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International Journal of Modern Education Forum IJMEF Volume 1, Issue 1, August 2012 PP.1-13 ISSN(online) ISSN(print) www.ij-mef.org

ICT Maturity of HEIs in Selected Regions in the Philippines Cecilia Mercado, Randy Domantay, Reynold Villacillo, Saturnina Nisperos, Emmalou Pimentel School of Computing and Information Sciences, Saint Louis University, Baguio City, Philippines Department of Computer Science, College of Arts and Sciences, Mariano Marcos State University, Ilocos Norte, Philippines College of Computer Studies and Engineering, Lorma College, San Fernando La Union, Philippines Emails: cicsdean@slu.edu.ph, cicsgpc@slu.edu.ph, rpvillacillo@yahoo.com, nina_nisperos@yahoo.com, emmileene@yahoo.com (Abstract) Over the past decade, the structure of Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) have dramatically changed and this is partly attributed to some of factors like continuing developments in information and technology , shifts in learner’s as well as teacher’s expectations and internationalization of program offerings. Information Communication Technologies (ICT) continue to have a significant impact on the way HEIs deliver academic content and learning activities as well as how educational managers deliver their respective functions. Recognizing the role of ICT, the goal of this research is to provide a maturity assessment of the application of ICT in HEIs offering Information Technology Education (ITE) programs in two northern regions in the Philippines: Region I and the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR). This study made use of the descriptive analytical method to analyze and compare the ICT maturity level of HEIs in both regions. The ICT maturity was initially measured along the domains of core academic matters and the institutional support services. Further, a comparison was done according to institutional clusters which include locale, organizational structure, and doctrinal adherence. The study showed that the applications of ICT in the HEIs in both regions are moderately mature which implies that it falls under the adaptation stage category. This means that most HEIs are still consolidating their ICT resources, strategies, and implementation plans. There are slight variations in the maturity level considering indicators within the same ICT application areas, however, in general, the respective clustering of HEIs did not show any significant difference in the level of maturity. Keywords: ICT Maturity; Core Academic Matters; Institutional Support Service; Adaptation Stage; Adoption Stage; Appropriation Stage; Entry Stage; Invention Stage. Such competition is brought about by the inevitable 1. INTRODUCTION internationalization and globalization of academic disciplines. Thus, HEIs should play a more pro-active role in addressing Universities and other HEIs continue to embrace new the demands of education. One of the targets of the Philippine technologies in most aspects of the teaching and learning Millennium Development Goals [2] seeks to make available process [1]. Information and Communications Technologies the benefits of ICT to a greater number of Filipinos. This (ICT) continue to have a profound impact on the way higher target coincides with the IT Plan for the 21st century [3] to education institutions carry out their functions as countries transform the country as a knowledge hub in the Southeast become more knowledge-based societies. The undeniable Asian Region. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) impact of ICT sets pressure to these institutions to integrate is the major agency responsible for ensuring that this target is the required technologies in teaching, learning, research, attained. Consequently this situation mandates all HEIs to academic information services, administration and address the challenges of attaining this target and one way by management as it meets the changing requirements of the which the HEIs can achieve this is by enhancing their society. respective institutional ICT maturity. The Philippine government recognizes the impact posed by Dooley et al [4] defined maturity as the degree to which a ICT integration as evidenced by changes in national process is defined, managed, measured and continuously educational policies for HEIs. It acknowledges the realities improved. Nowadays, maturity models are used as tools to that access to information and awareness of the potentials of improve the management and development of organizations. the effective use and integration of ICT in the delivery of In the field of education, ICT maturity refers to the extent to educational functions and services are requisites to evolve as which the functions of educational institutions are defined, universally competitive in the higher education arena. managed, measured and continually improved through the IJMEF Volume 1, Issue 1 August 2012 PP. 1-13 www.ij-mef.org © Science and Engineering Publishing Company -1-


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effective integration and efficient utilization of ICT. An ICT maturity assessment of HEIs initially presents the landscape of the ICT status and capability. Such will guide the HEIs to develop their respective institutional programs in effectively integrating and utilizing ICT in their functions. Moreover, respective institutions can use the assessment results as a way to identify their current state against existing benchmarks and goals usually set by the maturity tool. Over the last three decades many models explain the processes involved in the adoption and use of ICT in education [5]. According to Trinidad [5] there are stages which an educator must go through in the adoption and use of ICT and these stages include the period of familiarization, utilization, integration, reorientation and evolution [5]. These stages correspond to the model of the Apple Classroom of Tomorrow (ACOT) project [6]. The model contains five stages: entry, adoption, adaptation, appropriation, and invention [7]. The familiarization or the entry stage represents the baseline exposure to technology. The utilization or the adoption stage occurs when teachers try or use the technology. Integration or the Adaptation marks the beginning when teachers appropriately use ICT. Following the adaptation stage is the reorientation or the appropriation stage where ICT becomes a part of the learning context. Lastly, the evolution or revolution or otherwise categorized as the invention stage is where changes in methods and media to facilitate learning takes place. Broadly, this maturity model explains how ICT evolves over time along the aspect of its integration in education. While this model is initially intended to model the integration of ICT by the teacher, such has been extended to cover some maturity perspectives along other applications of ICT. The maturity model framework used in this study allows a rich description of ICT intervention across various applications in the education. This framework presents whether the designated institutions have the resources and structures to deliver effective educational experiences using ICT in core academic services and institutional support services. Prior to giving emphasis on the maturity model as adopted from ACOT, there had been several maturity models also considered. Their measures are not disregarded in this research as they also served as basis in the development or refining of measures identified in the ICT maturity model. One model is BECTA[8] Maturity Modeling Institutional Self Assessment which covers ICT in learning and teaching, ICT in leadership and management, ICT in workforce development, ICT in inter-institution collaboration, and ICT in institutional links with home and community. While several ICT maturity models exist, the framework of the research conducted by The Association of African Universities [9] served as the major basis of this study. At the regional level, certain programs by the Philippine government to assist the HEIs along the effective use of ICT

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has been established through the identification of institutions as centers of excellence and centers of development in Information Technology Education (CODE in ITE). This is initiated by CHED to support the development of HEIs within their region to effectively use and integrate ICT in instruction and research. This can be through development support programs that these centers are initiating. While the initiative and desire to keep in pace with global academic changes appear to be present, initial dilemmas that HEIs encounter are the realities that they do not know where to start and they do not know the status of the integration and use of ICT in the academic functions and administration. In instances where they are aware of such conditions, the wide array of technology solutions and innovative processes pose additional confusions on identifying the “next steps� or choosing appropriate solutions. This can also be complicated with the lack of knowledge of the position of the institution relative to existing standards. This study aims to present the state of the ICT maturity of HEIs offering Information Technology Education (ITE) programs in Region 1 and Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) excluding centers of development and excellence in ITE. Specifically, the study provides an assessment profile of the ICT maturity along the application of ICT in core academic matters, and application in institutional support systems. The study will also present a comparative analysis of ICT maturity along regional clusters and various institutional types that are present in both regions. At the regional level, the results can be used by the CHED to determine support programs and funding priorities to elevate the level of ICT maturity of HEIs within the region. The results of this study likewise serve as baseline information for future program innovation and enhancements in the academic sector. This information can serve as a basis in determining certain strategies and actions that can be employed by educational policy makers as well as the institutional administrators. Likewise, the study will serve as a reference for ICT related ventures and collaborations among the different clusters of HEIs which are present in the region: Non- Government Organizations (NGOs), Local Government Units (LGUs), business and technology firms, and potential investors in these regions. Access to this key information will facilitate further improvements in the use of ICT resources and provide decision makers and planners on vital information on how to come up with strategic initiatives for the social, economic, technological, and political development of these regions.

2.

METHODOLOGY

This study made use of the descriptive analytical method supported by unstructured interviews. The primary instrument used in the data collection is the questionnaire. The

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customized questionnaire was guided by the variables set by a similar study conducted by the Association of African Universities AAU [10]. The ICT Maturity tool developed by the AAU aimed to set benchmarks and goals, support application for technology related grants and create self-assessment goals. The tool was also used as a framework to assess an HEIs maturity on its use and integration of ICT. The respondents of the study included only institutions which have offered any ITE program within the last five years. There are five (5) institutions clustered under the CODE in IT, two (2) institutions in CAR and three (3) institutions in Region I. Forty three (43) institutions are non-center HEIs. There are twenty eight (28) HEI’s in Region I and fifteen (15) HEIs in CAR. At the institutional level, the respective respondents on areas measured are facilitated by the institutional leadership in coordination with those who are directly involved in the ICT application areas. The clustering of institutions was based on the institutional types which include locale, private, and government, sectarian and non sectarian. Such clustering is also used by the CHED in their reports. The level of maturity on ICT application in core academic matters was measured along the areas of 1) teaching and learning, 2) research, and 3) administration and management. On the other hand, the level of ICT maturity on application in institutional support system covers the areas on 1) academic information services, 2) planning and monitoring tools, 3) ICT infrastructure, 4) ICT organizational support, 5) ICT financing and 6) training, research and development in ICT. For each area, several indicators were measured. Corresponding statistical treatment and evaluation scheme were used to treat the aggregated data. For all indicators measured , a 5 point Likert scale was used to assess the maturity level. The scale ranges from “not mature” to “extremely mature”. Resulting mean determines the level of maturity which is interpreted using a 5 stage maturity model. The stages correspondingly follow the entry stage, adoption stage, adaptation stage, appropriation stage and invention stage. Ideally, the benchmark for maturity for the institution is the invention stage.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ICT is a mainstream issue in higher education [5]. However, when it comes to education, ICT seems to have only a moderate impact when it comes to change, and this can be attributed to the level of ICT maturity across the operations at the institutional level. The study included nine areas in the ICT maturity in higher education which was grouped in either of the two domains namely: applications in core academic matters or applications in institutional support systems. In measuring the level of ICT maturity along the applications in core academic matters, these include three

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areas: 1) teaching and learning, 2) research and, 3) administration and management. In the area of teaching and learning, the level of ICT maturity is measured along the type and focus of ICT training for teachers as well as the level of institutional technology access. On research, the indicators measured include the technology access, the usage pattern and access to information sources as well as how ICT is used to collaborate. The automation of systems and its integration are the indicators for maturity of ICT along administration and management. On the other hand, six areas are clustered along applications in institutional support system domain which include 1) academic information services, 2) planning and monitoring tools, 3) ICT infrastructure, 4) ICT organizational support, 5) ICT financing, and 6) training, research and development in ICT. The presence and use of an Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC), the manner in which academic information management information services is provided and the coverage of training in academic information management are indicators measured to check ICT maturity in terms of the academic information services. To measure the maturity in the area of planning and monitoring tools the following indicators were taken into account: a) the use of ICT in implementation of university strategic plans, b) the alignment of IT with business goals of the university, c) decision on hardware acquisitions, and d) the improvement of services through the use of ICT. On infrastructure, the following measures were considered a) backbone, b) carrier technology, c) coverage of ICT support, d) the computer-to-student ratio and the computer-tofaculty ratio, e) the actual use of IT and, f) the operating systems. Items considered in the area of ICT organizational support cover the support for students in the use of ICT tools in learning and research, availability of support for IT programs and concerns, and the presence of staff for ICT technical and functional areas of the university. The area of ICT financing includes the funding or investments on ICT as well as budget appropriations on resources. Lastly, the area on training, research and IT development measures the type training, the kind of IT research conducted and the coverage of IT developments being conducted.

3.1 ICT Maturity Profile of HEI’s Table 1 highlights the overall mean of all HEIs in Region 1 and CAR along the nine areas. The areas on administration and management and academic information services areas are clustered as slightly mature with an overall mean o f 2.19 and 2.50 respectively. This result generally positions the institutions at the adoption stage in the respective ICT application areas. This means that along these respective areas

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measure ICT is being used however the level of usage is not yet established. Along administration and management, most of the HEIs have some automated systems and these systems are atomic or stand alone. Most of them are still in the process of automating their administrative and academic processes and are beginning to slowly integrate their different information systems. Even if these HEIs do not operate under a fully Table 1: ICT Maturity of HEIs in Region 1 and CAR Overall Application ICT Maturity Area Mean Per Domain Area Administration and 2.19 Core Academic Management Matters Teaching and 3.49 Learning Research

Institutional Support Services

Planning and Monitoring Tools Academic Information Services ICT Infrastructure ICT Organizational Support ICT Financing Training, Research and Development in ICT

3.27 3.82 2.50 3.04 2.83 3.41 3.13

ICT Maturity Level Slightly Mature Highly Mature Moderately Mature Highly Mature Slightly Mature Moderately Mature Moderately Mature Highly Mature Moderately Mature

only to provide strategic support and provide data storage and management. In order to improve coordination processes between functions or organizational units, educational institution must be motivated to introduce integration of information systems to reach new levels of efficiency and effectiveness. Given the current state, educational managers of these HEIs can attain an improved level and can have a better ability to approach issues related to information systems when they are able to use and treat information in a consistent and conscious way [11]. At the same time they are also able to analyze structure and manage their own information flows [11]. As per result, the application of ICT in academic information services positions the HEIs in the adoption stage which means that the level of application of ICT is slightly mature or not yet fully explored. Most of the HEIs do not have OPAC. Information services of some HEIs are made and delivered through CD-ROMs and through the Internet with the assistance of the library staff. This implies further that ICT resources are not adequate and established enough to cater to all the information service needs of the academic staff and students. The privilege of information management training is usually available only to library and academic staff, however, and for some institutions these are extended to selected

automated or a fully integrated environment, they are still able to perform their basic administrative and academic functions with minimal ICT support. This indicated that most of the administrators do not yet treat information systems as critical to the delivery of services to students and the administrative and academic staff. Many of these administrative functions that use information systems are not considered to be data-intensive and not process-driven activities. They exist

Stage

Overall Mean Per Domain

ICT Maturity Level

Stage

2.98

Moderately Mature

Adaptation Stage

Moderately Mature

Adaptation Stage

Adoption Stage Appropriation Stage Adaptation Stage Appropriation Stage Adoption Stage Adaptation Stage Adaptation Stage Appropriation Stage

3.12

Adaptation Stage

students only. This implies that the HEIs usually prioritize trainings that are required along their immediate concerns. Haliso [12] presented some of the opportunities of ICTs to the library and these include: organization of information for use, capacity building, management information systems, digital libraries and resource sharing and document delivery. To improve the level of ICT maturity along academic services, the administrators of academic libraries must realize the important role that information and communication technologies (ICTs) play in their job performance and make information and communication technologies (ICTs) available to their workforce [13]. Four application areas were classified as moderately mature in its ICT applications and thus categorized under the adaptation stage. These include a) research, b) ICT infrastructure, c) ICT organizational support and d) training, research and IT development. Being moderately mature in its ICT application, these HEIs can therefore be inferred as appropriately using the ICT in these application areas. Along research, the mean of 3.27 implies that students in most of the HEIs have limited access to information which is both available through the Internet and CD_ROMS. Aside from using ICT to collect information, ICT is likewise used to disseminate information generated by the academic and

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administrative staff, researchers, and students. Some universities have their own websites for information dissemination while some faculty innovate on their teaching strategies by using open sources tools as a means of disseminating information. A strategy that can be promoted to enrich ICT maturity of HEIs in research is to highly encourage them to use ICT in research and to include ICT as a topic of research [14]. These can be achieved by disseminating information on the best use of ICT for research, facilitating provision of funds for research in ICT, by using ICT to prepare and maintain a research database or to support the creation and use of online journals. In terms of the ICT infrastructure, the results show an overall mean of 3.04 implying that most of the HEIs have various local area networks located in the different buildings of their respective institutions. Along the type of carrier technologies used and communication services supported, some HEIs are utilizing combination of various technologies including PSTN, coaxial, UTP, fiber optic cable, VSAT. They have communication services limited to support email, Internet access and group work tools. General results show that the actual use of ICT is low for students and medium for staff. The HEIs also have medium computer student ratio, and medium computer –staff ratio. In terms of operating systems, Windows 98/2000/XP/Vista or higher versions are commonly used to support their ICT infrastructure. This signifies that HEIs in both regions have enough computers that are being utilized by staff and students, however, not all essential communication services are supported by the infrastructure. According to the Gartner Group, more than 70% of the Information Technology budget in today’s enterprises is destined to maintenance. The IT (Information Technology) infrastructure in schools is not different. Deployment, management and performance are the main problems [14]. Developing and improving the ICT infrastructure in educational institutions would mean substantial investments. HEIs must therefore be prepared to allocate funds for these activities. At the same time the HEIs must also be creative in making efficient use of existing resources and come up with sustainability programs to ensure effective and efficient use of ICT infrastructure. The study results show that there is a moderate maturity along ICT organizational support. Depending on the size of the HEIs, the presence , the responsibilities and the number of support staff to ICT organizational infrastructure varies. In general, the more explicit the tasks and responsibilities are, the more mature the support infrastructure is. Thus, a small but mature institution may do all the things under appropriation , but with only a limited number of staff [15]. Under the area of training, research and development in ICT, the study results show a moderate maturity. This means that there is an availability of short ICT course training or certificate courses for its personnel. This also means that the

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HEIs conduct basic and applied research on ICT and also the HEIs are engaged in software development. To improve the level of maturity along this area, HEIs must extend ICT course training of its personnel to ICT professional degrees both in the undergraduate and the graduate programs. Research in ICT can likewise be expanded to include research on ICT policy development and the possibilities of collaborative researches on ICT be considered. The software development must also be expanded to include hardware and network development. Out of the nine areas of ICT applications, only three were categorized as highly mature or in the appropriation stage which is the fourth level in the maturity scale. These areas include a)teaching and learning, b) planning and monitoring and c) ICT financing. In the areas of teaching and learning, the registered mean of 3.49 confirms the high maturity of ICT application. Along this level, HEIs affirms that the ICT training they usually conduct or attend to is focused on generating skills for enhancing both instructional and management aspect of different academic disciplines. Training content also covers integration of technology into the curriculum and how to use technology in classroom management. As part of technology access and usage patterns of these HEIs, most academic staff use ICT for enabling teamwork. Another area classified as highly mature as evidenced by having a mean of 3.82 is the planning and monitoring tools. In this scenario, ICT is considered as a major and important strategic resource in the strategic plan of the HEIs. This is rightfully so, as some of the institutions have ITE programs as their focus. Information Systems, computers and applications provide most of the support for services related to the core functions of these HEIs. For most of them, they consider that the future goals of improving research and teaching capabilities drive the ICT support structure and acquisition decisions of the HEIs. They also consider that the expanding goal of their institutions is built around the use of ICT as a catalyst for reform. A requisite in the implementation of any successful technology based program is a strong financial support by the institution itself. Given that the operation of an ITE program requires heavy investments on ICT equipment and its maintenance, the funding of such should be considered a priority. A mean of 3.41 signify that along ICT financing, the ICT maturity is classified as highly mature or it is classified under the appropriation stage. While classified as such, most HEIs have modest budget and investments in ICT. Modest means that these investments are just enough to meet the needs of the community. This further means that the budget in ICT is equals most the institutions’ funding programs. There are institutions which focus on ITE programs alone, therefore this can be a factor for such results. The extent of ICT budget appropriations covers hardware, software and its licenses, communication fees, hardware

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maintenance, system development and ICT staff salaries and costs for technical training. Even while the areas on teaching and learning, planning and monitoring and ICT financing yielded a high maturity result, the HEIs must not slacken their attention in these areas. It must be noted that technology and its application are continuously changing, thus HEIs must be ever mindful of the preparations to meet the challenges of change. Considering the respective mean results of 2.98 and 3.12 for the academic core services domain and institutional support services domain, the HEIs for both regions are considered as moderately mature. This means that they are in the adaptation stage and that a great deal of effort has still to be done to enhance the identified application areas.

Based on results, the priority areas considered for ICT application enhancement are as follows and are ranked accordingly: 1) administration and management, 2) academic information services, 3) ICT organizational support, 4) ICT infrastructure, 5) training, research and development, and 6) research.

3.2 Comparative Analysis on HEIs The potential for using ICT in education and in building human capital depends on a number of factors that differ from one institutions to another. It is important to bear in mind these differences in making investments and identifying strategies. What works in a particular type of institution, may not necessarily work in another type of institution. It is the objective of this study to check whether there is a remarkable

Table 2: Comparative ICT Maturity of HEIs in Region 1 and CAR

Institutional Support Services

Core Academic Matter

APPLICATION AREAS Administration & Management Teaching and Learning Research Planning and Monitoring Academic Information Services ICT Infrastructure ICT Organizational Support ICT Financing Training, Research, and Development in ICT

Mean

2.29 3.47 3.37 3.82

REGION I Mean Maturity Level Per (Stage) Domain Slightly Mature (Adoption Stage) Highly Mature (Appropriation Stage) 3.04 Moderately Mature (Adaptation Stage)

Maturity Level per Domain

2.00 Moderately Mature Adaptation Stage)

3.09

Slightly Mature (Adoption Stage) Highly Mature (Appropriation Stage) Moderately Mature (Adaptation Stage)

Mean Per Domain

2.87

Maturity Level Per Domain

Moderately Mature (Adaptation Stage)

Highly Mature (Appropriation Stage) Slightly Mature (Adoption Stage) 2.45

Moderately Mature (Adaptation Stage) Moderately Mature (Adaptation Stage)

2.80 3.41

3.53

Highly Mature (Appropriation Stage) Slightly Mature (Adoption Stage)

2.53 3.04

Mean

CAR Maturity Level (Stage)

3.03 3.13

Moderately Mature Adaptation Stage

Highly Mature (Appropriation Stage)

Moderately Mature (Adaptation Stage)

3.18

3.11

Moderately Mature (Adaptation Stage)

2.88 3.41

Moderately Mature (Adaptation Stage)

Overall Mean

Moderately Mature (Adaptation Stage)

Highly Mature (Appropriation Stage) Moderately Mature (Adaptation Stage)

3.04 3.10

difference in the maturity level of the organization based on its cluster. In this study, the HEIs are clustered along its locale, its organizational structure and its doctrinal adherence.

3.2.1 HEIs in Region I and CAR Under the domain of application of ICT in core academic matters, 28 HEIs in Region I and 15 HEIs in CAR resulted into an overall respective mean of 3.04 and 2.87 as reflected in Table 2. These results place these institutions in both regions at the adaptation stage which classify them moderately mature along application of ICT in core academic

3.03

matters. Regardless of the locale of the institutions, their adaption to an ICT driven academic environment appears to be moderate. Most of the HEIs have not reached higher level of maturity along the application of ICT in the area of administration and management, teaching and learning as well as research. Table 2 also reflects the overall ICT maturity level of 3.13 and 3.11 for Region 1 and CAR respectively on institutional support service. As such, the HEIs in both regions are similarly positioned under same adaptation stage. This means that regardless of locale, HEIs have not yet fully

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utilized ICT for most of their support and development programs.

3.2.1.1 Core Academic Matters A slight maturity in application of ICT in administration and management resulted for both regions denoting that automation of processes and transactions supporting core business of the educational institution need more attention. It was observed that some HEIs in the region still rely on manual processing such as manual enrolment, manual payment of fees, and manual students’ records management. Even HEIs with large number of student population find it difficult to use an integrated information system in their processes and transactions. On the ICT application in teaching and learning, both regions also are classified as highly mature. This affirms the mandate of CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) for ITE in terms of providing the students a wider range of experience in their field of study. This must be coupled with enough training or professional development for faculty to cope with the ever changing nature of ICT. Professional development can partly be attributed to institutional as well as individual membership of IT teachers to professional ICT groups in the Philippines. Some of these groups are aggressive in increasing its memberships and promoting its activities. They even partner with CHED to optimize and strategically position their respective organization the IT community of the Philippines. Membership to such organization raises awareness and provides updates to IT educators. In general, there is evidence to show that most HEI’s exert effort to cope with the demands of the ever changing nature of ICT. However, some indicators must still be addressed so that better alternatives can be created such as integration of e-learning paradigm for the optimal utilization of the ICT resources particularly in instruction. On both regions, research poses a critical area that needs prioritization. This is confirmed by moderate maturity of ICT in this level. While ICT access is appropriate for some of these institutions, its usage along the conduct of research is still limited. Some reasons provided by the faculty interviewed are the lack of preparation and the limited orientation of their institutions in research. At the same time, the number of preparations that the faculty usually handles deters them from conducting research. Others also mentioned that there are no incentives that would motivate the teachers as well as students to engage in such activity. HEIs must therefore address these valid concerns to upgrade their level of ICT maturity along research.

3.2.1.2 Institutional Support Services Six (6) application areas measured in this domain include a) planning and monitoring, b) academic information services, c) ICT infrastructure, d) ICT organizational support, e) ICT Financing and f) Training, Research and Development in ICT.

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The ICT application in planning and monitoring includes the integration of ICT in the formulation of strategic plan information policy plan, information master plan, and project plans. The high maturity along this area indicates that ICT is given priority which is just fair to claim as the institutions are offering ITE programs. The essential element of ICT in the formulation of plans must be included for proper implementation of ITE programs. While these are not evident for some HEIs, the study results still show that in general the level of ICT application in this area is highly mature. This implies that most HEIs use ICT in planning and monitoring. The slight ICT maturity level on academic information services in both regions reflects that a great deal has to be done by these HEIs along access to on-line public access cataloguing, services in academic information management, and training of staff in academic information management. For HEIs to be extremely mature, electronic publishing of materials must be established. Also, trainings on information services should also include the public. A moderate maturity on ICT Infrastructure resulted for both regions. The result indicates that there is provision of various local area networks (LANs) in different buildings which is the most basic interconnection architecture available. This also implies that the HEIs still lack the necessary network backbone to be able to implement a campus and multi-campus network backbone. The lack of skilled network specialists and administrators and the huge costs of building such as infrastructure hinder most of the HEIs to fully implement this. Carrier technology is limited to cabled and small aperture only since these are just some of the cheapest cabling and connection mediums in a network. Also, ICT supports email, Internet access, and conferencing/group work tools. Computer to student staff ratio is described as medium and actual use of ICT by both students and staff is low. All these are contributory factors as to why HEIs are slow in adopting new and incremental ways to communicate with their stakeholders. The accessibility of ICT among students and staff is moderately high implying that a vast majority of ICT is allotted for student and staff use. Students and staff have rated their actual use of ICT as medium. In terms of the operating systems, a majority of HEIs still rely on the use of Windows and have not yet really tried adopting operating systems from different vendors and organizations. This means that most HEIs have limited capacity to experiment and learn from different platforms, and thus, have decided to stick to a single platform for all of their computing needs. To be able to expand experimentation, a vital requirement is to have more options in choosing the platform that suits the varying needs of the HEIs. In the application of ICT as organizational support for HEIs in both regions, the study revealed a moderate maturity. On special roles of mandated committees, most HEIs revealed that their ICT committees carry limited responsibility for the

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management and maintenance of shared ICT infrastructure. This implies that there is limited ICT staff to cater to the different ICT needs of the HEIs. In terms of the level of ICT support, on the average there is only one central committee which handles university wide ICT programs and concerns. In some HEIs, while they have adequate number of ICT staff, these staff however lack the proper training and orientation, and depth of knowledge and experience in handling ICT concerns. Justifying specialization and segregation of duties are critical to a more effective ICT usage. When it comes to the presence of ICT technical staff in the various technical, functional, and service areas, these staff are only limited to handling network management concerns, systems analysis, hardware troubleshooting and repair, database management, and for providing first line of user support. This implies that the staff has limited competencies in handling the usual technical and functional areas of the universities. From ICT financing perspective, a mean of 3.41 resulted for both regions. This result situates these HEIs in the appropriation stage. Consequently, they are characterized as being highly mature. Along funding, most HEIs have budget and investments in ICT. The extent of ICT budget appropriation usually covers the purchase and maintenance of hardware, software, software licenses, communication fees, systems development and ICT staff salaries. In the area of training, research, and development in ICT. a mean of 3.04 resulted for CAR and 3.18 for Region I. This places these HEIs in both regions in the adaptation stage. When it comes to training for ICT, the HEIs are limited to sending their personnel to attend short courses, certification courses, and diploma courses only. This implies that the budget for human resource development programs cannot sustain advance programs or training beyond those mentioned above. Some HEIs cannot afford to send their ICT staff to complete graduate degrees, thus the faculty and staff are more or less dependent on scholarships available Along research on ICT, most HEIs conduct only basic ICT research. This implies that HEIs’ support capabilities for ICT research are not well established and that no clear cut ICT research policies are in place to guide ICT research activities and research. Along ICT design and development, HEIs’ faculty and students conduct software development activities only and do not have enough capabilities to conduct further projects related to hardware and network development. Mostly, the researches they conduct are within the curricular requirements. This implies that although HEIs recognize the importance of research they still lack the design and development initiatives mainly due to lack of experienced staff to handle or mentor students on such projects, and lack of equipment. Overall, the mean of 3.10 for Region 1 and 3.03 for CAR as reflected in Table 2 shows remarkably that the geographical locale of HEIs is not a factor in the maturity level of the institutions. Exploring further the indicators per

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application area, there are only four indicators where there is a difference on the level of maturity based on mean results. This is reflected in Table 3. Three of these indicators show that HEIs in Region I have slightly higher means compared to HEIs in CAR thus it follows it has a higher ICT maturity. These indicators include the use of ICT in research, the actual use of ICT by both students and staff and the type of research activities conducted. The only indicator where HEIs in CAR yielded a higher mean compared to HEIs in Region I resulting to a maturity level difference is the OS installed in offices and laboratory. The mean of 2.07 for HEIs in CAR against 1.50 for HEIs in Region I gave a slightly mature level for CAR and a “not mature level” in Region I. In fact, across all indicators, the resulting mean of 1.50 is the lowest resulting mean.

3.2.2 Government HEIs vs. Private HEIs In this study, there are seven (7) government HEIs against thirty six (36) private HEIs. Table 4 shows that the along the domain on core academic matters, both the government HEIs and private HEIs are classified as moderately mature implying that they are in the adaptation stage. While the institutions in the private education yielded a slightly higher mean of 3.03 against the mean of HEIs in government which is 2.74, generally, this still does not make a difference in its maturity classification. On the other hand, along the institutional support services domain, the HEIs in government yielded a slightly higher mean of 3.38 against the mean of private HEIs which is 3.08. However, such results also position both cluster in the adaptation stage or moderate ICT maturity level. Out of the nine applications areas, three areas resulted to means that ranks the maturity level of the HEIs in government higher than the HEIs in the private structure. These areas include the academic information services, the ICT financing and the training , research and development n ICT. Exploring further the indicators for each application area, Table 5 presents the indicators that show different maturity levels for both government and private HEIs . Table 3: Mean Values for Measured Indicators Per Region Applicati on Area (ICT) Administration & Management Teaching and Learning

INDICATORS MEASURED

Integration of different information systems used in the university /college Role of ICT in the teaching and learning process Professional development of academic staff (training) Access and usage of ICT among the academic staff of the university /

Region 1

CAR

2.29

2.00

3.73

3.40

3.92

4.13

2.75

3.07

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Planning and Monitoring

Academic Information Services (Library) ICT infrastructure

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Technology access and usage patterns of students Use of ICT in research activities of the university/college Use of ICT in the implementation of the university/college strategic plan Sharing of information and integration of information system ICT support structure and acquisition decision Information project plans and ICT projects Information services

3.96

3.60

2.78

2.57

3.89

3.87

3.86

3.67

3.86

4.07

3.65

3.67

2.29

2.15

ICT Services for the information management services Availability of information management training Type of ICT infrastructure

2.78

2.79

2.52

2.40

3.11

2.47

Carrier technology existing

2.89

2.71

Communication services supported by the ICT infrastructure. Accessibility of ICT

2.96

3.36

3.52

3.47

4.26

4.13

1.50

2.07

Actual use of ICT by both students and staff Installed OS in offices and Laboratory

ICT Organizational Support Infrastructure

ICT Financing

Training, Research, and Development in ICT

Roles of the different ICT Committees Level of ICT support ICT assigned in the different ICT technical areas. Availability of ICT technical staff assigned in the different ICT Level of internal funding provided Provision of ICT budget appropriation Training usually attended by ICT personnel. Type of ICT research activities conducted in university/college. ICT design and development initiatives

2.86

2.93

2.70 3.00

2.87 3.00

2.64

2.73

3.54

3.47

3.29

3.36

3.39

3.27

2.70

2.27

3.43

3.60

Table 4: Comparative ICT Maturity of Government HEIs and Private HEIs

Institutional Support Services

Core Academic Matter

APPLICATION AREAS Administration & Management Teaching and Learning Research

Mean

2.00 3.04 3.17

Planning and Monitoring

3.93

Academic Information Services

2.97

ICT Infrastructure ICT Organizational ICT Financing Training, Research, and Development in ICT Overall All Mean

GOVERNMENT Mean Maturity Level Per (Stage) Domain Slightly Mature (Adoption) 2.74 Moderately Mature (Adaptation) Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

Maturity Level per Domain Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

Mean

2.22 3.57 3.29

Highly Mature (Appropriation) Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

PRIVATE Mean Maturity Level Per (Stage) Domai Slightly Mature (Adoption ) Highly Mature 3.03 (Appropriation ) Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

3.80

Highly Mature (Appropriation)

2.44

Slightly Mature (Adoption)

3.38

3.14

Moderately Mature (Adaptation )

3.14

Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

2.78

Moderately Mature (Adaptation ) Moderately Mature (Adaptation )

3.56

Highly Mature (Appropriation)

3.39

Moderately Mature (Adaptation )

3.57

Highly Mature (Appropriation)

3.04

Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

3.17 Moderately Mature

A number of indicators position the government HEIs one stage higher or an ICT maturity level higher than the private

Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

3.02

3.08

Maturity Level Per Domain

Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

3.06 Moderately Mature

HEIs. The indicator measured as extremely mature for the HEIs in the government and highly mature in private HEIs

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include 1) information services, 2) communication services supported by the ICT infrastructure, 3) ICT assigned in Procedures and structures are areas where the government technical areas, 4) provision of ICT budget appropriation, and HEIs seem to have yielded higher maturity over the private 5) training attended by ICT personnel. HEIs. Access and usage elements along teaching and Indicators showing moderate maturity in government HEIs learning are areas where the private HEIs have yielded and slight maturity in private HEIs include 1) availability of higher maturity results than the government HEIs. ICT technical staff assigned in the different ICT functions and Apparently, the use ICT in teaching and learning is given 2) the type of ICT research activities conducted. Operating preferential treatment by most private HEIs than most systems installed in offices and laboratory as an indicator government HEIs. Along all the indicators on planning and measured reflects slight maturity for HEIs in government and monitoring, there is no difference in the level of ICT not mature in privates HEIs. maturity level. In general the ICT application in planning The government follows a standard structure on requisition, and monitoring yielded high maturity for government and acquisition, budget appropriation, staff plantilla and positions, private HEIs. The result in this area indicates that strategic training policies and sometimes even research directions. As visions are meeting expanding goals of the government and part of the system, HEIs are mandated to implement such private HEIs and ICT is defined as one of the their directives. Unlike in private HEIs, which can be any structure respective institution’s strategic resources. Likewise, this as family owned, corporations, partnerships , or sectarian , the result proves that government as well as the private HEIs are procedures and structures varies and would depend on the formulating and monitoring the implementation of their ICT organizational set-up. Such difference in structure attributed plans. With regards to their information policy plan, their to the difference in terms of provision of ICT fund between expansion goals are built around the functions of the private and government HEIs. information and communications services anchored on the Table 4 shows the data that private institutions are having business agenda of the institution. more difficulty in coming up with appropriate funds for their On the side of government HEIs, such finding is justified IT projects and activities. While government HEIs pose a as HEIs submit their individual strategic plans prior to the more relaxed budget, concerned unit expressed that “ICT approval of their budget allocations. budget is still given a meager portion of the institution’s 3.2.3 Sectarian vs. Non Sectarian HEIs general budget”. For government HEIs therefore, they have their ICT appropriation. Systems and procedures are in place Out of the 36 private HEIs surveyed, 77.78% are to rationalize the acquisition process including engagements non-sectarian while the remaining 22.22% are sectarian. From in services such as software products and third party contracts. the previous section, it was confirmed that there are more The results along the aspect of professional development also indicators where the government-funded HEIs seem to have affirm the capability of the government institutions to provide higher maturity levels than that of private HEIs. These support through the allocation of funds primarily for this indicators made an impact on the structures that are inherent purpose. in the government organization. In order to explore further the On the other hand, seven indicators also revealed that the reasons why HEIs in the private sector have lesser ICT private HEIs are a stage higher in ICT maturity level than maturity in the different indicators, a comparison between the government HEIs. The actual use of ICT of student and staff ICT maturity of sectarian and the non-sectarian private HEIs has been done. resulted to extreme maturity for private HEIs, thus a high Table 6 reveals that along the domain of core academic level of maturity for government HEIs. The following matters including the areas on administration and indicators resulted to high maturity: 1) role of ICT in teaching management, teaching and learning and research, a moderate and learning, 2) technology access and usage patterns of maturity is measured for both sectarian and non-sectarian students, 3) accessibility of ICT 4) level of internal funding HEIs. provided. This means that for government HEIs these Table 7 shows the ICT maturity of the indicators in the indicators resulted to a moderate maturity. different areas that have scored different maturity levels. Indicators that resulted to moderate maturity for private The indicators along 1) information project plans, and 2) HEIs and slight maturity for government HEIs include 1) accessibility of ICT yielded a high maturity level on ICT access and usage of ICT among .the academic staff in application from non –sectarian HEIs and moderate ICT teaching and learning and 2) roles of the different ICT maturity level for sectarian HEIs. committees in the HEIs. Table 5: Summary of Indicators with Different Maturity Levels for Government and Private HEIs

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APPLICATION AREA

Teaching Learning

and

Application of ICT in Research

Academic Information Services (Library)

Role of ICT in the teaching and learning process Access and usage of ICT among the academic staff of the university/college in hi d access l i and usage patterns of Technology students ICT support structure and acquisition decision Information services in the university/college Communication services supported by the ICT infrastructure in the university/college. Accessibility of ICT Actual use of ICT by both students and staff Installed OS in offices and laboratory

ICT Organizational Support

ICT Financing Training, Research and Development in ICT

Roles of the different ICT Committees ICT assigned in the different ICT technical areas. Availability of ICT technical staff assigned in the different ICT functions of the i ofi internal / ll funding provided Level Provision of ICT budget appropriation Training usually attended by ICT personnel Type of ICT research activities conducted

Table 6: Comparative ICT Maturity of APPLICATION AREAS

Institutional Support Services

Core Academic Matter

Mean Administration & Management Teaching Learning

2.00

and

Research

3.54 3.31

GOVT

MATURITY LEVEL

PRIVATE

MATURITY LEVEL

2.83

Moderately Mature

3.74

Highly Mature

2.29

Slightly Mature

2.97

Moderately

3.33 4.29

Moderately Mature Extremely Mature Highly Mature

3.80

Highly Mature

3.40

3.92 3.8 2.03 3.06

Moderately Mature

3.56

4.00

Highly Mature

4.25

2.29

Slightly Mature

1.58

2.57

Slightly Mature

2.94

3.17

Highly Mature

3.83 3.14

Moderately Mature

2.86 2.58

3.29

Moderately Mature

3.56

3.83

Highly Mature

3.22

Highly Mature

3.86 3.14

Moderately Mature

Highly Mature Slightly Mature Moderately Mature Highly Mature Extremely Mature Not Mature Moderately Mat re Moderately Mature Slightly Mature

3.25

Highly Mature Moderately Mature Moderately Mature

2.43

Slightly Mature

Sectarian HEIs and Non-Sectarian HEIs SECTARIAN Mean Per Maturity Level Domain (Stage)

Maturity Level per Domain

Slightly Mature (Adoption) Highly Mature (Appropriation ) Moderately Mature (Adaptation )

Mean

2.29 2.95

Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

3.58 3.29

NON-SECTARIAN Mean Per Maturity Level Domain (Stage) Slightly Mature (Adoption) Highly Mature (Appropriation) Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

Planningand Monitoring Academic Information Services

3.75

Highly Mature (Appropriation)

3.81

Highly Mature (Appropriation)

2.50

Slightly Mature (Adoption Stage)

2.42

Slightly Mature (Adoption)

ICT Infrastructure

2.85

Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

3.07

Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

ICT Organizational Support

2.50

Slightly Mature (Adoption)

2.86

Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

ICT Financing

3.13

Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

3.46

Highly Mature (Appropriation)

Training, Research, and Development in ICT

2.50

Slightly Mature (Adoption )

3.20

Moderately Mature (Adaptation )

Overall Mean Level of Maturity (Stage)

Highly Mature

2.87

2.90 Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

Moderately Mature (Adaptation Stage)

3.05

3.14

Maturity Level Per Domain Moderately Mature (Adaptation )

Moderately Mature (Adaptation )

3.11 Moderately Mature (Adaptation)

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A high maturity level is also reflected for ICT projects and ICT design and development initiatives for non-sectarian HEIs. Sectarian HEIs registered a slight maturity level in these areas, and evidently, this is two stages lower in terms of the maturity level. In an interview conducted for this research, a religious administrator [16] generalized that support for activities along

the application of ICT is provided by school administrators and usually there are no questions asked. However, there is a certain peculiarity along their investment approach. For sectarian schools, ICT investment is already considered part of their overall investment. The religious sector tend to be very careful and discerning when it comes to their investments.

Table 7: Summary of Indicators with Different Maturity Levels for Sectarian and Non- Sectarian

AREA

Description

Planning and Monitoring

Information project plans and ICT projects Information services in the university/college Availability of information management training i h Accessibility of ICT

Application of ICT in Academic Information Services (Library)

Training, Research, and Development in ICT

ICT assigned in the different ICT technical Availability of ICT technical staff assigned i Training th diff usually t ICT attended by ICT personnel of the ICT design and development i iti ti

2.63

Maturity Level Moderately Mature Moderately Mature

2.25

Slightly Mature

2.56

Moderately Mature

3.38

Moderately Mature

3.61

Highly Mature

2.50

Slightly Mature

2.96

Moderately Mature

2.00

Slightly Mature

2.75

Moderately Mature

2.50

Slightly Mature

3.46

Moderately Mature

2.50

Slightly Mature

3.71

Highly Mature

Sectarian 3.25

Sometimes, this can be attributed to their religious culture which promotes conservativeness and frugality, and the value of discipline when it comes to handling money matters. To a certain extent, this might be contributory to the results for the non-sectarian HEIs. Basically, they are yielding lower maturity results in some areas. Sometimes, due to the nature of their organization, decisions are still referred to the congregation. An example: modernization of equipment and introducing new learning/delivery systems are conferred to the congregation or the religious affiliation of the HEIs. On the other hand, follow-up interviews with instructors and program heads of non-sectarian HEIs revealed that institutions are incorporated and operated by private individuals or corporations, and that they use ICT in education to improve the teaching and learning process through integration of ICT into existing curricula. As long as returns on investments are clearly justified, funding and support is provided. In addition to the support given by their management, these non-sectarian HEIs have active Management Information Systems Department assisting executives and the general workforce in performing tasks related to the management of data resources, information processing, decision making, people management and project management applications and other computerized processes.

4.

Non-Sectarian

Maturity Level

3.70

Highly Mature

1.86

Not Mature

CONCLUSION

In general, the ICT maturity of HEIs in Region I and CAR are moderately mature and this indicates that most HEIs have already taken the initial steps towards attaining higher levels of ICT maturity. The different clusters revealed only minor differences in some indicators of the ICT application areas. However, when considered generally, similar maturity level is still very much evident regardless of the measure of comparison. The implications of this study are profound in many ways. Reflecting on the comparisons done, one can generalize that the maturity level of HEIs are not basically affected by the locale, the structure (whether it is a government HEI or a private HEI) and the doctrinal adherence (whether the institution is sectarian and non – sectarian). The HEIs are moderately mature or in the adaptation stage along the core academic matters which includes the application of ICT in administration and management, teaching and learning and research. Likewise, the HEIs are moderately mature or in the adaptation stage along the institutional support service which include the ICT application on planning and monitoring, academic information services, ICT infrastructure, ICT organization

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support, ICT financing and training, research and development in ICT. For THE HEIs involved in this study, these results practically provide useful insights on the respective ICT maturity status of the HEIs. Such insights help HEIs formulate better change management strategies. For policy-makers and regulators like CHED, a better understanding of the overall ICT profile of each region has been provided. After, the identification of the current ICT maturity state, viable solutions and strategies to help address the challenges posed by inadequate access to information and academic content, and the challenges brought about by slow and inefficient administration and management in the different HEIs can be realized. However, given the overall results, it is concluded that the HEIs still need to go a long way in achieving this goal. The HEIs need to institute better and more modern approaches in using ICT along the application areas identified in order to be truly competitive in the global knowledge-based economy. 5.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The study is undertaken under the Commission on Higher Education–Zonal Research Funding. The results presented constitute only a portion of the entire study output.

REFERENCES [1] Ryan, S., Scott, B., Freeman, H. & Patel, D. 2000. The virtual university: The internet and resource-based learning. London: Kogan Page. [2] National Statistics Coordinating Board. “The Philippine Millennium Development Goals” . http://www.nscb.gov.ph [3]IT Plan : NEDA http://www.neda.gov.ph/ads/mtpdp/MTPDP20042010/PDF/MTPDP2004-2010.html. [4] Dooley, K., Subra, A., and J. Anderson (2001), "Maturity And its Impact on New Product Development Project Performance," Research in Engineering Design, 13: 23-29. [5] Trinidad et al. (2001). A Framework for Leading School Change in using ICT: Measuring Change International Electronic Journal For Leadership in Learning Volume 5, Number 10 ISSN 1206-9620. [6] ACOT. (1995). Changing the conversations about teaching, learning and technology: a report on 10 years of ACOT research. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Apple Computer Australia Pty Ltd. [7] Intech (n.d) A Five- Stage Model of Computer Technology Integration Into Teacher Education Curriculum. Retrieved from: http://gaetc-ejournal.org/prodev/intech/stages.htm date accessed: Oct 15, 2010. [8] Becta. Maturity Model : Retrieved August 2012 from url http://partners.becta.org.uk/page_documents/research/testbed/mat urity_models.pdf.

IJMEF [9] Association of African Universities Guidelines For Institutional Self Assessment url: date accessed: Oct 15, 2010 http://www.aau.org/english/documents/aau-ictreport.htm. [10] Assessment of ICT Maturity in African universities. “Association of African Universities” . Retrieved: August 2009 from URL: http://www.aau.org/english/documents/ICTGUID.pdf. [11]Caruso, A. and Marchiori, M. (2003). The Adoption of Information Systems in SME’s: Organizational Issues and Success Factors. In Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Information Systems (Ciborra C.U., Mercurio R., de Marco M., Martinez M., Carignani A. eds.), Naples, Italy. [12]Haliso, Y. 2007. Internet availability and use in academic libraries in south west Nigeria. Babcock Journal of Management and Social Science, Vol.5 No.2.January 2007 Special Edition.pp:246-261. [13]Haliso, Yacob. Factors Affecting Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) Use by Academic Librarians in Southwestern Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice 2011. Retrieved August 2012 from http://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/. [14]Morgado, Eduardo; Igarashi, Daniel; Twani, Erika; Paving the Way for a Dynamic and Mature ICT Infrastructure in Education: A Case for Schools in Emerging Markets; INTERTECH, 2008. [15] Report. Technical Experts Meeting on the Use and Application of ICT in Higher Education Institutions in Africa . Sept. 2000 . Retrieved August 2012 from http://rc.aau.org/files/english/documents/aau-ictreport-p3.htm. [16] Fr. Teody Saluba, SVD, personal interview August 2010.

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ICT Maturity of HEIs in Selected Regions in the Philippines  

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