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THE CONSEQUENCES OF SEX: PREGNANCY: PART 2 GOALS The goals of this module are to: •

Increase participants’ understanding of pregnancy as a consequence of sex.

Increase participants’ understanding of the consequences of teen pregnancy.

Increase participants’ knowledge of various types of contraceptive methods.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this module, participants will be able to: •

Identify specific birth control methods that may be used to prevent pregnancy.

Discuss their attitudes about contraception.

MODULE PREVIEW The third module: 1) informs participants about the various forms of birth control; and 2) explores attitudes regarding reasons people may or may not use birth control.

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STRATEGIES/METHODS •

Group Discussion

Contraceptive Method Demonstration

Agree/Disagree

MATERIALS NEEDED - INCLUDED IN IMPLEMENTATION KIT •

Contraceptives Poster

Uterus Poster

Agree/Disagree Signs (1 set)

MATERIALS NEEDED - NOT INCLUDED IN IMPLEMENTATION KIT •

Pre-labeled Newsprints: Contraceptives

Markers

Masking Tape

INSTRUCTIONAL TIME: 40 MINUTES ACTIVITY

MINUTES NEEDED

A. Birth Control Methods Demonstration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 B. Agree/Disagree - Attitudes about Contraception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

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ACTIVITY

A

PREPARING FOR THE ACTIVITY RATIONALE Reviewing and discussing the various forms of birth control methods will enhance participants’ knowledge and empower them to make informed choices about the most suitable method to use.

MATERIALS • Pre-labeled Newsprint: • Contraceptives • Posters: • Uterus • Contraceptives • Markers

TIME

BIRTH CONTROL METHODS DEMONSTRATION

PROCEDURE 1. Hang the Uterus and Contraceptives posters. 2. Introduce this activity by saying, Before starting this activity, I think it is very important that I clarify our position on birth control. The purpose of this activity is to present factual information about birth control. We are not assuming that you are sexually active or will be any time soon. However, most of you will transition out of abstinence at some point in your lives, and at that time, it will be important that you know how to protect yourselves. Thinking about it in advance will help you to make a healthy decision when the need arises. We also understand that the personal values of some may be different than the personal values of others. For example, some people do not believe in using birth control because it may be against their religion; other people have no beliefs against it. The bottom line is that most people who have sex need a way to prevent pregnancy and STDs, including HIV. We want you to be able to make informed decisions about protecting yourselves, so we’re going to learn about all the options.

25 minutes

3. Unfold the pre-labeled newsprint entitled Contraceptives and ask the participants to brainstorm all the methods of

birth control or contraception that they can think of. Write the list on the newsprint.

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Answers should include: »» Male Condoms »» Female Condoms »» Contraceptive Sponges »» Birth Control Pills, Patch, and Ring »» IUD »» Depo-Provera (the shot) »» Implanon »» Abstinence 4. Then point to the Contraceptives poster and say, This poster displays some common birth control, or contraceptive methods. We will discuss them briefly. We won’t have time to examine them in detail, but we want you to know what is available when you are ready to use them. 5. Using the Contraceptives and Uterus posters, carefully describe and

demonstrate the various contraceptives listed below. Begin by explaining, Contraceptive methods fall into two different categories: over-the-counter methods and prescribed methods, which your doctor orders for you. We will begin our discussion with the over-the-counter methods.

6. Using the following information, teach and demonstrate the various contraceptive methods.

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OVER-THE-COUNTER METHODS These are methods that can be purchased by anyone of any age, at drug-stores, clinics, supermarkets, and convenience stores without a prescription.

CONDOMS The first method is a condom, which we will discuss more in depth later in the program, but it is a latex sheath that covers the penis and keeps all the semen contained. It should be put on the penis as soon as the penis is erect, and removed after ejaculation far away from the partner. Latex condoms are the most common. Polyurethane can be used if you are allergic, but lambskin condoms do not protect against HIV so don’t use those.

FEMALE CONDOMS Another method is the female condom, which is a soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath that lines the vagina. • The female condom can be inserted right before sex, or up to eight hours ahead of time. • The female condom is made of polyurethane, a material that is strong and unlikely to rip or tear during use, or cause allergic reactions.

CONTRACEPTIVE SPONGES • Contraceptive sponges are round, soft foam items with spermicide on them. In order to use a sponge, wet it and push it up in the vagina to cover the cervix. It protects for up to 24 hours and for more than one act of sex during this time. To work, it must be left in at least 6 hours after the last time you had sex. It should not stay in for more than 30 hours.

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PRESCRIBED METHODS To obtain some methods of birth control, you need a prescription from your doctor. Some of these methods work by regulating hormones involved in the reproductive process. These hormonal methods include birth control pills, the patch and the ring, and Depo-Provera. Although these methods are very effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not prevent sexually transmitted diseases. Therefore, if a woman uses one of these hormonal methods for pregnancy prevention, her partner must also use a latex condom so that they will be protected against STDs. Let’s discuss the specific methods.

BIRTH CONTROL PILLS • Birth control pills prevent the ovaries from releasing eggs during the monthly cycle. • One pill must be taken each day at about the same time of day. • When you start “the pill”, you must use a back-up method for the first 7 days to prevent pregnancy. • If you miss a day, you must take two pills the next day. • If you miss more than one day, you must use a back-up method for 7 days to prevent pregnancy. You should also talk to your doctor about finishing the rest of your pack of pills. • NEVER use another person’s birth control pills (even your mother’s or sister’s). A doctor must prescribe the birth control pills that are safe for you to take.

BIRTH CONTROL PATCH AND RING • The patch and the ring work the same way as the pill, except that instead of swallowing the hormones, with the patch they get absorbed through your skin and with the ring they are absorbed directly into your cervix. • The patch is a small, band-aid like sticker that you wear on either your back, your hip, or your butt and change once a week for 3 weeks, and then the fourth week you don’t wear it and get your period.

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• The ring is a small flexible ring that you insert into your vagina. It sits just below your cervix. Once you insert it, you leave it in for 3 weeks, and then take it out for a week to have your period.

FACILITATOR’S NOTE Facilitators should be prepared to describe the newer prescribed birth control methods, such as the vaginal ring, contraceptive patch, IUDs, and Implanon. In order to ensure that participants have comprehensive information on birth control methods, facilitators may either create handouts from www.girlshealth.gov or refer participants to the “Birth Control Types” section of www.girlshealth.gov for more information.

IUD • An IUD, or intra-uterine device, is a small T-shaped piece of plastic and metal that is inserted into your uterus. • There are 2 kinds of IUDs in the US. »» The Paraguard is a non-hormonal IUD that creates an environment in the uterus that makes it very hard for sperm to survive and for fertilized eggs to attach to the wall of the uterus, which is necessary for a pregnancy to occur. Once you get the Paraguard inserted, you are safe from pregnancy for 10 years. »» The Mirena does the same thing, but it also releases hormones which stop your body from releasing eggs. Once you have the Mirena inserted you are safe from pregnancy for 5 years. • When your body is first adjusting to the IUD, your period might be heavier or more painful. Neither method is effective against STDs, so your partner must also use a latex condom.

DEPO-PROVERA SHOTS • Women who use Depo-Provera receive hormonal shots every 3 months. • Depo-Provera is a highly effective birth control method. • It can cause periods to be irregular or stop. • If a woman uses Depo-Provera, her partner must also use a latex condom to prevent STDs, including HIV infection.

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IMPLANON • Implanon is a thin stick about the size of a cardboard match that is placed under the skin of your upper arm and releases hormones to prevent your body from releasing eggs. • It can be used for up to 3 years. • It can cause periods to be irregular or stop. • If a woman uses Implanon, her partner must also use a latex condom to prevent STDs, including HIV infection.

ABSTINENCE • Abstinence is the safest and most effective pregnancy prevention. • It’s important to have a backup method in case you decide to stop using abstinence in order to be able to protect yourself from pregnancy and STDs, including HIV. 7. Process this activity with the questions below: How does a teenager decide whether to use birth control and which method to use? Make sure answers include: »» Talk to parents, doctor, counselor, or partner »» Ask questions »» Do lots of thinking »» Ask themselves questions like:

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Am I ready for parenthood?

Do I want to deal with a pregnancy?

Do I respect myself enough to protect myself?


What are some ways males can participate in the process of using birth control? Make sure answers include: »» Help pay for it »» Go to doctor/clinic with partner »» Wear a latex (or polyurethane) condom »» Ask questions »» Remind partner to take the “pill” »» Help decide which method to use »» Be supportive 8. Summarize this module by saying, If you are going to have sex, you have to worry about unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. To avoid these problems, you have to use effective methods to prevent pregnancy and infections. You must use a latex condom in addition to any other form of contraceptive you choose to use. The latex condom is the only birth control method that prevents sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Remember, in order to reach your goals and dreams, the proud and responsible thing to do is to be safe and use effective methods of protection every time you have sex.

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ACTIVITY

B

PREPARING FOR THE ACTIVITY RATIONALE This activity focuses attention on individual responsibility for the prevention of pregnancy and makes participants aware of some of the reasons people may not use birth control.

AGREE/DISAGREE – ATTITUDES ABOUT CONTRACEPTION

PROCEDURE 1. Tape the Agree and Disagree signs on opposite sides of the room.

2. Introduce the activity by saying, We have already learned that there are many methods of birth control or contraception. Attitudes and beliefs often get in the way of using birth control, especially condoms, even when people know a lot about it. This activity is designed to help you look more closely at your attitudes and beliefs about birth control.

MATERIALS • Agree/Disagree Signs • Masking Tape

TIME 15 minutes

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FACILITATOR’S NOTE Be careful to protect participants who seem to be in the minority on a certain issue. Refer to the group rules to give the participants structure if they become unruly.


3. Follow the instructions below: •

Ask participants to stand.

Read a statement on the next page from the “Attitudes Statements.”

Ask participants to stand under the sign that corresponds to how they feel about the statement.

Have them share their reasons for being there with the rest of the group. If the whole group chooses the same position, ask for a volunteer to state what they think the opposing view would be, or present the opposing point of view to the group for discussion. Bolster the attitudes supportive of birth control use, particularly condom use, and respond to those unsupportive of birth control use. (Use the information in parentheses after the attitudinal statements.)

After the discussion of each statement, give participants a chance to change sides, if they have changed their attitudes during the activity.

Continue this procedure until all the statements have been read.

4. Thank the participants for sharing their opinions and have them return to their seats.

5. Summarize as follows, People have lots of ideas about birth control and preventing pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV. It is each person’s responsibility to protect themselves in hopes of reaching their goals and dreams. You can protect yourself against pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases by correctly using latex (or polyurethane) condoms along with another birth control method every time you have sex.

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ATTITUDE STATEMENTS • It would be embarrassing to go to the drug store to get birth control. (Even though it may be embarrassing, you have to work through it because a pregnancy can be more embarrassing.) • Using condoms would kill the mood and ruin sexual pleasure. (Condoms can be fun and pleasurable if you know the skills to make them that way.) • Girls who carry condoms are easy/slutty. (Girls who carry condoms are smart, responsible, proud, and safe.) • Refusing to have sex if my partner will not use a condom is hard to do. (Refusing unsafe sex is the proud responsible thing to do.) • When teens know how to use birth control, they really use it. (Knowing how to use birth control does help you use it.) • It would be easy to discuss contraceptive methods and condom use with my boyfriend or girlfriend. (It is easy when your mind is made up and you know why you want to be safe.

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Module 2 the consequences of sex pregnancy part 2  
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