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Oh Captain! My Captain!


Oh Captain! My Captain!


Walt Whitman

Oh Captain! My Captain! Written in 1865 Leaves of Grass

To honor Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States


CONTENTS

Author Walt Whitman 10 Oh Captain! My Captain! 12 Abraham Lincoln 26 The American Civil War 28 Typeface Designer 32 Font Family 34


Poet

Walt Whitman May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892

8


P

oet and journalist Walt Whitman was born on May 31, 1819 in West Hills, New York. Considered one of America's most influential poets, Whitman aimed to transcend traditional epics and eschew normal aesthetic form to mirror the potential freedoms to be found in America. In 1855 he selfpublished the collection Leaves of Grass; the book is now a landmark in American literature, though at the time of its publication it was considered highly controversial. Having continued to produce new editions of Leaves of Grass along with original works, Whitman died on March 26, 1892 in Camden, New Jersey. The American Civil War was the central event of his life. Whitman was a staunch Unionist during the Civil War. He was initially indifferent to Lincoln, but as the war pressed on Whitman came to love the president, though the two men never met.

Well into the twentieth century, thousands of American schoolchildren were required to memorize “O Captain! My Captain!� Even today, the Rail-Splitter and the Good Gray Poet linger in the American memory as intertwined pioneers of American democracy. 9


10


O Captain! Walt Whitman

My To honor

Captain! Abraham Lincoln

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The poem

Our fearful trip is

done, 12


The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won, The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring;

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The poem

But

O heart!

heart!

heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies,

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Fallen cold and

dead. 15


The poem

O

Captain!

My

Captain! rise up and

hear the bells; 16


Rise up for you the flag is flung— for you the bugle trills, for you bouquets and ribbon’d wreaths— for you the shores a-crowding, For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;

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The poem

Here

Captain! Dear

Father! This arm beneath your head!

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It is some dream that on the deck,

You’ve fallen cold and

dead.

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The poem

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still,

My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will,

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The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, its voyage closed and done, From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won;

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The poem

Exult O shores, ring O bells!

and

But I, with mournful tread,

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Walk the deck my Captain lies,

* * * Fallen cold and dead.

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Abraham Lincoln

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Abraham Lincoln February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865

The 16th President of the United States

“Those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves.”

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A

braham Lincoln, a self-taught Illinois lawyer and legislator with a reputation as an eloquent opponent of slavery, shocked many when he overcame several more prominent contenders to win the Republican Party’s nomination for president in 1860. His election that November pushed several Southern states to secede by the time of his inauguration in March 1861, and the Civil War began barely a month later. Contrary to expectations, Lincoln proved to be a shrewd military strategist and a savvy leader during what became the costliest conflict ever fought on American soil. His Emancipation Proclamation, issued in 1863, freed all slaves in the rebellious states and paved the way for slavery’s eventual abolition, while his Gettysburg Address later that year stands as one of the most famous and influential pieces of oratory in American history. In April 1865, with the Union on the brink of victory, Abraham Lincoln was shot and killed by the Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth; his untimely death made him a martyr to the cause of liberty and Union. Over the years Lincoln’s mythic stature has only grown, and he is widely regarded as one of the greatest presidents in the nation’s history.

25


The American Civil War

1861 1865 26


I

n the 1860 presidential election, Republicans, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U.S. territories, something the Southern states viewed as a violation of their constitutional rights and as being part of a plan to eventually abolish slavery. The Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a majority of the electoral votes, and Lincoln was elected the first Republican president, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy. The first six to secede had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, a total of 48.8 percent. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861 inaugural address declared his administration would not initiate civil war. Speaking directly to "the Southern States," he reaffirmed, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at

compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.

H

ostilities began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention. [citation needed] Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, then much of their western armies, and seized New Orleans. The 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg. Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an evertightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower 27

to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to the sea. The last significant battles raged around the Siege of Petersburg. Lee's escape attempt ended with his surrender at Appomattox Court House, on April 9, 1865. While the military war was coming to an end, the political reintegration of the nation was to take another 12 years of the Reconstruction Era.

T

he American Civil War was one of the earliest true industrial wars. Railroads, the telegraph, steamships, and massproduced weapons were employed extensively. The mobilization of civilian factories, mines, shipyards, banks, transportation and food supplies all foreshadowed the impact of industrialization in World War I. It remains the deadliest war in American history. From 1861 to 1865, it has been traditionally estimated that about 620,000 died but recent scholarship argues that 750,000 soldiers died, along with an undetermined number of civilians. By one estimate, the war claimed the lives of 10 percent of all Northern males 20–45 years old, and 30 percent of all Southern white males aged 18–40.


“War is sorrowful, but there is one thing infinitely more horrible than the worst horrors of war, and that is the feeling that nothing is worth fighting for...”

Harper's Weekly, December 31, 1864 “The troops... were chiefly volunteers, who went to the field to uphold the system of free government established by their fathers and which they mean to bequeath to their children.”

Official Record (Union Letters, Orders, Reports) “...I know that the Lord is always on the side of the right; but it is my constant anxiety and prayer that I and this nation may be on the Lord's side.”

Patrick Henry

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The American Civil War April 12, 1861 – May 9, 1865

“...I know that the Lord is always on the side of the right; but it is my constant anxiety and prayer that I and this nation may be on the Lord's side." The first general order issued by the Father of his Country after the Declaration of Independence indicates the spirit in which our institutions were founded and should ever be defended: "The general hopes and trusts that every officer and man will endeavor to live and act as becomes a Christian soldier defending the dearest rights and liberties of his country.”

Abraham Lincoln “We are not fighting for slavery. We are fighting for Independence, and that, or extermination.”

Jefferson Davis “If ye love wealth greater than liberty, the tranquility of servitude greater than the animating contest for freedom, go home from us in peace. We seek not your counsel, nor your arms.”

Samuel Adams

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Miklos Kis 1650 - March 20, 1702

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M

iklós Tótfalusi Kis (Nicholas Kis) was born in Misztótfalu, Hungary, in 1650. He was a Hungarian letter cutter, typeface designer, typographer and printer. Kis was one of the first printers and letter cutters of the Georgian type letters. He made fonts on the request of the Georgian king Archil of Imereti. Today, Miklós is gaining recognition. The typeface Janson, originally attributed to Anton Janson, is belatedly credited to Miklós. Many books published in the last 30-40 years include an afternote about the Type and information about the person(s) creating the type. Brief information about Nicholas Kis’ contribution of Janson type is included the afternote to There’s a Seal in my Sleeping Bag.

Available in eight weights in strong contrasting strokes with a robust form and high legibility, Janson Text was released as a variant of the Janson original in 1985 by Linotype and is a still a popular choice for magazine and book publishers. 31


Font Family

W 32


Janson Text Roman

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Janson Text Roman

JANSON TEXT USAGE Architectural Digest uses Janson Text® in the body text of all its articles. The Office of Publications and Alumni Communication from the University of Missouri use Janson Text in their logo. Janson Text™ is a very popular typeface for books and magazine publications of all types and has been the typeface of choice for many bestselling books.

Janson Text Roman

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Janson Text Roman Bold Tt

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Janson Text Italic

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Font Family

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Janson Text Italic

Now a versatile family of eight weights, this version of JansonÂŽ Text is the most authentic digital version of the Kis types. With its legible, sturdy forms and strong stroke contrast, Janson Text has proved very successful for book and magazine text, and it continues to appear in the ranks of bestselling types.

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Font Family

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Bold Punctuation

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Honoring the dead in the Civil War in America

“Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman’s two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said “the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.” Abraham Lincoln, 2nd Inaugural Address

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THIS book designed, printed and bound by SeonYeong Song. The poem is Oh Captain! My Captain! written by Walt Whitman in 1865. The typeface is Janson designed by Nicholas Kis.


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To honor Abraham Lincoln

Type Specimen Book  

Janson Typeface Specimen Book

Type Specimen Book  

Janson Typeface Specimen Book

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