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Influence the Influencer Irrigation Guidebook Growing the Export Market Another look at PGR A communication service of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation.

Contents May/June 2018

Director of Advertising Jessie Bland

6 Photo credit: Kristen Loken.

Joy Carter Crosby Editor 229-386-3690

The Peanut Institute and National Peanut Board recently held two events aimed at influencing the influencers who reach millions of consumers annually. The events focused on nutrition research, new peanut products in the marketplace and trends in the food service industry.

Contributing Writers John Leidner Kaye Lynn Hataway Southeastern Peanut Farmer P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Ga. 31793 445 Fulwood Blvd., Tifton, Ga. 31794 ISSN: 0038-3694 Southeastern Peanut Farmer is published six times a year (Jan./Feb., March, April, May/June, July/Aug., and Oct./Nov.) by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. The publisher is not responsible for copy omission, typographical errors, or any unintentional errors that may occur, other than to correct it in the following issue. Any erroneous reflection which may occur in the columns of Southeastern Peanut Farmer will be corrected upon brought to the attention of the editor. (Phone 229-3863690 or Postmaster: Send address changes (Form 3579) to Southeastern Peanut Farmer, P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Georgia, 31793. Circulation is free to qualified peanut growers and others allied to the industry. Periodical postage paid at Tifton, Georgia and additional mailing office. Editorial Content: Editorial copy from sources outside of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation is sometimes presented for the information and interest of our members. Such material may, or may not, coincide with official Southern Peanut Farmers Federation policies. Publication of material does not necessarily imply its endorsement by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. For editorial concerns call 229-386-3690. No portion of this or past issues of the Southeastern Peanut Farmer may be reproduced in any form whatsoever without the written consent of the editor. By-lined articles appearing in this publication represent views of the authors and not necessarily those of the publisher. Advertising: The Publisher reserves the right to refuse any advertisement. Corrections to advertisements must be made after the first run. All billing offers subject to credit review. Advertisements contained in this publication do not represent an endorsement by the Southeastern Peanut Farmer or the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. Use of trade names in this publication is for the purpose of providing specific information and is not a guarantee nor warranty of products named. For advertising concerns call 229-386-3472.

Reaching Consumers through Influencers


Irrigation Guidebook The 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer’s Irrigation Guidebook features information on dynamic variable rate irrigation, irrigation timing methods through soil water tension sensors and a review of five years of peanut irrigation studies.

18 Take another look at PGR for runners Plant growth regulators have traditionally been used on Virginia type peanuts but that may be changing as a result of recent studies with runner peanuts. Results from lower rates of PGR have shown yield increases along with easier harvesting. Departments: Checkoff Report .................................................................................. 8 Alabama Peanut Producers Association, Florida Peanut Producers Association, Georgia Peanut Commission and Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Washington Outlook ............................................................................ 24 Southern Peanut Growers Update ........................................................ 26 Cover Photo: University of Georgia researchers George Vellidis (left) and Calvin Perry (right) take a look at dynamic VRI data in a peanut field. Photo by Casey Cox.

May/June 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Editorial Cooking with Peanuts ecently, I was able to attend two events hosted by The Peanut Institute and National Peanut Board at the Culinary Institute of America. Both events provided me the opportunity to visit with health influencers, chefs, food bloggers, magazine editors and more. Both events showcased the awesome potential peanuts have to offer from a nutritional standpoint and a flavor bonus for recipes. During the event, we were given the opportunity to prepare an entrée in teams using only the products made available to us. We had a variety of meats and seafood to choose from and an array of fresh vegetables. Also, there were plenty of peanut products available including Milked PeanutsTM, P-nuff Crunch, Oliver Farms Peanut Oil, Crazy Richards Peanut Butter, Peanut Flour and a variety of flavored roasted peanuts. The food options were endless for creating your masterpiece in the CIA kitchen. I felt lucky because I was in the group with a chef from the King and Duke in Atlanta, Georgia, a chef from the Blaze Pizza in Pasadena, California, Kimmi Wernli, owner of Crazy Richards Peanut Butter Co. and a food blogger. The team decided to create peanut tacos and a salad with the products available. Now, keep in mind we didn’t have pre-made taco shells either but we had someone very familiar with making pizza crust on our team. He was able to use that knowledge to create our taco shells with peanut flour and Milked PeanutsTM. And, they were delicious! The three taco options included a vegetarian option, fish taco and shrimp taco with crushed peanuts and P-nuff Crunch on top. The salad used Milked PeanutsTM with secret ingredients to make a creamy and delicious peanut infused dressing. At the end of the event, every team displayed their creation, and we were able to sample the new recipes. There were a variety of salads, soups, appetizers, main entrées and desserts all using a variety of peanut products. Everyone walked away completely full, and with a variety of new ideas for Joy Carter Crosby the kitchen! t Editor


Calendar of Events u American Peanut Research Education Society Annual Meeting, July 10-12, 2018, Doubletree Hotel, Williamsburg, Va. For more information visit or call 229-329-2949. u Southern Peanut Growers Conference, July 19-21, 2018, Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort, Miramar Beach, Fla. For more information visit or call 229-386-3470. u Sunbelt Ag Expo Field Day, July 24, 2018, Moultrie, Ga. For more information visit or call 229-985-1968. u American Peanut Shellers Association and National Peanut Buying Points Association Pre-Harvest Meeting, Aug. 7-8, 2018, Lake Blackshear Resort and Golf Club, Cordele, Ga. For more information visit or call 229-888-2508. u Southeast Georgia Research and Education Center Field Day, Aug. 15, 2018, University of Georgia’s Southeast Georgia Research and Education Center, Midville, Ga. For more information call 478-589-7472. u Brooklet Peanut Festival, Sept. 15, 2018. For more information visit the festival’s website at u Georgia Peanut Tour, Sept. 18-20, 2018. For more information visit the tour’s website at u Plains Peanut Festival, Sept. 22, 2018. For more information visit u Central Florida Peanut Festival, Oct. 6, 2018, Williston, Fla. For more information visit u Sunbelt Ag Expo, Oct. 16-18, 2018, Moultrie, Ga. For more information visit or call 229-985-1968.

Congratulations to the Georgia Peanut Commission for receiving the Power Partner Award from the Georgia Visitor Information Centers. The award recognizes GPC for their promotional efforts in coordination with the state’s welcome centers. Pictured left to right are Kevin Langston, deputy commissioner of economic development for tourism at the Georgia Department of Economic Development, Bert Brantley, chief operating officer for the Georgia Department of Economic Development, Joy Crosby, director of communications for the Georgia Peanut Commission and Pat Wilson, commissioner of the Georgia Department of Economic Development.


Southeastern Peanut Farmer May/June 2018

u Georgia Peanut Festival, Oct. 20, 2018, Sylvester, Ga. For more information visit

(Let us know about your event. Please send details to the editor at

Casey Cox, farmer from Camilla, Ga., provides an overview of peanut production to attendees at the National Peanut Board’s Millennial Food Summit at The Culinary Institute of America at Copia, Napa Valley, Calif.

ow do you reach consumers the best way? Influence the influencer. Influencers can range from nutrition experts, dietitians, food editors and bloggers, chefs and more. Recently, The Peanut Insitute and the National Peanut Board held two events that reached that goal and helped influence the influencers who reach millions of consumers annually. The Peanut Insitute recently held their annual Culinary Retreat for Food and Health Influencers including nutrition scientists, dietitians and media at the Culinary Institue of America (CIA) in Napa Valley, California, the end of April. The event has been held since 1997 and has supplied influencers with the latest information on nutrition research focusing on peanuts. “The event allows media and influencers the opportunity to hear nutrition research directly from scientists,” says Darlene Cowart, chairman of The Peanut Institute. “The event allows the influencers the opportunity to interact and network directly with the leading scientists on the nutritional benefits of peanuts.” Miriam Crosby, director of communications for The Peanut Institute, echoes those comments and says the event also brings the top culinary professionals together with the health influencers and media to demonstrate incorporating peanuts and peanut products as a part of a healthy diet. This event has



Reaching Consumers through Influencers

also resulted in a variety of coverage in fitness, lifestyle, food and nutrition publications and social media platforms. “Over the years, the publicity has meant millions of dollars in media coverage for the peanut industry,” Crosby says. “It has also been an invaluable tool in developing relationships with leading researchers.” The event provided the influencers with an overview of the peanut industry from Bob Parker, president and CEO of the National Peanut Board, as well as an update on peanut allergy research from Sherry Coleman Collins, registered dietitian and consultant for the National Peanut Board and an overview of peanut nutrition research from Julia Roman, a registered dietian and consultant for The Peanut Institute. The next part of the event included culinary demonstrations from chefs at the Culinary Institute of America at Greystone and an overview of plant based diets from Vasanti Malik, research scientist with the Harvard School of Public Health, and Kathy McManus, director of the department of nutrition at Brigham & Women’s Hospital. Rick Mattes, professor and researcher with the department of nutrition at Purdue University, provided the final workshop at CIA on healthy snacking options. He provided an update on various snacking research and the reason peanuts fit as a desirable snack option. According to Mattes, peanuts make a healthy snack because they are convenient, affordable,

Southeastern Peanut Farmer May/June 2018

palatable, and a nutrient contributing/health promoting food. After hearing about all of the nutrition research and seeing a culinary demonstration from the CIA chefs, the attendees were put to the test with a hands-on cooking session. The influencers were divided into groups and charged with preparing a variety of peanut inspired recipes ranging from Red Curry Pork Kebabs with Peanut Glaze to a Creamy Peanut Hummus and Peanut Crusted Chicken Fingers to Nanjing Chicken Lettuce Wraps. For many of the editors, chefs and nutrionists, cooking at CIA was the highlight of the event. “The day at CIA was a dream come true to say the least,” says Charmaine Broughton, food media specialist & writer from Ontario. “I can’t thank you enough for this experience.” Broughton also enjoyed the engaging and user-friendly information shared for those involved in media, which she plans to share through her cooking classes. “The information learned on sustainability and allergies was new to me and I’m excited to share this knowledge with a cooking class I’m teaching,” Broughton says. To end the weekend, attendees were able to gain additional information from three more presentations focusing on new products in the marketplace, the humanitarion efforts of the peanut industry, early introduction of peanut proteins to prevent allergies and

sustainable efforts within the peanut industry. “Events like this allow us the opportunity to bring science and influencers together for up-to-date nutrition information that will allow consumers to make informed choices about their diets,” Cowart says. Another group of influencers including food manufacturers, chefs and food bloggers arrived in May for the third annual Millennial Food Summit hosted by the National Peanut Board in Napa Valley, California. This event focused more on food trends and new products. “The summit brings together food industry leaders in a thoughtful discussion about millennial food trends and their impact on the food industry while also highlighting how peanuts are a natural, relevant part of the discussion,” says Lauren Highfill Williams, marketing and communications manager with the National Peanut Board. The summit provides an avenue for retailers, food manufacturers and foodservice operators with information to remain relevant in an ever changing population. The event also provides more insight for the different segments of the peanut industry in how to better tell the peanut story to meet the needs of customers. “The summit really helps us tell the amazing story that peanuts have, but it also helps us to refine our story,” Williams says. “It provides a valuable networking opportunity for peanut brands that participate in the summit.” According to Williams, examples over the years include the Atlanta United team using GFB PB&J Oatmeal for their morning breakfast, Oliver Farm Green Peanut Oil now being used in several of the past attendee’s restaurants, and AVI FoodSystems announcing a 3-month peanut-focused food campaign across their organization. The summit included presentations on millennial food trends highlighting the latest in food texture treatments to entertaining options when dining out that appeals to millennials. During an innovation panel, Juan Salinas, founder and CEO of Perfect Life Nutrition, and Kimmi Wernli, president of Crazy Richards Peanut Butter, were able to share their story of the obstacles and growth they have witnessed from a manufacturer viewpoint.

The group of nutritionist, food bloggers, health and fitness editors and more showcase their spread of peanut inspired recipes created during their hands-on cooking session at The Peanut Insitute’s Culinary Retreat for Food and Health Influencers at The Culinary Institute of America at Greystone, Napa Valley, Calif.

One highlight of the event included a Milked PeanutsTM chef demonstration from the chefs at CIA at Greystone. Also, Cheryl Mitchell, vice president of ingredient manufacturing at Steuben Foods, provided an overview of Milked PeanutsTM and trends in preserving and maximizing nutrients in plant-based ingredients and consumer products. On the second day of the summit, attendees arrived at the CIA at Copia for a full day of presentations and a market basket challenge. To kick off the day, Cathy Holley, editor in chief of Flavor & The Menu, provided information on trends in flavors utilized as well as menu offerings. Claire King and Matthew Johnson with the Buzzfeed - Tasty, shared their insights and trends of the popular recipe videos shared on social media platforms. To end the sessions, participants were able to see a live peanut plant and learn more more about peanut production from Georgia farmer Casey Cox of Camilla. Cox also provided information on the sustainable benefits of peanuts. The Market Basket Challenge charged teams to create a dish that matched the millennial food trends using a variety of ingredients including peanut products such as peanut flour, peanut oil, Milked PeanutsTM, peanut butter, P-nuff Crunch and more. “The Millennial Food Summit has provided me with science and cutting edge ideas to expand peanuts in our menu while telling the brilliant story about this superhero food. Anyone would be NUTS not to love peanuts!” says Dawn Aubrey,

associate director of housing for dining at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. According to Aubrey, peanuts are the equivalent of a comic superhero performing the amazing feat of providing renewable high quality nutrition through using minimal resources. “The Millennials are here. Gen Z has arrived, and they are very resource sensitive,” Aubrey says. “They want layering of flavors and more fusion. For example, East Indian-French-Thai: peanut chicken coconut curry with a saffron basmati. And they like different textures. For instance, African peanut sweet potato soup shows their interest in plant-based, vegan. It is about the smell and texture.” So, with the ending of both events from The Peanut Institute and National Peanut Board, the peanut industry has a new set of influencers from nutritionists, food retailers, chefs, bloggers and more. These influencers are now more knowledgable on nutrition research and benefits of eating peanuts and ready to create new menu offerings or share the peanut story with their readers. “It is important to be a part of an active conversation with food leaders about the future of the food industry,” Williams says. “These events allow a unique opportunity for us to dive into this discussion while also educating attendees about the proactive, positive contributions the peanut industry is making that directly affect consumers within the food industry.” t BY JOY CROSBY

May/June 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Checkoff Report Investments Made by Growers for the Future of the Peanut Industry.

APPA hosts PB&J Party at Auburn University

Auburn College of Agriculture students race against the clock to make PB&J sandwiches, which were donated to those in need in the Lee County, Alabama area.

On March 30, the Alabama Peanut Producers Association, Auburn University Ag Council, and Young Farmers hosted a PB&J Party, as a service event to celebrate Ag Week 2018 at Auburn University. More than 30 College of Agriculture students divided into two teams to see who could make the most PB&J sandwiches in one hour. The winning team made 850 sandwiches in the one-hour event. All together, the students made 2,000 PB&J sandwiches, and donated the sandwiches to those in the Lee County, Alabama, community who are food insecure.

FPPA attends and sponsors Flavors of Florida 2018 In April, University of Florida, community and industry leaders gathered at the Champions Club at Ben Hill Griffin Stadium in Gainesville, Florida, to taste recipes, brews and spirits showcasing signature and emerging Flavors of Florida. Some of Florida’s top chefs demonstrated their skills, while featuring Florida’s bountiful agricultural products Ken Barton, FPPA executive director, Dr. W. at the University of Florida Institute of Kent Fuchs, president of the University of Food and Agricultural Sciences’ fifth Florida and Dr. Barry Tillman, peanut breeder at annual Flavors of Florida. Renowned the University of Florida visit during the Flavors of Florida 2018 in Gainesville, Fla. Gainesville chef Bert Gill led a team of chefs with Florida producers contributing to the menu. A big hit at the event and one of Gill’s signature dishes was boiled peanut hummus. While all the offerings at Flavors of Florida were delicious, it all begins with UF/IFAS researchers. Those scientists work in their labs and fields to develop new cultivars that grow into the products and foods individuals enjoy. UF/IFAS scientists and Florida’s agricultural leaders are developing new cultivars, new technologies and new industries to feed the future and strengthen Florida’s communities. Barry Tillman, UF peanut breeder along with many other plant breeders and research scientist attended the event and discussed some of their respective programs.

FPPA exhibits at health fair The Florida State Hospital in Chattahoochee held their 29th Annual Health Fair for State Hospital employees. FPPA was one of many exhibitors to attend the event. The health and nutritional information about peanuts and peanut products provided by FPPA was popular with the health care professionals attending the event. Of particular interest to the attendees was information provided by the National Peanut Board on the Early Peanut Introduction to infants to prevent peanut allergy.

Florida farmer’s daughter shares knowledge of agriculture Being the daughter of a peanut farmer, growing up on the farm and being involved with Williston FFA, Tori Mills has a vast knowledge of agriculture, especially peanut and cattle production. Mills saw a great opportunity to share her agriculture knowledge with others as leaders were needed in after school programs. Mills was comfortable sharing her knowledge of peanut production with other students knowing that most have limited knowledge of how agriculture impacts their local area. Mills is the daughter of Jerry and Desiree Mills of Morriston, Florida, where they own and operate a diversified row crop, cattle and produce operation. Jerry also serves on the Florida Peanut Producers Association Board of Directors.

Check out how your checkoff dollars are invested throughout the year online at: Alabama Peanut Producers Association - Florida Peanut Producers Association - Georgia Peanut Commission - Mississippi Peanut Growers Association -


Southeastern Peanut Farmer May/June 2018

Tori Mills teaches students about peanut production in after school programs in Williston, Florida.

Reports from the: Alabama Peanut Producers Association Florida Peanut Producers Association Georgia Peanut Commission Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Georgia Peanut Commission exhibits at school nutrition meeting

Jessie Bland, Georgia Peanut Commission project coordinator, visit with school employees at the Georgia School Nutrition Association meeting.

The Georgia Peanut Commission exhibited at the Georgia School Nutrition Association’s annual meeting April 12-14 in Savannah, Georgia. The three-day event gave GPC the opportunity to provide school foodservice personnel nutrition resources related to peanuts and peanut butter, recipes and encourage consumption in schools across the state. New this year, GPC discussed a peanut promotion kit planned to launch for the 2018-19 school year and allowed schools to sign-up to receive the kit. The kit will serve as a nutrition education resource for schools to implement and will focus on highlighting all of the great benefits of peanuts and peanut butter.

Georgia Peanut Commission sponsors youth baseball team The Georgia Peanut Commission has become the official 2018 season sponsor of the 8u Georgia Peanuts youth baseball team based out of East Cobb, Georgia. The season runs from late February to the end of June. This young baseball team began in July 2017 and has quickly risen to the top. In the fall of 2017, they finished runner-up in two tournaments and brought home first place in the Fall Nationals based in East Cobb. Throughout the spring, they have played in more than 10 The 8u Georgia Peanuts youth baseball tournaments and have plans to attend the World team based out of East Cobb, Georgia, Series in Panama City Beach, Florida, this June. highlight their game snack of Georgia Through GPC’s sponsorship, the Georgia Peanuts peanuts. logo is making an impression on thousands of people by being placed on jerseys, banners at each game, equipment bags, social media and providing peanut samples at the team’s tournaments. To follow the team and its success, check out the Facebook page,

Georgia Peanut Commission referendum passes by 94 percent The Georgia Peanut Commission’s 2018 referendum was held March 16 through April 16 and received reaffirmation with a vote of 94.02 percent, the highest the commission has received in its nearly 57-year existence. “I am thankful our board and staff have been able to work in the areas of research, promotion and education of peanuts, as well as support efforts in Washington to maintain legislation that is helpful for peanut farmers; which in turn, continues to allow us to provide a healthy, nutritious product for consumers,” says Armond Morris, GPC chairman. As required by Georgia state law, the state’s peanut farmers vote on the commission every three years. The Certified Public Accounting firm of Allen, Pritchett and Bassett counted the ballots returned on April 25. For additional information on the Georgia Peanut Commission and its activities, visit

Georgia Peanut Commission sponsors Georgia FFA The Georgia Peanut Commission and the Peanut Institute teamed up to sponsor the Georgia FFA Star in Agriscience Award during the state convention held in Macon, Georgia. The State Star in Agriscience Award was presented to Levi Herring of Lowndes County. The additional state finalists included Carol-Ann Worhsam of Gordon Central in the North Region and Tamara English of Dutchtown in the Central Region. The Georgia Peanut Commission also exhibited during the career show and sponsored the Georgia FFA Alumni photo booth during the career show. Each member received a 4x6 print with the Georgia Peanuts logo displayed on the photo.

Donald Chase, Georgia Peanut Commission board member from Oglethorpe, Georgia, congratulates the Star in Agriscience winners for Georgia FFA. Pictured left to right, Chase, Levi Herring, state winner from Lowndes County; CarolAnn Worsham, north region winner from Gordon Central and Tamara English, central region winner from Dutchtown FFA.

MPGA introduces new website The Mississippi Peanut Growers Association has introduced a new website for the organization. The new design provides additional peanut production information, an educational section for teachers and is mobile friendly. Visit the new website online at

May/June 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer



IRRIGATION GUIDEBOOK Sensors Suggest Irrigation Timing es Porter, University of Georgia Extension precision ag and irrigation specialist, has been evaluating several systems for scheduling peanut irrigation. He now has narrowed his search to the scheduling systems that depend on data provided by soil water tension sensors. Such sensors are commonly called tensiometers or granular matrix sensors. The main goal of his research project last year was to determine the effects of varied irrigation timings on peanut growth, development and yield. He noted that irrigation was scheduled using soil water tension sensors. “Our past studies have shown that peanuts respond well to irrigation being scheduled via soil water tension,” Porter says. “However, there is limited information on what irrigation trigger level should be used to optimize growth, development and yield, up to this point we have just been using standard published trigger levels for soil type and not necessarily concerning ourselves with the crop.” His last test took place during 2017 when he used the Irrigator Pro program developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service at the National Peanut Research Laboratory in Dawson, Georgia. In the trial at the Stripling Irrigation Center near Camilla, Georgia, Porter used Irrigator Pro to initiate irrigation and compared Irrigator Pro to irrigation scheduling as determined by soil water tension. Irrigation was initiated on the peanuts when the soil moisture tension reached levels of 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 kPa. The kPa is an abbreviation for kilopascals, units of pressure measurements that can be converted to negative pressure per



square inch or tension. A reading of 0 kPa would indicate the soil is completely saturated with water. Generally, plant growth is best at kPa readings of 30 to 40 for coarse textured sandy soils and for 50 to 60 for mediumand heavy-textured soils. Readings of more than 70 kPa generally mean the soil is very dry. In Porter’s test last year, he tested irrigation on four common runner varieties including Georgia-06G, Georgia-12Y, TUFRunnerTM ‘297’ and TUFRunnerTM ‘511’. The data on soil water tension was collected hourly and this information was compiled and used to make irrigation decisions by 8 a.m. each morning of the growing season. While Porter and the staff at the Stripling Center set up everything to have a good test last year, the weather didn’t cooperate. The test site received 24.3 inches of rainfall during the 2017 growing season, and this rain was distributed evenly throughout the season. As a result, there was very little need for irrigation. You might say that too much rain ruined the results of this irrigation test. Porter reported that the only soil moisture tension reading that called for much irrigation last year was the one at the

Southeastern Peanut Farmer May/June 2018

level of 20 kPa. This reading called for 13 irrigation applications and a total of 10.6 inches of irrigation during the growing season. The other kPa readings and the Irrigator Pro system called for three to five irrigation applications and a total of less than 4 inches of irrigation during the growing season. “You couldn’t ask for better rainfall than what we got in 2017,” Porter says. He noted that the rainfall distribution was uniform even though hurricane and tropical storm weather events hit the region. Yields from the test last year exceeded 6,000 pounds per acre for all treatments except for the rainfed treatment which yielded almost 5,900 pounds per acre. In some of his other studies, Porter has noted that peanut yields have been penalized when irrigation timing is delayed and when irrigation is started too early in the growing season. Porter looks forward to testing these treatments during growing seasons with more normal rainfall distribution, when irrigation timing decisions can result in higher yields. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

Irrigation Guidebook

rrigation Water Use Efficiency or IWUE describes how much additional yield is produced by using irrigation when compared to rainfed production. Another way to think about it is how much crop is produced per drop of irrigation water used. As competition for fresh water supplies increases, producers across the world will face growing pressure from retailers, government agencies, and advocacy groups to increase IWUE. One way to achieve this is by applying the principles of precision agriculture to irrigation. Southeastern fields usually contain several soil types and yet most producers are still irrigating their fields uniformly. One way to increase efficiency is to apply the amount of water needed by the crops growing in each soil type. This concept is known as precision irrigation. The University of Georgia Precision Agriculture Team has been developing precision irrigation tools which improve IWUE for the past 18 years. In the early 2000s, the team developed variable rate irrigation (VRI) for center pivots. VRI allows center pivots to vary water application rates along the length of the pivot by using electronic controls to


cycle sprinklers and control pivot speed. Users delineate their fields into irrigation management zones (IMZs) and develop prescription maps which the pivot controller uses to apply different amounts of irrigation water to each IMZ. Most pivot irrigation manufacturers now offer their own VRI systems. After-market VRI systems are also available. VRI systems can result in significant IWUE gains but traditional prescription maps are static. In other words, they are typically developed once and used thereafter. Static prescription maps do not respond to environmental variables such as weather patterns and other factors which affect soil moisture condition and crop growth rates. So although VRI is a great leap forward in improving IWUE, VRI can be enhanced by having real-time information on crop water needs to drive the application rates. One approach for creating dynamic prescription maps is to use soil moisture sensors to estimate the amount of irrigation water needed to return each IMZ to an ideal soil moisture condition. For the past four years, the Precision Agriculture Team have been working on developing and testing a dynamic VRI

The Dynamic Variable Rate Irrigation uses a dense network of soil moisture sensors that provide hourly soil moisture measurements to a web-based irrigation scheduling model and provides farmers with a dashboard showing irrigation scheduling recommendations for each irrigation management zone.

Photo credit: Casey Cox.

Dynamic Variable Rate Irrigation

University of Georgia researchers George Vellidis (left) and Calvin Perry (right) take a look at dynamic VRI data in a peanut field.

system that uses a dense network of soil moisture sensors to provide hourly soil moisture measurements to a web-based irrigation scheduling model. The model uses the data to develop irrigation scheduling recommendations for each IMZ. The recommendations are downloaded wirelessly to the VRI controller on the center pivot as a precision irrigation prescription. When the center pivot irrigation system is engaged by the producer, the pivot applies the recommended rates. The dynamic VRI system was tested with three different producers in Georgia – Keith Bowen, Adam McLendon, and Marty Tabb. For the first two years of on-farm testing, the system achieved IWUE improvements of up to 37 percent but was not able to match and surpass the producers’ yields on peanut. After incorporating Irrigator Pro into the irrigation scheduling model, the system achieved IWUE gains of between 16 and 40 percent and yield gains of between 2 and 4 percent in peanut. The concept of dynamic VRI is being adopted by pivot manufacturers and at least one is now offering a dynamic VRI solution. Stay tuned for rapid developments and new offerings in this area. t BY GEORGE VELLIDIS, CALVIN PERRY AND WES PORTER

May/June 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Irrigation Guidebook

Five Years of Peanut Irrigation Studies he 2018 growing season is the fifth year for University of Georgia Extension precision ag and irrigation specialist Wes Porter to study advanced methods of scheduling irrigation for peanuts. He has been evaluating some halfdozen irrigation scheduling methods and has been comparing them with dryland or rainfed treatments and the UGA checkbook method. The checkbook method is akin to a bank checking account. Rainfall and irrigation are deposits into the account. Daily water removal from evaporation and plant transpiration would be considered as withdrawals from the account. The checkbook method uses established historical records for water use by crops along with evapotranspiration rates or the amount of water that is lost. Based on his use of the checkbook method, Porter says this method is very conservative and tends to over-water peanuts. “As a result, we have updated our checkbook methods for peanuts and cotton,” Porter says. “We especially noted that the older checkbook method called for over-watering peanuts,” he adds. “It would call for adding 10 to 15 inches of water compared to only 7 to 10 inches called for by irrigation sensors such as tensiometers.” He also noticed that the checkbook method tended to produce peanut yields


This smart sensor array was developed by University of Georgia researcher George Vellidis and is showing promise in scheduling variable rate irrigation for peanuts.


of about 5,000 pounds per acre compared to about 6,400 pounds per acre for peanuts watered by advanced methods such as Irrigator Pro or sensor-based scheduling. You apply a lot less water by using the advanced scheduling methods, according to Porter. One of the methods he is evaluating measures temperatures in the crop canopy. This system was developed in West Texas by a firm based in Lubbock, Texas. So far, measures of canopy temperature have not This SmartCrop sensor measures canopy temperatures using been an accurate measure of an infrared thermometer. It is able to read temperature every minute and report average readings every 15 minutes. While when to irrigate peanuts in crop canopy temperatures can be a reliable measure of plant the Southeast, according to stress and when to irrigate in arid areas such as West Texas, it Porter. may not work as well in the more humid Southeast, according to He has also been Wes Porter, University of Georgia Extentsion specialist. evaluating the University of Georgia-developed Easy Pan water from a washtub. Porter says it is system. This method of irrigation better than the checkbook method but is scheduling simulates the evaporation of not as good as using a sensor-based system. In Porter’s 2016 tests, the Irrigator Pro system of scheduling peanut irrigation produced the highest peanut yields, about 6,700 to 6,800 pounds per acre. Irrigator Pro was developed by the USDA National Peanut Research Laboratory in Dawson, Georgia. The newest version of Irrigator Pro will use readings from soil moisture sensors. Porter says a big advantage of Irrigator Pro is that it is free software to growers. Another sensor that Porter is testing is called the Arable Mark sensor from Arable Labs. It is deployed above the crop and captures a wide amount of weather data. “In our testing, the only crop not hurt by overwatering was corn,” Porter says. “You can lose profitability by overwaterThis Arable Mark sensor measures rainfall, ing corn but you won’t see a yield penalty ambient light, sunlight intensity and 40 other when you put out too much water on types of weather-related data that relate to crop growth and plant health. Wes Porter, University corn.” He does see the yield penalties by of Georgia Extension precision ag and irrigation overwatering peanuts and cotton. t specialist, is evaluating this system of peanut irrigation scheduling for Valmont.

Southeastern Peanut Farmer May/June 2018


GROWING THE EXPORT MARKET International Peanut Forum provides key networking platform for all segments of the peanut industry xport promotions and events continue to assist with an increase in market growth for U.S. peanuts. One of those events, the International Peanut Forum, provides an opportunity for networking among the various segments of the peanut industry while promoting U.S. peanuts to potential buyers. The 2018 forum held April 11-13, in Athens, Greece, brought a record number of delegates to the event from 30 countries. The 350 delegates represented all aspects of the peanut supply chain from growers to buyers. According to Louise McKerchar, vice president and European marketing director with the American Peanut Council, attendees were able to network during the event and learn about the latest nutrition research and new product launches. “The U.S. industry shows leadership in hosting the event and it also provides the opportunity to promote the quality of its peanuts to the European,” McKerchar says. The theme of the 2018 conference was “Peanuts – the Protein for Tomorrow’s Champions”, and with session topics ranging from nutrition and allergy research to new product launches and supply & demand, the IPF had something for everyone, whether a supplier, buyer, quality assurance manager or an individual involved in marketing peanuts. As a first time attendee Caleb Bristow, executive director of the Alabama Peanut Producers Association didn’t know what to expect. However, in the end, the forum provided him an opportunity to network and learn more about the supply and demand of peanuts on a global scale. “The forum provides an outstanding opportunity for the U.S. peanut industry to promote our peanuts to buyers from all



International Peanut Forum attendees had the opportunity to network with the entire supply chain of the peanut industry and learn about the latest information on topics ranging from nutrition and allergy research to new product launches, as well as supply and demand during the forum held April 11-13 in Athens, Greece.

across the world in one spot,” Bristow says. “It was also very interesting to see the number of people interested in the health benefits of peanuts. We push the health benefits here domestically, but I quickly learned other countries do not.” The event started with the traditional welcome reception, sponsored by Olam International, where delegates and guests enjoyed internationally focused appetizers. With 16 companies promoting their goods and services at table-top exhibits, the receptions provided an opportunity for networking and conducting business with colleagues. The forum provided presentations on nutrition, peanut breeding, peanut markets of Greece, India and China, new peanut product launches around the world, social media marketing and the ever-popular peanut supply and demand panel. President of the Greek Nut & Fruits Association, John Tryfonas, opened the conference sessions with a welcome to the historic city of Athens.

Southeastern Peanut Farmer May/June 2018

The nutritional benefits of peanuts kicked off the conference topics in the first session. Darlene Cowart, chairman of The Peanut Institute, provided an update on the latest peanut nutrition research. She was followed by an update on the non-GMO advances in peanut breeding by Steve Brown, executive director of The Peanut Foundation and Scott Jackson, researcher with the University of Georgia. The latest research on the prevention of food allergies was presented by Gideon Lack, professor of Pediatric Allergy of King’s College London, and Head of the Academic Pediatric Allergy Service at Guy’s & St Thomas’s NHS Foundation Trust in the UK. Lack told the story of his journey into researching whether avoidance of peanuts in early life was increasing the incidence of peanut allergy. Seventeen years later, his research findings have led countries to reverse guidelines to avoid peanut products in

USDA appoints Peanut Standards Board Members

Peanut farmers Jeff Roper, Texas, and Donald Chase, Georgia, visit with attendees during the International Peanut Forum. Peanut farmers like Roper and Chase assisted the American Peanut Council by manning the exhibit booth during the event.

early years, as previous thoughts that eating certain foods had led to allergies. The question remains as to which children at risk of developing allergies to treat to get the maximum impact of early intervention, what level of peanut they should be exposed to, and for how long. Don Koehler, executive director of the Georgia Peanut Commission, believes events like the forum provide those in the U.S. industry an opportunity to hear from speakers we would never have an opportunity to meet otherwise. “The forum provides me and the farmer leaders of the Georgia Peanut Commission an opportunity to hear about some of the latest cutting edge research from all across the world,” Koehler says. “I definitely would not have had an opportunity to meet with Dr. Gideon Lack about his latest research findings on peanut allergy if it had not been for the forum.” The IPF sessions concluded with a

In 2017 world peanut trade reached


$9.4 billion

UP 9% from 2016 Source: Global Trade Atlas

packed conference room listening to the Supply and Demand panel, moderated by Anupam Jindel of Olam International. Karl Zimmer of Premium Peanuts represented the U.S. peanut on the supply side, and Daniel Whitehouse, Mars Wrigley Confectionery, participated in the demand panel. “As we continue to grow exports, the world market is becoming a much bigger component of grower prices on the domestic front,” Bristow says. “The presenters from China, India, Greece, and Argentina all provided valuable information that we need to be aware of.” A number of peanut farmers assisted with manning the American Peanut Council’s exhibit during the event. The growers were able to provide first-hand knowledge about production in their state as well as the measures they address on the farm to supply a quality U.S. peanut. Farmers representing the Georgia Peanut Commission, Alabama Peanut Producers Association, Texas Peanut Producers Board all helped man the booth. “As a grower, it is exciting to meet with potential buyers of U.S. peanuts,” says Armond Morris, chairman of the Georgia Peanut Commission and farmer from Tifton, Georgia. “The buyers like to visit with the growers one on one to know who they are buying from and learn more about issues farmers face each year.” Sponsors of the event were Triz Ventures; Agrocrops; Birdsong Peanuts; Golden Peanut & Tree Nuts; Olam;

Agriculture Secretary Sonny Perdue recently announced the appointment of three producers and three industry representatives to serve on the Peanut Standards Board. All appointees will serve the remainder of three-year terms ending June 30, 2020. Appointed are: Southeast Region (Alabama, Georgia and Florida) • Martin L. McLendon, Leary, Ga. (Producer) • Elizabeth Kaye Smith, Golden Peanut Company LLC, Alpharetta, Ga. (Industry representative) Southwest Region (Texas, Oklahoma and New Mexico) • James Richard Chandler, Portales, N.M. (Producer) • John Edward Bennett, Mars Chocolate, Waco, Texas (Industry representative) Virginia/Carolina Region • James Wilson Mason, Harrellsville, N.C. (Producer) • Kathryn Olivia Swinson, Golden Grove Inc., Warsaw, N.C. (Industry representative) The 18-member board was authorized under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. One-third of the board members are appointed each year. More information about the board is available on the USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service’s (AMS) Peanut Standards Board page or by contacting the AMS Marketing Order and Agreement Division at (863) 324-3375. Brumau Ostinato; Texas Peanut Producers Board; VICAM; Premium Peanut; Focus Business Communications; M.Lakhamsi & Co; and Mintel. More than 70 percent of the delegates downloaded and used the IPF2018 app, where they were able to network with other delegates, see the program as it unfolded, submit questions during presentations and respond to surveys on future venues and feedback on the forum. The American Peanut Council looks forward to hosting the next International Peanut Forum in 2020. t BY JOY CROSBY

May/June 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


FSA County Commitee Nominations launch June 15 he U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) encourages America’s farmers and ranchers to nominate candidates to lead, serve and represent their community on their local county committee. USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA) will accept nominations for county committee members beginning Friday, June 15, 2018. Producers across the country are already serving on committees where they play a critical role in the day-to-day operations of FSA, making important


decisions on programs dealing with disaster and conservation, emergencies, commodity price loan support, county office employment and other agricultural issues. Nationwide, more than 7,700 dedicated farmers and ranchers serve on FSA county committees, which consist of three to 11 members and meet once a month, or as needed. Members serve three-year terms. To be eligible to serve on an FSA county committee, producers must participate or cooperate in an FSA

program and reside in the area where the election is being held. To be considered, a producer must sign an FSA-669A nomination form. The form and other information about FSA county committee elections are available at All nomination forms for the 2018 election must be postmarked or received in the local FSA office by Aug. 1, 2018. Election ballots will be mailed to eligible voters beginning Nov. 5, 2018. Visit the website, for more information. t

Last chance for the 2017 Census The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) is wrapping up data collection for the 2017 Census of Agriculture. To stay on track for data release in February 2019, the deadline for submitting the paper questionnaire is June 15, 2018. Farmers and ranchers who have not responded by June 15, 2018 still have until the end of July to complete the Census online through the secure website found on the cover of their Census form. Phone follow-up and personal interviews will also continue through July. The questionnaire needs to be completed by everyone who received a form - including landowners who lease land to producers, those involved in conservation programs, even those who may have received the Census and do not farm. Every response matters. Federal law, Title 7 USC 2204(g) Public Law 105-113, requires NASS to keep all information confidential, to use the data only for statistical purposes, and to only publish in aggregate form to prevent disclosing the identity of any individual producer or farm operation. For more information about the 2017 Census of Agriculture or to respond online, visit Improved in 2017, the online form is faster and more convenient than ever. For questions about or assistance with filling out the Census, call toll-free (888) 4247828. t


Southeastern Peanut Farmer May/June 2018

Take Another Look at PGR for Runners W

hen the peanut plant growth regulator Kylar was taken off the market in 1989, there was no reliable PGR that growers could use to gain better control over heavy vine growth. That changed in 2001 with the labeling of the PGR Apogee by BASF and its active ingredient, prohexadione calcium. The growth regulator is also sold as Kudos from Fine Americas. Prohexadione calcium has seen its most use in apples and turfgrass. Until now, the only peanuts treated with the PGR were Virginia varieties. Very little was ever used in runner peanuts. That may be changing as a result of recent studies. These tests show that lower rates of the PGR are resulting in significant yield increases for runner peanuts along with easier harvesting. Prohexadione calcium acts within the peanut plant to inhibit gibberellin. This results in a shortening of cell elongation and an overall reduction in plant growth. Prohexadione calcium doesn’t affect the number of leaves, but it does decrease the internode length or the distance between leaves. Also, because prohexadione calcium is absorbed by the peanut leaves, adequate spray coverage of the foliage is needed for good uptake. The uptake of prohexadione calcium into the plant requires the presence of a non-phytotoxic nitrogen source in the spray solution. Appropriate nitrogen sources listed on the label include urea ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. Also, a crop oil


concentrate should be added to the spray solution to get consistent performance. While prohexadione calcium is compatible with many fungicides and insecticides, the crop oil concentrate and the nitrogen solution used may not be, so it is important to first check the compatibility of such mixtures. One reason prohexadione calcium has seen little use in runner peanuts is that it is expensive. Scott Monfort, University of Georgia Extension peanut agronomist, has studied prohexadione calcium for several years. “When used properly, prohexadione calcium-treated peanut vines are shorter and more erect, allowing for increased efficiency in the digging and inversion process,” Monfort says. “Unfortunately, yield increases have been erratic and often insignificant on runner type peanuts due to the slower growth habit compared to Virginia type peanuts.” Based on recent University of Georgia research trials, the full labeled rate of 7.25 ounces per acre in two applications has shown some negative impacts on the yields and grades of runner type peanuts. However, reduced rates of 3.63 ounces to 5.44 ounces per acre applied twice have shown positive yield increases while continuing to manage vine growth similar to that seen when the full rate of 7.25 ounces per acre are applied. “There are a few concerns regarding the use of prohexadione calcium that need to be considered,” Monfort says. First, the use of prohexadione calcium is only recommended on irrigated

Southeastern Peanut Farmer May/June 2018

acres where vine growth is excessive. Use of the product on non-irrigated fields or in irrigated fields where vine growth is not an issue will lead to stunted growth and potential yield loss, according to Monfort. He notes that the product is not recommended for use on plants that are under stress due to the lack of moisture, disease pressure or other stress conditions. Also, application timing is crucial for success. The first application needs to occur when at least 50 percent of the lateral vines are touching in the row middles (~55 to 65 days after planting). This is not when the vines are 50 percent lapped, Monfort notes. The 50 percent lapping stage will be too early for a successful application. “I would rather be a little late than a little early in applying the PGR,” Monfort says. The second application should take place 14 to 21 days after the first application. Monfort says a crop oil concentrate at a rate of one quart per acre should be added to improve the performance of prohexadione calcium. Also, urea ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate should be added to prohexadione calcium to improve its uptake by the plants and to improve its consistency in producing a plant response. Prohexadione calcium requires eight hours for absorption by the peanut foliage to be effective, according to Monfort. Monfort has tested prohexadione calcium on peanuts at the Sunbelt Ag Expo farm near Moultrie, Georgia, and has seen yield increases of about 500 pounds per acre on many varieties. In

Forrest County Mississippi Test of Apogee on Peanuts - 100 days after planting.

Untreated Field

Fifty percent rate of Apogee 3.63 ounces per acre

fact, the PGR increased yields on all ten of the varieties Monfort tested at Expo. “It is a $60 treatment with two applications at the full rate,” Monfort says. “If we cut the rate to one half or three fourths of the recommended rate, we should still see benefits.” One of the reasons Monfort started studying Apogee was that he started receiving calls about the Georgia-12Y variety and its excessive vine growth. Monfort says the PGR may have its greatest benefits for varieties released since Georgia-06G became popular. “The newer varieties seem to grow more vine,” Monfort says. Early on in his tests, Monfort realized that Apogee would need to boost yields, not just control vine growth, to justify its use in runner peanuts. His initial goal was to obtain 200 to 500 additional pounds of peanuts per acre from a half rate application program for Apogee. Chad Abbott, a research and Extension associate at Mississippi State University, has also taken part in testing prohexadione calcium on runner peanuts. The tests took place last year on farms in Coahoma, Holmes and Forrest counties of Mississippi. The rates tested were 50 percent, 75 percent and 100 percent of the fully labeled rate. These rates correspond to 3.63, 5.4 and 7.25 ounces per acre. The test sites in Coahoma and Holmes counties were furrow irrigated while the farm in Forrest County was center pivot irrigated. The varieties in the test included TUFRunnerTM ‘297’ in Coahoma County, TUFRunnerTM ‘511’ in Holmes County and Georgia-06G in Forrest County. “With the full labeled rate, we saw clearly defined rows that we did not see in the untreated rows,” Abbott says. “Also, the plants were clearly darker green in color after the first treatment. We

75 percent rate of Apogee 5.4 ounces per acre

saw a significant reduction in plant biomass with the PGR. The untreated plant height was about 21 inches while the treated plants had a height of about 15 inches.” In the Mississippi tests, the 75 percent rate provided the best returns, though the 50 percent rate was also profitable, according to Abbott. The tests showed overall yields of 6,883 pounds per acre for those at the 75 percent rate, 6,776 pounds per acre at the 100 percent rate, 6,626 pounds per acre for the 50 percent rate and 6,145 pounds per acre for the untreated peanuts. Assuming peanuts are valued at $475 per ton, and given the cost of Apogee, a yield increase of 250 pounds per acre would allow growers to break even on application costs at the full labeled rate, according to Abbott. However, an extra yield of 188 pounds per acre would cover application costs at the 75 percent rate and a yield boost of 125 pounds per acre would cover costs at the 50 percent rate. Growers need to consider that Apogee is an expensive product to apply by itself, according to Abbott. He says growers would need to look at the mixing of fungicides, insecticides and herbicides with the plant growth regulator. He also notes that growers should make sure there are no phytotoxicity issues from the crop oil concentrate that is added to the product. While the Mississippi tests did not measure digging efficiency, Abbott says it appeared that peanut inverters performed better where the PGR was applied. Based on the Mississippi tests, it appears that the use of Apogee will allow combine harvesting a day earlier than normal. In these tests, the height of viney peanuts was reduced by about four to five inches. The highest yields in these tests occurred when Apogee was applied at 75

Full rate of Apogee 7.25 ounces per acre

percent of the full labeled rate. One of the places where Monfort tested Apogee was on the farm of Mike Newberry near Arlington, Georgia. Newberry plants peanuts after heavily fertilized corn, and deals with heavy vines every year. He grows the Georgia-06G variety and says the vines became such a problem that he started mowing them prior to digging. The mowing also seemed to improve field drying. Based on his experience, Newberry plans to eliminate the mowing trip where he uses Apogee. And this year, he plans to use the product on all of his peanuts except those planted after May 25. His standard rate will be at 75 percent of the full rate. He also wants to test the full labeled rate in two applications and in one application. He may also test prohexadione calcium applied with fungicides. He’s not sure that fungicides will be compatible since a crop oil concentrate and a nitrogen solution are needed to move the plant growth regulator into the peanut plants. Newberry said the prohexadione calcium caused the peanut vines to turn a dark green in color, and he noticed that the second application did a good job of limiting the regrowth of the vines. Since prohexadione calcium is primarily used in apples and turfgrass, it can be difficult to obtain in peanut farming areas, according to Newberry. Newberry was impressed with the higher yields from the Apogee-treated peanuts. “They were easier to invert and we were able to run the picker in a faster gear,” he recalls. “We were able to run our pickers a day sooner for the treated peanuts.” Best of all, Newberry’s PGR-treated peanuts were much higher yielding than those not treated with the prohexadione calcium. t BY JOHN LEIDNER

May/June 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Premium Peanut Expands to Include Oil Mill remium Peanut in Douglas, Georgia, hosted an open house for their new peanut oil mill on April 30, 2018. The facility is located adjacent to the already up and running shelling plant. This new operation has the capacity to produce more than 3 million gallons of peanut oil per year. The event brought in more than 250 guests from the local community, state and Southeast. “We are proud of what we’ve been able to do,” says Karl Zimmer, president and CEO of Premium Peanut. He went on to express his thanks and gratitude to the growers and shareholders stating how Premium Peanut would not have been able to do it without them. “We are committed to them every day,” Zimmer says. “To create more value for the product that their harvesting.” Commissioner of the Georgia Department of Economic Development Pat Wilson and Commissioner of the Georgia Department of Agriculture Gary


Premium Peanut representatives cut the ribbon during the open house for the new oil mill in Douglas, Ga. on April 30, 2018.

Black along with U.S. Rep. Rick Allen, R-Georgia, also spoke during the open house where they each recognized the importance of agriculture to the state and country. “This is an exciting event in the history of our young company,” says Lee Taylor, vice president of Premium Peanut. “We are working through the normal startup processes and will ramp up

production at a steady pace.” After the ribbon cutting ceremony, open house attendees were able to tour the shelling plant and oil mill. The oil mill is able to process 12,000 gallons of oil a day on three presses. The new oil mill started up on March 1, 2018, right as Premium Peanut planned and has already started shipping oil to their buyers. t BY WHITNEY BRANNEN

Sunbelt Ag Expo Field Day set for July 24 ajor advancements have been made in peanut yields over the last decade, but growers must continue to seek ways to more economically and efficiently increase yields in order to remain competitive. To help with that goal, the University of Georgia Peanut Team conducts many research trials across the state’s peanut belt, including work on real farms, university research farms, and at the Sunbelt Ag Expo Darrell Williams Research Farm at Moultrie, Georgia. Farmers can learn more by visiting the Sunbelt Ag Expo for its annual Field Day on July 24 for a sneak peek at the research it is carrying out on behalf of University of Georgia researchers and others across the Southeast. At the Expo farm, the UGA Peanut Team generally has trials to determine yield response and economic return for select tillage treatments, biological inoculant products, foliar fertilizers and plant growth stimulants, says Scott Monfort, UGA Extension peanut



agronomist. More specifically, he conducted trials last season at the Expo to compare reduced tillage treatments, using single shank and twin shank rippers, to more common conventional tillage treatments, such as deep turning and harrowing. He used no cover crops in the trials. “Yield in conventional tillage tended to be higher in most of the trials conducted in 2017,” he says. “However, yields in the Expo tillage trial were found to be similar across all tillage treatments.” Additional research by Monfort at Sunbelt Expo “will assess the impact of cover crops in reduced tillage systems compared to conventional tillage. Treatments being assessed are intensive broadcast tillage (bottom plow), and two reduced tillage programs consisting of a single ripper shank, with and without a cover crop.” “The Sunbelt Expo’s Darrell Williams Research Farm and research field day provides a great platform to showcase the research efforts of the UGA Peanut Team in answering grower

Southeastern Peanut Farmer May/June 2018

Visitors at Sunbelt Ag Expo Field Day on July 24 will be able to see crop demonstrations and examine research trials by the University of Georgia Peanut Team.

concerns and questions related to new products and changes in Extension recommendations,” Monfort says. The field day kicks off at 7:15 a.m. in the RW Griffin Building with a biscuit breakfast. Trams depart for the fields at 8:00 a.m. and return before noon for lunch and door prize drawings. The Sunbelt Ag Expo is located southeast of Moultrie, Georgia, on Georgia Highway 133. For additional information, visit t

Photo credit: Colin young Wolff/AP images.

NPB Consumer Campaign for Introduction of Peanuts an Early Hit

Justin Baldoni and his wife, Emily, are partnering with the National Peanut Board to share the journey of introducing peanut early to Maxwell to drastically reduce the chances of developing a peanut allergy.

he National Peanut Board and partners recently unveiled a consumer campaign promoting early introduction of peanut foods to prevent allergies. In the first of a threepart video


series, actor Justin Baldoni talked about introducing peanut foods to son Maxwell. News has begun to spread, with media coverage from top millennial lifestyle outlets like PEOPLE, Cooking Light, and Upworthy.

On social media, consumer reaction is upbeat—praising NPB and Justin for raising awareness about this important initiative. “I am so glad this issue is being brought to the forefront. I am a peanut allergy sufferer and this is an issue that needs more coverage for sure.” “…As a new mom, I had so much anxiety about introducing peanut butter to my daughter, only to learn it could actually be better for her than waiting! This is a message every new mom needs to hear.” During Food Allergy Awareness Week, May 13-19, Justin’s second video was released, along with more personal stories from social media influencers like Kylie Mitchell, RDN. “More people will be paying attention to food allergy issues during Food Allergy Awarenes week than ever, so it’s a perfect moment for us to help drive the conversation about the life-changing impact early introduction can have,” says Bob Parker, NPB president and CEO. To learn more, visit the new website at t BY NATIONAL PEANUT BOARD


1 22

Mix with water, formula or breast milk Thin 2 tsp. of peanut butter with 2-3 tsp. hot water, formula or breast milk. Allow to cool before serving.

Southeastern Peanut Farmer May/June 2018


Mix with food Blend 2 tsp. of peanut butter into 2-3 tbsp. of foods like infant cereal, applesauce, yogurt (if already tolerating dairy), pureed chicken or tofu.

Former National Peanut Board chairman memorialized at new food allergy center ormer National Peanut Board chairman and Texas member Bob White, who passed away in October 2016, was honored earlier this year at a recognition ceremony establishing the Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta at Emory Food Allergy Center. The National Peanut Board made a donation to the center in White’s memory. “There’s a huge gap in the Southern U.S. without a world-class food allergy and treatment center. Georgia being the largest producer of peanuts, it’s fitting that a world-class university like Emory has started this program here and brought in solid leadership in Dr. Brian Vickery,” says Bob Parker, NPB president and CEO. “Like other peanut farmers, Bob White took great pride in growing a nutritious and wholesome food. That anyone could be harmed by eating the product he grew bothered him. During his tenure on the National Peanut Board, Bob embraced efforts to find ways to prevent, treat and find a cure for peanut allergy. He would have been excited to know that NPB played a role in bringing a food allergy research center to a prestigious institution like Emory University,” Parker says. Many NPB staff, former board members and Texas peanut leaders attended the event along with White’s wife Pat and daughter Mandi Gay. “I want to thank you for honoring my dad,” Gay wrote in a Facebook response. “I am so grateful to know that my parents were a part of such a wonderful group of people. Thank you for allowing us to be there! I am so glad I got to meet all of



Mix with produce Stir in 2 tsp. of powdered peanut butter into 2 tbsp. of previously tolerated pureed fruits or vegetables.

Current and former members of the National Peanut Board and staff join together with Brian Vickery, director of the Food Allergy Centery, and family of Bob White, former chairman of the National Peanut Board from Texas, for the dedication of the Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta at Emory Food Allergy Center.

you and hear some of the stories from your times together! I know my mom will cherish them always.” Speakers at the recognition ceremony included new Center Director Dr. Brian Vickery; Dr. Arlene Stecenko, chief of Pediatric Pulmonary, AllergyImmunology, Cystic Fibrosis, and Sleep, Food Allergy Research Program at Emory; Dr. Jennifer Shih, MD, assistant professor of pediatrics and internal medicine, Emory University; associate chief of allergy/immunology; medical director of pediatric allergy clinics; assistant director of Adult Asthma, Allergy, and Immunology Program; and Lucky Jain, MD; Richard W. Blumberg, professor and chair, Emory University School of Medicine, Department of


Pediatrics, executive medical director & chief academic officer, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta. The speakers expressed how fortunate they felt to bring someone of Dr. Vickery’s stature to open the food allergy research program. Dr. Vickery has worked on groundbreaking food allergy research at Duke University and University of North Carolina Chapel Hill. He has exceptional qualifications for patient-centered care and advancing research. Dr. Vickery acknowledged NPB’s contribution to the center in memory of Bob White. t BY CATHY JOHNSON NATIONAL PEANUT BOARD

Peanut snacks Give your baby a peanut-containing teething food, such as peanut puffs.


Teething biscuits Teething infants who are older and self-feeding may enjoy homemade peanut butter teething biscuits.

Remember: The recommended way to introduce baby-friendly peanut foods depends on each child’s individual risk factors. May/June 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Washington Outlook by Robert L. Redding Jr.

U.S. House Farm Bill Vote Re-scheduled After the 2018 Farm Bill, H.R. 2, was defeated on the House floor 198 to 213, House Leadership has been working to get the bill back on the floor for another attempt at passage. The bill is now scheduled to be voted on June 22. Approximately 100 amendments were filed with the House Rules Committee for the farm bill. Several of these amendments would have directly impacted the peanut program. In addition to key members of Congress from peanut districts, several peanut state members serve on the House Rules Committee that approves amendments to go to the floor of the House for consideration. U.S. Congressmen Rob Woodall, R-Georgia, Doug Collins, R-Georgia, and Bradley Byrne, R-Alabama, members of the House Rules Committee, are to be commended for their efforts to block amendments that would have been severely detrimental to the peanut program. They did not have an easy task. House Agriculture Committee Chairman K. Michael Conaway, R-Texas, issued the following statement on the House farm bill vote: “We experienced a setback today after a streak of victories all week. We may be down, but we are not out. We will deliver a strong, new farm bill on time as the President of the United States has called on us to do. Our nation’s farmers and ranchers and rural America deserve nothing less.” The peanut provisions approved by the U.S. House Committee on Agriculture are included on page 21.

U.S. Senate Ag Committee Outlines Possible Farm Bill Path U.S. Senate Agriculture Committee Chairman Pat Roberts, R-Kansas, is expected to soon announce a committee markup scheduled for the 2018 Farm Bill. If the committee marks up their bill in June, it still gives the Senate leadership time to schedule floor consideration this summer. The Congress will have a limited number of days in session after Labor Day. With the elections in full bore, moving a farm bill and successfully completing a farm bill conference will be very difficult before adjourning for the year.

Grassley GAO Report Hits Payment Limits U.S. Senator Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, requested the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) to pursue a report on Farm Programs: Information on Payments. The GAO Report targets several areas of farm programs including the separate peanut payment limit. The separate limit was established in the 2002 Farm Bill when peanut quota was eliminated. It was part of an agreement with peanut producers and both the House and Senate Agriculture Committees. The GAO Report can be found online at


Southeastern Peanut Farmer May/June 2018

Administration Set to Release Ag Labor Changes The U.S. Departments of Labor, Agriculture, Homeland Security and State have been meeting to discuss agricultural guest worker program changes. Although Congress will likely consider House Judiciary Committee Chairman Bob Goodlatte’s, R-Virginia, ag guest worker bill later in June, regulatory changes would assure ag employers a more workable guest worker program. U.S. Congressman Buddy Carter, R-Georgia, led an effort last fall to have the U.S. Department of Labor move forward with H-2A regulation reforms. The program has become increasingly expensive and administratively onerous. In a joint statement Secretary of Labor Alexander Acosta, Secretary of Homeland Security Kristjen Nielsen, Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo released the following: When President Trump addressed the American Farm Bureau Federation in January of this year, he reminded the audience that his commitment to our farmers has been clear since the day his Administration began: From that day on, we have been working every day to deliver for America’s farmers just as they work every single day to deliver for us. In keeping with that commitment, our Departments are working in coordination to propose streamlining, simplifying, and improving the H-2A temporary agricultural visa program – reducing cumbersome bureaucracy and ensuring adequate protections for U.S. workers.

NAFTA Talks Continue U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer released the following statement regarding the current North American Free Trade Agreement negotiations with Canada and Mexico: For many weeks now, the United States, Mexico and Canada have engaged in intensive, continuous discussions to renegotiate NAFTA, building on the seven rounds of rigorous negotiations that have taken place since August 2017. The negotiations have covered a large number of very complex issues, especially those objectives outlined by Congress as part of the bipartisan Trade Promotion Authority such as intellectual property, dairy and agriculture, de minimis levels, energy, labor and more. The current NAFTA is a seriously flawed trade deal, and the Trump Administration is committed to getting the best possible trade agreement for all Americans. The United States is ready to continue working with Mexico and Canada to achieve needed breakthroughs on these objectives. Our teams will continue to be fully engaged.

H.R. 2, Agriculture and Nutrition Act of 2018 Title I - Peanuts Covered Commodities:

Marketing year average price:

As defined in the 2014 Farm Bill as well as adding seed cotton.

National average market price received by producers during the 12-month marketing year. (Same as in 2014 Farm Bill.)

Base Acres: As defined in the 2014 Farm Bill and recorded for the farm for the 2018 crop year. No base reallocation or updating was included in the language. However, it does have language for treatment of unplanted base for the covered commodities. If a farm had no covered commodities planted or prevented from being planted during the time period of January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2017, the bases for that farm will be classified as unassigned crop base and no ARC/PLC payments can be made. Included in the language is the prohibition on reconstitution of the farm to get around this feature.

Payment Yield: As defined in the 2014 Farm Bill (90% of the 2008-2012 crop years average yield per planted acre). Includes language for the landowner to have a single opportunity to update payment yield on their farm if located in a county affected by drought. The county must have been rated as a D4 (exceptional drought) intensity for 20 or more consecutive weeks during the period of January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012. If owner decides to update the payment yield on a covered commodity by covered commodity basis, the new payment yield will be 90% of the average yield per planted acre for the crop years of 2013-2017. If for a given year, the farm’s yield is less than 75% of the average county yield, USDA shall assign a yield for that crop year equal to 75% of the average of the 2013-2017 county yield.

Marketing Loan: Same as in the 2014 Farm Bill except seed cotton which is the same as in the 2018 seed cotton provision. Peanuts - $355/ton Wheat - $2.94/bu

Oats - $1.39/bu

Corn - $1.95/bu

Soybeans - $5.00/bu

Grain Sorghum - $1.95/bu Barley - $1.95/bu

Upland cotton - $0.45-0.52/lb.

Rice (long and medium) $6.50/cwt

For calculations of PLC/ARC for seed cotton, the loan rate is $0.25/lb but is a NO non-recourse marketing assistance loan for seed cotton.

PLC Calculation: The effective price is the higher of the marketing year average price or the national average loan rate. (Same as in 2014 Farm Bill.) If the effective price, is less than the effective reference price, the PLC payment is determined. The payment formula is the same as in the 2014 Farm Bill but with a change using the effective reference price definition instead of strictly the reference price. Payment formula = 85%*Base Acres*Payment Yield* (Effective reference price-effective price).

Reference price: Same as in the 2014 Farm Bill except seed cotton which is the same as in the 2018 seed cotton provision. Peanuts - $535/ton Wheat - $5.50/bu

Oats - $2.40/bu

Corn - $3.70/bu

Soybeans - $8.40/bu

Grain Sorghum - $3.95/bu Barley - $4.95/bu

Seed cotton - $0.367/lb.

Rice (long and medium) $14.00/cwt

Effective reference price: (To be used in the PLC calculation instead of the reference price): Is the lesser of: (A) 115% of the reference price for such covered commodity; or (B) Greater of: a. The reference price for such covered commodity; or b. 85% of the Olympic average of the most recent 5 crop years marketing year average price.

Special Rules for Peanuts: Same as in the 2014 Farm Bill in regards to administering the marketing assistance loans through DMAs, marketing cooperatives and FSA; storage of loan peanuts; and storage, handling and associated costs – USDA pays handling and other associated costs but no storage costs but will be repaid when the loan is redeemed. If forfeited, USDA pays storage, handling and other associated costs. Repayment rate for loan peanuts is the same as in the 2014 Farm Bill.

Payment Limitations: u AGI limit is same as in 2014 Farm Bill (i.e., $900,000 3-year average). u Separate peanut payment limit. u $125,000 payment limit. u Includes changes for pass-through entities and family member definitions. Peanut provisions approved by the U.S. House Committee on Agriculture. The 2018 Farm Bill is scheduled for June 22 on the House floor.

May/June 2018 Southeastern Peanut Farmer


Southern Peanut Growers PB & F(ermentation) Captivates Chefs at National Conference It’s an oddly satisfying combination with roots in history. Think of the infamous PB & Pickle sandwich, a depression-era deli item, that continues to have a staunch following. While fermentation has been used globally as a preservation method since 6000 B.C., it is experiencing a resurgence. For its sponsorship at the Women Chefs and Restaurateurs (WCR) conference, Southern Peanut Growers partnered with chef/owners Mel and Ky Guse of GYST Fermentation Bar in Minneapolis to put together a fun, flavorful and on-trend “PB & F(ermentation)” seminar. Attended by high profile and up-and-coming women in the food and beverage industry, chefs learned about peanuts and sampled peanut-inspired food and beverage items, including GYST’s perennial menu favorite “The Sandor,” a peanut butter and kimchi open-faced sandwich. The unctuousness of peanut butter is the perfect complement to the savory and sour flavors of fermented foods. SPG kicked off the Women Chefs and Restaurateurs Conference with a special Attendees enjoyed a Strawberry Shrub Italian Soda, made with cocktail. Trish Gavin, head bartender at 925 GYST's house-made rosé vinegar, Wayzata, named it the Carver’s Mai Tai – soda water and topped with ice and featuring an Elmhurst Milked Peanuts orgeat Elmhurst Milked Peanuts at the with rum, bitters, caramelized pineapple and Women Chefs and Restaurateurs Conference. vanilla syrup.

Southern Peanut Growers updates website Southern Peanut Growers is spreading the peanut butter love with a new website update. has been made over to be a more user-friendly, go-to hub for all things peanut butter. From sustainability to farming and recipes to fun facts, the new site has lots of spreadable, new content. Highlights of the new site include: • New recipes to accompany the many already in our database. • Improved functionality, especially in the recipe section. • New content on sustainability, diabetes and peanut allergies. • New peanut farmer profiles. • Enhanced social media integration including more from Pinterest, which features 11 boards ranging from dinner and dessert to dog-friendly goodies and gluten-free recipes. Be sure to check out the new site and follow @PeanutButterLovers on Facebook, Instagram and Pinterest.

Marketing arm of

Ky Guse of GYST Fermentation Bar in Minneapolis shared the history and basics of fermentation, its diverse tastes and health benefits. The session was a favorite among attendees at the Women Chefs and Restaurateurs Conference.

Milked Peanuts Featured at Southern Women’s Show in Nashville, Tennessee The Southern Peanut Growers (SPG) teamed up with National Peanut Board, Alabama Peanut Producers Association and Georgia Peanut Commission to exhibit to more than 43,000 attendees at the Southern Women’s Show in Nashville, Tenn., April 5-8, 2018. Alabama Peanut Producers Elmhurst Milked Association’s Kaye Lynn Hataway offers samples of Peanuts made it’s Nashville debut to rave Elmhurst’s Milked Peanuts from the Southern Peanut reviews. Attendees also Growers booth during the learned about early Southern Women’s Show in introduction to prevent Nashville, Tenn. peanut allergy and picked up peanuts, recipes and nutrition information at the booth.

Southern Peanut Growers 1025 Sugar Pike Way · Canton, Georgia 30115 (770) 751-6615 · FAX (770) 751-6417 email: Visit our website at

20th Annual Southern Peanut Growers Conference July 19-21, 2018 Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort ark your calendars for the 20th Annual Southern Peanut Growers Conference, July 19-21, 2018, at Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort, Miramar Beach, Florida. This year’s conference offers farmers an opportunity to learn more about legislative issues, peanut promotions and production issues. The registration fee for growers is $145 which includes all conference events and meals. The registration deadline is June 30. The registration fee increases by $50 on July 1. To register and view the conference schedule visit The theme for this year’s conference, “Opportunities in Change,” plans to focus on growth opportunities and changes within the peanut industry. General sessions on Friday plan to provide an update on promotional activities within the peanut industry, opportunities and challenges facing rural areas along with a question and answer session with a panel of researchers. During the luncheon on Friday, Donald J. Leo, dean of the University of Georgia College of Engineering, will be the keynote speaker. The opening night dinner will feature entertainment from Dennis Watkins, a third generation magician and mentalist. The speaker during the Prayer Breakfast on Friday morning is Thomas Kinchen, president of the Baptist College of Florida. During the Saturday morning breakfast, Farm Press will recognize three farmers with the Peanut Efficiency Awards. During the Saturday morning session at 9:00 a.m., the keynote address will be brought by U.S. Rep. Neal Dunn, R-Fla., member of the House Committee on Agriculture. Following Rep. Dunn’s Congressman Neal Dunn presentation, Bob Redding, R-Florida, member of the House Committee on Agriculture representative for the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation in Washington, D.C., will lead a question and answer session with commodity leaders regarding policy and the 2018 Farm Bill. There are a number of activities for families at the Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort ranging from relaxation to recreation. Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort offers 7.5 miles of sugar white beaches, a spa, golf courses, tennis courts, five-acre Jolee Island Nature Park, 18 swimming pools, putt putt and a variety of activities at The Village of Baytowne Wharf from shopping to an adventure zone. There is definitely something for everyone at the 20th annual conference and the Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort!


Tentative Schedule of Events Thursday, July 19 2:00 - 5:00 p.m. 2:00 - 6:00 p.m.

Hospitality & Ice Cream Social Conference Registration

6:30 p.m.

Welcoming Reception

7:00 p.m.

Welcoming Dinner

Friday, July 20 7:00 a.m.

Prayer Breakfast

8:30 a.m.

General Session I

9:00 a.m.

Spouse Program

10:15 a.m.

General Session II

11:30 a.m.


Saturday, July 21 7:00 a.m.

Breakfast - Farm Press Peanut Efficiency Awards

9:00 a.m.

General Session III


Lunch on your own and afternoon free!

12:30 - 6 p.m.

Golf Tournament

7:00 p.m.


7:30 p.m.

Dinner and Entertainment

Conference Schedule will be updated online at Visit the website to register online too!

May/June 2018 - Southeastern Peanut Farmer  
May/June 2018 - Southeastern Peanut Farmer