SPECIES T H E C H A N G I N G FA C E O F M E N
RELATIONSHIPS FAMILY WORK LEISURE TECH TRAVEL HEALTH POLITICS MEDIA
Welcome to Species
In 2007 we commissioned the most comprehensive research study into young men ever conducted in Europe. We wanted to cut through the myths and the clichés to get the real story, and we wanted to hear it first-hand. Our study took us to every corner of Europe, speaking to over 15,000 men aged 25 to 39 as well as to experts from fields as diverse as psychology, economics and tourism. The following year we published our book, Species: A User’s Guide To Young Men, which laid out our extraordinary findings in detail. It remains a hugely powerful tool for anyone seeking to develop their understanding of young men and the most effective way to communicate with them. Since publication, we have continued to track the opinions and attitudes of over 16,000 men at regular intervals, expanding the age range from 18 up to 49 year olds. We have seen some important shifts. Now, five years on from the original study, Europe is feeling like a very different place – economically, politically and socially. We felt it was time to take stock of what has changed for men. Working with 21 experts from across the region and enlisting 80 regular guys in their 20s, 30s and 40s, we have been investigating the results of our tracking survey in more detail. Contrary to the picture often painted in the media, men are not in crisis. But let’s be clear – things have changed for European men over the last five years. From their professional ambitions to their personal relationships and the way they spend their free time, our understanding of what it is to be a man in Europe today has been shaken up once again.
INTRODUCTION 3 LIFESTYLE 4 TECHNOLOGY 6 RELATIONSHIPS 8 WORK & AMBITION 10 ENTERTAINMENT, LEISURE & TRAVEL 12 HEALTH & WELL-BEING 14 POLITICS 16 MEDIA 18 THE UPDATED MINDSETS 19
Fulvia Nicoli SVP EMEA Research, Insight and Innovation Discovery Europe
The original Species book from 2007
OUR EXPERTS & CONTRIBUTORS Agnieszka Golczynska-Grondas Lecturer in Social Psychology University of Lodz, POLAND
Gaute Drevdal NORWAY Editor-in-Chief of SMUG Magazine www.smug.no
Andreas Muller UK Interaction designer & CEO of Nanika www.nanikawa.com
Giovanni Martins NETHERLANDS Art Director of ThisisGio www.thisisgio.com
Andrew McPhee UK Owner of Harmonypark and App+ www.harmonypark.net
Krzysztof Najder POLAND Managing Director of Stratosfera/ Added Value www.stratosfera.com
Andrey Melnikov UKRAINE Sociologist, East Ukraine National University Brett Hetherington SPAIN Journalist and Owner of Standing In A Spanish Doorway www.bretthetherington.blogspot.co.uk Carole Touati SPAIN Owner of LeLook.eu www.lelook.eu Christopher Çolak TURKEY Journalist & Art Director at Manajans-JWT www.manajans-jwt.com Daniel Rakjovic GERMANY Editor and Owner of Bang Bang Berlin Magazine, Gallery + Agency www.bangbangberlin.com Elisabetta Ruspini ITALY Professor of Sociology University of Milano-Bicocca
Lars Jalmert SWEDEN Associate Professor of Psychology University of Stockholm Mans Martensson SWEDEN PR and Social Media Officer The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions Maria Kazmierczak POLAND Professor of Psychology Gdansk University Nicolas Nova UK Researcher and writer in foresight, UX and interaction design at the Near Future Laboratory http://nearfuturelaboratory.com Ric Ferraro SPAIN Co-founder of Mobile Start-up GeoMe www.mobverge.blogspot.com
Shun Louis Bellieni UK Fashion Director at Intersection Magazine www.intersectionmagazine.com Stephan Rabimov RUSSIA Editor-in-Chief & Publisher of Depesha Magazine www.depesha.com Terence Teh UK Global Editor at Satellite Voices www.satellitevoices.com Vijai Maheshwari UKRAINE Owner of B EAST Magazine www.beastnation.com Vuksa Velickovic BALKANS Editor and Owner of Bturn Magazine www.bturn.com Matt Hussey UK Journalist and Cultural Commentator Ewen Haldane UK Senior Innovation Manager Cancer Research UK We’d also like to thank members of the Sense Network & Chorus+Echo www.thesensenetwork.com www.chorusandecho.com
SPECIES T H E C H A N G I N G FA C E O F M E N
TECH RELATIONSHIPS FAMILY WORK LEISURE TRAVEL HEALTH POLITICS MEDIA
MAN THROUGH THE AGES MAN THROUGH THE AGES If the ‘typical’ European man were to exist, how might we summarise his journey from young adulthood to middle age?
In his 20s, faced with a faltering economy and challenging job market, he finds it hard to fly the nest and assume the responsibilities that will announce his entry into manhood. Indeed, he feels disaffected with the politics of a previous generation which have jeopardised his own future. A family and kids will be great one day, but like that dream career, they’ll have to wait for now – best rely on friends instead. He’d be nowhere without his smartphone, but staying connected 24/7 can be exhausting, and sometimes he does wish he could just turn off from the relentless stream of information and social chatter.
Now in his 30s, he’s got a decent job, but he’s still looking for ways to make a living doing what he feels most passionate about. Maybe he’ll start up on his own one day, but with a wife to think about and kid on the way, now is not the time to be taking risks. He’s glad he waited a while before settling down – having lived a little, he’s much more prepared for being dad, and he’s ready to step up to the plate and embrace fatherhood, even if it means putting work on the back-burner for a while.
Our European man has just hit 45, and unfortunately marriage hasn’t worked out. But he still sees the kids all the time and is as keen as ever to support them in every way he can. Despite the upheaval at home, he feels better adjusted to life than he did as a young man – juggling the demands of work and home life seems easier than it used to, and the pressure to be ‘always on’ seems to have receded a little too. It’s a time to take stock, re-evaluate what matters and prepare for a second shot at adulthood – perhaps it’s finally time to make that dream job a reality…
HOW OUR UNDERSTANDING HAS BEEN SHAKEN UP. THE HEADLINES: 1. The financial crisis has held up a generation of young men on their road to manhood – and their frustration is building. 2. More men than ever aspire to fatherhood. The 2007 trend for ‘multi-faceted man’ – more comfortable with domestic responsibilities and emotional responses – has become mainstream reality in 2012. 3. Contrary to popular belief, social media is changing the quantity and quality of men’s friendships for the better. 4. For all its benefits, mobile technology has become an ‘unhealthy addiction’ which leaves some men feeling more like the slave than the master – and surprisingly it’s younger men who feel the most affected and are most keen to switch off. 5. Men are increasingly disaffected with politicians but they are re-engaging with politics, as their belief grows that together with others, they can make a difference.
THE CHANGING FACE OF MEN
HELD UP ON THE ROAD TO MANHOOD The traditional milestones of adulthood – leaving home, building a career, marriage – are taking even longer to reach. For many men, particularly those in their 20s, the protracted journey to manhood is now more a matter of financial necessity than a desirable lifestyle choice. The economic climate is keeping men in their 20s in education, in their parents’ homes or in low-paid jobs, and preventing them from taking steps to financial independence. And with banks reluctant to extend credit lines, borrowing money against future earnings is not an option either. Five years ago, young men may have been more enthused by a longer period of stay-at-home ‘kidulthood’, free from adult responsibilities and chores. But now, the stagnant job market in many parts of Europe has seen attitudes polarising between those who have resigned themselves to the status quo and feel powerless to do much about it, and others who are increasingly frustrated and driven to take action (either politically or by migrating in search of work). Staying at home for longer is placing strain on family relationships too, as parents struggle to cope with the financial burden of continuing to support their children.
“The stages of man haven’t changed, but they have become elongated.” Mans Martensson, PR and Social Media Officer, Sweden “Young people were obliged to go back to their parents in Spain because of the harsh economic situation. From that point, everything is postponed: having a stable relationship, buying a house, and having a child.” Carole Touati, Owner of Le Look Online, Spain “The older middle classes who used to support their children into adulthood are also suffering and can’t do it any more.” Daniel Rakjovic, Editor and Owner of Bang Bang Berlin
BACK TO SQUARE ONE
The road to manhood is not one way. As men hit their 40s, many face the heartache of divorce and family break-up. At work, as the economy struggles, they are dealing with redundancy and the prospect of dwindling pensions, which can lead them to wholly re-evaluate their lifestyle and ambitions. Suddenly, men who had it all can find themselves back to square one, renegotiating key steps in life.
WE FOUND OUT...
The Balancing Act – still finely poised In 2007 we highlighted the difficulties for the multi-faceted man to achieve a balance between work, family and play. From securing paternity leave to the stigma of requesting flexible working hours, men can feel pressurised to prioritise their working lives over a home life – ultimately feeling they have very little time left for themselves. “The increased complexity of the world is affecting men to a large extent, I think. Men start to face those problems women faced decades ago, finding it hard to manage work, family and their spare time. This puts stress on relationships and on health too.” Magnus, 44, Sweden But the balance does seem to be tipping in men’s favour. Our data suggests overall that men are faring better, with fewer saying they find it difficult to find time to do things purely for themselves.
1 in 5 men in their 30’s and 40’s say that their lifestage is about being free of responsibilities and exploring.
WE FOUND OUT...
However, amid a hectic schedule of work, family, social engagements and the intrusion of digital media, that still leaves a third of men in every age group facing similar demands on their time to those traditionally faced by women, struggling to commit time and energy to doing the things they love. “I’ve found more and more now that it’s harder to find the time and energy to do the things I like to do. I think that men are relaxing more and doing less because of the level of stress and mental strain during the week.” Staffan, 28, Sweden
1 in 3 men say it’s difficult to find time to do things purely for themselves, but this is down by 8% since 2009.
“The increase of choices is almost reaching the point of pollution. Everything is potentially the object of being ‘optimised’.” Hannes, 28, Germany
THE CHANGING FACE OF MEN
Digitally doing more, and faster than ever No area of men’s lives has seen a greater pace of change in the last five years than technology. And men are embracing the new possibilities it brings with it: they spend more time than ever online; they rely heavily on their phone as a hub for their personal and professional networks; they enjoy access to content at increasingly faster speeds and lower prices. Hyper-connectivity comes with its own set of associated behaviours, and these are shaping the way men live their lives on an everyday basis and defining their expectations around what technology should do for them.
“ONE BIG CHANGE IS DEFINITELY THE MULTIPLICITY OF DEVICES PEOPLE ARE USING, A SIDE-EFFECT OF WHICH IS MORE DEVELOPED MULTI-TASKING BEHAVIOUR.” NICOLAS NOVA, CONSULTANT AND RESEARCHER AT NEAR FUTURE LABORATORY, EUROPE
Gone are the days when men revelled in their mastery of complex consumer electronics; today they expect technology simply to integrate seamlessly into their world. It’s got to be easy to use and it’s got to work, fast. And with numerous devices simultaneously vying for their attention and multi-screening now upon us, men are becoming proficient multi-taskers too, as they attempt to stay afloat in the sea of information.
UNDER PRESSURE TO KNOW MORE The instinct of the Information HunterGatherer is still alive in men of all ages, but with resources now so huge and readily available – and new ‘must-have’ mobile apps appearing virtually every day – they find it increasingly challenging to separate the wheat from the chaff.
The availability and rate of technology adoption in Northern and Western Europe mean that ease and speed of use have already become hygiene factors for men living in these regions. These men expect technology to be useful, fast and simple to use and to ‘make them better men’.
For men we spoke to, this is the age of the headline, in which the very definition of ‘quality information’ has changed, with the emphasis now firmly on immediacy and digestibility. The sheer wealth of information available puts pressure on men to know more – or at least enough to save face – and to know it first. Knowledge has become a source of personal validation that affects self-esteem both on and offline. Social media serves as a constant reminder of the knowledge and achievements of others.
Time is of the essence, and men are creating strategies and using tools to keep themselves ahead of the curve.
Andrew McPhee, CEO Harmony Park, UK “Technology is about making you better. It’s not just the ‘useful’ things it can do, your phone can actually teach you how to be better now.”
“Sites that provide curation, cherry picking the internet for men, have exploded.”
Matt Hussey, Journalist, UK
Matt Hussey, Journalist, UK
‘THE WEB HAS OPENED UP POSSIBILITIES – I FEEL LIKE ANYTHING IS POSSIBLE’ (Men aged 18-49) Russia 79%
“PHONE+LAPTOP+IPAD IS THE NEW DEAL. WHEN I’M ON A TRIP, I’M ON SKYPE ON IPHONE WITH MY WIFE, WHILE AT THE SAME TIME WE BOTH HAVE OUR LAPTOPS OPEN, OFTEN WITH CHATS GOING ON SIMULTANEOUSLY.” VUKSA VELICKOVIC, EDITOR AND OWNER OF BTURN MAGAZINE, BALKANS
Poland 76% Italy 71% Netherlands 67% UK 64% Denmark 63% Sweden 60%
WE FOUND OUT... Two-thirds of men say that they love technology because it enables them to live their life to the full.
“We have trained ourselves to jump constantly from topic to topic – reading a piece of long fiction, writing a personal message of meaningful length, these things are already bordering on retro behaviour.”
Spain 60% Norway 58% Germany 49%
Time to turn off? In Eastern Europe, particularly Russia and Ukraine, enthusiasm for the tech revolution and the wealth of entertainment and unfiltered information it brings with it remains as high as ever. But further to the west, there are signs that some are tiring of the relentless march towards all-pervasive technology. Men are beginning to cite an ‘unhealthy addiction’ to technology, and an increasingly ambiguous relationship in which it can be unclear who is the master and who is the slave.
Photo by Julia Holmwood via Flickr
“Technology has changed a lot – it has become way more invasive. I cannot go one hour without checking my Facebook or my emails on my smartphone. It has become almost an addiction and I do not like it anymore. Technology should be more ancillary to life than it is right now.” Stefano, 28, Italy
Tech is supposed to make our lives easier, but for some of the men we spoke to, it is starting to do the opposite: serving up a never-ending slew of content and conversation that makes the balancing act even harder. The deluge can be exhausting, and they are already nostalgic for a more ‘analogue’ existence, one where it’s OK to switch the phone off, at least some of the time.
We might expect men under 30 to be better adjusted to a lifestyle pervaded by mobile technology, but in fact the opposite is true – it is those in this age group whose lives are most saturated by smartphones and social media, and are consequently most susceptible to feelings of technology burnout. “Interestingly, most of the time, technologies lead to new decisions that we never really had to take. For instance, choosing a TV channel among 350 possibilities is generally painful. More and more microdecisions have to be made every day, and it can be tiring.”
We predict that men will start developing a number of ways to confront their addiction, reassert their independence and retake control of their lives in the here and now, away from the chaotic chatter of social media. “Phone usage is much more intense amongst younger demographics than older demographics and so if you imagine this ‘finite resource’ in terms of your ability to handle technology, they’re burning through it quicker than the guy in his forties.” Matt Hussey, Journalist, UK
Nicolas Nova, Researcher and Writer at Near Future Laboratory THE CHANGING FACE OF MEN
Friendships are changing in the digital era… for the better Nurturing their softer side Men continue to report that equality, openness and balance are critical to their relationships, and this includes taking equal responsibility for domestic and parental duties. Demands on men are diversifying: they are expected to exude traditional aspects of manliness – strength, wisdom and independence – and be more emotionally intelligent and highly sensitive to the needs of those around them, particularly their partner. Women, meanwhile, delay motherhood and compete with men for jobs that men might once have taken for granted. As this trend continues and gender roles become ever more blurred, being able to balance all of these demands will be ever more critical to male self-esteem and successful romantic relationships.
“I think men and women have exchanged places: in the past women were ready for children at a young age and men usually wanted to build a career; now men would like to have children and women want to build a career at first.”
Social media has profoundly changed the way men navigate their friendship networks, by encouraging the regular ‘small-talk’ which social psychologists say is essential to build and maintain relationships. As men get held up on the road to manhood, they continue to lean heavily on their friends for emotional support, with a third of men in their 20s claiming to rely on the support of their friends more than anyone else in their life. Social media has profoundly changed the way men navigate their friendship networks, by encouraging the regular ‘small-talk’ which social psychologists say is essential to build and maintain relationships. The quantity and quality of men’s friendships are changing in the digital era… for the better. From sharing links and arranging meet-ups right down to remembering the birthdays of more distant friends, social media has empowered men to take control of their social lives and forge deeper relationships with more people than ever before, rather than delegating this responsibility to their female partners.
“Although Facebook friends and Twitter followers are different than real friends, the contacts you make can be a fantastic resource and make the world feel so much smaller.” Eddy, 44, Netherlands
Alex, 23, Ukraine
WE FOUND OUT... 83% of European men strongly agree that ‘a relationship needs to be about balance and openly discussing issues.’
RISE OF THE PROFESSIONAL NETWORK In an increasingly dynamic workplace where the ‘job for life’ has become an endangered species, young men are spending more time cultivating their professional relationships than ever before. Reputation management is becoming critical, with sites such as Klout tapping into this need by allowing users to see just how effectively they are forging connections on social media. From online address books such as LinkedIn and Facebook to local face-to-face networking events, mixing business and leisure is not merely a shrewd strategy but also a way of life for many European men. Norway might be the exception here, where professional and personal life is kept strictly separate and it remains relatively rare to socialise with colleagues out of working hours. “Having a good network of relationships is important for both my personal and my professional development.” Michelangelo, 30, Turkey
Fathers take centre stage The proportion of men under 40 declaring that what they want most in life is to have and raise children increased by 5 points to 45% between 2009 and 2011. Fatherhood has never been so much in the public eye. Politicians don’t just kiss other people’s babies – they tote their own youngsters on public outings. Celebrity dads from actors to footballers are happy to be photographed pushing buggies. It’s definitely cool to be a dad. Around Europe, discussions regarding paternity leave for men are in full flow and men are re-evaluating their approach to fatherhood, work-life balance and the division of parental duties, including who goes out to work. The economic crisis and resulting job losses for men has forced many families to take a new approach to the division of labour and childcare, and it’s increasingly common for men to take on the primary childcare role.
“I would love to be a dad. Having a child shows that you have a child-like side, but also it shows that you are in touch with the multi-tasking environment of modern society. There is noone designated to be at home anymore, we all share responsibility – I think that is pretty cool.”
Men around Europe are very publicly stepping up to the challenge of fatherhood, spending more time with their young children and benefitting from a deep emotional connection with them as a result. Northern Europe has led the way: in Sweden, “Lattepappors” (“cappuccino dads”*) are the ones who look after their kids while their partners go to work. Even in more conservative Eastern European countries, men are happy to be seen actively looking after their young children. Buzzwords aside, men are serious about the responsibilities of fatherhood, and many of those we spoke to were keen to stress the importance of getting broad life experience – and financial stability – before taking on the challenge.
*Richard Holt, Rise of London Lattepapas, Evening Standard, 2 April 2012
“If you want to be a good father, you need to get some life experience. The experience of being a father is a very demanding test for your personality – children are not just another gadget.” Daniel, 27, Poland
WE FOUND OUT... Only 15% of men want to put off responsibilities like marriage and children for as long as possible, down from 20% in 2009. WHAT I WANT MOST IN LIFE IS TO HAVE AND RAISE CHILDREN. % AGREEING
Carl, 28, Sweden “Men are getting used to taking care of children at home because their wives and girlfriends are still at work.” Inigo, 27, Spain
NOBODY TODAY ISED TO PR RS IS SUR FATHE THE YOUNG IN TWO PR AMS GO YOU SEE WITH A G S WALK IN TEN YEA R IN THIS BUT , K WOMEN R A P SEE . ONLY WOULD SITUATION K ACZ YNS , OL G A K IST Z G AGNIES , SOCIOLO GRONDASPOLAND
THE CHANGING FACE OF MEN
WORK AND AMBITION
Economic reality check Across Europe, the percentage of men agreeing that having an interesting job is a top priority has risen by 8 points to 78%. Our data suggests that it is men in Eastern Europe that are driving this increase with a profound generational shift in what men expect from their working lives as they realise that they no longer have to view their work as just a ‘means to an end’. However, younger men in particular have had to lower their expectations when it comes to getting a great job, as they enter the workplace at an incredibly unstable time. For many, this means taking a job they feel over-qualified for – which can be a damaging blow to their self-esteem. Job satisfaction remains the ultimate goal, but men recognise that the immediate need to get a job to pay the bills has to take precedence in the short term. Indeed, even in Russia, where the appetite for job satisfaction is so high, many of the men we spoke to were resigned to putting their more ambitious career goals on hold for the time being.
I WORRY THAT IF I LOST MY JOB I WOULD BE UNABLE TO FIND ANOTHER SIMILAR 0
SPAIN UK GERMANY SWEDEN POLAND ITALY NORWAY NETHERLANDS DENMARK RUSSIA
54% 41% 39% 29% 29% 28% 27% 27% 25% 23%
The best thing to do is stick with what you have (even if you don’t love your current job that much), try to search for new opportunities and wait for the storm to end. Stefano, 24, Italy
RUSSIA DENMARK NORWAY NETHERLANDS SWEDEN ITALY POLAND SPAIN UK GERMANY
“I think it is very important to make money from work that I like doing and my friends think the same thing. Most managed to find their dream job, and I believe that I can make it. The problem is when there is no market for your work, so I try to think globally, which in our times is very easy.” Daniel, 27, Poland
I WOULD LIKE TO BE MY OWN BOSS ONE DAY (Men aged 18-49)
THE MOST IMPORTANT THING FOR ME TO DO IS A JOB I AM INTERESTED IN 80
93% 83% 79% 76% 76% 69% 69% 67% 62% 56%
RUSSIA POLAND ITALY SPAIN NORWAY UK SWEDEN DENMARK GERMANY NETHERLANDS
78% 71% 63% 56% 53% 53% 49% 47% 38% 34%
“The difference between 20 year olds and 35 year olds is so pronounced it’s almost like speaking to people from two different countries.” Krzysztof Najder, Managing Director of Stratosfera/Added Value, Poland
WE FOUND OUT... The more that men worry about losing their job, the less likely they are to prioritise having a job they enjoy.
NEW WAYS OF WORKING Increasingly, men are seeking to define themselves not by the job they do, but rather by the things they are really most passionate about. They are dealing with the twin pressures of achieving job satisfaction and financial reward by refusing to commit to a single career path. Thanks to the democratising power of technology and inspired by a new generation of digital entrepreneurs, men are exploring ways of expressing themselves more fully in their working lives. The line between the professional and the expert hobbyist is narrowing all the time. In practice this often means working hard in a professional capacity in order to fund other projects (which may or may not make money), or getting creative and starting
entrepreneurial ventures on their own. It also often means having more than one job, and therefore more than one area of professional expertise. However they choose to do it, many of the men we spoke to felt a growing confidence in their ability to bridge the gap between their creative impulses and financial imperatives. Now that they have tasted the independence and flexibility of these new ways of working, could the corporate rat race have lost its lustre once and for all for this generation of young men in Europe?
“What you now see are men all over Germany starting a record label, working on a project whilst also having to work in a bar to make ends meet.” Daniel Rakjovic, Owner of Bang Bang Berlin, Germany
If men are open-minded about what they do, they are also increasingly open-minded about where they do it. Fifty per cent of men in their 20s would move far from home if this would benefit their career or lifestyle, with men in Eastern Europe particularly open to looking for opportunities far from home. For young men in 2012, the workplace is global – as they become increasingly aware of the career opportunities and standard of living available elsewhere in the world, their desire to go in search of a better life for themselves grows in response.
“There are more and more men realising that they can make a living that they enjoy by exploring non-traditional routes. The age old idea of working in a job you aren’t in love with, then reaching a level of independence where you can duck out, seems to be changing.” Terence Teh, Global Editor of Satellite Voices
Status – not just about the money Since 2009, average income in real terms has fallen, but men’s satisfaction with how much they earn has actually remained stable. This suggests that while many men will have felt the reality of challenging economic times, they have adjusted their expectations accordingly and revised their attitudes towards the role of money in their lives. With money not flowing quite so freely, measures of success have shifted subtly
as men look for other ways to express their status. Traditional symbols of status – such as expensive cars, clothes, gadgets and even an attractive woman on the arm – are still potent, particularly in Eastern and Southern Europe. In Northern and Western Europe, social status is harder to assess by outward displays of wealth alone. Many men in these countries value less material indicators of
“In my opinion the most important status symbol a man can have is a beautiful woman. For Norwegian men, having a flashy car comes second to having a flashy girlfriend or wife.”
“I believe a family who loves and respects you, your health, and enjoying life are classic representations of status. To me everything else is vapid and without any soul.”
Sjur, 39, Norway
Tom, 32, UK
status, such as sophistication, expertise, life experience and even simply having the time to explore the things that interest them – all the more so now they find themselves having to settle for jobs beneath their level of education. When money is hard to come by, it seems that men rely on their superior wisdom to set themselves apart from their peers.
“Status is a useful and positive way of balancing less financially rewarding jobs and relationships. Many people put this at the core of their professional lives.” Shun Louis Bellieni, Fashion Director at Intersection Magazine
“I do think that free time is the biggest status symbol you can have nowadays, because we are constantly trying to earn more money but we also need time to spend that money.” Ryan, 28, Netherlands
THE CHANGING FACE OF MEN
ENTERTAINMENT / TRAVEL / LEISURE
Micro ME-TIME It would be natural to assume that as men grow older, their ‘me-time’ would feel increasingly under threat, as the responsibilities of having a family and career slowly eat away at time they would once have had for themselves. Surprisingly our data suggests the opposite. Younger men actually place more value on me-time than older men, with 66% of men under 30 agreeing they ‘like to tune out and do my own thing’ versus just 51% of men in their 40s. Perhaps these statistics make more sense than first appears. After all, it is the under 30s who are part of the ‘always on’ generation, engaged in an exhausting routine of perpetual social activity. Little wonder they seek refuge from all the noise from time to time. “When you are stressed or just want to relax, that’s the time when technology should disappear. I turn off my mobile phone sometimes, to make sure nobody brings me back to the stress of real life, not even for a beer.” Inigo, 27, Spain
“‘ME TIME’ IS TIME WHEN YOU’RE SOLELY DOING THE THING THAT YOU HAVE CHOSEN TO DO…WITH PUSH NOTIFICATIONS ON SMARTPHONES, IT’S VERY DIFFICULT TO FEEL THAT YOU EVER HAVE TIME JUST FOR YOURSELF” MATT HUSSEY, JOURNALIST, UK
Me-time which takes a whole afternoon is falling out of favour, even among men with the money – witness the fall in golf club memberships REPORTED BY KPMG’S ‘Golf Business Community Paper’ 2012
However, across all ages, only a third of men agree that they struggle to find time to do things purely for themselves. So how are they managing to find time for me-time? It might just be that men are increasingly enjoying their free time in bite-size pieces – getting their fix of me-time as they spend a few minutes online at work, or catch up with a show on a smartphone during the daily commute. ”I’m learning guitar so on my phone I have guitar lessons and a tuner and I watch videos that teach me how to play” Dave, 31, UK “In general, it would be nice to have the opportunity to be “less” or “zero” digital during my spare time.” Michelangelo, 30, Turkey
Wisdom means breadth and depth
Travel: Mixing work with leisure
The need men feel to ‘understand why things happen’ remains consistent through their adult life, and across all age groups men desire to couple broad knowledge with expertise in a specific area.
For men in Eastern Europe, where the cost of flights and accommodation is still disproportionately large compared to average monthly salaries, travel is still highly aspirational.
In Eastern Europe, however, where men are connecting with the lifestyle of conspicuous consumption, they aspire to expertise and knowledge of luxury products.
Understanding the world around them is hugely empowering for men, and whatever their age, they continue to devote much of their leisure time to learning new things. In Northern and Western Europe, traditional ‘lads mags’ are facing falling readership and publishers are seeing success with titles which celebrate expertise across diverse areas of interest for men, such as tech, design, style and travel.
“I think that for most people in Poland tangible goods such as cars, designer clothes and technical gadgets such as telephones, computers and big screen TVs are important. The Poles are people who like to buy and to show.”
“What I see around me is that people are trying to develop themselves in every possible way, through travel, work, or being an expert in something.”
Daniel, 27, Poland
Carlo, 32, Italy “Spending time on your muscles is almost a childish thing to do in Norway. You show off your masculinity by being the best of the best in a particular field.” Gaute Dreval, Editor-in-Chief of SMUG Magazine, Norway
“Ukrainian Esquire launched in 2012... there’s more movement towards cigar bars, wine tastings, niche cuisine and so forth. Men were a lot less sophisticated five years ago.” Vijai Maheshwari, Editor of BEAST Magazine, Ukraine
“In a way, travelling has become a way of achieving social prestige.” Vuksa Velickovic, Editor and Owner of Bturn Magazine, BALKANS
In Northern and Western Europe, travel isn’t the de facto status symbol for men that it was 5 years ago. The barriers to travel have never been so low, with the result that many men here view travel as more of a right than a privilege. Those men who can afford to travel are doing so more regularly, and they often mix work and pleasure, strengthening professional networks and enjoying the sights and sounds of new places during the same trip. “The concept of travel has become intertwined with work and opportunity for the last couple of years, even when travelling ‘for leisure’.” Giovanni Martins, Art Director, Netherlands
SS RU IA
77% ITALY UK
“It’s no secret that virtual and real world travel is a hugely important aspect to open the door for further opportunities in work and relationships.” Terence Teh, Global Editor at Satellite Voices, Europe
MA ER N
MA EN R
IT’S IMPORTANT FOR ME TO UNDERSTAND THE BACKGROUND AS TO WHY THINGS HAPPEN (Men aged 18-49)
WE FOUND OUT... The number of European men stating that when they go on holiday, they just want to eat, drink and lie in the sun increased from 1 in 4 to 1 in 3 between 2009-2011. THE CHANGING 13 FACE OF MEN
health & wellbeing
The rugged man in the mirror
Looking attractive continues to be important for men, especially for those under 30, with a growing proportion strongly agreeing that it’s important to look your best and take care of yourself. And when it comes to ageing, men are as keen as ever to appear younger for longer, spending money on skincare in a bid to keep the clock moving slowly. But are we seeing a shift in what ‘attractive’ means for men in 2012? Cosmetics giant L’Oréal certainly thinks so, hiring the weathered and by no means fresh-faced Hugh ‘House’ Laurie as their new poster boy. City streets around Europe have seen a marked increase in the number of men sporting beards, or at least a little more stubble than they used to. As men increasingly find themselves required to take on roles in their everyday lives that have traditionally been reserved for women,
”MEN WA NT TO BE AT T R AC TIVE A ND HAVE AT T R AC TIVE JOB S UP UNTIL THE Y’RE 50 Y E A RS O L D E V EN G U Y . S W HO A R E 25 A RE A BOU T NO CARING T LOOK IN G OLD WH THE Y’RE 3 EN 5 BY BU YIN G CRE A M S.” G AU T E DR E VA L, EDIT O R -I NCHIEF SM U G M AG A ZINE, NORWAY
FIVE YEARS AGO, MEN STARTED TO BUY MORE SKINCARE PRODUCTS. THE ‘METROSEXUAL’ TREND HAD A GREAT IMPACT AND YOU COULD SEE GUYS STARTING PLUCKING THEIR EYEBROWS, USING SELF-TANNING CREAMS. WITH THE ECONOMIC SITUATION THOUGH, THE CONTRARY IS HAPPENING NOW, AND MEN ARE CUTTING THEIR COSMETICS EXPENSES. CAROLE TOUATI, OWNER OF LE LOOK ONLINE, SPAIN
physical appearance is one area where men feel able to reassert their masculinity – which means a move away from metrosexuality and excessive grooming towards a more rugged, more obviously male look.
WE FOUND OUT... 52% of men agree it’s important to look your best and take care of yourself, up 4 percentage points since 2009.
On a practical level, some men are having to cut back on unnecessary expenses during the economic downturn, and cosmetics can be the first to go. Time for a line of more affordable cosmetics for men, perhaps. One thing is for sure: this vogue for retrosexuality is only skin deep. Looking manly is one thing, but in their personal lives men are pulled in the opposite direction – emotional sensitivity is mandatory, whether they pluck their eyebrows or not.
ABOUT “IT’S NOT HEALTHY ILY FREAK . THE BEING THE GYM CAN TO TED C -ATHLETES R OR ADDI THEI THAT NON IS ISE INTO REAM POINT E X E RC E C INTRODU IT’S A MAINST TOO – LIVES .“ DAILY ACTIVITY EDITOR AT AL B , GLO PE CE TEH , EURO EN R ES TE VOIC SATELLITE
HEALTH & FITNESS: TIME TO TAKE CONTROL Coupled with the stringent alcohol and smoking legislation that has swept across Europe, widespread health campaigns such as Movember have brought the issue of well-being into sharp focus for men of all ages. Indeed, in 2012, the Global Journal listed Movember as one of the top 100 NGOs in the world (theglobaljournal.net).
Men are more aware than ever of what it takes to lead a healthy lifestyle. Whereas five years ago they knew what they had to do but were reluctant to do it, now they are taking much more responsibility. Self-monitoring technology such as the Nike Fuelband taps into men’s desire to understand how things work, and makes it easier to men to keep track of what’s going on inside their bodies.
New restrictive laws on alcohol consumption are perceived to be having a positive effect: “Men are concentrating more on family matters and relationships. They are taking good care of their health, doing sport, going to the gym, as well as drinking and smoking less. You see less drunk people on the streets.” Eric, 26, Russia
I DON’T LOOK AFTER MY HEALTH AS MUCH AS I SHOULD (% AGREE) (Male aged 18-49) 0
Matt Hussey, Journalist, UK “I have created a running club that consists of my customers, friends and family.” Ryan, 28, Netherlands
RUSSIA POLAND DENMARK SWEDEN UK GERMANY NORWAY SPAIN ITALY NETHERLANDS
In keeping with the return to a less preening mode of masculinity, staying fit and healthy is the order of the day, rather than flexing muscles in the weights room. Exercise can be a struggle at times, as many men find they simply don’t have the time to be ‘addicted to the gym’, so instead they are making attempts to fit their workouts around the rest of their busy schedule. Combine this attitude with the tough economic landscape and it’s little wonder that pay-as-you-go gyms are on the rise throughout Europe.
“Being in shape is part of ‘brand you’. Men are expected to be the complete package. Earning money isn’t attractive or enough to make a man attractive anymore.”
Men are appreciating forms of exercise that allow them to set their sights on a tangible goal. Long-distance running, cycling and swimming – culminating in competitive events – offer just that, as well as the chance for some much-coveted me-time. Men are paying more attention than ever to what they put into their bodies, and for many this means taking control in the kitchen too. Indeed, cooking ticks more than one box for modern man. It’s an opportunity to keep a closer eye on their diet, and also to master a complex skill to impress friends, partner and family.
“GYM PARTICIPATION FOR MEN IS DOWN, BUT PARTICIPATION IN EVENTS LIKE IRONMAN AND TRIATHLONS ARE UP. THINGS THAT REQUIRE A HUGE PHYSICAL EXERTION HAVE GROWN 10% YEAR ON YEAR HERE, THE LONDON TRIATHLON IS THE BIGGEST TRIATHLON IN THE WORLD… MEN ARE FAR MORE RESPONSIVE TO GOALORIENTED EXERCISE” MATT HUSSEY, JOURNALIST, UK
WE FOUND OUT...
The demand for low cost, flexible fitness options is evidenced by easyGroup’s entrance into the marketplace with plans to open as many as 1,500 pay-as-you-go easyGyms across Europe in the next 5 years.
THE CHANGING FACE OF MEN
Politics in Crisis It has been a truly turbulent five years in European politics. The financial crisis has refocused men’s attention on the very real impact government can have on their lives. It has also served as a reminder that institutional politics frequently fails to bring about significant positive change where it is needed most. Our data corroborates data from other sources, showing that men of all ages have become still more distrusting of politicians and the parties they represent [European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2012]. Even those in countries less severely affected feel a strong sense of disillusionment with those in power.
“Our studies show there has been a huge nosedive in trust in politicians at local, national and regional levels since 2007. it’s the same throughout the European union.” Mans Martensson, PR and Social Media Officer, The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, SWEDEN
THE CAL POLITI TURNED HAS FROM TIDE – MEN R TO FO ATHY . P A TION C E FF DISA
angry young men Sometimes the disaffection spills over. The London riots of 2011 were symptomatic of a young generation that feels dislocated from mainstream society. Meanwhile in Spain, The Indignant Ones have shown their dissatisfaction through the 15-M demonstrations. In many parts of Southern and Eastern Europe, frustration with political instability, austerity measures, a shrinking public sector and consequent unemployment are driving young men to seek a radically different future at the extremes of the political spectrum, both left and right. As the Eurozone project comes under ever greater strain, many men are turning their back on the idea of a unified European state in favour of ultra-conservative nationalist causes, many of which are intolerant of ethnic and sexual minority groups. Whilst acceptance of sexual minorities continues to grow in Northern and Western Europe, public displays of homosexuality in Eastern and Southern Europe still frequently have violent repercussions.
Photo by Ken Fager via Flickr http://kenfager.com
“People are disillusioned and tired of it all. The only ones who are ‘engaged’ and organised are the extreme right organisations (all of them anti-EU and pro-Russia). On the other hand, a number of average Joes, who would have been pro-EU five years ago, are gradually changing their stance.” Vuksa Velickovic, Editor and Owner of Bturn Magazine, UKRAINE
political apptivists If politicians seem impotent in the face of society’s biggest challenges, the Arab Spring, the Occupy movement and 15-M in Spain have given regular guys renewed belief in their ability to bring about meaningful change, collectively. While this belief decreases with age, almost half of all men still have confidence that together with others they can make a difference. In the age of political apptivism, social media makes it easier than ever for men to participate in politics, from token gestures such as ‘liking’ a group or a comment, to quickly mobilising grassroots movements with others who feel equally passionate about the same causes.
Technology is certainly helping their cause, slowly dissipating the smokescreen that has traditionally surrounded politicians and their policies. More and more data is available for all to see and share, and Twitter has brought politicians into direct dialogue with the people they serve. Indeed, groups such as Anonymous and the Pirate Party in Germany are making political transparency in the digital age central to their mandate. Men in their 40s may scoff at the politicians on their blackberries, but direct communication between those who make the policies and those affected by them looks set to increase.
“Technology has changed the way we communicate, but other things that need to change, such as politics, are yet to do so.” Jésus, Spain, 32
“We are witnessing the rise of ‘political apptivism’. We are starting to use apps and web services to better understand and track data and policies on issues we care about. Political force is now being wielded by online communities that are comprised mostly of young men.” Andrew McPhee, CEO Harmony Park, UK
“People want to bring about change in their lives by actively participating in elections – a phenomenon that was not there 5 years ago, when people would have rather spent their weekends among family and friends than attend political meetings.” Eric, 26, Russia
THE CHANGING FACE OF MEN
TV AND MEDIA BEHAVIOURS
Television dead? Not likely Not so long ago there was just one screen in men’s lives: the TV. Now they’re surrounded by laptops, smartphones and tablets. With the opportunity to watch programmes on so many screens, and the constant draw of the Internet, the death of TV has been predicted and even announced. The reality could not be further from the truth.
TV is stronger than ever
The resilience of the TV schedule
TV consumption across Europe has increased consistently over the last two years. Laptops, and to a lesser extent mobile devices, have given men more choice as to how and when they watch TV. However the TV set remains central to men’s viewing habits, whereas other devices are employed to augment and complement their viewing hours.
Despite the number and variety of viewing methods that are available to men, scheduled broadcasts are still the most popular form of watching TV. Perhaps this is no surprise given that sporting events and regular shows provide men with the material for water-cooler moments and increasingly fuel their digital dialogue. Men don’t want to miss out on the conversation, with 95% of all time-shifted viewing done within 24 hours of the first schedule, often just half an hour later or a few minutes after the programme broadcasts live. As the recordbreaking London 2012 Olympics viewing figures show, live broadcasts still have the power to draw in whole nations. 27.3 million watched the opening ceremony in the UK alone.
“I record a lot of TV, so I can view it in clumps rather than sitting about watching rubbish waiting for my programme to come on.” David, 32, UK
“I never used to watch TV. Now I will download and watch an entire series on my laptop within a couple of days. The content is almost always peer filtered to ensure quality. The speed at which I would expect to access new content has also increased (to an almost absurd level).” Andrew McPhee, CEO Harmony Park, UK
“TV is still the most dominant media in Serbia, both as a source of information and entertainment.” Vuksa Velickovic, Bturn magazine, BALKANS
‘Online viewing of a programme peaks within a day of that programme airing on TV.’ Matthias Büchs of RTLNow (video-streaming)
GERMANY TV has introduced me to things I wouldn’t have discovered otherwise
‘In British homes with a Sky+ box, which allows for easy recording of programmes, almost 85% of television shows are viewed at the time the broadcasters see fit to air them.’ THE ECONOMIST
EVOLUTION OF THE MINDSETS
TV – more social than ever As men increasingly share their lives through social networks, it’s a natural progression towards TV-related conversation online. After all, TV has always been a social and shared experience. The act of commenting on a TV programme via a social networking site during a broadcast is so commonplace that it even has a name – dubbed ‘chatterboxing’ in the UK. Programme makers across Europe have developed content to tap into this behaviour. Chatterboxing is driving ‘appointment to view’ TV and is being facilitated by the smartphones and laptops that men have within an arm’s reach of the sofa. And it’s men rather than women who are more likely to agree that they often talk about programmes through social media. Nobody wants to miss out on the conversation and all this increased chatter is generating additional audience reach, as men catch up on talkedabout shows, and get introduced to shows they wouldn’t otherwise have discovered.
Species is the only pan-European male study available. It provides both Discovery Communications and our partners with a deep understanding of what it’s like to be a man in today’s world. This invaluable knowledge ensures that our content and communications continue to be relevant and engaging, and has also been used to create a planning tool that enables advertisers to connect with men more effectively. In total, over the last 5 years we have surveyed and spoken with more than 32,330 men aged between 18 and 49, across 21 countries. We have held conversations with a wide range of experts.
Countries included in Species Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Denmark France Germany Hungary Italy Netherlands Norway
Since 2007, many of the groundbreaking insights that we unearthed have become mainstream. We continue to monitor the emergence of new attitudinal and behavioural trends, and we are committed to sharing our knowledge on a regular basis.
Poland Romania Russia Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Turkey Ukraine UK
USING THE SECOND SCREEN TO AUGMENT THEIR VIEWING EXPERIENCE
1. The road map to manhood
held up on the road to manhood
Nearly half of all European men use the Internet whilst watching TV. However there is a marked difference between Northern Europe where nearly two-thirds of men multitask, and Eastern and Southern Europe where only 40% of men surf and watch simultaneously. But what do they do with two screens? Forty per cent of men have said they look up information related to the TV programme and one in five look up products they saw advertised. The second screen has converted TV from a one-way communications channel to an invitation to engage.
2. Work: double the pressure
economic reality check
3. Younger for longer, but not forever
held up on the road to manhood
4. Rewarding relationships
nurturing their softer side
5. Fatherhood, but better
Fathers take centre stage
6. What friends are for
Friends are changing in the digital erA
7. The man in the mirror
The Rugged Man In The Mirror
8. Everyone’s an expert
9. The balancing act
The Balancing Act – Still Finely Poised
10. Male ‘me-time’
11. Closer to home
12. Digitally doing more
Digitally Doing More, And Faster Than Ever
13. The information hunter-gatherer
under pressure to know more
14. The politics of the personal
Politics In Crisis
15. Hard to be healthy
Health & fitness – time to take control
16. Travel fever
17. Money talks
Status: not just about money
18. Keeping it real – the successful man
Status: not just about money
The importance of curated content The skill of the scheduler still outranks the ability of the Internet to curate content and introduce men to programmes they will enjoy watching, leveraging their wide range of interests, their desire to gain knowledge, and their need to be entertained. Channel brands have an important role to play online as well as via traditional broadcast media.
under pressure to know more
held up on the road to manhood
travel: mixing work & leisure
THE CHANGING FACE OF MEN
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