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Components of an Open Government Data Infrastructure §

December 2007: The initial 8 data principles get drafted and are the basis for amendments and interpretations

2003: The Java based Jena semantic web framework reaches V 2.0. It is the most feature complete implementation of semantic web functionality and widely adopted by business and academia

1999: RDF, the Resource Description Framework for storing arbitrary entities and relations among them, declared as a W3C recommendation







Tim Berners Lee describes URIs as the crucial element of Semantic Web




1. DIRECTIVE 2003/98/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 17 November 2003 on the re-use of public sector information

2001: Foundation of Creative Commons (CC). The Creative Commons organization releases a set of licences suitable for creative and ingenious work and partly adaptable for data. Most importantly, the CC actively promote to the discussion of openness and transparency in the society as a whole.



2008: OWL, the Web Ontology Language reaches V2 specification. OWL extends the expressive power of RDF & RDFS with formal semantics to support reasoning for automated information generation.

2004: W3C adopts RDF as standard





Germany adopts Freedom of Information law on federal level

Granada Ministerial Declaration on the European Digital Agenda: Agreed on 19 April 2010 (ministers responsible for the Information Society Policy of the European Union Member States) Austria: OGD performs Workshops with government and business representatives and civil society

The Ministerial Declaration on eGovernment approved unanimously in Malmö, Sweden, on 18 November 2009 includes several declarations of intent regarding increased transparency and openness in the administration process





14 March 2007: INSPIRE Directive 2007/2/EC establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community

24 May 2004: The Open Knowledge Foundation is founded and promotes open content, data and information and becomes a strong open data supporter.


May 2009: Going live of US October 2009: DC Apps for democracy. “4000% ROI in 30 days”


January 2010: Going live of US 2010: Austria: Open3 and OGD Austria, civil society open data movements, are founded as associations.

Legal decision or directive Web site or public appearance

2011: Austria: Council of Ministers agrees on the requirement of an Open Data strategy Open3 conducts an Open Government survey among Austrian parliamentarians

2009: Pellet 2.0, the most feature complete semantic web reasoner with support for OWL 2.0 released

The Origin of Species §


US president Obama releases a memorandum concerning the freedom of information act directed to the heads of federal agencies in which he proclaims: “In the face of doubt, openness prevails”

15 December 2010: Neelie Kroes says “Yes to Open Data”

In October 2010, the Australian Government adopted an open access policy, with Creative Commons as the preferred licence for the release of government information


October 2010: Vienna agrees on Open Data Strategy

2010: Foundation of Open Commons Region Linz with aim to open Government Data

Civil society movement or action Technical specification or SDK

Open Government Data time-line with a focus on Austria



Make Openness the Default

Uncharted Waters

Policy Models

Countries having Freedom of Information Acts (FOIA), with an assumption of “In the face of doubt, openness prevails” , can move much faster towards open data by circumnavigating discussions of purpose, meaning, entitlement and legal necessity.

The effects of releasing Open (Government) Data are boldly touted: More openness and transparency and valuable data sets will spur new economic models, thus lead to new levels of economic growth. There is little supportive, quantitative data to back this assumptions. Observations of medieval change from alchemy to science by transparency of methods and research results support the prospect of broad Shirky, Clay. Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age. societal change. Penguin Press, 2010.

For open datasets to be beneficial to more but a small “data elite”, concerns of data and media literacy have to be raised and tacked by adapted curricula, starting at primary school pupils and their teachers.

Apply Meaningful Licences

Open Government Data beneficiaries require meaningful licenses in order to securely base services on released data and create additional value. Those licences regulate IPR, legal liability, naming attribution and derived work. The more liberal those licences are, the more uptake published data will see. License requires attribution to the issuer? Licence / Remarks Creative Commons Attribution 3.0, √ X


Public Domain Dedication and Certification (PDDC), based on U.S. law, enforceability outside US questionable; interesting concept of non-normative community norms., focus on data-bases/sets


Open Database License (ODbL), Derivative and creative work allowed, originator must be attributed, resulting work must be released under same licence, focus on data-bases/sets

√ √

Open Data Commons (ODC), Extraction, reutilisation, creation of derivative and creation of collective Databases allowed; Work-inprogress, focus on data-bases/sets



IPSec Tunnel

Internal Databases


RDF Database Internal View




Understand Prosumerism

Filtering stage

User retrieves URIs by querying open data search engine / URI service (optional)


Information ressource URIs are resolved against RDF web server, which queries PURL DB to resolve stale URIs


Web server returns RDF or HTML data based on client request.


Mobile devices query against JSON API; Advanced services issue SPARQL queries

Collaborative Innovation Framework Elite Circle


Governance Hierarchical


Pisano et. al. “Which collaboration is right for you?” HBR 2008


Innovation mall

eConsultation eConsultation

Evaluation Co-Drafting Co-Production Co-Production

Müller, Weitzmann, Lesch Offene Staatskunst- Bessere Politik durch Open Government? Berlin, October 2010.



For open data to be useful to the public, technical aspects have to be met. These include • machine readability • ease of physical access • permanence • royalty-free data formats

Data Separation

External and intra-organisational data representation has to be separated. By separation, data not meant for disclosure will be filtered, prepared to meet open standards and semantically enriched.

Semantic Annotations

Trust is leveraged by interlinking datasets, thus enabling a user or eService to inspect datasets, preferably down to the data Architectural Components origin (political decision, census data, electronic metering point). This is achieved by meaningful and permanent URIs, a core element of the semantic web.


Community Innovation

Web Interface



Peer Production will harness human skill, ingenuity and intelligence more efficiently and effectively. The ability to integrate the talents of dispersed individuals and organizations is becoming and important skill and requires more uptake by politicians and heads of public administration agencies.


External View

Leverage the Benefits of Peer Production

Open Innovation is not a one-way game. Once an administrative body decides to open-up, the inflow has to be carefully revised and incorporated into subsequent tasks. If society input is neglected, built-up trust will vanish.


Javascript Libraries

Embrace Open Innovation

Social and commercial entrepreneurs play a core role at turning OGD into new services. This requires an attitude of “letting loose” to enable an inflow of new ideas.

Web Interface

Web Interface RDF-Browser

Open Data Open Data




Open Data Principles

Web Interface


√ X

# #

URI Service / Discovery Service



CC-0, very liberal licence, the issuer waives all of his or her copyright and neighbouring and related rights in a work, worldwide applicable; re-assertion of copyright not allowed

eParticipation eParticipation

Chance for evaluation of success or failure of government, strengthened by quantitative data

Derived work is required to be re-shared?

Role of Civic Society

Open Closed

4' 4'

Cross-site Javscript call require proxy service; Obsolete as of HTML5 CORS


New datasets get syndicated as soon as they become available by RSS, ATOM or pubsubhubbub


A National URI Infrastructure

Staging and filtering area at which internal datasets, identified as open data, are amended by publicly addressable URIs

URIs by their segmented nature (namespaces) fit the need of democratic governments by following the principles of subsidiarity and local authority. The establishment of a national URI infrastructure has to take place at the national CIO level while itemisation can be left to the respective federal

administrative bodies, eg. http://{domain}.{federallevel }{concept }/IDentifier.{RDF|html}

Search and Publication Service

The federal nature of open data by URI segmentation requires a higher level service for aggregation, search and ontological harmonisation. Local government data providers sources publish changes to their data sets to this higher level service by RSS or pubsubhubbub. Koumenides, Christos, Harith Alani, Nigel Shadbolt, and Manuel Salvadores “Global Integration of Public Sector Information.” 26-27, Raleigh, NC, USA, 2010

© Johann Höchtl, Research fellow at Center for E-Government, Danube University Krems, Austria and PhD student at Business Informatics Group, Technical University Vienna, Austria. @myprivate42



1 1 2 2 = = § Germany adopts Freedom 4' 4' § US president Obama releases a § 15 December 2010: Neelie § 1. DIRECTIVE 2003/9...