SEOMUN XXI FEATURE PG.12 - 13 HACKING: THE ROOM WHERE IT HAPPENS
seoulite THE PERILS OF INDIFFERENCE
SEOULITE CONTRIBUTORS 2018 Editor-in-Chief
Kirsten Huh, Dawn Kim
Lyme Cho, Fiona Cho, Jimin (Alice) Lee, Eric Hwang (11), Eric Hwang (10), Steven Chung, Min Chiang, Wendy Kang, Isabella Kim, Mon Mon Htet (Maple), Emily Oh, Teddy Cho
Managing Editor Sarah Jung Assistant Editor Kate Lee Copy Editor Sia Cho Layout Editor Jaywon Yi, Eugene Song Photo Editor Allyson Kim, Katie Ahn
Layout Christine Lee, Jessie Park, Seoyun Yoo, Eddie Hahm, Erin Lee, Louis Kim, Tin Maung Kyaw, Kristal Sin, Taki Li Photo Brian Chun, Katherine Kim, Jangho Yun, Minsung Kim, Angela Ahn, Eileen Kwon, Lauren Kang, David Lim, Seongyun Jeong, Katie Lee, Rachel Lee Advisor Mr. David Coleman
LETTER FROM THE EICs Dear readers, We are the editors of Seoulite, the official press publication of SEOMUN. We are honored to serve delegates, chairs, advisors, administrative staff members, directors, and other participants throughout the SEOMUN conference. It is our utmost hope that all delegates have access to fruitful debates on various worldly topics and that they learn something new from this conference that they had previously been unaware of. Over the next three days, our team of reporters, photographers, and layout artists will be creating a total of three issues of the Seoulite magazine. We hope to not only document heated debates and potential remedies to global crises but to also capture new friendships, personal insights, and reflections that will be formed throughout the days of the conference. We would like to ask the delegates and chairs for three things: First, please take the time to pick up our daily issues and give them a look through–we promise to fill its pages with diverse and engaging content ranging from copycat crimes to the secrets of writing a good chair report. Second, please make sure to check out the QR codes available at the last page of the printed copies or the SEOMUN website to view our issues in their full-color glory! Finally, when a press member approaches you for an interview, please cooperate – we welcome your uncensored and personal opinions. We wish all delegates the best of luck – happy SEOMUN XXI!
Kirsten Huh & Dawn Kim Editors-in-Chief
United States Trail of the Migrant Caravan
BLAST FROM THE PAST By Sarah Jung
According to data in the last six years, around 450 million people in Central America have a strong desire to move to the United States. The fundamental cause of migration to the United States is violence in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. In addition to violence, many are leaving their country of origin because due to their economic situations that account for poverty and hunger. Many of these migrants are also walking towards the United States in search of better job opportunities. El Niño that devastated homes and inefficient governments aggravate poor economic situations in Central America. Currently, the surge of migrants pouring in from Central America is increasing each day. The media is busy scrambling for the latest update on the movement of migrant caravans. With elections coming up soon, these migrant caravans have also caught the attention of Donald Trump. Movement in the form of caravans is a relatively new phenomenon, as people in the past usually moved in smaller groups. Caravans are popular among migrants because they provide more protection against kidnappers and gangs that they may encounter during their journey.Due to their big size, with around two thousand to three thousand people, it is difficult for local gangs to attack the migrants. The safety provided by large groups has also been preferred by the Central Americans for the higher possibility of reaching the Mexico-United States border safely without getting kidnapped or coerced into joining gangs. The wave of migrants began to increase after 1980 after the United States Congress passed the Refugee Act, which allowed the United States to meet the United Nations human rights standards. Specifically, the passing of this law was done under the influence of the 1951
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Christine Lee
UN Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees. The Refugee Act was initially formed with the basic idea of a “well founded fear of persecution.” However, this basic idea underlying the Refugee Act has proven to be a problem for current migrants from Central America because many are applying to an asylum to flee from violence and poverty, not political persecution. The now retired Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced before that people fleeing domestic violence and gangs are not qualified as refugees. Many Central American migrants are detained in Mexico at the border and suffer from violation of human rights, such as facing denial of the chance to explain their reasons to apply for an asylum. Meanwhile, President Donald Trump has threatened to cut aid to Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras if they fail to stop the wave of migrants to the United States. Recently, he has pushed for the need to establish 5,200 military troops on the Mexico-US border. The matter of migrants at the Mexican border continues to be controversial today as it touches upon politics, human rights, and economy.
Can the delegate please clarify… Aka I have no idea what you’re talking about so please speak English. Thanks. What is the delegate even saying? At this point, you’re not even sure what the topic of the speech was. And you know that the delegate probably won’t make much better sense when they attempt to “clarify” their stance, so you half tune in, knowing that you’ll have to send another angry note later. Why can’t people just be straightforward with what they’re trying to say? Yea, we get that the MUN protocol calls for formality, but chill out with that flowery language. It’s hard to understand--let alone analyze in another nation’s perspective. In regards to my country’s stance, I think...
Delegate please come to your closing remarks. Stop babbling already. Please. It’s almost lunchtime. There’s always that one delegate that drawls on forever, proposing useless amendments and repeating their point again and again. What are they, hamsters scampering in their wheels of circular reasoning? Smh. We get your point. In fact, we got it twelve minutes ago, and we honestly don’t need to hear it again for the millionth time. Beep, beep. See? Even the timer agrees.
Come on, just get to your point. If you want to tell the other delegates to accept your resolution or disagree with a point someone makes, just say so. Why go around your main point? Why sugarcoat your remarks when you simply want to tell the other delegates to listen to you? To be honest, you might never even get to say what you really want if you always think something may be the right idea.
Yeap, it’s gonna be a loooonnngg day. And guess what? It’s only the first day of the conference! Time to get bombarded with resolution proposals and cramps while sitting on hard chairs... yay! Even worse, it’s doubtful that all the discussions you have will actually be fruitful. Let’s face it: not all resolutions will pass, and all the energy spent debating for hours may end up as waste. Well, on the bright side, at least you can gain insights and share snacks with delegates from different countries!
Committees are in session…
Disclaimer: This article is all in good fun and is in no way meant to be serious.
By: Kate Lee, Sia Cho
STUFF DELEGATES SAY
uo t e w
Just please...let us poor hungry delegates go...
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Louis Kim
GENERAL ASSEMBLY 3 TACKLES THE UNEQUAL TREATMENT OF MINORITIES
Photo by: Jangho Yun
By: Steven Chung
On the first day of the conference, delegates of General Assembly 3 (GA 3) started their talks with opening speeches on three main issues: eliminating the abuse and exploitation of children, countering the unequal treatment and discrimination of individuals with mental or physical disabilities, and addressing statelessness and denationalization of individuals. Throughout the opening speeches, delegates of different nations provided their unique stance on methods of minority treatment, coming to a consensus that such issues must be addressed.
“Vocational training systems should be implemented to help individuals with disabilities to fit into societies,” Kun Hee said. “Educational anti-stigma interventions are also needed to solve the stigmatized view of disabled individuals.” The last issue of addressing statelessness individuals got comparatively less recognition by the delegates but still many believed that it was an issue that would require further discussion. Karim Kuzabari, delegate of Spain, claimed that territories in pursuit of independence, such as Catalonia, Kurdistan and Crimea, needed further discussion to be solved.
Firstly, on the issue of abuse and exploitation of children, many delegates emphasized the urgency to eliminate such violations across the globe. Jami Robertson, delegate of Bangladesh, stressed the need to educate children, to raise awareness on this issue, and to fund the least developed countries (LDCs) for establishing needed facilities. “As the delegation of Spain believes that this move towards independent “Education is important to combat against this issue Catalonia is illegal and wrong, I because children aren’t really aware that they are don’t see much leeway for this issue being exploited and that these actions are unethical throughout the discussion,” Karim said. because it is sometimes subtle or sometimes the “Other issues, such as Kurdistan and perpetrators are their parents,” Jami said. “Providing Crimea, vary in their extremes, but the education to the children will help them better delegation of Spain believe that it is not understand this issue and be more open-minded ideal from an economic perspective to about it.” make these regions independent.” Other delegates, such as the delegates of Portugal and Afghanistan, emphasized the need for reinforced education and amendments for laws to enact greater punishment for perpetrators. Many delegates also saw this as a way to counter the unequal treatment of disabled individuals. Kun Hee Park, delegate of Bulgaria, highlighted the need to resolve the issue of unequal treatment of individuals with disabilities through educational training for these individuals and “anti-stigma” intervention.
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Edward Hahm
The delegates in this committee had different ways to approach the three issues at hand. Many believed that education was essential in solving these issues while others believed that a more complex system should be implemented to combat these issues. However, one point that everyone hoped for was for a fruitful discussion throughout the next three days and a successful resolution to tackle these issues.
ECOSOC INTRODUCES PROMISING NEW SOLUTIONS By: Fiona Cho
The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) opened up the first day of the conference by addressing the three topics of agricultural trade liberalization, healthcare access, and offshore tax evasion. In particular, many delegates raised concerns about the lack of adequate healthcare in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs) within their opening speeches. “Across different countries, the issue of healthcare access for LEDCs varies,” said Samuel Adikoesoemo, delegate of Vietnam. “However, one reason that the topic continues to pop up is that healthcare is essential for facilitating the process of industrialization and growth.” Other delegates focused on another item in the agenda: the liberalization of agricultural trade. They expressed hope that this measure would help bring about a variety of benefits, ranging from availability of food to efficiency in trade, for developing nations. “The Republic of Togo believes that they can strengthen their economy through agricultural trade liberalization,” said Peter Hungerbuehler, delegate of Togo. “Subsequently, once Togo’s economy and food security are strengthened, the government will then be able to invest more of their funds into healthcare.”
Photo by: Eileen Kwon
Yet a minority of delegates concentrated on the subject of offshore tax evasion, choosing to pursue a method of combating tax evasion that resulted from international corporations. These delegates maintained that though the media frequently reported on news of tax evasion regarding prominent celebrities and politicians, news of international corporations suspected of tax evasion are much less highlighted upon. “If money is more taxable for nations, then they are getting more profit from companies that are in their country,” said Katie Patel, delegate of Ecuador. “Then, they’re able to use that money toward finding other solutions, which is exactly the reason why I selected this problem—if you effectively resolve the issue of tax evasions, you can use that initiative to solve a multitude of other economic problems as well.” On the other hand, delegates admitted that the task of aiding LEDCs, even with the help of the two main solutions, through agricultural trade liberalization and healthcare access were not so simple as evidenced by the status quo. “I think that it is still very difficult to find a solution for LEDCs to achieve adequate health care,” said Michelle Heo, delegate of Spain. “Even though some solutions may seem plausible, there are many obstacles. Firstly, fatal diseases are most common in areas within the LEDCs, and secondly, there is a lack of health facilities, doctors, and even government support within LEDCs, which is why many of these countries struggle to achieve even the minimum amount of health care access.” Although delegates conceded that there are significant obstacles to reaching successful, long-lasting resolutions to these issues, the commitment and dedication displayed in their opening speeches demonstrated the their willingness to engage in further fruitful debate as the day continued and lobbying sessions began.
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Erin Lee
RESTORING HUMAN RIGHTS
By: Isabella Kim
On the first day of the conference, Human Rights Council HRC) debated issues on the topic of respecting and recognizing human rights for citizens around the world. Over the past years, the number of human right violations have been reduced since the U.N. was founded and the international community has become more active in protecting citizens’ human rights and freedom. However, there still remain minorities who are indirectly abused and oppressed by the government. Photo by: Lauren Kang
The HRC discussed three topics that address the issue of human rights violation and indifference.
The first topic was on Myanmar’s attempt to reinstitute freedom of speech and religion for the ethnic minorities, such as the Rohingya Muslims. In the opening speeches, the majority of the delegates agreed that the indifference towards the minorities in Myanmar can no longer be ignored. They pointed out that government restriction is needed for an organized country. However, the government has crossed the line in the sense that the citizens of Myanmar suffer from the lack of freedom and equality and are unable to express their language, religion, and cultures. The second agenda focused on preserving the solidarity rights of the Kurdish ethnic minority in Turkey. As a result of the social and cultural oppression that they face, the Kurds rebelled against the government for their human rights. They were the targets of discrimination and brutality verging on genocide. Countless Kurds were murdered in forms of bombing and torturing. The delegates were eager to set a solution to restore the Kurds’ human rights and freedom. The last agenda was the protection of human rights of citizens in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is notorious for its totalitarian government. The Executive President, Mugabe made various decisions that worsened citizens’ lives, like expropriating land from white people without trial and passing constitutions for his own wealth. However, in defense of Zimbabwe, the delegate of Zimbabwe opposed the reasons above stating that those cases were all in the past from previous presidents, and that Zimbabwe is no longer like the past discrimination. Anna Frankl, delegate of Zimbabwe, states that “President Mugabe, the main violator of human rights within Zimbabwe, has retired last year, which means Zimbabwe has plenty of room for reformation.” Listening to the opening speeches, it seems that the debate is in favor of the opinion that there has to be an active solution for all three matters; Myanmar, Turkey, and Zimbabwe in order to restore and protect their human rights and freedom.
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Taki Li
Photo by: Laura Kang
CONFLICTING PROPOSALS ARISE DURING CND OPENING SPEECHES By: Eric Hwang
In this twenty-first annual SEOMUN conference, the newly established Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) convened for the first time in SEOMUN history. The committee emulates the real world CND, which acts as the governing body of the United Nations drug program. The CND, which enforces most of the UN’s narcotic drug policies in the real world, turned to three topics of debate under the broader theme of illicit drug addiction: aiding the rehabilitation and prevention of substance abuse through strengthened public health systems; creating a framework for regulating, policing, and repairing nations affected by the illicit transit of drugs; and combating the global trafficking of drugs.
gate of Switzerland. “If this really is a ‘War on Drugs,’ the sad truth is that the global community is losing. Therefore the delegate of Switzerland proposes a policy known as the ‘Transform Drug Policy,’ which advocates the decriminalization of soft drugs to ensure that those who do take drugs do so safely.” However, other delegates supported stricter measures to combat illegal drug trading and addiction. For example, Brandon Kim, the delegate of Guatemala, proposed a hardline stance against drug usage through international anti-corruption laws and for direct action against drug cartels. Daniel Yoo, delegate of the Netherlands, also asserted for stronger action against drug abuse by emphasizing the ineffectiveness of domestically tolerant drug policies. Other delegates made similar remarks, affirming the need for stronger border control and tougher punishment against drug dealers.
“The CND is combatting global drug trafficking and is trying to strengthen public health care to deal with rehabilitation,” said Rahul Kothari, the delegate of El Salvador. “Drug overdose rates are at an all time high right now. In 2016, 65,000 people died of drug related overdoses in the US alone, which only indicates how pressing the issue is and the need for immediate “Guatemala is under the assumption that legalization [of soft drugs] would lead to a greater means for drug solutions.” cartels to take hold,” Brandon said. “Thus, it generAs te commission began with opening speeches, ally sees the only solution to the crisis is to disband clusters of delegates began to form similar ideas. drug cartels by utilizing more strict policies. Leniency For example, certain delegates appeared to advocate would only give these cartels room to grow.” for less strict and confrontational solutions. These delegates, including the delegations of Kenya, Photo by: Rachel Lee Croatia, and others, asserted the need for peaceful solutions such as educational reform warning of the dangers of substance abuse and in some cases, the decriminalization of soft drugs. By proposing these potential resolutions, delegates hoped to tackle the issue of drug trafficking and substance abuse through indirect, more moderate methods. Other delegates supported less forthright methods as well due to claims of the failure of aggressive anti-drug policies and the violent “War on Drugs” started by American President Richard Nixon. “In 1971, President Nixon coined the term the ‘War on Drugs,’ and since then, countries have been trying and failing to stamp out [the global business of illicit drug trafficking] head on,” said Shayona Sengupta, the dele-
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Krystal Sin
CSW ADDRESSES METHODS
TO ALLEVIATE GENDER INEQUALITY By: Jimin Lee
On the first day of SEOMUN, the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) held a discussion on mitigating gender inequality. Stressing the importance of improving the lives of women across the globe, delegates proposed their opinions on the three agendas of the committee: assisting women in refugee camps, ensuring equality and safety in the workplace for women, and addressing the question of reproductive autonomy. Throughout the lobbying session, delegates collaborated to find solutions for various problems implied by the agendas. A number of delegates focused on supporting women in refugee camps. Considering that the living standards of women in refugee camps had been overshadowed in the past until only recently, delegates suggested solutions to further increase the public’s attention to this issue. Additionally, they sought ways to bring humanitarian aid to these neglected women who often targets of sexual abuse and forced marriage. “Most of our clauses will be focusing on improving education and laws that will prevent offenders from accessing women refugees,” said Olympia Elbech, delegate of Chile. Photo by: Katherine Kim
“I believe that education will help people recognize the struggles that women face in refugee camps and the immorality of child marriage. We also aim to focus on the quality of these camps and the accessibility of feminine products.” Other delegates directed their attention to ameliorating the working conditions for women in both developing and developed countries. They tackled numerous issues relating to gender inequality at the workspace, including gender wage gap, glass ceiling, maternity leave, and sexual harassment. Furthermore, they brainstormed specific methods to elevate the status of women in the workforce. “Women face numerous disadvantages at the workplace,” said Josh Graybill, delegate of Eritrea. “In particular, I am highly concerned about the issue of workplace sexual harassment. By cooperating with other delegates, I hope to design an impartial and effective legal system that allows victims to easily report instances of workplace sexual harassment.” Meanwhile, other delegates discussed the question of women’s reproductive autonomy. In approaching the issue, they considered various implications of women’s reproductive autonomy and devised ways to make people become more knowledgeable about this issue. “Because the discussion of women’s reproductive autonomy is often shirked, it is important to increase awareness about the issue,” said Belle Ho, delegate of Spain. “When it comes to pregnancy due to rape and child marriage, I believe women should not be limited in their bodily choices. One way to reinforce this liberty is to educate men and women about contraception.” The lively discussion that took place during the lobbying session on the first day of the conference demonstrated an extensive effort to improve the lives of marginalized women.
Photo by: Katherine Kim
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Tin Maung Kyaw
BREACH OF SOVEREIGNTY SPARKS CONTROVERSY WITHIN CSTD By: Eric Hwang
On the first day of SEOMUN, delegates of the Commission on Science and Technology for Development came together to discuss the issues surrounding the development of Artificial Intelligence, the sustainable usage of genetic modification, and the ethical and sustainable usages of blockchain. In particular, as seen from the delegates’ opening speeches, an overwhelming number of delegates were concerned with the morals and ethics of AI and Algorithm Learning Machine Development in Military Organizations. During lobbying time, numerous delegates gathered to converse the issues that had been mentioned during the opening speeches. Delegates discussing the regulations of AI decided to present their resolutions clause-by-clause in order to develop a final resolution. In order to effectively monitor the ethical usage of AI, Jules Richalot, the delegate of Germany, brought up the need to check on nations’ development of military AI technology. “Every country is advancing in their development of military technology and is no longer at a point where they have mere guns or grenades. Every country is getting to a point where the influx of such complex technology that we cannot even fathom has exceeded its capacity,” Jules said. “Henceforth, it is crucial to regulate what these country have and the rate of the development of such technology to ensure the development of ethical AI.” However, many of the delegates showed ambivalence, as they disliked the idea of providing support for the full regulation of ethical AI development. Furthermore, they pointed out their discontent as well as the stigma revolving around the idea of constantly being monitored. Specifically, the delegate of the US, China, and Russia asserted the right they had to self-regulate such advancements in Artificial Intelligence. “The United States, China, and Russia are three countries that hold substantial roles in not only the advancement of such technologies, but also in the global economy.” said Kabir Madan, delegate of the United States. Henceforth, the delegate believes that numerous nations, including the United States, would be willing to regulate the development of their technologies, as such a clause would inevitably lead to the spread of information to other countries that are competing with one another.” While discussing methods that would allow for a balance between security and control of ethical usage of Artificial Intelligence, Tomiris Zhumagaliyeva, the delegate of Russia, proposed the idea of having sub committees. He hopes his proposal will effectively tackle the concern of continuously checking for the ethical development of AI.
Photos by: Katie Lee
“The UN subcommittee would be able to monitor and regulate the military developments of all consenting member states through numerous measures Furthermore, only the subcommittee would be able to access information regarding each nation’s usage of military AI, which would serve to effectively tackle the issue of being checked,” Tomiris said. “Additionally, this committee would be responsible for encouraging the transparency of consenting members through methods and establishing strict regulations for AI ethics.” Through a rigorous but fruitful discussion involving all delegates who were concerned with the development of militarized AI, the delegates were able to come up with an ideal resolution. This resolution was centered on the continuation of advancing militarized AI that would not impact the international community in a negative manner.
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Seoyun Yoo
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Jessie Park
By: Lyme Cho
IN THE EXTENSIVE SCOPE
HACKING BEARS SEVERE 12
Just a few months earlier this year in March, FIFA reported an illegal IT data hack and the UK accused the Russian cyber intelligence of hacking into the UK foreign office. With the Active Cyber Defense Certainty Act’s arrival, hacking has become a prominent issue in the wide scope of ethicality and legality. In legal terms, hacking accounts is a computer crime, in which one can be prosecuted to the first degree and sentenced to 20 years in jail. This is the case when personal information is violated, and damage adds up to over $10,000. On the other hand, the dictionary definition of hacking refers to “the gaining of unauthorized access to data in a system or computer.” The word, “unauthorized” deserves considerable attention in regarding whether hacking is justifiable because it is an infringement upon confidential information. As an evident violation of one’s privacy, the consequences of hacking are bound to be harsh. In the conference, General Assembly 1 (GA 1), Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), and Disarmament Commission (DISARM) discussed the implications of hacking. However, most delegates had differing views on the topic, with some insisting that hacking proves to be beneficial in enforcing security. Although hacking accounts as a computer crime, it requires various skills including the ability to understand wireless technology, virtualization, networking, and scripting. These skills can be
advantageous for the general public when used with an equitable intention to maximize security measures, detect vulnerable flaws in the system, and prepare for potential hacker attacks. “In my opinion, hacking opens up loop holes for people,” said Paing Paing, delegate of China of United Nations Security Council (UNSC). “However, the loops holes don’t necessarily have negative influence. People should realize that hackers play an important role in strengthening Internet security too.” The term “white hacking”, which is done with a beneficial purpose to test the security of sites and prevent future breaches of security, rose as a significant influence in the opinions of some delegates. Nevertheless, the negative connotations of hacking in terms of ethicality and legality outweigh any probable benefits hacking may have. “Even if certain types of hacking, such as white hacking, is beneficial for the general public, it certainly has defects,” said Jaywon Choi, delegate of China of the Historical Security Council (HSC). “Hacking can be defined as an illegal way to obtain personal information, so this issue encompasses potential violation of human rights too. Even though hacking can be intended for good purposes, it is morally incorrect.”
CURRENT TRENDS IN
HACKING By: Wendy Kang
The recent issue of cyber security has plagued the international community with increased tension between nations. Incidents such as accusations toward the Russian hacker grids during the 2018 elections as well as the cyber attacks towards Montenegro have infringed upon the nation’s sovereignty. “The recent issue of cyber attacks has caused nations to face infringement upon their sovereignty as independent nations,” said James Hamilton, delegate of Republic of Korea of SPT. “The Republic of Korea feels strongly against with these recent developments upon the nation, and thinks that there needs to be measures taken through the development of cyber security measures, in order to combat such issues.” The main issue with cyber warfare is that organizations such as the United Nations (UN) are not efficiently catered to combat threats to cyber security. To address such flaws, committees such as Six Party Talks (SPT) and Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CSTD) have lobbied upon and drafted resolutions to address the threat of cyber security. “The delegate thinks that a solution can be to fund more corporations that deal with the issue of cyber warfare, especially because it is such a pressing topic,” said James Hamilton, delegate of Republic of Korea of SPT. “Delegations need to work together to gather monetary aid between nations in order to provide financial support to more countermeasures against cyber threats.” Possible solutions between countries would be to focus more on funding groups made for the purpose of ensuring global security. With groups such as NATO recently developing a cyber defense program to be launched in Estonia by 2019, delegates opted for similar solutions to combat issues of cyber terrorism.
“The delegate of Poland advocates for strong preventative measures against the recent development of cyber warfare,” said Felicia Yeh, delegate of Poland of CSTD. “Although this is an issue that is quite pervasive, most countries tend to oversee the issue, and rather focus on development of their own countries infrastructure and resolving issues that plague their own nation, which is an individualistic approach to the matter. The delegate believes that raising awareness as well as providing more funds to corporations such as NATO would be a pivotal step in responding to these issues.”
There have been recent developments showing progression toward solving cyber threats such as the development of cyber norms by the UN. Despite guidelines for appropriate behavior and conduct in cyberspace, there is a certain extent to which organizations can hold precedence. Perhaps the most important step to be taken is to aim for global unification between nations in order to focus not only on individualistic policies that support each nation, but also the development of cooperative measures to ensure the peace and security of all the nations as a unified front.
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Jessie Park
ENVIRONMENTAL COMMISSION COMMENCES SEOMUN Photos by: Eileen Kwon
Photo by: Eileen Kwon
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Erin Lee
DISARMAMENT SEEKS TO COMBAT LANDMINES AND TRADINGS OF WEAPONS By: Maple Htet
Photos by: Brian Chun
As the lobbying session began in the Disarmament Committee, the delegates separated into blocs to draft resolutions. More than half of the delegates expressed their concerns on the proliferation of landmines as these explosive devices are widely used in both regions of peace and armed conflicts for their low costs and high effectiveness in destructions. Especially in countries such as Myanmar, Vietnam, Colombia, and Afghanistan, the landmines have huge presences and are threatening the lives of civilians. “To approach this issue, I want to suggest a soft way,” said Cyrus Yiu, the delegate of France. “If you just ban something, there will be many side effects, with one being black market. Instead of still having people trade in black markets where government cannot control directly, soft methods like stricter laws and taxations should be implemented.” In line with this year’s theme of SEOMUN, Joseph Kim, delegate of Iran reminded the floor in his opening speech that small arms might be nominal but should not be ignored. Legal trading of small arms in areas of peace is often neglected by the international community but abundance of weapons sees the rise of gun violence, terrorism, and suicides among the civilians. Delegates with alike mindsets with Joseph joined him in finding solutions for limiting the legal small arms trade.
Photos by: Brian Chun
“No matter chemical weapons or nuclear, even small things like a knife or a gun, if it takes away people’s life, it is a problem.” Joseph said. The other delegates gathered to discuss combating the illegal arms trade in Indian Ocean. This region, where criminal organizations sell their arms illegally and where youths do not have proper jobs, cannot move forward in tackling the illegal arms trade due to lack of faith between the state and the people and lack of government intervention in the market. “This issue focus only on a specific region. Other issues are about all around the world. I think it is more effective to solve the problem in a specific area,” said Justin So, delegate of France, explaining why he chose this topic. Zane Kim, the delegate of Libya, reasoned, “Many terrorisms take place in this Indian Ocean region. That caught my attention.” Lobbying in Disarmament committee continued with determined delegates willing to collaborate on measures to limit legal small arms trade in areas of peace, eradicate landmines, and combat the illegal arm trades in the Indian Ocean region.
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Seoyun Yoo
SPT DELIBERATES CONFLICT IN THE KOREAN PENINSULA By: Wendy Kang
Photos by: Angela Ahn
On the first day of the conference, delegates lobbied upon issues that affected the nations of the Six Party Talks. The majority of the delegates aimed to combat the tensions and warfare in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Delegates presented strong opinions in support of the idea that any effort to boost the economy of the peninsula’s northeastern region could not be taken until peace upon the Korean peninsula was achieved. “The issue of conflict within the Korean peninsula is the most pressing matter, especially to my country,” said Ratul Mangal, delegate of Republic of Korea. “Especially because rising hostility between North and South Korea has led to the threat of warfare between the nations. North Korea’s development of weapons of mass destruction as well as the threat of the humanitarian crisis call for the need of countries to cooperate together.” The general consensus between the delegates was that peaceful measures of coercing North and South Korea into cooperating with each other through the unification of the two nations would be the most effective measure, in order to prevent further hostility “China believes that peaceful negotiations between countries is the most efficient measure,” said Shelly Li, delegate of China. “China opts to make treaties with nations with the purpose of reducing hostility between North and South Korea, without threatening China’s sovereignty and economy.” The delegations opted for the establishment of binding measures to persuade North Korea to cooperate due to the instability of the government of DPRK’s past actions when following through with treaties and resolutions by the SPT. “We also opt for the solution of reunification between North and South Korea,” said Ratual
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Edward Hahm
Mangal, delegate of North Korea. “Some possible solutions would be to formulate preventative measures to ensure that the government of DPRK would take liability for their actions, in order to prevent any further hostility between the nations. Viable commitments between nations are necessary for this resolution to be successful.” Delegates focused on the issue of demilitarizing DPRK of arms and weapons of mass destruction. However, the delegate of DPRK agreed to comply with the clauses of the resolution with the condition that they would be given monetary aid as an incentive. “The main aspect the delegates are wanted to focus on was denuclearizing the nuclear weapons in the DPRK,” said Alex Hyun, delegate of Republic of Korea. “All the delegates in SPT are in favor of denuclearizing whereas the DPRK will only agree to the solutions if provided with aid and sanctions are lifted. Therefore, delegates of SPT opt for resolutions that contain clauses that favor all nations.” As the delegates lobbied in order to draft resolutions between nations, negotiations and shared ideas alike were formulated throughout the first day, setting the baseline for future resolutions to be passed.
Photos by: Seongyun Jeong
ADDRESSING THE PRESENCE OF NON-STATE ACTORS IN YEMEN
By: Min Chiang
On the first day of the conference, the Advisory Panel Question Committee divided into three groups and began discussing their respective topics. Experts on the presence of nonstate actors in Yemen came together to formulate a solution for post-war problems in Yemen. The experts focused mainly on fixing governance systems, providing humanitarian aid, advising cooperation, and repairing financial problems. “The major issue in Yemen is caused by a rebel group called the Houthis, who are trying to go against the government,” said Harish Koneru, Assistant President. “Multiple countries are taking sides on this, picking which side they believe is most relevant. There’s no correct answer here because we don’t know which one is morally correct. The Northern part of the government did oppress the Houthis, so what they’re doing now is rebelling. So who needs to be justified and what needs to occur are the topics that are going to essentially be discussed.”
Experts discussed possible resolutions on the clash between the government and rebels, debating the essential issue of the conflict and the need to tackle certain problems. “We are drafting a resolution for the crisis that is happening in Yemen, against the rebellious non-state actors,” said Ariza Subowo, expert of United Kingdom. Most importantly, the Yemeni government needs financial and humanitarian aids. We are currently drafting a resolution in which we can effectively support the government. Considering the violent attacks and wars that have occurred in Yemen, experts examined the urgent need for aids. The catastrophe led to direct consequences on civilians ,making it necessary to provide humanitarian aids and fund the government as well. “We prioritized having clean water and sanitation as a prerequisite and also tackling the coalition led by Saudi Arabia since the nature of the coalition is very destructive,” said Sean Kim, expert of Russian Federation. We are also supporting peace talks between Houthi, alQaeda, and the government of Yemen.” Evaluating the severity of Yemen conflicts, it is thus important to ensure safety by drafting peaceful resolutions. Cooperation between countries will make this process fluent, which will hopefully be possible through the resolution drafted by the committee.
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Krystal Sin
SECURITY IN HOPES TO SOLVE YEMEN SITUATION
By: Emily Oh
On the first day of the conference, delegates of the Security Council (SC) gathered in groups during lobbying time to discuss possible ways to approach and resolve the civil war crisis in Yemen. As an ongoing issue, the conflict has not only claimed the lives of thousands and brought millions to the brink of starvation thus far but has also been labeled as the world’s worst humanitarian crisis by the UN Secretary General Antonio Gutierrez. Consequently, delegates proposed resolutions for providing humanitarian aid to the 22 million citizens—who comprise 75% of the Yemeni population—in need of assistance and protection. “I, like most delegates, am far more concerned with and focused on the humanitarian crisis,” said Carrie Lo, delegate of Germany. “Germany itself has donated significant amounts of money and worked alongside several NGOs in attempts to resolve the the humanitarian situation within the past years,” Photos by: David Lim
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Taki Li
Although delegates were unanimously for humanitarian aid, they had clashing opinions regarding military intervention. While some delegates believed that such intervention was necessary to a certain extent, they did not prioritize a consensus due to time constraints regarding its implementation, whereas others were completely against it. “There should not be many military interventions as they only cause further humanitarian crisis and unnecessary civilian death,” said Isaac Kim, delegate of Poland. “Military intervention is only necessary in two circumstances, more specifically when genocide has occurred and instances in which chemical weapons are used by different parties,” Furthermore, some delegates believed that the committee should focus on peaceful solutions through national dialogue. One proposal suggested a conference in which representatives from different parties—including the Houtishs, president Handi’s government, the Southern Transitional Council, and the Al Qaeda— would be given the chance to find solutions regarding the prevention of further unnecessary humanitarian death. For further discussion on military intervention, delegates thus separated into two reservation boxes, looking forward to fruitful debates in the remaining days of the conference.
HSC CONSIDERS ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS TO CONTROVERSIAL CONFLICTS By: Lyme Cho
On the first day of the conference, the Historical Security Council (HSC) divided into three sections to discuss the following topics: international involvement in the Cambodian and Vietnamese wars, resolving the ethnic and socio-economic crisis in Yugoslavia, and ensuring stability in a post Arab Spring Middle East. Delegates reflected on the issue of Cambodian and Vietnamese conflicts in a historical context of 1970. They considered the various international stances of involvement in these wars, policy, and ideology. Geoffrey Meric, delegate of USSR/Russia, emphasized reducing US military influence from South Vietnam in order to facilitate North Vietnam victory. “It is in the US’s strategic interests to prevent South Vietnam from succumbing to communism, while it is the USSR’s best interests to spread communism,” said Geoffrey. “We’re considering the possibility of Vietnam releasing prisoners of war in exchange for the US’s withdrawal from South Vietnam, or just overseeing US’s removal from South Vietnam to ensure it is complete and carried out in a timely fashion.” The ethnic and socio-economic crisis in Yugoslavia required delegates to refer to the ongoing issue of a partition in the country involving numerous disputes. Most delegates emphasized the importance of minimizing international commitment and discussed the ethnic tensions accomplished through peacekeeping forces and control. “Italy has a neutral stance on this issue,” said Vy Nguyen, delegate of Italy. “We are currently trying to focus on relieving the economic crisis from a humanitarian point of view. Economic aid and establishments of special economic zones are proving to be most useful. We are Photos by: Lauren Kang also considering the implementation, deployment and fund of peace keeping troops, specifically the United Nations Protection Force.” The discussion of ensuring stability in the post Arab Springs crisis further stimulated debate centered on maintaining security of the citizens. Most delegates agreed on the importance of having a stable government to lead countries suffering the crisis. “Egypt is heavily involved in this issue because of its intervention in the Jasmine revolution,” said Maya Provenzano, delegate of Egypt. “Since the international community failed to get involved in this issue and analyze it in depth, we are attempting to discuss its various implications. Some examples are the Libyan crisis, Syrian war, and Egypt revolution.”
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Tin Maung Kyaw
Photo by: Brian Chun
ICJ DISCUSSES CONSTRUCTION OF WALL IN OCCUPIED PALESTINIAN TERRITORY
Photo by: Minsung Kim
By: Teddy Cho
The West Bank barrier is a wall built by the State of Israel to separate Palestinian territories from Israel. The barrier has been a controversial subject and a cause of heightened tensions in the IsraeliPalestinian Conflict. Israel considers it a security barrier against terrorism, while Palestinians call it a racial segregation or apartheid wall. On the first day of the conference, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) debated on whether the barrier is a violation of international law. “The barrier seeks to annex Palestinian land under the guise of security,” said Avedis Sean Asihin, judge of ICJ. “Furthermore, it undermines peace negotiations by unilaterally establishing new borders.”
The barrier was built during the Second Intifada that began in September 2000 and was defended by the Israeli government as necessary to stop the wave of violence inside Israel that the uprising had brought with it. The Israeli government says that the barrier has been effective, as the number of suicide bombings carried out from the
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Erin Lee
West Bank fell from 73 percent in 2000 to 12 percent in 2006. While the barrier was initially presented as a temporary security measure in a time of heightened tensions, it has since been rapidly associated with a future political border between Israel and Palestine. “The route substantially deviates eastward from the Green Line in some places,” said Avedis. “This severely restricts the travel of many Palestinians and impairs their ability to commute to work within the West Bank or to Israel.” For the first session of the International Court of Justice committee, the judges of ICJ debated which evidence should be presumed reliable. The first evidence presented by Avedis regarded the Geneva Convention, which mandates that an occupying power must not deport the locals. “While it is important to consider all facets of the issue, the judges must consider the fact that some documents can be biased and contain information that should not be considered in the council,” said judge Sohum Thadani. “For instance, the document submitted by the Arab League should be considered a biased source judging by the conflict between the Arab League and Israel and should not be considered.” The other judges considered judge Avedis’s evidence to be reliable and relevant. The judges from ICJ continued to debate which pieces of evidence would be reliable and relevant to determining whether the construction of the wall was lawful or unlawful. Although the legality of the wall remains a question, later today, the judges will be holding a session of opinions from the advisory panel and come to a conclusion among themselves.
MUN SUMMER PROGRAMS It’s your first MUN conference. You enter the committee room and settle down in your assigned seat. The head chair officially begins the conference but you have no clue on how to contribute to the conference, so you resort to standing around awkwardly during lobbying time because you don’t know why everyone has suddenly broken out of their formal tone. You begin to wonder: where has everyone learned these skills that I lack? An MUN conference requires both logical speaking skills and strong social skills. It is necessary for all delegates to effectively communicate their ideas with clear supporting arguments regarding the given issue. Posing as a social gathering for students from various countries convening together to draft a single resolution, an MUN conference also demands its participants to develop quick cooperation skills. Due to these compelling requirements, most students participate in MUN summer programs in order to enhance their skills as successful delegates during conferences. “The summer programs are really helpful in making new friends,” said Andie Kim, Deputy Assistant President of the Third Committee. “It creates an intellectually stimulating place to comfortably discuss topics of interest, and allows me to think more deeply about international relations.”
NECESSARY? By: Lyme Cho
On the other hand, some delegates insist that MUN summer programs are not as effective as they appear to be. Despite the invigorating collaborative environment, delegates claim that communication skills and logical thinking cannot be enhanced by programs that simply merge students together with a single issue. “I find the summer camps unnecessary,” said Simon Lee, delegate of France of the Historical Security Council. “MUN is really just about skills you develop individually like researching assigned topics and expressing your ideas in a comprehensive way.” However, in general, most delegates admit that summer programs spark their future aspirations as active MUN participants, further noting their benefits in improving cooperation skills and coherent thinking. “Students find more time during the summer to enhance their cognitive skills through engaging in discussions regarding broader issues,” said Leonard Lee, Assistant President of the Economic and Social Council. “Especially if the programs involve students from diverse cultural backgrounds, it helps in thinking logically from different perspectives.”
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Louis Kim
ONE ITEM I ALWAYS BRING TO MUN ISâ€Ś By: Emily Oh
I always bring an energy drink. It is something I consider as an essential for MUN conferences as it virtually is a basic necessity for my life. I simply cannot make it through the day without the adverse effects of caffeine and an extra energy boost. Photos by: Seongyun Jeong
I always bring my pencil case and have a ring I put on exclusively for MUN conferences. I need a writing utensil, whether it is a pen or pencil or marker, for taking notes on resolutions or doodling in an attempt to keep myself awake.
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Seoyun Yoo
Photos by: Angela Ahn
OPENING CEREMONY THE PERILS OF INDIFFERENCE By: Min Chiang
The annual SEOMUN XXI started off strong with the grand assembly of delegates from all over the world, welcomed by the honorable secretariat team. During the opening ceremony, the theme of this year’s conference, The Perils of Indifference, was introduced to the delegates. As an encouragement to the delegates, Mr. Poullard, the Associate Principal of KIS, pointed out how each delegate’s experience at SEOMUN will impact the future. He implied that everyone at the conference has the possibility to become prominent figures in the future and cause changes in society. His words motivated the delegates to look ahead to the future and to change the world. “Every thought in every idea today is a building block for what you guys will do in the future,” said Anthony Poullard, Associate Principal of Korea International School. “So often you hear that term, ‘the future.’ But literally, all of us in here won’t be in the political arena–some of us will be teachers, lawyers, doctors, and even become businessmen or women. The reality is, we want to encourage you that 20 years from now, taking influence and collective learning together from this weekend, will be paramount to shaping the political, economic, and social environment down the world.” The delegates were inspired by Jiyeon’s speech to actively participate and voice
out their ideas in their respective committees. She mentioned how disenfranchised people in the world were unable to exercise their right to voice out their opinions. Additionally, she highlighted the importance of using the privilege to make changes to help those who are devastated by the silence of the world. “Model United Nations is one of the most effective ways to spread awareness. It carries the ability to shed light on the issues most overlooked in the world,” said Jiyeon Kim, deputy secretary general. There’s so many people in this world who don’t have the right to express what they want to say. I especially want to emphasize the weight of each delegate’s voice and the increasing danger of being indifferent. So today, and throughout the weekend, seize every opportunity to help everyone take a step forward.” Flying all the way across the globe, Mr. Shumlin shared his past experiences as the governor of Vermont. He gained praise for actively fighting against climate change and the welfare of the citizens. He also inspired the delegates to take opportunities of action instead of being indifferent in order to create a better world for all. “You are extraordinarily fortunate to be here today. You’re getting the best education around the world that you can dream of getting,” said Peter Shumlin, former governor of Vermont. “I am here to beg you to trade the perils of indifference through the opportunities of action. Take any idea you have and dedicate some portion of your future to this challenge. Don’t let indifference destroy the future of your kids. We have a responsibility together to replace indifference with action and make this happen. Overall, the opening ceremony was successful in providing insights and ambition for delegates. An hour of inspirational speeches along with a warm welcome allowed delegates to get a fresh start on SEOMUN.
SEOULITE 2018 Layout by: Edward Hahm
Photos by: Lauren Kang, Jangho Yun, Brian Chun Cover Photo by: Katherine Kim
color-copy available online with QR code!