice president of Indonesia. “We still suffer from inequalities set long ago.” Over the years, Huda says, people’s expectations and the desire for a better life led them to Jakarta and other big cities, while the eastern part of Indonesia remained poor and rural, with many fewer opportunities. Bad infrastructure in the east contributed to a higher cost of living. Access to education was also difficult. In order to get to school, children often had to walk many miles, crossing rivers and fields – something
Atiatul Huda was born and raised in Bandar Lampung, Indonesia, and is an Indonesian law student. She works in the Secretariat of the vice president of Indonesia, helping draft foreign policy. She has been a law student at the University of Indonesia since 2003, and is active in volunteer organisations.
that is strange to imagine for Europeans. These factors further increased the discrepancies between the two parts of the archipelago. Inequality led to strikes and separatist movements in the provinces of Papua and Maluka. Today, the Jakarta region is inhabited by nearly 10 million people. That overpopulation causes problems like crime, excessive traffic and slums. In addition, Indonesia has become open to foreign investors, which also contributed to the increase of influential urban regions. Change in the air The rural-urban divide is echoed in differing generational mentalities. The older generation, which grew up in the New Order era, got used to corruption and backward visions of governance. Meanwhile, Indonesia’s youth has fresh visions for the country’s development: they travel, enhance their skills, get inspired and make their homeland more competitive, according to Huda. Upcoming elections, scheduled for July, will have decisive influence on the future of Indonesia. Huda: “We hope that a new president will make the clashes disappear.” u
«Friäner sigid d’Lyyt besser gsi. Godlob wird’s moorä. Moorä sind miär hyt friäner gsi.» (“Back then, people were better. Thank God there’s a tomorrow; Tomorrow, we’ll be the guys from back then.”) – Saying from Obwalden, Switzerland
Wearable Art for a Wireless World Two years ago, Catherine Mahugu, a computer science graduate from Nairobi, thought of a new way to promote local jewellery from Kenyan artists. At the same time, she wanted to remove the obstacles that young women face when trying to enter the labour market.
Photo: Caroline Marti
Catherine Mahugu graduated from the University of Nairobi with a B.A. in computer science and has been involved in various projects for the Nokia Research Centre. In 2012, she won the ITU Telecom World Young Innovators Competition with her business model, which is now used in Soko. She lives in Nairobi, Kenya.
In many African countries, handcrafted goods are made by women who don’t have much of an income, despite their skills. Soko, founded by Catherine Mahugu and two co-founders, picks up these local handicrafts, such as necklaces, bracelets and earrings, and promotes them to a global audience. “We want to empower women, because when you invest in a woman, you invest in the whole community. A wealthy woman empowers her family with the education of her children,” says Mahugu. Artisans use their mobile phones to register their products, either via text messages or the internet. The products are posted on Soko’s website so customers can order them. Shipping is available to the US, Europe and Australia, with Asia coming up in the next few months. In Kenya, 80% of the population owns a mobile phone, so the business model Soko uses is familiar to vendors. The artisans communicate, receive information on purchases and get paid via their mobile phone. And the fact that mobile phones are so commonly used means that older generations can register to sell products – Soko’s oldest vendor is
around 60. “They have learnt the skills already, we just give them publicity,” says Mahugu. The reason why the company started with jewellery is because it is one of the most purchased products on the internet. It is also lightweight, which makes for easy shipping. In the next few years, Mahugu hopes to expand into clothes, shoes and home decor. One of the challenges that the company faces, is the weak internet connections in some rural areas of Kenya. Another issue is the inequality between men and women, who are underrepresented in the Kenyan workforce and typically paid less than men. Some of Mahugu’s vendors are afraid there will be issues at home if they earn too much. There are also other challenges in terms of people’s prejudice about Africa. “Soko is not a charity case,” she says. “Our artisans are making amazing products, and they can compete with international brands.” Mahugu has experienced prejudice, of course. But she’s not worried. “It is up to you to decide. I might be a woman, but it is not embodied in my DNA that I cannot lead.” u
Young & Privileged
Luxury Problems While European youth are worried about their future, young Emiratis have reason to be confident about their prospects. For them, the question is not how to make money, but how to spend it.
Growing up in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) – a federation of seven different emirates bordering the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman – means that you are probably much more informed about the newest Maserati collection than the highest-yielding retirement accounts. After the discovery of oil there in 1963, the UAE was transformed from an impoverished developing country to one of the world’s fastest-growing economies. Its government provides all native Emiratis free education, free health care, interest-free home loans, the ability to claim free land and a marriage fund. The enormous material wealth means poverty is simply not a part of the Emirati vocabulary anymore. “In the Emirates, you have a challenge,” says Clare Woodcraft, Chief Executive Officer of the philanthropic Emirates Foundation. “The state provides a lot of support to citizens. So there is no inclination to think about saving for the longer term.” And when oil money provides you with everything you could want, why worry about a proper education or starting a business? The Emirati who do want to work prefer to work within the government,
where wages and benefits are much better than those offered in the private sector. But Giselle Camoens, a 27-yearold human resources manager living in the UAE, sees that beginning to change. The young generation of Emiratis, she says, are looking for jobs outside of government. “The government sectors are already saturated,” says Camoens. “You see a lot of young people breaking the stereotypes, taking up jobs in private sectors and exploring entrepreneurial opportunities.” Whether it is because of the lack of motivation to work or the rising rates of youth unemployment – 12 percent of young Emiratis are unemployed – the government is putting a lot of effort into stimulating youth development. Woodcraft’s foundation works to teach Emiratis the basics of personal finance. It also encourages young people to contribute to society in other ways, such as participating in volunteer projects or thinking about social enterprises. In a recent survey, Arab youth saw the UAE as the best country in the world to live in. This is probably not just the case for Arab youth: Who wouldn’t want to live this Emirates dream? u
Photo: Caroline Marti
SUSANNA NÉMETH & JULIA KRAMER
Clare Woodcraft is CEO of the Emirates Foundation and former finance editor of the Middle East Economic Survey. She worked as a consultant in Palestine and holds a masters in development studies from the London School of Economics and Political Science.
Leap-Frogging into the Future While it took Europe hundreds of years to build the communications infrastructure we know today, big parts of Central Africa have skipped “straight to the future.” What does Africa’s experience tell us about the potential and the dangers of timelapse-developments, mobile phones and new media in developing countries?
At the Mobile World Congress, which took place in Barcelona in February 2014, the Mozilla Foundation – widely known for the development of the web browser Mozilla Firefox – announced a smartphone which should soon be available worldwide for about US $25. The target group for the product seems clear. The Western world is saturated with smartphones, with far more of them in use than old-fashioned mobile phones without access to the internet and app stores. Companies are looking for new markets, and developing countries are among the most promising. Even cheap phones with low profit margins are expected to find huge markets there. There are parts of East Africa, for example, where the exponentially growing sales of smartphones have made further investments into traditional communication infrastructure obsolete. While Europe developed communi-
cations infrastructure – from telegraphs to fax machines to the installation of telecommunication networks – piece by piece, Africa has simply skipped some of those steps. By now, the smartphone is the main communication tool. The rise of social media platforms has only contributed. “It’s the focal point of transactions and media consumption,” says Linus Gitahi, CEO of Nation Media Group, East Africa’s largest media company. In Kenya, Gitahi says, the penetration of mobile phones is over 70%. Access to information gets easier every day, and there are also forms of citizen journalism developing as well. “Citizen journalism is very important in Kenya. The times when media companies decided what to cover and what not to cover is gone, because everything will be covered anyway. When things are happening, they surely will be known by the Kenyans,” says Gitahi.
Photo: Andrew Curry
Linus Gitahi is CEO of Nation Media Group, the largest publishing and media company in East Africa. He spent most of his career working for GlaxoSmithKline, and was the pharmaceutical company’s West Africa CEO. He is a graduate of Nairobi’s United States International University and the University of Nairobi.
Illustration: Source ???
On the line: In Africa, mobile technology is leaving traditional telecom infrastructure in the dust. Above, the numbers from Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania and Kenya. The mobile phone is quickly becoming more than a communications tool. In Africa, it’s disrupting the banking sector, too. Kenyan mobile network operator Safaricom launched a payment system for mobile phones in April 2007 which allows users to transfer money via SMS called M-PESA. M-Pesa is a multinational success story by now. Recently, even the Nation Media Group launched an international prepaid card for the mobile phone. “If you know my mobile number, you can get to the bank, insert your card, dial my mobile number and send money to this mobile number,” explains Gitahi. The enormous success of M-Pesa has inspired Safaricom to invest in other mobile services, which – according to CEO Robert Collymore – not only increase the profit of the company, but also help pushing development aid. “Fifty percent of Kenyans are deprived of that basic human right called water,”
Collymore says. By cooperating with different companies, Safaricom now runs a project which sets up reservoirs to bring water supplies closer to villages, and another monitoring pregnancies of women to reduce maternal mortality. Together with a Danish company, M-PESA is hoping to address even energy: The service M-Kopa Solar is providing affordable solar power to Kenyan households by selling affordable home solar systems, providing an alternative to dangerous kerosene along the way. That the multitude of different mobile services are delivering data profiles of the customers as a by-product does not seem to interest anyone at the moment. Right now, the market probably is not attractive enough for anyone to be interested in the data profiles of Kenyans. But the question should be asked: Is the move straight towards total reliance on mobile phones, and the services of a couple of network operators,
really such a good idea? What happens if financial transactions are in the hands of private ompanies alone, and governments fail to adequately regulate them? In a recent interview with “The Nation,” a Central Bank of Nigeria official raised an important question about the power of East Africa’s telecommunications companies and their influence on the regional economy. “The truth,” he said, “is that the telcos have close to 90 million customers, and banks only have 15 million. If you give them the power to do this, then you have inadvertently given them the national economy.” East Africa is at a tipping point: Rushing headlong into the future, it has to be careful not to be run over by the incredible speed of its own development. u
“World economies need an overhaul.” Raghuram Rajan is an unlikely prophet of doom. But the head of India’s central bank and one-time IMF chief economist predicted the Great Recession in 2005, to no avail. We ask him why no one listened, what’s next, and how the global economy needs to change to safeguard our future prosperity. MARK O’BRIEN (INTERVIEW), CAROLINE MARTI (PHOTO)
What opened your eyes to the economic situation back then? I looked at financial institutions and I saw more and more risk buried on their balance sheets, which nobody was paying attention to. Incentives were skewed towards risk, and we didn’t know how to manage it. I wasn’t the first to say so. Why didn’t we listen? Some people had faith the system would manage, just like in 2001 when the Federal Reserve managed to save the US economy after the dot-com bust with accommodating monetary policy. There was a sense that we’d done it before, so we could do it again. When the financial crisis emerged, did you feel vindicated? Not quite. The crisis went far beyond anything I imagined. I thought we may have a slowdown, but it never crossed my imagination that overnight, the
Bank of America and Citibank would nearly have runs on them. I didn’t have any sense of satisfaction with the world in such crisis – it was frightening. Did you wonder whether worse was yet come? I thought the central bankers reacted very well, especially the Federal Reserve. We couldn’t have asked for a better man at the helm than Ben Bernanke – he understood the problems and came up with good ways to rescue the system. If we’d hesitated, or let the system fall and picked up the pieces afterwards, that would have been extremely damaging.
Now you argue we need structural supply-side reforms to rebuild the economy. What should we be doing in Europe and America? There is no one package for everyone. What a lot of economies are trying to do now is pump up growth again, but stimulus only works if you think you are temporarily below par. There are more fundamental things to do, and stimulus can distract us from those. In the US, healthcare and education are the two big areas where reforms are needed to make the economy more competitive. In Europe, people point to the service sector. In India, there are so many re-
“There is a clash of generations, as well as a clash of groups within generations.”
Photo: Caroline Marti
Raghuram Rajan was born in Bhopal, India, in 1963. He received his Ph.D. in management from MIT in 1991. In 2003, he was appointed Chief Economist at the IMF. He is a professor of finance at the University of Chicago, and last year was appointed Governor of the Reserve Bank of India for a three-year term.
forms we need to make that I don’t want to point the finger everywhere else in the world without pointing it much more strongly at ourselves. What about in rapidly developing economies? There’s worldwide recognition that the old patterns of growth are unsustainable. In China, investment-led, export-led growth can only go so far, and they’ve reached that point. They need to restructure that pattern of growth. In India, it is the pattern of consumption-led, government spending-led growth we need to restructure. The world is interrelated, so we need a collective rethink. There is a clash of generations, as well as a clash of groups within generations, so we have to think how we can balance them. What can a 20-something graduate do to compete in the jobs market? Be flexible, but also build specific skills
because the marketplace rewards those. Latch onto something and deepen your skill base there so you become a valuable commodity. The good news is we are richer as societies than we were two decades ago. So while finding that first job is hard, once you get onto the ladder, you’ll have a life that promises a lot. It’s more difficult for those who don’t get on the ladder and can’t get the skills – one of the biggest challenges society has to confront is how to give them a fair shake. So we should pursue goals like equality over economic growth? We need a balance. I’m sceptical of the mood that says we must redistribute wealth and tax the living daylights out of business. Equality is important, but if you focus too much on one you can risk the other. You need growth to lubricate the process and, at the same time, ensure equality of opportunity to ensure
everyone has a fair chance and the ability to compete. How optimistic are you? Maybe I’m naïve, but I believe if we get the politics right then the economics will follow. The danger is always in allowing the politics to take on a life of its own. Human ingenuity will find answers to every problem we have. Is anyone getting it right? I think we have a period of turmoil ahead. I firmly believe that democracy, over time gets things sorted out. Yes, people move to extremes sometimes, but they see that the utopias promised by extremists don’t turn out that way. And as long as you have democracy, you still have the ability to turn the rascals out! u
Brave New World SUSANNA NÉMETH
We often imagine what our future will look like – what career path we are going to take, where we will be living and with whom. But how do today’s children visualise their future? I asked my ten-year-old nephew Viktor Kildahl, member of the socalled Generation Z, to draw a picture of what his future will look like. Viktor lives with his parents and his younger sister, 7, in the Norwegian countryside, in a house with a garden. This is the future that he drew. Under the picture, he wrote: “Everybody lives in the city, nobody in the forest and nobody has a garden.”
Speakers Each year, a distinguished faculty of eminent international personalities explores and develops its views on present and long-term issues in business, politics and society with a focus on economic processes within their relevant environments. This year, the following speakers joined the symposium:
Paul Achleitner (CH)
Carey Eaton (KE)
Prof. Kuniko Inoguchi (JP)
Chairman of the Supervisory Board Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt am Main
Co-Founder One Africa Media Nairobi
Member House of Councillors National Diet of Japan Tokyo
Shai Agassi (IL)
Prof. Niall Ferguson (GB)
Founder & Former Chief Executive Officer Better Place Tel Aviv
Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History Harvard University Boston
Bethlehem Alemu (ET)
Jez Frampton (GB)
Founder & Managing Director soleRebels Footwear Addis Abeba
Global Chief Executive Officer Interbrand New York
Brian Behlendorf (US)
Linus Gitahi (KE)
Member of the Board of Directors, Mozilla Foundation and Managing Director, Mithril Capital Management LLC Mountain View
Group Chief Executive Officer Nation Media Group Nairobi
Andreas Jacobs (DE) Chairman of the Board Barry Callebaut AG Zurich
Lady Barbara Judge, CBE (GB/US) Chair UK Pension Protection Fund Croydon
Donald Kaberuka (RW) President African Development Bank Group Tunis
Ivan Glasenberg (AU) Fleur Brading (GB) Director Inclusive Capitalism Initiative London
Chief Executive Officer Glencore Xstrata plc Baar
Fred Kindle (CH/LI) Partner Clayton, Dubilier & Rice, LLC London
Trond Grande (NO) Didier Burkhalter (CH)
Prof. Laurence Kotlikoff (US)
President of the Swiss Confederation Bern
Deputy Chief Executive Officer Norges Bank Investment Management Oslo
Boris Collardi (CH)
Mario Greco (IT)
Chief Executive Officer Julius Baer Group Ltd Zurich
Group Chief Executive Officer Assicurazioni Generali Trieste
Robert Collymore (GB/GY)
Raul Gutierrez Duran (MX)
Chief Executive Officer Safaricom Limited Nairobi
Leader of Tomorrow Stanford University Stanford
Lazar KrstiÄ‡ (SR)
Aubrey de Grey (US)
Susan Herman (US)
Peggy Liu (CN)
Chief Science Officer & Co-Founder SENS Research Foundation Mountain View
President American Civil Liberties Union New York
Co-Founder & Chairperson JUCCCE Shanghai
Professor of Economics Boston University Boston
Paul Kronenberg (NL) Co-Founder kanthari Kerala
Minister of Finance of the Republic of Serbia Belgrade
Oki Matsumoto (JP)
Jay Panda (IN)
Richard Sezibera (RW)
Managing Director & Chairman Monex Group Tokyo
Member of the Parliament of India New Delhi
Secretary General East African Community Arusha
Cesar Purisima (PH) Raymond McDaniel (US) President & Chief Executive Officer Moody’s Corporation New York
Secretary of the Philippine Department of Finance Manila
Ashwinikumar Singh (IN) Leader of Tomorrow University of Mumbai Mumbai
Zeenat Rahman (US) Robert McDonald (US) Retired Chairman of the Board, President & Chief Executive Officer The Procter & Gamble Company Cincinnati
Evgeny Morozov (BY) Contributing Editor The New Republic Washington D.C.
Christian Mumenthaler (CH) Chief Executive Officer Reinsurance Swiss Re Zurich
Special Adviser on Global Youth Issues to the Secretary of State, John F. Kerry U.S. Department of State Washington D.C.
Stefan Sommer (DE)
Raghuram Rajan (IN)
Ralf Speth (DE)
Governor Reserve Bank of India Mumbai
Chief Executive Officer Jaguar Land Rover Coventry
Preetha Reddy (IN)
Tony Tan Keng Yam (SG)
Managing Director Apollo Hospitals Enterprise Limited Chennai
President of the Republic of Singapore Singapore
Sabriye Tenberken (DE) Bree Romuld (AU)
Prof. Koji Murofushi (JP) Associate Professor & CISP Director, School of Health and Sport Sciences Chukyo University Toyota
Leader of Tomorrow University of St. Gallen St. Gallen
Simon Murray (GB)
Chairman & Chief Executive Officer E.ON SE Düsseldorf
Martin Seneviratne (AU) Leader of Tomorrow University of Sydney Sydney
Corey Owens (US) Leader of Tomorrow Head of Global Public Policy Uber Inc San Francisco
Co-Founder kanthari Kerala
Johannes Teyssen (DE) Robert J. Sawyer (CA) Author
Chairman & Founder GEMS Ltd Hong Kong
Chief Executive Officer ZF Friedrichshafen AG Friedrichshafen
SET Ying Ting (MY) Leader of Tomorrow National University of Singapore Singapore
Ryo Umezawa (JP) Leader of Tomorrow Director J-Seed Venture Tokyo
Prof. Anatoly Vishnevsky (RU) Director Institute of Demography (HSE) National Research University Moscow
Wolf von Laer (DE)
Prof. Axel Weber (DE)
Clare Woodcraft-Scott (GB)
Leader of Tomorrow Member of the Board of European Students for Liberty Berlin
Chairman of the Board of Directors UBS AG Zurich
Chief Executive Officer Emirates Foundation Abu Dhabi
Martin Wolf (GB)
Robert Zoellick (US)
Chief Economics Commentator The Financial Times London
Non-resident Senior Fellow Harvard Belfer Center Cambridge
Peter Voser (CH) Chairman of the Board of Trustees St. Gallen Foundation for International Studies St. Gallen
Prof. WANG Feng (CN) Professor of Sociology University of California Irvine
Topic Leaders Topic Leaders act as ambassadors of the St. Gallen Symposium and through their presence and role promote dialogue between the generations. In doing so, they bring together the Leaders of Today and the Leaders of Tomorrow. This year, the following Topic Leaders joined the symposium:
Colonel Bernard Banks (US)
Prof. Christoph Frei (CH)
Peter Jungen (DE)
Professor & Head Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership United States Military Academy West Point West Point
Associate Professor School of Economics and Political Science University of St. Gallen St. Gallen
Chairman Peter Jungen Holding GmbH Cologne
Thomas Borer (CH) Founder Dr. Borer Consulting Zurich
Riz Khan (GB) Hidetoshi Fujisawa (JP)
Executive Editor NHK Japan Broadcasting Corporation Tokyo
Omar Lodhi (PK)
Lance Gould (US) James Chau (CN) Anchor & Correspondent China Central Television Beijing
Executive Special Projects Editor The Huffington Post New York
Lord Griffiths of Fforestfach (GB) Prof. James Davis (US) Director Institute of Political Science University of St. Gallen St. Gallen
Peter Day (GB) Global Business Correspondent BBC News London
Nina dos Santos (GB) London Anchor World Business Today CNN International London
Peter Fischer (CH) Head of Economics Editing Neue Z端rcher Zeitung Zurich
Vice Chairman Goldman Sachs International London
Andrew Hill (GB) Management Editor & Columnist The Financial Times London
Prof. em. Yoko Ishikura (JP) Professor Emeritus Hitotsubashi University Tokyo
Prof. Stephan Jansen (DE) President & Managing Director Zeppelin University Friedrichshafen
Crystal Jiang (CN) Chief Executive Officer Donglin Family Office Hong Kong
Partner The Abraaj Group Dubai
Leslie Maasdorp (ZA) President Bank of America Merrill Lynch - Southern Africa Cape Town
Moky Makura (NG) Founder & Managing Director MME Media Johannesburg
Jacqueline Musiitwa (ZM) Founder & Managing Partner Hoja Law Group Carlton
Michael Oreskes (US) Vice-President & Senior Managing Editor The Associated Press New York
Aundrea Patton (US/ZA) Leader of Tomorrow Social Finance Fellow Bertha Centre for Social Innovation Cape Town
Stuart Popham (GB) Vice Chairman EMEA Citigroup London
Marius Ronge (DE)
Prof. Wolfgang Schulz (DE)
Prof. Klaus Wellershoff (DE)
President The Gibb River Group Chicago
Department of Mobility, Trade and Logistics Zeppelin University Friedrichshafen
Chief Executive Officer Wellershoff & Partners Ltd. Zurich
Manuel Rybach (CH)
Pranjal Sharma (IN)
Martin Wolf (GB)
Managing Director Credit Suisse Group Zurich
Consulting Editor Businessworld New Delhi
Chief Economics Commentator The Financial Times London
Stephen Sackur (GB)
Phiroz Vandrevala (IN)
Presenter HARDtalk BBC Broadcasting House London
Director Tata Consultancy Services London
Work Sessions The Work Sessions are the core element of the St. Gallen Symposium. They complement and expand on the Plenary Sessions and allow participants to directly exchange their opinions and experiences. In groups of about thirty participants, the Work Sessions provide the opportunity to take part in intense debates.
Lazar Krstić’s Work Session Lazar Krstić (RS), Minister of Finance of the Republic of Serbia Topic Leader: Stephen Sackur (GB), Presenter HARDtalk, BBC Broadcasting House
The European Energy Policy and German Energiewende and its quest for sustainability – in environmental, economic and social terms Johannes Teyssen (DE), Chairman & Chief Executive Officer, E.ON SE Topic Leader: Prof. Klaus Wellershoff (DE), Chief Executive Officer, Wellershoff & Partners Ltd.
How to survive the 21st century – a new world to navigate Clare Woodcraft-Scott (GB), Chief Executive Officer, Emirates Foundation Topic Leader: Riz Khan (GB), International Journalist
The longevity challenge Christian Mumenthaler (CH), Chief Executive Officer Reinsurance, Swiss Re Topic Leader: Phiroz Vandrevala (IN), Director, Tata Consultancy Services
Safeguarding and building wealth for future generations Trond Grande (NO), Deputy Chief Executive Officer, Norges Bank Investment Management Topic Leader: Stuart Popham (GB), Vice Chairman EMEA, Citigroup
Global domains of success: what nations need to conquer the future Paul Achleitner (AT), Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Deutsche Bank AG Topic Leader: Leslie Maasdorp (ZA), President, Bank of America Merrill Lynch - Southern Africa
Affirmative action, is it time for positive discrimination for the young? Mario Greco (IT), Group Chief Executive Officer, Assicurazioni Generali Topic Leader: Nina dos Santos (GB), London Anchor, World Business Today, CNN International
Inspirational Mobility Ralf Speth (DE), Chief Executive Officer, Jaguar Land Rover Topic Leader: Marius Ronge (DE), President, The Gibb River Group
China – triumph, slowdown or crisis Prof. Niall Ferguson (GB), Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History, Harvard University Topic Leader: Prof. Christoph Frei (CH), Associate Professor, School of Economics and Political Science, University of St. Gallen
Are we robbing the future? Martin Wolf (GB), Chief Economics Commentator, The Financial Times Topic Leader: Manuel Rybach (CH), Managing Director, Credit Suisse Group
Gold medals for everybody Prof. Koji Murofushi (JP), Associate Professor & CISP Director, School of Health and Sport Sciences, Chukyo University Topic Leader: Hidetoshi Fujisawa (JP), Executive Editor, NHK Japan Broadcasting Corporation
Work Sessions Values-based leadership Robert McDonald (US), Retired Chairman of the Board, President & Chief Executive Officer, The Procter & Gamble Company Topic Leader: Colonel Bernard Banks (US), Professor & Head, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership, United States Military Academy West Point
Leading through a transformation Boris Collardi (CH), Chief Executive Officer, Julius Baer Group Ltd. Topic Leader: Thomas Borer (CH), Founder, Dr. Borer Consulting
Big Data, small politics: algorithmic regulation and its pitfalls Evgeny Morozov (BY), Contributing Editor, The New Republic
Tips for executives of the future Robert Zoellick (US), Non-resident Senior Fellow, Harvard Belfer Center Topic Leader: Prof. James Davis (US), Director, Institute of Political Science, University of St. Gallen
The Economic Potential of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) Cesar Purisima (PH), Secretary of the Philippine Department of Finance Topic Leader: Omar Lodhi (PK), Partner, The Abraaj Group
The New African Business Paradigm Carey Eaton (KE), Co-Founder, One Africa Media Topic Leader: Andrew Hill (GB), Management Editor & Columnist, The Financial Times
Shai Agassi’s Work Session Shai Agassi (IL), Founder & Former Chief Executive Officer, Better Place Topic Leader: Peter Jungen (DE), Chairman, Peter Jungen Holding GmbH
The work-life expectations of baby-boomers and millenials – a clash of generations? Andreas Jacobs (DE), Chairman of the Board, Barry Callebaut AG Bree Romuld (AU), Leader of Tomorrow, University of St. Gallen Topic Leader: Prof. em. Yoko Ishikura (JP), Professor Emeritus, Hitotsubashi University
The end of aging: dubious, or our highest quest? Aubrey de Grey (GB), Chief Science Officer & Co-Founder, SENS Research Foundation
Opinion versus fact: The difference between private sector and public sector expectations of credit ratings Raymond McDaniel (US), President & Chief Executive Officer, Moody’s Corporation Topic Leader: Michael Oreskes (US), Vice-President & Senior Managing Editor, The Associated Press
Your problem IS your business model Bethlehem Alemu (ET), Founder & Managing Director, soleRebels Footwear Topic Leader: Leslie Maasdorp (ZA), President, Bank of America Merrill Lynch - Southern Africa
Work Sessions kanthari – a new paradigm of leadership Sabriye Tenberken (DE) & Paul Kronenberg (NL), Co-Founders, kanthari Topic Leader: Peter Day (GB), Global Business Correspondent, BBC News
Reimagining prosperity, retelling the story of sustainability, reshaping desire Peggy Liu (CN), Co-Founder & Chairperson, JUCCCE Topic Leader: Crystal Jiang (CN), Chief Executive Officer, Donglin Family Office
Older is not necessarily better Oki Matsumoto (JP), Managing Director & Chairman, Monex Group Ryo Umezawa (JP), Leader of Tomorrow, Director, J-Seed Ventures Topic Leader: Prof. Klaus Wellershoff (DE), Chief Executive Officer, Wellershoff & Partners Ltd.
Clash or catalyst? Jez Frampton (GB), Global Chief Executive Officer, Interbrand Topic Leader: Lance Gould (US), Executive Special Projects Editor, The Huffington Post
Does India need a dictator? Jay Panda (IN), Member of the Indian Parliament Topic Leader: Phiroz Vandrevala (IN), Director, Tata Consultancy Services
International monetary cooperation Raghuram Rajan (IN), Governor, Reserve Bank of India Topic Leader: Leslie Maasdorp (ZA), President, Bank of America Merrill Lynch - Southern Africa
10,000 steps: the science behind peak performance Preetha Reddy (IN), Managing Director, Apollo Hospitals Enterprise Limited Topic Leader: Peter Day (GB), Global Business Correspondent, BBC News
Growing apart – the greatest threat to capitalism Fleur Brading (GB), Director, Inclusive Capitalism Initiative Topic Leader: Peter Jungen (DE), Chairman, Peter Jungen Holding GmbH
Why East Africa is the next big bet in Africa ... and probably the developing world ... Linus Gitahi (KE), Group Chief Executive Officer, Nation Media Group Topic Leader: Moky Makura (NG), Founder & Managing Director, MME Media
Africa in the global economy: managing societies in a time of rapid change Donald Kaberuka (RW), President, African Development Bank Group Topic Leader: Pranjal Sharma (IN), Consulting Editor, Businessworld
Nuclear new build – after Fukushima Lady Barbara Judge (GB/US), Chair, UK Pension Protection Fund Topic Leader: Prof. James Davis (US), Director, Institute of Political Science, University of St. Gallen
Work Sessions Individual mobility – still socially accepted? Stefan Sommer (DE), Chief Executive Officer, ZF Friedrichshafen AG Topic Leaders: Prof. Stephan Jansen (DE), President & Managing Director, Zeppelin University Prof. Wolfgang Schulz (DE), Department of Mobility, Trade and Logistics, Zeppelin University
Focus East Africa Richard Sezibera (RW), Secretary General, East African Community Topic Leader: Riz Khan (GB), International Journalist
Perspectives on the future of banking Prof. Axel Weber (DE), Chairman of the Board of Directors, UBS AG Topic Leader: Peter Fischer (CH), Head of Economics Editing, Neue Zürcher Zeitung
Sustainability – can we go beyond the hype? Robert Collymore (GB/GY), Chief Executive Officer, Safaricom Limited Topic Leader: Stephen Sackur (GB), Presenter HARDtalk, BBC Broadcasting House
Private equity – the better ownership model? Fred Kindle (CH/LI), Partner, Clayton, Dubilier & Rice, LLC Topic Leader: Stuart Popham (GB), Vice Chairman EMEA, Citigroup
Small, open economies vs. large economies – which model manages complexity better? Simon Murray (GB), Chairman & Founder, GEMS Ltd Topic Leader: Andrew Hill (GB), Management Editor & Columnist, The Financial Times
China and Russia – demographic chances and challenges Prof. Anatoly Vishnevsky (RU), Director, Institute of Demography (HSE), National Research University Prof. WANG Feng (CN), Professor of Sociology, University of California Topic Leader: James Chau (CN), Anchor & Correspondent, China Central Television
Background Sessions Focus East Africa Bethlehem Alemu (ET), Founder & Managing Director, soleRebels Footwear Carey Eaton (KE), Co-Founder, One Africa Media Linus Gitahi (KE), Group Chief Executive Officer, Nation Media Group Richard Sezibera (RW), Secretary General, East African Community Topic Leader: Pranjal Sharma (IN), Consulting Editor, Businessworld
Focus Europe Mario Greco (IT), Group Chief Executive Officer, Assicurazioni Generali Lord Brian Griffiths of Fforestfach (GB), Vice Chairman, Goldman Sachs International Topic Leader: Nina dos Santos (GB), London Anchor, World Business Today, CNN International
Plenary Sessions On both days of the symposium, Plenary Sessions were held in which prominent speakers introduced the major topics, discussed controversial issues and provided impetus for the upcoming sessions. The sessions were moderated by a chairman to ensure the participants were constantly involved in the discussion.
Thursday WELCOME Lord Brian Griffiths of Fforestfach (GB), Vice Chairman, Goldman Sachs International
WELCOME BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Didier Burkhalter (CH), President of the Swiss Confederation
KEYNOTE: The clash of generations: making the argument Prof. Laurence Kotlikoff (US), Professor of Economics, Boston University
PANEL: The clash of generations: a view from the world Cesar Purisima (PH), Secretary of the Philippine Department of Finance Lazar KrstiÄ‡ (RS), Minister of Finance of the Republic of Serbia Prof. Kuniko Inoguchi (JP), Member, House of Councillors, National Diet of Japan Topic Leader: Lord Brian Griffiths of Fforestfach (GB), Vice Chairman, Goldman Sachs International
PANEL: Sensing future change: innovation, business models, investments Paul Achleitner (AT), Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Deutsche Bank AG Robert McDonald (US), Retired Chairman of the Board, President & Chief Executive Officer, The Procter & Gamble Company Brian Behlendorf (US), Member of the Board of Directors, Mozilla Foundation and Managing Director, Mithril Capital Management LLC Topic Leader: Nina dos Santos (GB), London Anchor, World Business Today, CNN International
ONE-ON-ONE: An investigative interview Aubrey de Grey (GB), Chief Science Officer & Co-Founder, SENS Research Foundation Topic Leader: Stephen Sackur (GB), Presenter HARDtalk, BBC Broadcasting House
PANEL: St. Gallen Wings of Excellence Award: The NextGen Files - AÂ conversation with the three awardees Ashwinikumar Singh (IN), Leader of Tomorrow, University of Mumbai Martin Seneviratne (AU), Leader of Tomorrow, University of Sydney SET Ying Ting (MY), Leader of Tomorrow, National University of Singapore Topic Leader: Riz Khan (GB), International Journalist
PANEL: A debate on the smartest way to invest in the future Robert Zoellick (US), Non-resident Senior Fellow, Harvard Belfer Center Topic Leaders: Jacqueline Musiitwa (ZM), Founder & Managing Partner, Hoja Law Group Aundrea Patton (US/ZA), Leader of Tomorrow, Social Finance Fellow, Bertha Centre for Social Innovation
Friday PANEL: Old and new management and everything in between Preetha Reddy (IN), Managing Director, Apollo Hospitals Enterprise Limited Stefan Sommer (DE), Chief Executive Officer, ZF Friedrichshafen AG Raul Gutierrez Duran (MX), Leader of Tomorrow, Stanford University Topic Leader: Andrew Hill (GB), Management Editor & Columnist, The Financial Times
PANEL: The ‘contrat social’ of the future Lady Barbara Judge (US/GB), Chair, UK Pension Protection Fund Zeenat Rahman (US), Special Adviser on Global Youth Issues to the Secretary of State, John F. Kerry, U.S. Department of State Prof. Axel Weber (DE), Chairman of the Board of Directors, UBS AG Topic Leader: Martin Wolf (GB), Chief Economics Commentator, The Financial Times
THE MAX SCHMIDHEINY LECTURE: Profits with a purpose – the Safaricom Story Robert Collymore (GB/GY), Chief Executive Officer, Safaricom Limited
ONE-ON-ONE: An investigative interview Raghuram Rajan (IN), Governor, Reserve Bank of India Topic Leader: Stephen Sackur (GB), Presenter HARDtalk, BBC Broadcasting House
DEBATE ON THE MOTION: Privacy is an outdated concept Supporting the motion: Robert J. Sawyer (CA), Author Corey Owens (US), Leader of Tomorrow, Head of Global Public Policy, Uber Inc Opposing the motion: Susan Herman (US), President, American Civil Liberties Union Wolf von Laer (DE), Leader of Tomorrow, Member of the Board of European Students for Liberty Topic Leader: Peter Day (GB), Business Correspondent, BBC News
PANEL: The global economic outlook Donald Kaberuka (RW), President, African Development Bank Group Ivan Glasenberg (AU), Chief Executive Officer, Glencore Xstrata plc Raymond McDaniel (US), President & Chief Executive Officer, Moody’s Corporation Topic Leader: Pranjal Sharma (IN), Consulting Editor, Businessworld
KEYNOTE: Network versus hierarchies Prof. Niall Ferguson (GB), Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History, Harvard University
CLOSING STATEMENT 44th International Students’ Committee
Behind the Scenes
St. Gallen Foundation for International Studies The activities of the International Students’ Committee are guided by the St. Gallen Foundation for International Studies. This combination of student responsibility and professional guidance is vital to the long term success of the St. Gallen Symposium.
Board of Trustees
Chief Executive Officer
Peter Voser (CH)
Philip W. Erzinger (CH/DE)
Chief Operating Officer
Karin Keller-Sutter (CH) State Counselor Canton of St. Gallen, St. Gallen
Prof. Dr Thomas Bieger (CH) University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen
Prof. em. Dr Peter Gomez (CH) University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen
Bénédict G. F. Hentsch (CH) Walter Kielholz (CH) Swiss Re, Zurich
Dr Nicola Leibinger-Kammüller (DE) TRUMPF GmbH + Co. KG, Ditzingen
Dr Christoph Loos (DE) Hilti AG, Schaan
Dr Ralph Schmitz-Dräger (DE) Arcron AG, Zurich
Dr Gerhard Schwarz (CH) Avenir Suisse, Zurich Honorary Chairman
Dr Josef Ackermann (CH)
Alexander C. Melchers (CH/DE) C. Melchers GmbH & Co.
Dr Johannes Berchtold (CH)
Head Leaders of Tomorrow
Credit Suisse Securities (Japan) Ltd.
Rolf Bachmann (CH) Vice President
Stefanie Mosshammer (DE/GB) Assistant
Petra Siara (CH) Assistant
Claudia Wimmer-Rapp (DE) Head Technology & Innovation
Roger Merz (CH) Project Manager Leaders of Tomorrow
Kilian Blum (CH/DE) Project Manager
Dominik Gedon (DE) Project Manager
Sivan Goldberg (CA/CH)
Yuji Suzuki (JP)
Dr Jianzhong Yao (CH/CN) Asia Capital Reinsurance Group
Circle of Benefactors The International Studentsâ€™ Committee is thankful to be able to count on the support of its Circle of Benefactors, which includes some 350 major companies around the world. The circle is of crucial importance to the financing of the St. Gallen Symposium and ensures the continuity of the initiative.
is the official technology consultant of the St. Gallen Symposium
is the official transport services partner of the St. Gallen Symposium
is an official information technology partner of the St. Gallen Symposium
is an official information technology partner of the St. Gallen Symposium
is the official communication services provider of the St. Gallen Symposium
is the official financial services supplier of the St. Gallen Symposium
is the official document services provider of the St. Gallen Symposium
Main Partners Leaders of Tomorrow
123 23 Visual ApS 2Xideas 3M (Schweiz) AG 6S Asset Management GmbH A ABACUS Research AG AbbVie AG Abegg Holding AG Abraxas Informatik AG Accenture (Schweiz) AG ACEPS Holding AG a-connect (group) ag Adecco Management & Consulting S.A. Adobe Systems GmbH AEK Bank 1826 AFG Arbonia-Forster-Holding AG Albers & Co. ALDI Suisse AG ALFA Treuhand- und Revisions AG ALID Finanz AG Allgemeines Treuunternehmen Allianz SE ALTANA AG Altium Capital AG Alwys Holding AG AMS Österreich ANA HOLDINGS INC. Arcron AG AUGUSTIN QUEHENBERGER GROUP GmbH Austrian Airlines AG Autoneum Holding AG Avaloq Evolution AG Axpo Holding AG B Baker & McKenzie Rechtsanwälte Bank Julius Baer & Co. Ltd. Bank Morgan Stanley AG Banque de Luxembourg SA Bär & Karrer AG Barry Callebaut AG Basellandschaftliche Kantonalbank BASF SE Bauwerk Parkett AG Bayerisches Staatsministerium BD Associates - Partners to Leaders BDO AG BearingPoint Switzerland AG Belimo Holding AG Berenberg Bank (Schweiz) AG Berkshire Partners LLC BERZELIUS METALL GmbH
Bewital Holding GmbH & Co. KG Bilfinger SE Blasto AG blueworld GmbH BMW (Schweiz) AG BNP Paribas (Suisse) SA Boyden Global Executive Search Bratschi Wiederkehr & Buob Brockhaus Private Equity GmbH BSI S.A. b-to-v Partners AG Bucher Industries AG Bühler Management AG Bystronic Group C Capgemini Schweiz AG Capvis Equity Partners AG Careerplus AG Cargill International S.A. Cargolux Airlines International SA Cat Aviation AG Celesio AG CEWE Stiftung & Co. KGaA Christian Fischbacher Group Cilag AG Cisco Systems (Switzerland) GmbH CITIC Pacific Ltd. Clariant International AG CLS Communication AG Coca-Cola HBC Schweiz AG Cofra Holding AG Dr Philipp Cottier Credit Suisse Group Crypto AG CSL Behring AG
Emil Capital Partners EQT Partners AG Ericsson AG Ernst & Young AG Espirito Santo Financial S.A. EWE Aktiengesellschaft eyevis GmbH
F F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG Falcon Private Bank Falke KGaA Felix Schoeller Holding GmbH & Co. KG Ferring Pharmaceuticals S.A. Ferrum AG FESTO AG & Co. KG First Eastern Investment Group Flughafen Zürich AG Forma Futura Invest AG Forol AG Holding Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH Frankfurter Bankgesellschaft (Schweiz) AG Fritz Carl Wilhelm Stiftung Furrer.Hugi&Partner AG
D Danzer AG Dätwyler Holding AG Delta Lloyd Lebensversicherung AG Deutsche Apotheker- und Ärztebank eG Deutsche Bank AG Dr August Oetker KG Dr Bjørn Johansson Associates AG Dreyfus Söhne & Cie AG
G Galderma Pharma SA Gallus Holding AG Christophe R. Gautier Geberit International AG Gebrüder Weiss GmbH Generali (Schweiz) Holding AG Georg Fischer AG Georg Haag AG Givaudan SA Glatz AG Glen Fahrn AG Glencore Xstrata plc Godrej Industries Ltd. Goldman Sachs International Golien Ltd Graubündner Kantonalbank Groz-Beckert KG Guldborg International Prof. Toyoo Gyohten
E E. Gutzwiller & Cie. Banquiers Ecolab Europe GmbH Dr Pierre Edelmann Egon Zehnder Elcotherm AG elea Foundation for Ethics in Globalization
H Habib Bank AG Zurich Halcyon Agri Corporation Limited Hangzhou China Arts Industrial Corporation Limited Hathon Holding AS HAWE Hydraulik SE
HBM Partners heer druck AG Helbling Group Helsinn Healthcare SA Helvetia Holding AG Hess Family Estates Hesta AG Hewlett-Packard (Schweiz) GmbH HIAG Immobilien Holding AG Hilcona AG HILTI AG Holcim Ltd. Holtzbrinck Publishing Group Homburger AG HOPI s.r.o. HSBC Private Bank AG HSH Nordbank AG Huber + Suhner AG Hublot SA I IBM (Schweiz) AG IKEA Foundation Implenia AG Infosys Lodestone ING-DiBa AG INTERSPORT Deutschland eG IWC Schaffhausen J Jaquet Technology Group Jebsen & Co. Ltd. JENOPTIK AG JT International S.A. Jura Elektroapparate AG K Kaba Holding AG Karl Storz GmbH & Co. KG Kienbaum AG Kikkoman Corporation KIND Hörgeräte GmbH & Co. KG Dr Karl Heinz Kipp KUKA Aktiengesellschaft Kuoni Travel Holding Ltd. L La Roche 1787 LEGIC Identsystems AG Lenz & Staehelin Lenzing Aktiengesellschaft Lephatsi Investments (Pty) Ltd Lexzau, Scharbau GmbH & Co. KG LGT Group Foundation
Liebherr-International AG Lombard Odier & Cie LSG Sky Chefs / First Catering Schweiz AG Lyreco Switzerland AG M Maerki, Baumann & Co. AG Malun LB GmbH MANN+HUMMEL GmbH Manor AG Marcol Capital Europe S.A. Martel AG St. Gallen Oki Matsumoto Max Schmidheiny-Stiftung MCH Group AG McKinsey & Company Medela Holding AG Merifin Capital MIAG Mutschler Immobilien AG Microsoft Schweiz GmbH Mikron Holding AG Mobiliar Versicherungen Dr Christoph M. Müller Müller-Möhl Group N Namics AG NEOPERL International AG Nespresso Suisse Nestlé S.A. Neutrik AG Notenstein Privatbank AG Novo Nordisk A/S O OC Oerlikon Corporation AG Omya Management AG One North Capital Pte. Ltd. Orange Communications SA Orell Füssli Holding AG Orell Füssli Wirtschaftsinformationen AG Orifarm Group A/S Österreichische Industriellenvereinigung Wien Otto (GmbH & Co. KG) Otto Beisheim Holding GmbH P Papyrus PartnerRe Ltd. Paul Hartmann AG Pavatex SA Pictet Asset Management Poly-clip System GmbH & Co. KG
polyright SA PRE Management Group Premchand Roychand & Sons PricewaterhouseCoopers AG PSP Group Services AG PubliGroup S.A. Q Quadriga Capital Beteiligungsberatung GmbH R Rahn & Bodmer Co. Raiffeisen Schweiz Rappold & Partner Rechtsanwälte RAUCH Fruchtsäfte GmbH & Co OG Reemtsma Cigarettenfabriken GmbH Richter + Frenzel GmbH + Co. KG Rieter Management AG Ringier Holding AG Rivella AG Robert Bosch GmbH Roland Berger Strategy Consultants Rolex SA Rotronic AG The Royal Bank of Scotland Royal Dutch Shell plc RUAG Holding AG S SAP (Schweiz) AG Schellenberg Wittmer Schenck Process Holding GmbH Schenker Storen AG Dr h.c. Thomas Schmidheiny Schneeberger Holding AG Monica & Wolfgang Schürer SCOR Services Switzerland Ltd. Scott Sports SA SEC 1.01 AG Securitas AG Sefar Holding AG Sennheiser (Schweiz) AG SFS Holding AG Shell (Switzerland) AG Siegfried Holding AG Dr Gralf Sieghold Sika AG Sinar Mas Sitecore DACH Skyadvisory AG Sonova Holding AG St. Galler Kantonalbank St. Galler Tagblatt AG
Stadt St. Gallen StarragHeckert Holding AG Gertrud Stoll-Fein Straumann Holding AG Sulzer Ltd. Yuji Suzuki Swiss International Air Lines Ltd. Swiss Kurd Chamber of Commerce Swiss Life Swiss Prime Site AG Swiss Re Swisscom IT Services AG Swissmem Symantec Switzerland AG SYMA-SYSTEM AG Systemic Excellence Group T Tamedia AG Thurgauer Kantonalbank Transformation Partner TÜV SÜD AG U UBS AG Umdasch AG Underberg AG Unilever Schweiz GmbH Union Bancaire Privée Universitätsspital Basel upc cablecom GmbH USM U. Schärer Söhne AG V Valcambi SA Valincor Management AG Valora Holding AG Vaudoise Assurances Holding SA Verwaltungs- und Privat-Bank AG Vetropack Holding AG VISCHER AG Vita Vitra AG voestalpine AG W Weisse Arena Gruppe Wellershoff & Partners Ltd. Wendel WENGER PLATTNER Rechtsanwälte Wicor Holding AG Willy Bogner GmbH & Co. KGaA Würth International AG
X Xerox AG XL Insurance Switzerland Ltd. Z Zehnder Group International AG ZF Friedrichshafen AG Zühlke Engineering AG Zumtobel AG Zürcher Kantonalbank Zurmont Madison Private Equity
The Right Choice
As two members of this year’s International Students’ Committee (ISC) pointed out in their closing statement on Friday evening, the majority of our team might have faced the first “Clash of Generations” when telling our parents we planned to take ten months off from university to organise the 44th St. Gallen Symposium. Once this clash was resolved, and they saw what
a unique opportunity organising the symposium was and had the chance to attend, our parents had to admit we made the right choice. Could there be any better place to gather today’s decision makers and most promising talents than Switzerland, a country which claims to be neutral? Probably not! Also, the 44th edition of the St. Gallen Symposium impres-
sively showed the need for a discussion platform for young and old when intensely debating this year’s omnipresent topic. Spurred by the student atmosphere of the university campus, the participants were confronted with the critical student mindset. This is what the St. Gallen Symposium aims for. We are already looking forward to welcoming you again in May 2015! ◆
Top: Stéphanie Mégret (CH/FR), Silvan Nowak (DE), Ann-Sophie Kowalewski (DE), Bettina Iseli (CH/DE), Michael Gasser (CH), Lea Kneubühler (CH), Leonard Knaps (DE), Selvi Mert (CH/TR), Fabian Ruthardt (DE), Alev Kurucay (CH/TR), Lorenz Haberstig (DE), Stefano Saeger (IT/DE), Julius Betmann (DE), Andreas Gerckens (DE), Patrick Agte (DE), Barbara Wögerbauer (AT), Christopher Mosch (DE), Elisa Kempe (DE), Annique Drechsle (DE), Charlotte Festa (AT), Kilian Mittl (DE), Nico Lüthi (CH) Bottom: Oliver Krek (AT/CH/US), Bernhard Gapp (AT), Matthias Elsässer (DE), Jonas Thiel (DE)
Story Time We slept 4 hours a night, drank dozens of espressos, carried on heated discussions until we lost our voices. We were 11 young journalists from all over Europe. We did it because we believed that we also had a part to play at the symposium. We were here to tell the story. IGA MALISZEWSKA
“In every job that must be done there is an element of fun,” good old super-nanny Mary Poppins used to say. When I was a child, late at night my mother would often whisper this story in my ear. And she always added: “Remember, Iga: Only when you find a job that gives you some fun will you feel fulfilled.” That’s how I got into journalism and ended up working with the most wonderful Magazine team at the 44th St. Gallen Symposium. I mention Mary Poppins on purpose. If I had to choose one thing that connects generations, my answer would be “a story”. People are born, people die, one generation replaces the other. But throughout the centuries, there has always been a mother telling a bedtime story to a child. This was not just entertainment: This was the first lesson about the virtues we should develop, the values we should protect and the demons we should fight.
But a child inevitably grows up and knights, good fairies and super-nannies are doomed to lose their authority one day. The real world often presents scenarios far more horrific, dark and complex than the ones we know from books. The story of this world is told by journalists. Every day, on TV, in print, on the radio, on the internet, we report the story of our times. The story of present generations. In 2014, 18 journalists were killed and 166 imprisoned around the world. May the next generations be safer for those who tell the story than the current. I would like to thank Ania, AnnaMaria, Joris, Julia, Manuel, Mark, Merle, Nora, Susanna and Tobias – our great journalists – for their brilliant ideas, for their excellent work, for their commitment and, last but not least, for coming together wonderfully as a team during this intense time at the symposium. Spe-
cial thanks to Alexandra, the good spirit and the common sense of the Magazine, and Andrew, who – always looking deep into our eyes – would say “it’s good, but you can do it better.” I would also like to express my gratitude to Caroline for her amazing photos, which add extra meaning to our written words, and to Michel, who made our dreams about the perfect layout come true. Finally, thank you, Stefano and Lea from the 44th and 43rd ISC-team, for organising our work and managing the unmanageable. After hard work, we now deserve to rest. The 44th St. Gallen Symposium’s story has been told, and we can fall asleep. But just for a while. After all, the world will never live happily ever after. u
Publisher International Students’ Committee (ISC)
Principal Photography Caroline Marti (CH)
Editor in Chief Iga Maliszewska (PL)
Secondary Photography Andrew Curry (US)
Art Director Sergeant AG, Michel Müller (CH)
Graphics and Illustrations 0 GRAD, Sandra Loser (CH) Alexandra Stark (CH)
Text Editor Andrew Curry (US) Managing Editor Alexandra Stark (CH) Editorial Staff Joris Bellwinkel (NL) Merle Gries (DE) Manuel Heckel (DE) Nora Jakob (DE) Julia Kramer (NL) Anna-Maria Kramer (DE) Tobias Kreutzer (DE) Susanna Németh (SE) Mark O’Brien (GB) Anna Siatka (PL)
Magazine Project Manager Stefano L. Saeger (IT/DE) Print Heer Druck AG Steinackerstrasse 8 CH-8583 Sulgen Copyright International Students’ Committee (ISC)
THE CLASH OF GENERATIONS