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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Bert Ligon

bligon@mozart.sc.edu [Return to Jazz Transcriptions page]

RED GARLAND: OUTLINES & 3-5-7-9 ARPEGGIOS These examples from improvised solos by Red Garland will illustrate some basic shapes available to improvisers. These basic shapes are use by all improvisers over traditional harmony. The most fundamental shape would be the step line beginning on the third of a chord and following it through the progression. This is called outline no. 1. The third is the most consonant note in the measure as it identifies the chord quality. The most dissonant note is the 7 th that resolves in every case to the following 3 rd . 1.

Outline no. 1: connecting 3rds

A common elaboration of this melodic pattern is to add the 3-5-7-9 arpeggio between the first and second notes of the pattern. This octave displaces the line, and by arpeggiating the chord makes it harmonically very clear. (The basic descending scale tones are shown with circles in this and subsequent examples.) 2.

Outline no. 1 with 3-5-7-9 arpeggios:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

3/29/11 12:01 PM

The arpeggios can be inverted. Rather than ascending 3-5-7-9, they can be played as shown below. 3.

Outline no. 1 with inverted 3-5-7-9 arpeggios:

Red Garland illustrates the concepts in these examples from his improvisation on the tune A Foggy Day. In the first example, Garland plays the third of each chord on beat two, emphasizing the back beat. Each third begins a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio. The first and last measures contain the ascending 3-5-7-9 arpeggio and the middle measure features an inverted arpeggio. Garland uses a b9 over the G7, a note borrowed from the parallel key of C minor. The G n in m.3 is approached chromatically from below. Notice the musical symmetry between the first and last measures. Try playing this in all twelve major keys. Decide where to use the ascending or inverted arpeggio depending on the range of your instrument. (The basic descending scale tones are shown with circles and the 3-5-7-9 arpeggios with boxes in this and subsequent examples.) 4.

Outline no. 1 using 3-5-7-9 arpeggios:

The basic structure of this excerpt is similar to the previous one. Garland aims for the third of D7 by playing the note above and below (the upper and lower neighbor tones). After arriving at the third, the expected 3-57-9 arpeggio occurs, inverted this time. Notice that in the first example the arpeggio for the first measure was ascending and inverted in the second measure. In this excerpt the directions are reversed. Garland uses a b9 over the D7 borrowed from G minor and a b9 over the G7 borrowed from C minor. He uses the same chromatic approach used in the first excerpt this time to arrive at the D n in m.2 and the G n in m.3. Try playing this in all twelve keys finding different combinations of ascending and inverted arpeggios for all the chords. 5.

Outline no. 1 using 3-5-7-9 arpeggios:

Outline no. 1 and 3-5-7-9 arpeggio from Garlandテ不 improvisation on I Could Write a Book: 6.

Simple version of outline no. 1 using 3-5-7-9 arpeggio:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Outline no. 1 and 3-5-7-9 arpeggio from Garlandテ不 improvisation on I Could Write a Book: 7.

Simple version of outline no. 1 using 3-5-7-9 arpeggio:

Here is another common melodic shape called outline no. 2. Outline no. 2 begins with a 1-3-5-7 arpeggio. The 7 th resolved to the 3 rd of the following chord. Because outline no. 2 ends on the 3 rd of the subsequent chord it is often followed by outline no. 1. 8.

Outline no. 2 followed by outline no. 1:

Garland uses outline no. 2 followed by outline no. 1 in the following example. The G7 chord is anticipated arriving early on beat four of m.1. The 3 rd of G7 is approached by its leading tone A#. Garland arpeggiates the 3-5-7- b9 of the G7, chromatically approaches the G natural as shown before, and chromatically approaches the 3 rd of the C major 7 chord. Garland also uses the 3-5-7-9 arpeggio on the C major 7 chord. There is an interesting contradiction in harmonic rhythm between what the chords indicate and what Garland plays. He begins Dm7 late on beat two, he anticipates G7 by a beat and plays the C major 7 on time. The implication of the music is four beats for each of the chords. Garland implies a quarter rest, two beats of Dm7, five beats of G7 and then back to four for C major 7. 9.

Outline no. 2 followed by outline no. 1 including 3-5-7-9 arpeggios:

Garland again uses outline no. 2 followed by outline no. 1 in the following examples from his improvisation on What is This Thing Called Love? Almost every time he lands on the third of a chord a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio seems to follow. 10.

Outline no. 2 followed by outline no. 1 including 3-5-7-9 arpeggios:

11.

Outline no. 2 followed by outline no. 1 including a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Garland uses outline no. 1 in this excerpt from his improvisation on If I Were A Bell. The piece is in the key of F, though none of these chords indicate that. The Aø7 is the iiø7 and the D7 the V7 of G minor, the ii chord in the key of F. Those two chords together are the iiø7/ii (iiø7 of the key of ii) and the V7/ii (V7 of ii). However, they do not resolve to G minor but to G7. The deceptive resolution does not change the analysis and function of the two chords. The G7 is the V7 of C which is the dominant of F: V7/V. 12.

Outline no. 1 over iiø7/ii - V7/ii - V7/V progression:

Garland uses outline no. 2 followed by outline no. 1 in this similar progression from the same improvisation. 13.

Outline no. 2 followed by outline no. 1 over iii - V7/ii - V7/V progression:

Garland uses a mixture of 3-5-7-9 arpeggios over this V7/ii - ii progression. 14.

Outline no. 1 and 3-5-7-9 arpeggios:

Several devices make this outline no. 1 example interesting. The chromatic triplets between the root and third of the Am7 energizes and gives forward motion to the line. The leap created by the inverted arpeggio on the D7 is a welcome change from the preceding tight chromatic movement. There is an interesting sawtooth shape on beats three and four of m.2 created by pivoting the line between the stationary A pedal tone and the moving D to C. 15.

Outline no. 1 and 3-5-7-9 arpeggios

Garland relies again on outline no. 1 to successfully negotiate this V7/vi—V7/ii—ii7—V7—I progression in his improvisation on the tune It Could Happen To You. He uses 3-5-7-9 arpeggios for the C7 and the Fm7 chords. The third of F minor is delayed by first playing the upper and lower neighbor tones. The line is initially resolved by the 3-1 over the Bb chord. He then plays the 7 th of B b to resolve to the 3 rd of E b. 16.

Outline no. 1 over an extended progression:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Over the same progression Garland uses outline no. 1 again in a completely different way. The 3-5-7-9 arpeggios are welcome breaks to the tight chromatic motion. He uses the 3-5-7-9 arpeggio over the Fm in two versions. 17.

Outline no. 1 over an extended progression:

Garland uses outline no. 1 to move from C7 to F. He uses a chromatic line (G-F # -F) to lead to the E n. The line ends with a bluesy line. 18.

Outline no. 1 with contrasting material:

Outline no. 2 is often followed by outline no. 1. In this example, Garland uses a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio as the an! swer to outline no. 2. 19.

Outline no. 2 followed by a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio:

20.

Outline no. 2 in sequence:

Garland uses the simple step progression of outline no. 1 for the following extended progressions. 21.

Outline no. 1 over extended iii—V7/ii—ii7—iiø7/vi—V7/vi—vi progression:

Garland uses outline no. 1 to negotiate this elaborate looking passage. With all the complicated sixteenth notes and chromatic embellishments the line still follows a step progression beginning and ending with the third of C minor. This excerpt is from GarlandÕs improvisation on Good Bait. He only uses one 3-5-7- b9 arpeggio over the F7 chord. The resolution to the F7 chord is delayed by his use of the chromatic approach from below the A natural. The chromatic approach is shown below by brackets and occurs six times in this short excerpt. http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

22.

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Outline no. 1 over extended ii7—V7—I—V7/ii—ii7 progression:

There is one other common pattern that Garland uses, although less frequently that outline nos.1 & 2. Outline no. 3 begins on the 5 th of a chord, follows a descending arpeggio (5-3-1) then moves to the dissonant 7 th that resolves to the 3 rd of the subsequent chord. Because outline no. 3 ends on a 3 rd , it is often followed by a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio, outline no. 1 or both. 23.

Outline no. 3 followed by outline no. 1 & 3-5-7-9 arpeggio:

Garland uses outline no. 3 followed by a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio and outline no. 1 in this passage. 24.

Outline no. 3 followed by 3-5-7-9 arpeggio & outline no. 1:

All four notes of the 3-5-7-9 arpeggio of D7 resolve chromatically in the following excerpt. 25.

Chromatic 3-5-7-9 arpeggios:

The second arpeggio in the previous excerpt implies the b9 and b13 of the G7 chord. The following example shows the relationship between the G7 b9/ b13 and the D b9 chord and the logical smooth voice leading. The fundamental tones, 3 rd and 7 th, of D b7 and G7 are the same enharmonic pitches. The b9 of G is the 5 th of D b; the b13 of G7 is the 9 th of D b7. 26.

Relationship between b9/ b13 and the D b9:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

3/29/11 12:01 PM

APPLICATION OF OUTLINE NO. 1 AND 3-5-7-9 ARPEGGIOS ON A TYPICAL JAZZ HARMONIC PROGRESSION. Begin by practicing diatonic steps down from the 3 rd of each chord emphasizing the 7–3 voice-leading over each measure line. The dissonant 7 th is resolved to the consonant 3 rd .

Ex.1

Outline no. 1 over vi7—ii7—V7—I—IV—V7/iii—I/iii progression:

Practice 3-5-7-9 arpeggios for each chord using the key signature to determine the appropriate tones. The chord in m.6 has a b9. Is this a choice to make it sound "hip," or is it because this chord is pointing to the iii chord?

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

Ex.2

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Outline no. 1 with 3-5-7-9 arpeggios:

Combine the previous two exercises. Connect 3-5-7-9 arpeggios with outline no. 1 anticipating each beat.

Ex.3

Outline no. 1 with 3-5-7-9 arpeggios:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Connect 3-5-7-9 arpeggios with outline no. 1 using a chromatic leading tone to the third of each chord.

Ex.4

Outline no. 1 with 3-5-7-9 arpeggios and leading tones:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Connect 3-5-7-9 arpeggios with outline no. 1 using a chromatic passing tone approaching the thirds of chords. Minor thirds are approached from above, major thirds are approached from below.

Ex.5

Outline no. 1 with 3-5-7-9 arpeggios and chromatic approaches to 3rds:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

Ex.6

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Outline no. 1 with 3-5-7-9 arpeggios, delayed resolution to the 3rds, and chromatic approaches to 5ths. These lines resemble examples nos. 5 & 11:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

3/29/11 12:01 PM

How an improvisation may sound using the ideas from the previous exercises. The dominant chord in the third complete measure has a b9 borrowed from the parallel minor.

Ex.7

Sample ÒimprovisationÓ using material previously shown:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

Ex.8

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Outline no. 2 applied over vi7—ii7—V7—I—IV—V7/iii—I/iii progression:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

Ex.9

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Outline no. 2 applied over vi7—ii7—V7—I—IV—V7/iii—I/iii progression:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Ex.10 Outline no. 3 applied over vi7—ii7—V7—I—IV—V7/iii—I/iii progression:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Ex.11 Outline no. 3 applied over vi7—ii7—V7—I—IV—V7/iii—I/iii progression:

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

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RED GARLAND: Outlines and 3-5-7-9 Arpeggios

3/29/11 12:01 PM

Bert Ligon

bligon@mozart.sc.edu [Return to Jazz Transcriptions page]

http://www.music.sc.edu/ea/jazz/transcriptions/REDOutlines.htm

Page 17 of 17

Red Garland  

Outlines - Jazz

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