Issuu on Google+

www.ijesci.org/

International Journal of Ene rgy Scie nce (IJES) Volume 3 Issue 1, Fe bruary 2013

The Effect of Olive –Seed Oil Fuel on Diesel Engine Charalampos Arapatsakos*1 Department of Production and Management Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace V. Sofias Street, 67100, Xanthi, Greece *1xarapat@agro.duth.gr Abstract Air pollution is a major problem that it cannot be ignore d in nowadays, as it affects the human health and mainly the body’s respiratory system, the cardiovascular system, plants and property. Some important pollutants that take part in causing the air pollution are carbon monoxide , nitrogen oxide and many othe r compounds that contain the carbon in large amounts such as organic compounds. These toxic compone nts mixe d with air of the environme nt and make the air pollute d. Fue l quality has ve ry strongly influe nces in die se l e ngine emissions like HC, CO, NOx and particulate emissions. This is due to the fact that fue l emissions de pe nd on the formation and the combustion of the mixture . At the prese nt pape r will be e xamine d the behavior of gas e missions in a four stroke e ngine whe n changes the te mperature of fue l. The tempe ratures of fue l that has been use d for the e xpe rime nt we re 10οC, 20oC, 30oC, 40oC, 50oC and 60oC. In addition, it has bee n use d the following mixtures of fue ls: die se l-5% olive see d oil, diese l-10% olive see d oil, die se l-20% olive see d oil, die se l30% olive see d oil, die se l-40% olive see d oil, die se l-50% olive see d oil. For the above tempe ratures, it has been measure d the gas emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitroge n monoxide (NO) and smoke . Also it has bee n measure d the gas emissions tempe ratures and the fue l consumption is examine d too. Keywords Gas Emissions; Olive Seed Oil; Biofuels; Fuel Temperature

Introduction Air pollution is called the addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. Air pollution originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Many of our daily activities release chemicals and particles into the air we breath. For example, m otor vehicles release chemicals from their

38

exhausts, particles and other chemicals are released out of the chimney when we use fires and log burners to heat our homes. The amount of air pollution in the air depends on the amount of pollution produced and the rate at which the pollutants disperse[1,2,3,4]. Moreover, in areas where the wind is very strong, pollution is dispersed and blown away. In areas where there is little or no wind air pollution accumulates and concentrations can be high. However, local factors such as topography (hills and mountains), proximity to the coast, building height and time of the year all affect local wind conditions and can play a role in increasing air pollution levels[5,6,7,8]. Vehicle exhaust emissions are a major source of air pollution, as vehicles emit a series of air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, through the tailpipe gases due to internal combustion of various fuels. A recent study estimated that 399 people will die prematurely each year because of vehicle air pollution. Biofuels are the best way of reducing vehicle emissions. Furthermore, biofuel in it’s most natural form can be used in many different things including cars, trucks, tractors and just about anything that has a combustible engine. It’s most commonly used as an additive in the production of diesel fuel. When it is used as an additive, it helps to eliminate a percentage of the harmful products of burning diesel such as carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. There are many types of biofuels, including vegetable oils, biodiesel, bioalcohols, ethanol and biogas[9,10,11]. Biodiesel is a common biofuel that is used throughout the world. It is made through a process, in which it breaks down the different types of oils and fats. Bioalcohol is very common biofuel too. It is produced


International Journal of Energy Scie nce (IJES) Volume 3 Issue 1, Fe bruary 2013

during the natural fermentation process that takes place when sugar and microorganisms are mixed together. Ethanol is produced from agricultural crops or from recycled wastes and residues. It can be put to use petrol engines as a substitute for gasoline or it can be mixed with gasoline in any ratio. The quality of fuel affects diesel engine emissions (HC, CO, NOx and particulate emissions) very strongly. The fuel that is used in diesel engines is a mixture of hydrocarbons and its boiling temperature is approximately 170oC to 360oC [12,13,14,15]. Diesel fuel emissions composition and characteristics depend on mixture formation and combustion. In order to compare the quality of fuels the following criteria are tested: ketene rating, density, viscosity, boiling characteristics, aromatics content and sylph content. For environmental compatibility, the fuel must have low density, low content of aromatic compounds, low sylph content and high ketene rating [16,17]. The question that arises is how a four-stroke diesel engine behaves on the side of pollutants and operation, when it uses diesel –olive seed oil mixtures as fuel in different fuel temperatures[18]. Intrumentation and experimental resu lts Specifically it has been used the following fuel mixtures: diesel-5% olive seed oil (Pyrin5%), diesel-10% olive seed oil (Pyrin10%), diesel-20% olive seed oil (Pyrin20%),

www.ije sci.org/

diesel-30% olive seed oil (Pyrin30%), diesel-40% olive seed oil (Pyrin40%), diesel-50% olive seed oil (Pyrin50%), at different temperatures: 10 oC, 20 oC, 30 oC, 40 oC, 50 oC and 60 oC in a four-stroke diesel engin e with volume 377cc, maximum power 8.2hp/3000rpm, who was connected with a pump of water centrifugal. Measurements were made when the engine was functioned on 1000, 1500, and 2000rpm. During the experiments, it has been measured: The percent (%) of CO The ppm (parts per million) of HC The ppm (parts per million) of NO The percent of smoke Fuel consumption Gas emissions temperature The measurement of rounds/min of the engine was made by a portable tachometer (Digital photo/contact tachometer) named LTLutron DT-2236. Smoke was measured by a specifically measurement device named SMOKE MODULE EX HAUST GAS ANALYSER MOD 9010/M, which has been connected to a PC unit. The CO and HC emissions have been measured by HORIBA Analyzer MEXA-324 GE. The NO emissions were measured by a Single GAS Analyser SGA92-NO.

PICTURE1. EXPERIMENTAL LAYOUT

39


www.ijesci.org/

International Journal of Ene rgy Scie nce (IJES) Volume 3 Issue 1, Fe bruary 2013

o fuel temperature 40 C

fuel temperature 10oC 25

25 20

20

Diesel

Pyrin 5%

15

Pyrin 10% Pyrin 20%

10

Pyrin 30%

Pyrin 5%

smoke %

smoke %

Diesel

15

Pyrin 10% Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30%

10

Pyrin 40%

Pyrin 40%

5 0 1000

0

1500

2000

1000

rpm

2000

FIGURE 4 THE SMOKE AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 40O C FUEL TEMPERATURE

o

fuel temperature 50o C

fuel temperature 20 C 25

25

20

20

10

Diesel Pyrin 5% Pyrin 10% Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30%

5

Pyrin 40% Pyrin 50%

15

Pyrin 10% Pyrin 20%

smoke %

Diesel Pyrin 5%

smoke %

1500 rpm

FIGURE 1 THE % OF SMOKE AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 10O C FUEL TEMPERATURE

Pyrin 30%

10

Pyrin 40% Pyrin 50%

5

15

0 1000

0 1000

Pyrin 50%

5

1500

2000

1500

2000

rpm

rpm

FIGURE 2 THE SMOKE AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 20O C FUEL TEMPERATURE

FIGURE 5 THE % OF SMOKE AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 50O C FUEL TEMPERATURE fuel temperature 60oC

o

fuel temperature 30 C

25 25 20 15

Pyrin 10% Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30%

10

smoke %

Pyrin 5%

smoke %

20

Diesel Pyrin 5%

15

Pyrin 10%

10

Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30%

Diesel

Pyrin 40%

Pyrin 40% Pyrin 50%

5 0 1000

1500

2000

rpm

FIGURE 3 THE SMOKE AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 30O C FUEL TEMPERATURE

40

Pyrin 50%

5 0 1000

1500

2000

rpm

FIGURE 6. THE SMOKE AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 60O C FUEL TEMPERATURE


International Journal of Energy Scie nce (IJES) Volume 3 Issue 1, Fe bruary 2013

fuel temperature 40oC

0.08

0.08

0.07

0.07

0.06

Diesel

0.06

0.05

Pyrin 5%

0.05

Pyrin 10%

0.04

Pyrin 20%

0.03

Pyrin 30%

0.02

Pyrin 40%

CO %

CO %

fuel temperature 10oC

Diesel Pyrin 5% Pyrin 10%

0.04

Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30%

0.03

Pyrin 40%

0.02

0.01 0 1000

www.ije sci.org/

Pyrin 50%

0.01 0

1500

2000

1000

rpm

1500

2000

rpm

FIGURE 7 THE CO AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 10O C FUEL TEMPERATURE

FIGURE 10 THE CO AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 40OC FUEL TEMPERATURE

fuel temperature 20oC

fuel temperature 50o C 0.08

0.08

0.07

0.07 Diesel

0.06

Pyrin 10%

0.04

Pyrin 20%

CO %

CO %

0.05

Pyrin 30%

0.03

0.04

Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30% Pyrin 40% Pyrin 50%

0.02

Pyrin 50%

0.01

0.01 0 1000

0.05

0.03

Pyrin 40%

0.02

Diesel Pyrin 5% Pyrin 10%

0.06

Pyrin 5%

1500

0 1000

2000

1500

2000

rpm

rpm

FIGURE 8 THE CO AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 20OC FUEL TEMPERATURE

FIGURE 11 THE CO AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 50OC FUEL TEMPERATURE fuel temperature 60oC

o

fuel temperature 30 C

0.08 0.08

0.07 0.07 Diesel

0.06

Pyrin 5%

0.05

0.05

Pyrin 10%

0.04

Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30%

0.03

Diesel Pyrin 5% Pyrin 10%

0.04

Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30% Pyrin 40% Pyrin 50%

0.03

Pyrin 40%

0.02

Pyrin 50%

0.02 0.01

0.01 0 1000

CO %

CO %

0.06

1500

2000

rpm

FIGURE 9 THE CO AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 30OC FUEL TEMPERATURE

0 1000

1500

2000

rpm

FIGURE 12 THE CO AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 60OC FUEL TEMPERATURE

41


www.ijesci.org/

International Journal of Ene rgy Scie nce (IJES) Volume 3 Issue 1, Fe bruary 2013

o

o

fuel temperature 40 C

fuel temperature 10 C 250

250

200

200

Diesel

Pyrin 5%

150

Pyrin 10% Pyrin 20%

100

Pyrin 30%

HC (ppm)

HC (ppm)

Diesel

Pyrin 5%

150

Pyrin 10% Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30%

100

Pyrin 40%

Pyrin 40%

50 0 1000

1500

0 1000

2000

rpm

1500

2000

rpm

FIGURE 13 THE HC AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 10OC FUEL TEMPERATURE

FIGURE 16 THE HC AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 40OC FUEL TEMPERATURE o

o

fuel temperature 50 C

fuel temperature 20 C 250

250

200

200

Diesel

Diesel

Pyrin 5%

150

Pyrin 10% Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30%

100

Pyrin 5% HC ppm

HC (ppm)

Pyrin 50%

50

Pyrin 40%

Pyrin 10% Pyrin 20%

100

Pyrin 30% Pyrin 40%

50

Pyrin 50%

Pyrin 50%

50 0 1000

150

1500

0

2000

1000

rpm

1500

2000

rpm

FIGURE 14 THE HC AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 20OC FUEL TEMPERATURE

FIGURE 17 THE HC AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 50OC FUEL TEMPERATURE

o

fuel temperature 30 C

o

fuel temperature 60 C

250

250 Diesel Pyrin 5% Pyrin 10% Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30% Pyrin 40% Pyrin 50%

Pyrin 5%

150

Pyrin 10% Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30%

100

Pyrin 40%

0 1000

150 100

Pyrin 50%

50

50

1500

2000

rpm

FIGURE 15 THE HC AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 30OC FUEL TEMPERATURE

42

200

Diesel

HC ppm

HC (ppm)

200

0 1000

1500

2000

rpm

FIGURE 18 THE HC AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 60OC FUEL TEMPERATURE


International Journal of Energy Scie nce (IJES) Volume 3 Issue 1, Fe bruary 2013

www.ije sci.org/

o

o

fuel temperature 40 C

fuel temperature 10 C 3000

3000

2500

2500 Diesel

2000

Pyrin 5% Pyrin 10%

1500

Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30%

1000

NO (ppm)

NO (ppm)

Diesel

Pyrin 40%

Pyrin 5% Pyrin 10%

1500

Pyrin 20%

1000

Pyrin 40%

Pyrin 30% Pyrin 50%

500 0 1000

2000

500

1500

0 1000

2000

rpm

1500

2000

rpm

FIGURE 19 THE NO AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 10OC FUEL TEMPERATURE

FIGURE 22 THE NO AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 40OC FUEL TEMPERATURE

fuel temperature 20oC

fuel temperature 50oC

3000

3000

2500

2500

Pyrin 10%

1500

Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30%

1000

Pyrin 40% Pyrin 50%

2000

Pyrin 5%

1500

Pyrin 10% Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30%

1000

500 0 1000

Diesel

Pyrin 5%

NO ppm

NO (ppm)

Diesel

2000

Pyrin 40% Pyrin 50%

500 1500

2000

0

rpm

1000

FIGURE 20 THE NO AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 20OC FUEL TEMPERATURE o

1500

2000

rpm

FIGURE 23 THE HC AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 50OC FUEL TEMPERATURE

fuel temperature 30 C fuel temperature 60o C

3000 3000

2500 2000

2500

Pyrin 10%

1500

Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30%

1000

Pyrin 40% Pyrin 50%

500

Pyrin 5% Pyrin 10% Pyrin 20% Pyrin 30% Pyrin 40% Pyrin 50%

2000 1500 1000 500

0 1000

Diesel

Pyrin 5%

NO ppm

NO (ppm)

Diesel

1500

2000

rpm

FIGURE 21 THE NO AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 30OC FUEL TEMPERATURE

0 1000

1500

2000

rpm

FIGURE 24 THE NO AVERAGE VALUE VARIATION ON DIFFERENT RPM REGARDING TO THE DIESEL-S EED OIL MIXTURES AT 60OC FUEL TEMPERATURE

43


www.ijesci.org/

International Journal of Ene rgy Scie nce (IJES) Volume 3 Issue 1, Fe bruary 2013

The dies el-seed oil mixture has different viscosity due to different content of seed oil. If ΄΄η ΄΄ stands for viscosity, then it is [9]: ηpyrin5%< ηpyrin10%< ….< ηpyrin40%< ηpyrin50% Also, the viscosity varies with the temperature, so it is [9]: ηpyrin5%(10 oC) > ηpyrin5%(20 oC) > . > ηpyrin5%(60 oC) ηpyrin50%(10 oC) > ηpyrin50%(20 oC)>. > pyrin50%(60 oC) As far as the consumption is concerned, it has been observed small changes with the change of temperature, but because the difference is minor there is no need to mention it. The change in the fuel temperature in the various mixtures, has the following results: Smoke: In terms of smoke emissions, diesel presented the best behavior than mixtures of diesel-olive seed oil. CO: Pyrin 10%: The best behavior is observed in the case of 10oC fuel temperature. Pyrin 50%: The best behavior is observed in the case of 20 oC, 30 oC, 40 oC, 50 oC, 60 oC fuel temperature. HC: Pyrin 5%: The best behaviour is observed in the case of 10οC fuel temperature. Pyrin 30%: It has been observed better behavior in the cases of 20 οC, 30 οC, 40 οC, 50 οC fuel temperatures. However, when the fuel temperature is 60οC diesel presented the best behavior.

REFERENCES

ΝΟ:

C. Arapatsakos, D. Christoforidis, A. Karkanis., The

Pyrin 10%: The best behaviour appeared when the fuel temperature was 20 οC, 30 οC, 40 οC, 50 ο C and 60 οC in all rpm. Pyrin 20%: The best behaviour appeared when the fuel temperature was 10 οC in all rpm. Conclutions Moreover, air pollution is made up of many kinds of gases, droplets and particles that reduce the quality of

44

the air. During the past hundred years and especially with increasing urbanization and industrialization, humans started to release more wastes into the atmosphere than nature could cope with. As a result, air pollution is created and has become a major persistent problem too. Two of the main human-made sources of air pollution in urban areas are transportation and fuel combustion in stationary sources, including residential, commercial and industrial heating and cooling. Summarizing all the above, it can be said that the fuel temperature influences the viscosity of the fuel and gas emissions too. Each one is influenced in a different way, and no one can determine that in a specific temperature will be observed variations in all gas emissions (smoke, CO, HC, NO). Also it should be taken into consideration that the fuels that have been used were diesel-seed oil mixtures with different contents and viscosity in the same temperature. In any case, it is important to mention that the fuel temperature influences the concentration of gas emissions. The temperature of gas emissions has not been influenced either from the fuel temperature, or from the use of different mixtures of diesel-olive seed oil too. Finally, it is important to mention that during the use of mixtures of diesel-olive seed oil, it has not been presented malfunction in the engine or increase of fuel consumption. Renewable fuels, will replace petroleum-based fuels in the near future because petroleum reserves are not sufficient enough to last many years. Also, the severe environmental problems around the world will eventually lead to the use of more environmentally friendly technologies.

fue l

tempe rature impact in the diese l e ngine whe n mixtures of die se l-soy oil are use d as fue l, Inte rnational journal of heat & technology 29 (2011) 101-105. Ke ith Owe n and Tre vor Coley ''Automotive Fue ls Re fe re nce Book'' Second Edition, Publishe d by SAE, 1995. Fre d Schafer and Richard van Basshuyse n " Re duce d Emissions

and Fue l

Consumption

Engines" Publishe d by SAE, 1995.

in

Automobile


International Journal of Energy Scie nce (IJES) Volume 3 Issue 1, Fe bruary 2013

Mitche ll J F. B (1989) .The gree nhouse e ffect and climate

www.ije sci.org/

Α. Jacques, P. Lyons, R. Ke lsall, The alcohol te xtbook, Nottingham Unive rsity Press, Nottingham, 1999, pp. 386-

change . Revie ws of Ge ophysics 27. C. Arapatsakos, A. Karkanis, P. Sparis, Me thanol ble nds as motor fue ls, WSEAS transactions on e nvironme nt and de ve lopme nt 4 (2008) 857-876. Harrington, I.A.; Shishu, R.C.: A Single -Cylinde r Engine Study of the Effects of Fue l Type , Fue l Stoichiome try and Hydroge n-to-Carbon Ratio on CO, NO and HC Exhaust Emissions, SAE-Pape r 730476

390. P. Hansson, B. Mattsson, Influe nce of De rive d Ope rationSpe cific Tractor Emission Data on Results from an LCI on whe at production, The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessme nt 4 (1999) 202-206. C. Arapatsakos, A. Karkanis, P. Sparis, Gas emissions and e ngine be haviour whe n gasoline -alcohol mixtures are use d, Environme ntal technology 24 (2003) 1069-1077.

Arapatsakos C., Karkanis A., and Sparis P., ''Environmental

C. Arapatsakos, K. Papastaurou, Expe rime ntal measureme nts

Contribution of Gasoline – Ethanol Mixtures'' issue 7,

of biorthanol use in four stroke gasoline engines,

volume 2, July 2006, ISSN 1790-5079.

International journal of heat and te chnology 27 (2009)

Pollution Scie nce Edite d by Ian L. Pe ppe r, Charls P. Ge rba,

119-124. C. Arapatsakos, P. Sparis, Twc life e xte nsion via catalyst

Mark L. Brusseau, 1996. Christoforidis,

mounting invertion under full load conditions at 1000rpm,

Anastasios Karkanis.΄΄The fue l te mpe rature influe nce in

International Journal of Heat & Technology 16 (1998) 92-

die se l e ngine using as fue l mixtures of diese l & olive seed

102.

Charalampos

Arapatsakos,

Dimitrios

oil΄΄ Inte rnational journal of heat and technology Vol 29, No 1,pp. 107-111, 2011. C. Arapatsakos, A. Karkanis, P. Sparis, Environmental pollution from the use of alte rnative fue ls in a four-stroke e ngine , Inte rnational

journal

of

e nvironme nt

and

pollution 21 (2004) 593-602. C. Arapatsakos, A. Karkanis, P. Sparis, Tests on a small four e ngine using gasoline -e thanol mixture s as fue l, Advances in air pollution 13 (2003) 551-560.

C. Arapatsakos, P. Sparis, Twc life e xte nsion via catalyst mounting inversion unde r full load conditions at diffe re nt e ngines spee ds, Inte rnational Journal of Heat & Technology 18 (2000) 47-50. Charalampos

Arapatsakos,

Dimitrios

Christoforidis,

Anastasios Karkanis.΄΄The fue l te mpe rature influe nce in die se l e ngine using as fue l mixtures of diese l & olive seed oil΄΄ Inte rnational journal of heat and technology Vol 29, No 1,pp. 107-111, 2011.

45


The Effect of Olive –Seed Oil Fuel on Diesel Engine